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Sample records for placenta humana preeclamptica

  1. Caracterización del canal epitelial de sodio en sinciciotrofoblasto de placenta humana preeclamptica Characterization of the epithelial sodium channel in human pre-eclampsia syncytiotrophoblast

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    Silvana del Mónaco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El sinciciotrofoblasto (SCT de placenta humana regula la transferencia de solutos y agua entre la sangre fetal y materna. En el presente trabajo observamos que el canal de sodio ENaC (asociado a cuadros como el síndrome de Liddle y pseudohipoaldosteronismo está presente en la membrana apical del SCT y que la subunidad a del canal tiene una expresión reducida en placentas con hipertensión gestacional (preeclampsia. Realizamos estudios a nivel de expresión de ARN (RT-PCR y a nivel proteico (western blot e inmunohistoquímica. En la línea celular BeWo (modelo de SCT humano el canal se encuentra presente y la expresión del mismo es regulada por las hormonas aldosterona, vasopresina, estradiol y progesterona. Analizamos la actividad del ENaC por electrofisiología y observamos corrientes sensibles a amiloride (10 µM cuando las células BeWo se cultivaron 12 horas con aldosterona (100 nM. Esta corriente presentó una magnitud 20 veces mayor que las corrientes basales, un potencial de reversión cercano a 3 mV y una conductancia de 127 ± 26 pS/pF entre los pulsos de -60 y -140 mV aplicados. Las características de esta corriente son similares a las producidas por ENaC en otros tejidos y evidencian la presencia de un canal funcional. El papel del ENaC en el SCT es poco comprendido, aunque la diferencia de expresión en la preeclampsia podría tener consecuencias para el transporte placentario de agua y iones. Nuestros datos son un aporte para futuros estudios de los mecanismos involucrados en la patofisiología de la preeclampsia.The syncytiotrophoblast (SCT, a multinucleated epithelium forming the outer layer of chorionic villi, acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. Electrolyte homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume are maintained primarily by regulated Na+ transport. The present study was conducted to analyze the presence of the

  2. La Placenta Humana Nuevo Sustrato Proteico Empleado para la Obtención de Bases Nutritivas.

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    Diana Rosa Viera Oramas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El hidrolizado de placenta humana es una nueva base nutritiva con un elevado contenido de nutrientes y constituyen un paso importante en el desarrollo de una metodología para su obtención a partir de residuos de placenta. Además de ser un nuevo producto en la gama de BIOCEN y brindar la posibilidad de utilizar en sustitución de bases nutritivas importadas. Con el objetivo de desarrollar y evaluar la funcionalidad de dicha base se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio, se estudió la influencia de parámetros fundamentales en el proceso de obtención tales como: cantidad de enzima, tiempo de hidrólisis y relación sustrato agua. Definiendo que 0,4 g de papaína por Kg de sustrato, durante 4 hora de hidrólisis y en una relación 1: 5 sustrato agua, además de un tratamiento térmico durante 30 min fueron los elementos críticos prefijados en la tecnología de obtención del hidrolizado. Se obtuvo un producto con elevada calidad cuyos valores óptimos de los índices fisicoquímicos fueron: nitrógeno amínico 2,38 % nitrógeno total 13,62 % y un rendimiento 14,56 % . Al realizar la evaluación microbiológica de la peptona a nivel piloto se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios y correspondiente a los descrito en la documentación. Esta nueva base nutritiva es una prueba de la posibilidad de utilizar los residuos de placenta humana en calidad de sustrato proteico con una calidad adecuada comparable con los productos de similar propósito existentes en el mercado internacional.

  3. Esterilización mediante radiación gamma de un extracto liofilizado de placenta humana: Reporte Preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Emma; Ticona, Nohemí; Linares, Marco

    2008-01-01

    En la práctica odontológica, la hemostasia quirúrgica debe tenerse en cuenta durante el acto operatorio, porque accidentalmente puede provocarse hemorragia. Para el control del sangrado son muy útiles agentes hemostáticos. El factor tisular (FT) es una glicoproteína que participa activamente en la formación del coágulo lo que lo convierte en un potencial hemostático. La placenta humana es un órgano muy rico en FT, a partir de la cual, éste puede ser extraído. El proceso de procuración de las...

  4. Metodologia para estudo do volume e densidade absoluta da placenta humana de termo

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    Del Nero Ulisses

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar duas metodologias para o cálculo do volume placentário em gestações normais de termo: a do princípio de Arquimedes e a do volume do cilindro, para estimar a densidade absoluta da placenta. Definir a metodologia mais adequada para o cálculo do volume e densidade placentários, que se relacione com o peso e classificação do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas 50 placentas provenientes de gestações de termo sem complicações e calculados o volume e a densidade absoluta placentários: a pelo princípio de Arquimedes e b na suposição de que a placenta seria uma secção de cilindro com duas alturas diferentes do bolo placentário: com a altura média e com a altura da média aritmética do centro e extremidades. As densidades absolutas placentárias foram calculadas pelo quociente entre o peso ao ar da placenta e os diferentes volumes. RESULTADOS: a maioria das gestantes eram multíparas, idade média de 25,4 anos, volume placentário médio entre 547,8 e 610 cmsuperscript three e densidade média entre 0,94 e 1,14 g/cmsuperscript three, dependendo da metodologia empregada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia mais adequada para estimar o volume placentário no termo foi a do princípio de Arquimedes, pela melhor correlação com o peso dos recém-nascidos, o índice placentário e a classificação do peso dos recém-nascidos em relação à idade gestacional.

  5. Validación del sistema ultramicroelisa en la certificación de placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética

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    Maydelin Trujillo Alfonso

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Laboratorio de Control Viral de la Planta Derivados de la Placenta realiza la certificación de la placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética mediante el sistema ultramicroanalítico. Objetivo: validar el sistema ultramicroelisa de determinación de antígeno de superficie del virus de la hepatitis B, anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C y virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 y 2 en muestras de suero de cordón umbilical. Métodos: se realizó la calificación de la operación y la validación del desempeño analítico de los sistemas UMELISA HBsAg Plus, UMELISA HCV y UMELISA HIV 1+2 Recombinant empleandocomo sistemas de referencia el Hepanostika HBsAg Uni-FormII, Hepanostika HCV Ultra y Vironostika HIV-Uni-Form II Ag/Ab. Resultados: la calificación de la operación para las tres técnicas analíticas resultó satisfactoria. Los parámetros de especificidad diagnóstica y analítica fueron de 100 %, así como la concordancia con las técnicas de referencia. El coeficiente de variación fue menor del 10 % durante el estudio de precisión interensayo, menor que el 20 % intraensayo y se demostró la robustez de las técnicas para pequeños cambios en la temperatura de incubación. Conclusiones: los sistemas ultramicroelisa utilizados como método de control de la calidad de la placenta humana resultaron específicos, precisos y robustos en las condiciones ensayadas, por lo que pueden emplearse de manera segura y confiable.

  6. Localización inmunocitoquímica de la hormona gonadotropina corionica en la placenta humana y en celulas tumorales

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    Geranina Escovar V.

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de los métodos de peroxidasa anti-peroxidasa e inmunofluorescencia aplicada a tejidos desparafinados y tratados con tripsina, se estudiaron inmunocitoquímicamente un grupo de placentas y tumores malignos. Al utilizar anticuerpos anti-GCH, la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (GCH fue localizada en células del sincitiotrofoblasto de placentas de diferentes estados de desarrollo, se encontró, además, que las c6lulas de Langhan's y del citotrofoblasto fueron negativas a la inmuno-reacción. La mayoría de los tumores estudiados fueron encontrados positivos al aplicar los métodos mencionados. Se postula que la inmunosupresión selectiva del huésped por tumores y la inmunosupresión selectiva de tejidos maternos por tejidos fetales. podría estar mediada por la hormona gonadotropina coriónica.

  7. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta. Obtención salina y estandarización del tiempo de protrombina utilizando tromboplastina de placenta humana.

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    Deysi González Sarría

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.
    Fundamento: La determinación del tiempo de protrombina es un importante examen complementario en el estudio de los trastornos de la coagulación de la sangre. Para la realización del ensayo, se utiliza como reactivo principal tromboplastina, sustancia que se encuentra en varios tejidos y que habitualmente se ha obtenido de cerebro humano o de ciertos animales, pero su extracción en el laboratorio o su adquisición comercial en estos momentos se dificulta. Objetivos: Obtener tromboplastina a través de la extracción salina de placenta humana y estandarizar la determinación del tiempo de protrombina con el reactivo obtenido. Métodos : Se utilizó placenta de partos normales de la cual se obtuvo la tromboplastina utilizando extracción salina. Se comparó el reactivo con una tromboplastina de cerebro humano del Hospital ¨Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ de Ciudad de La Habana

  8. Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1

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    Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Conclusión. Los resultados contrastantes de los niveles de HBD se deben, probablemente, a estímulos virales y sugieren que el VIH-1 induce una expresión diferencial de beta-defensinas humanas en placenta y que estas proteínas podrían estar involucradas en la protección contra el VIH-1, al menos, en las etapas tempranas del embarazo. Sin embargo, no fue posible asociar estos hallazgos con la protección contra la transmisión vertical del VIH-1, puesto que ninguno de los bebés adquirió la infección.

  9. Characteristics of glucose transport across the microvillous membranes of human term placenta Características del transporte de glucosa a través de las membranas con microvellosidades de la placenta humana a término

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    Ravinderjit Kaur Anand

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport characteristics of D-glucose were studied in the microvillous vesicles isolated from the human term placenta. Transport occurred by selective and rapid facilitated diffusion system which was inhibitable by phloretin and HgCl2. The transport was dependent on a transmembrane. Na+-gradient indicating a "secondary active transport" system operating. The transport influx was saturable and the kinetic analysis based on Hanes-Woolf plot produced a kt and Jmax value of 1.2 mM and 34 nmoles. mgprotein-1.min-1, respectively. The efflux of D-glucose from the membrane vesicles in a pre-equilibrated assay conditions showed a distinct biphasic pattern differing significantly in the half time efflux. The t1/2 of the fast and slow components was found to be 15 sec and 660 sec, respectively. The transport showed distinct sensitivity to temperature and the Ea values both below and above the transition temperature of 37 ºC, as calculated from the Arrhenius plot were found to be 7600 and 5472 kCa1.mol-1, respectively. Inhibition studies with a number of sugars for hexose transport pathway showed that the glucose epimers, phosphorylated sugars, and even the disaccharides and the pentose sugars competed effectively with D-glucose. The influx was also inhibited by a number of steroids such as progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and estrogen. Insulin was found to increase glucose transport in a dose- dependent fashion at a concentration of 0.2-1 unit.ml-1. Ouabain, dinitrophenoi and nicotine strongly inhibited D-glucose uptake in the membrane vesicles.Se estudiaron las características del transporte de la D-glucosa en las vesículas con microvellosidades aisladas de la placenta humana a término. El transporte ocurría por un sistema de difusión selectiva y facilitada rápida que podía inhibirse por floretina y por HgCl2. El transporte dependía de un gradiente de Na+ transmembrana,indicativo de un sistema operativo de "transporte activo

  10. Identificação de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas humanas e espécimes de aborto pela técnica de imunoistoquímica Identification of Listeria monocytogenes in human placentas and abortion species through immunohistochemical technique

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    Jussara Pires Schwab

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A listeriose é causada por um microrganismo que se encontra amplamente disseminado na natureza e tem sido isolado do solo, de fezes humanas e de animais e pode, eventualmente, contaminar os alimentos. A Listeria monocytogenes é patogênica para o homem e tornou-se o principal patógeno nas doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos. Tendo-se em vista que a incidência de listeriose humana não é bem conhecida e as placentites possuem aspecto morfológico inespecífico e não são, muitas vezes, investigadas para este fator etiológico, surgiu a motivação para desenvolver a técnica de imunoistoquímica para o diagnóstico de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas ou produtos de aborto, utilizando um anticorpo policlonal anti-Listeria (Biodesign®. Um projeto-piloto foi realizado a partir do material encontrado em dez placentas provenientes de abortos ou partos prematuros ocorridos no ano de 2000 no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. As lâminas foram analisadas através do exame microscópico convencional (HE e de imunoistoquímica (IHQ. Os resultados deste projeto revelaram a presença de Listeria monocytogenes em cinco dos dez (50% casos estudados. Todos os casos apresentaram alterações sugestivas de processo inflamatório agudo supurativo. Frente a estes achados torna-se importante considerar a infecção por Listeria monocytogenes detectável por IHQ como um elemento no diagnóstico da patogenia do aborto ou das infecções perinatais, podendo este achado contribuir para o tratamento dos recém-nascidos ou das parturientes. As características microscópicas de listeriose na placenta, embora não-patognomônicas, permitem ao patologista um diagnóstico presuntivo, e a confirmação pode ser realizada pelo método de imunoistoquímica.Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne, human-infecting pathogen, is widespread in nature and has been isolated from soil, human and animal feces. Since the incidence of human listeriosis is not well

  11. Effect in vitro of the Phenobarbital on the Activity of the Enzyme Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase of Sodium and Potassium Dependent in Human Placenta. Efecto in vitro del fenobarbital sobre la actividad de la enzima Adenosintrifosfatasa de sodio y potasio dependiente en placenta humana.

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    Pedro Sánchez Frenes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Most of the drugs can pass to the fetus through the placenta, conditioning alterations of the development and fetal growth. Objective: To evaluate the effect in vitro of Phenobarbital on the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent in human placenta. Method: A study in vitro was carried out, in total homogenizes of placentas coming from 30 mothers that were assisted in the Gynecological and Obstetric Educational Provincial Hospital ¨Mariana Grajales¨, in Santa Clara, during the period March-July 1993. Phenobarbital was administered in concentrations of 0,1 mg/ml, 0,15 mg/ml and 0,2 mg/ml, keeping in mind the therapeutic dose to which was prescribed. The analyzed variables were: enzymatic activity and inhibition type. Results: The enzymatic activity of the adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent, diminished in a significant way, proportionally with the diminishment of the administered concentration of Phenobarbital. The inhibitory effect of the drug also turned out to be dependent of the concentration, presenting a major inhibition as the dose was increased. Conclusion: Phenobarbital produced highly significant decrease in the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and dependent potassium. This inhibition is of competitive type.

    Fundamento: La mayoría de los fármacos, en mayor o menor medida, son capaces de pasar al feto a través de la placenta, condicionando alteraciones del desarrollo y del crecimiento fetal. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto in vitro del fenobarbital sobre la actividad de la Adenosintrifosfatasa de sodio y potasio dependiente de placenta humana. Método: Se realizó un estudio in vitro, en homogeneizados totales de placentas provenientes de 30 madres que fueron atendidas en el Hospital Provincial Docente Ginecobst

  12. Placenta abruptio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 18. Hull AD, Resnik R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and vasa previa. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene ...

  13. Placenta abruption - definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 178. Hull AD, Resnik R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and ... R, Iams JD, et al, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. ...

  14. Placenta accreta with placenta previa. Case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández-Ojeda, Humberto; Torres-Hernández, Rosa María; Rivera-Hernández, Jorge Onasis

    2014-01-01

    The placenta praevia and acretism placental were concurrently and are conditions of abnormal placenta, in which the villus sampling invade the myometrium at the site of implantation and is associated...

  15. [Placenta accreta with placenta previa. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ojeda, Humberto; Torres-Hernández, Rosa María; Rivera-Hernández, Jorge Onasis

    2014-08-01

    The placenta praevia and acretism placental were concurrently and are conditions of abnormal placenta, in which the villus sampling invade the myometrium at the site of implantation and is associated with the partial or complete absence of the decidua. Clinical case: Patient's 32 years of age, with 34 weeks pregnancy. Obstetric history of previous cesarean section, transvaginal bleeding several times; the diagnosis by ultrasound showed placenta praevia occlusive. Surgical treatment was abdominal total hysterectomy.

  16. Musica Humana og musikterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Karin

    2005-01-01

    I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres for defi......I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres...... for definitioner af relevante niveauer af musikterapi i denne sammenhæng; Musica Humanas formål; MusiCure’s tilblivelse; baggrunden for og relevansen af en musikterapeuts tilstedeværelse i Musica Humana, samt hvilken rolle musikterapeuten kan spille i denne sammenhæng. Medlemmer af Musica Humanas styregruppe...... bidrager med udsagn om deres opfattelse af relevansen af en musikterapeut som ressourceperson i Musica Humana....

  17. Musica Humana og musikterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Karin

    2005-01-01

    I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres for defi......I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres...... for definitioner af relevante niveauer af musikterapi i denne sammenhæng; Musica Humanas formål; MusiCure’s tilblivelse; baggrunden for og relevansen af en musikterapeuts tilstedeværelse i Musica Humana, samt hvilken rolle musikterapeuten kan spille i denne sammenhæng. Medlemmer af Musica Humanas styregruppe...... bidrager med udsagn om deres opfattelse af relevansen af en musikterapeut som ressourceperson i Musica Humana....

  18. Vida humana y persona

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    Antonio Marlasca López

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo, más que un juego lingüístico de términos y expresiones, se tratara de enfatizar los términos vida humana y persona humana, como estos de la simple sinonimia en la conversación habitual, han sido trastocados en sofisticado instrumento jurídico, al concluir en Costa Rica la Sala Constitucional, por quien sabe que ciencia infusa, que el embrión recién fecundado ya es persona. Por tanto se enfatiza con fuerza el contrasentido de aseverar que el principio y el producto son lo mismo, entendiendo que la semilla es diferente al fruto, citando a Savater, cuando dijo que el que come un huevo no ha comido pollo. El embrión recién fecundado o pre-embrión, es principio, semilla, potencia, quizás un día sea persona, de ahí la conclusión de que no toda vida humana es persona humana.In this essay, more than a linguistic game of terms and expressions, we treat the meanings of human life and the human person, and how this simooms in the habitual language, have been to changed into a sophisticated judicial tool, by the conclusion of the Costa Rican Constitutional Court, who using a mysterious science, has said that once the ovule has been fecund, it is a human being. For that reason we emphasize the contra sense to sever that the beginning is the same than the product, understanding that the seed is different than the fruit, referring to Savater, when he said, when you eat an egg you are not eat chicken. The embryo recently fecund or pre-embryo is beginning, seed, potency, maybe one day it will be a human person, from there the conclusion that not all human life is a human person.

  19. PERSONA HUMANA Y PERSONALISMO

    OpenAIRE

    Elio Sgreccia

    2013-01-01

    En la primera parte del artículo se analiza la evolución histórico-filosófica del concepto de persona humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el pensamiento contemporáneo, enunciando las ideas más relevantes al respecto. En la segunda parte se realiza un análisis crítico de las posiciones reduccionistas o empiristas, en particular de las de Engelhardt y el utilitarismo, analizando algunas de sus consecuencias prácticas en bioética. El autor concluye enunciando lo que serían los principios fundament...

  20. Placenta: How It Works, What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common placental problems include placental abruption, placenta previa and placenta accreta. These conditions can cause potentially ... nutrients. In some cases, early delivery is needed. Placenta previa. This condition occurs when the placenta partially or ...

  1. La agresividad humana

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    Olimpia López Avendaño

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se comparan los planteamientos de Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse y Erich Fromm en torno a la agresividad humana. Analizar esta temática en el contexto actual es relevante dado el incremento de acciones que conllevan gran dosis de violencia tanto en el plano físico, como en el psicológico y espiritual, así como la urgencia de plantear soluciones. La posición de los tres autores permite visualizar la pertinencia de explicaciones que tienden a asumirse en la vida cotidiana en torno a este fenómeno y, sobre todo, construir nuevas perspectivas que las relean, trasciendan y enriquezcan.

  2. PERSONA HUMANA Y PERSONALISMO

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    Elio Sgreccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del artículo se analiza la evolución histórico-filosófica del concepto de persona humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el pensamiento contemporáneo, enunciando las ideas más relevantes al respecto. En la segunda parte se realiza un análisis crítico de las posiciones reduccionistas o empiristas, en particular de las de Engelhardt y el utilitarismo, analizando algunas de sus consecuencias prácticas en bioética. El autor concluye enunciando lo que serían los principios fundamentales de la bioética personalista, su fundamentación ontológica, así como el posible desarrollo contemporáneo de la intuición inicial, enunciada por vez primera por Sgreccia en los ochenta.

  3. Management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Lönn, Lars; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in the management of the conditions. A PubMed search was performed in April 2013 and the final review included 119 published placenta percreta cases. Conservative management, where the placenta is left in situ for resorption, seems to be associated with severe long-term complications of hemorrhage and infections...... cases for the local resection technique might in part explain the lower complication rates with that approach. Future prospective data collection activities should include intended as well as actual management, and long-term follow-up of all cases is of vital importance....

  4. De placenta bij rhesus antagonisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wormgoor, Bernard Hendrikus

    1952-01-01

    In de inleiding worden de te behandelen problemen aan de orde gesteld. Het uitganspunt hiervan is de studie van de morphologie van de placenta. Bij het histologisch onderzoek van de placenta waren het vooral de afwijkingen in de placenta bij Erythroblastosis Foetalis (verderop aan te duiden als E.F.

  5. LA FORMA HUMANA

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    GERMÁN ENRIQUE BELTRÁN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Como pedagogos constituimos una gran organización  de sinceros aspirantes al poder que proviene del conocimiento,  y el conocimiento es el único poder que necesitamos.  Nos circundan por todos lados las más poderosas fuerzas,  podemos pensar que la dinámica es un poder maravilloso,  una fuerza de gran potencia, cuando se le deja libre,  pero este poder no es nada en comparación con la potencia  del poder y fuerza contenidos en el electrón invisible o átomo  de materia, si pudiéramos liberarlo con tal facilidad como  lo hacemos con la fuerza de la dinámica.  La fuerza llamada de gravitación no es más potente que la  fuerza que cualquier motor eléctrico halla sido capaz de  producir. La fuerza y poder que existe dentro del cuerpo  humano, llamada también vitalidad humana o magnetismo  es mucho mas grande y dinámica de lo que nos imaginamos.  Tenemos también el poder, la fuerza potente que se  manifiesta a través de la mente humana.

  6. La agresividad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Avendaño, Olimpia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se comparan los planteamientos de Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse y Erich Fromm en torno a la agresividad humana. Analizar esta temática en el contexto actual es relevante dado el incremento de acciones que conllevan gran dosis de violencia tanto en el plano físico, como en el psicológico y espiritual, así como la urgencia de plantear soluciones. La posición de los tres autores permite visualizar la pertinencia de explicaciones que tienden a asumirse en la vida cotidiana en torno a este fenómeno y, sobre todo, construir nuevas perspectivas que las relean, trasciendan y enriquezcan. In this article the expositions regarding human aggressiveness by Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse and Erich Fromm are compared. The relevance of this subject's analysis in the present context is due to the increase of actions that entail a great dose of violence in the physical, psychological and spiritual planes; and to the urgency of raising solutions. The three authors' position allows us to see how adequate are the explanations that tend to be assumed in everyday life; and above all allow us to build new perspectives that make a new interpretation of them, that extend and enrich them

  7. Ultrasonography evaluations of placenta previa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Seo; Yim, Neung Jae; Oh, Eun Ock [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Soung [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become one of the most useful tools in the practice of obstetrics. It has been of particular utility in the placental localization. We analyzed 34 patients of placenta previa scanned by ultrasound. The results were as follows; 1. The age of patient ranged from 22 to 39 years, showing the highest incidence in 26 to 30 years. 2. The accuracy of correct localization was 70.6%. 3. Among 13 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as total placenta previa, 2 cases were partial placental previa and 1 was low-lying placenta at the time of delivery. 4. Among 9 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as partial placenta previa, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was low-lying placenta and 1 case was upper segment placenta. 5. Among 10 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as low-lying placenta, 2 cases were partial placenta previa. 6. Among 2 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as upper segment placenta, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was partial placenta previa. 7. Among 9 cases done serial ultrasound, 3 cases revealed that the placenta migrates toward fundus in the course of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental scanning should be repeated in the last month before term to decide the mode of delivery. Conclusively, ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of placenta localization because it provides speedy and repeatable way without any known risk to both mother and fetus itself. Careful performance and accurate interpretation should be needed for more correct placental localization.

  8. Moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal: importancia del receptor 1 de transferrina y de la ferroportina en la placenta humana = Molecules implicated in maternal-fetal iron transport across the placental barrier: Role of Transferrin Receptor 1 and Ferroportin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Agudelo, Lady Vanessa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La adecuada transferencia placentaria de hierro es crucial para satisfacer los altos requerimientos del feto y promover su adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo intrauterino; de otra parte, contribuye a prevenir la ferropenia y la anemia, entidades altamente prevalentes en los lactantes durante los primeros dos años de edad, que se asocian con mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en la infancia. La placenta es un órgano capaz de realizar diferentes adaptaciones en la producción de moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal en respuesta al estado de hierro celular, para proveer la mayor disponibilidad de este mineral al feto. Esta revisión, pretende acercar al lector a los mecanismos metabólicos y moleculares relacionados con la captación, el transporte y la salida de hierro por la placenta hacia el feto, así como su regulación, para proporcionar elementos que le permitan comprender en forma integrada, la importancia de un adecuado estado de hierro materno antes y durante la gestación.

  9. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yael Baumfeld; Reli Herskovitz; Zehavi Bar Niv; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Adi Y. Weintraub

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications...

  10. clonación humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída María Ponce del Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El incesante desarrollo de la ingeniería genética en el ámbito mundial genera profundos cuestionamientos éticos, legales y sociales por las consecuencias que estas investigaciones pueden tener tanto en los individuos en lo particular, como en el futuro de la especie humana en general. El experto en bioética Leon R. Kass ha realizado un profundo estudio de los alcances de esas experimentaciones, y particularmente con respecto a la clonación humana, advirtiendo situaciones complejas que no se deben pasar por alto. A lo largo de este trabajo examino el pensamiento de Leon Kass respecto a la clonación de seres humanos que, según nos refiere, despersonalizaría la reproducción humana, tendría influencia significativa sobre las generaciones futuras y, finalmente provocaría la degradación del hombre.

  11. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  12. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Baumfeld

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications.

  13. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfeld, Yael; Herskovitz, Reli; Niv, Zehavi Bar; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group. A composite outcome was created to include conditions associated with placental insufficiency. It included hypertensive disorders (i.e. gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, HELLP and eclampsia), small for gestational age neonates and placental abruption. Patients with pregnancy complicated by placenta previa had significantly different obstetrical characteristics including bad obstetric history (8% vs. 4%, p placenta previa had higher rates of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy (3% vs. 0%, p placenta (4% vs. 0.5%, p placenta previa group (21% vs. 13%, p placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Khokhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

  15. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, R S; Baaj, J; Khan, M U; Dammas, F A; Rashid, N

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta) is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

  16. Gestión humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ignacio Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo resume el trabajo que esta realizando el grupo PYMES de investigación de la EAN en Bogotá D.C., sobre el componente organizacional de gestión humana y cultura organizacional y como se traduce en competencias de nivel cuatro o de categoría mundial para PYMES que quieran crear escenarios de innovación en valor.

  17. Placenta accreta: the silent invader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Incidence of placenta accrete has increased now a days because of increased incidence of cesarian sections, placenta accreta was seen in primi due to uterine procedures done deliberately in both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Morbidly adherent placenta is always a nightmare for the obstetrician. Suspicion of a case on history, preoperative confirmation of diagnosis, planned management with bundle of care, with multi-disciplinary approach can save many patients from the clutches of inevitable death. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1501-1505

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of placenta lacunae and a lack of a clear zone in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shoko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the frequencies of placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are higher in cases of placenta previa compared with those without it. Ultrasonographic findings just before delivery, including placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were prospectively evaluated in consecutive subjects. After collection, a case-control study with 1:5 matched pairs was conducted. The frequencies of ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta. Seventy cases with placenta previa and 350 cases with normal placentas were observed. Five and zero cases with abnormal placental adherence were observed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta, respectively. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 60 and 1.5% of cases with and without the placental adherence (p = 0.001). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were observed in 31.4 and 9.7% of cases with and without placenta previa [odds ratio (OR) 4.2]. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 5.7 and 0.9% of cases with and without placenta previa (OR 7.0). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are frequently observed in placenta previa even when there is no adherence of the placenta. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery.......It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery....

  20. Placenta Praevia: Incidence, Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6,7,8,9 caesarean section, myomectomy or metroplasty . The risk of occurrence of ... erythroblastosis, assisted conception, structural .... 7,16 maternal death were reported from other studies . Placenta praevia is common in our environment.

  1. Fraccionando la microbiota gastrointestinal humana

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Bondia, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La microbiota gastrointestinal humana es una de las comunidades microbianas más diversa y compleja que se puede encontrar en la naturaleza. Las nuevas tecnologías de secuenciación permiten obtener una amplia visión de la diversidad microbiana, lo que ha revelado una gran cantidad de bacterias no cultivables. A pesar del potencial de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento la metagenómica no muestra la imagen completa. La citometría de flujo es una metodología que permite describir y/o separa...

  2. Desarrollo local a escala humana

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Marques, Heitor

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo aclarar algunos conceptos sobre desarrollo local a escala humana, a través una revisión bibliográfica. Para este propósito el trabajo está conformado de dos partes: conceptos sobre desarrollo local, y desarrollo local y su semántica. En la primera parte se aborda el desarrollo local en sentido etimológico, semántico, de espacio, de territorio, de comunidad, lugar y paisaje. En la segunda parte se presentan los supuestos y datos históricos, variaciones ...

  3. Histological and histochemical changes in placenta of diabetic pregnant females and its comparision with normal placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Tewari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the histological and histochemical changes in placenta of diabetic pregnant females and compare them with normal placenta. Methods: The histological and histochemical features of 60 placenta, 30 obtained from normal pregnant females and 30 from diabetic pregnant females, were studied. These placenta were obtained from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, GSVM Medical College Kanpur and ERA ’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital Lucknow. Results: On histological examination, the diabetic placenta showed increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, trophoblastic basement membrane thickening, villous stromal fibrosis, villous oedema, crowding of villi, thickening of vessel wall and fibrin deposition. On histochemical study it was found that the PAS reactivity was stronger in diabetic placenta as compared to normal. Sudan Black reactivity was higher among diabetic placenta in comparison to normal placenta. Conclusions: It is concluded that distinct histological and histochemical changes could be seen in placenta of diabetic pregnant females.

  4. MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN PLACENTA PREVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basa Akkamamba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the-  Risk factors for placenta previa.  Signs of placenta previa.  Modes of delivery.  Maternal and foetal outcome.  Incidence of placenta previa. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a longitudinal prospective study group consisting of 75 cases of pregnancies with placenta previa. Analysis of maternal and neonatal outcome in cases of placenta previa occurring over a period of 2 years from November 2013 to October 2016. This study was carried out at Government General Hospital, Kakinada, attached to Rangaraya Medical College. RESULTS Maternal morbidity in placenta previa is due to antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications. Maternal mortality due to placenta previa was nil. Perinatal death with minor placenta previa was 5.12% with major placenta previa was 47.22%. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, incidence of antepartum haemorrhage was 0.87% and placenta previa contributed to 37.12% of cases. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. But, maternal morbidity was high that is more than 60% of cases had antenatal, intranatal and postnatal complications and anaemia worsened the clinical state of patient.

  5. Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Placental disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are all associated with vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. They are also important causes of serious fetal and maternal morbidity and even mortality. Moreover, the rates of previa and accreta are increasing, probably as a result of increasing rates of cesarean delivery, maternal age, and assisted reproductive technology. The routine use of obstetric ultrasonography as well as improving ultrasonographic technology allows for the antenatal diagnosis of these conditions. In turn, antenatal diagnosis facilitates optimal obstetric management. This review emphasizes an evidence-based approach to the clinical management of pregnancies with these conditions as well as highlights important knowledge gaps.

  6. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shigemitsu, Sadahiko [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryugasaki Saiseikai General Hospital, Ryagasaki (Japan); Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  7. Adenomyosis in pregnancy mimicking morbidly adherent placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Sirikunalai, Panarat; Jatavan, Thanate

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate a false-positive diagnosis of adherent placenta due to underlying adenomyosis. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed for placenta previa totalis with adherent placenta at 33 weeks, based on the findings of loss of clear space or distinguishing outline separating the placenta and uterine wall, presence of intraplacental lacunae and densely atypical vessels in the lesion. Caesarean hysterectomy was performed at 35 weeks. Pathological findings revealed placenta previa totalis with adenomyosis beneath the placenta at the lower segment, with no adherent placenta. In conclusion, this report underlines the importance of possible false-positive test of prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of adherent placenta caused by underlying adenomyosis which could obliterate the outline distinguishing the placenta and myometrium and atypical vessels secondary to decidualisation and hypervascularity from pregnancy. This case may probably encourage physician to beware of false-positive test of adherent placenta due to adenomyosis. PMID:24722709

  8. Optimal transport and the placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Simon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xia, Qinglan [NON LANL; Salafia, Carolym [NON LANL

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  9. Dirofilariose pulmonar humana: relato de sete casos

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLAZZI RODRIGO SILVA; CAVALLAZZI ANTÔNIO CÉSAR; SOUZA IRENE VIEIRA; CARDOSO JOÃO JOSÉ DE DEUS

    2002-01-01

    Dirofilariose pulmonar humana é uma doença rara causada pelo parasita Dirofilaria immitis. Apresenta-se usualmente como um nódulo pulmonar solitário que mimetiza câncer de pulmão. Embora considerada uma doença clinicamente benigna, uma biópsia pulmonar excisional é quase sempre necessária para o diagnóstico. Relatam-se as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e radiológicas de sete casos de dirofilariose pulmonar humana em Florianópolis. De sete pacientes relatados, seis tiveram como acha...

  10. Reprodução Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo De Siqueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances producidos por los modernos métodos de control de la natalidad y de la fertilización humana asistida introdujeron en la reflexión ética nuevos valores como dignidad personal,autonomia y paternidad responsable. Loa antíguos preceptos de sumisión a la moralidad heterogénea de la Ley Natural fueronsustituidos por una ética de reflexión autónoma en los campos de la sexualidad y reproducción humana asistida.

  11. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-04-01

    Adherent placenta is a life-threatening condition in pregnancy, and is often complicated by placenta previa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine prenatal imaging findings that predict the presence of adherent placenta in pregnancies with placenta previa. The study included 58 consecutive pregnant women with placenta previa who underwent both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging prenatally. Ultrasonographic findings of anterior placental location, grade 2 or higher placental lacunae (PL≥G2), loss of retroplacental hypoechoic clear zone (LCZ) and the presence of turbulent blood flow in the arteries were evaluated, in addition to MRI findings. Forty-three women underwent cesarean section alone; 15 women with adherent placenta underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy with pathological examination. To determine imaging findings that predict adherent placenta, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anterior placental location, PL≥G2, LCZ, and MRI were associated with the presence of adherent placenta. Multivariate analyses revealed that LCZ (pplacenta in women with placenta previa. This prospective study demonstrated for the first time that US findings, especially LCZ, might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for adherent placenta among pregnant women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Sys

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  13. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  14. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  15. Placenta percreta: methotrexate treatment and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Kröger, Jaana; Kainulainen, Sakari; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Our patient was a 24-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman. After delivery, placenta percreta was noticed. There was no postpartum hemorrhage, and the patient desired future pregnancies. Although placenta percreta is rare, its sequelae include potentially lethal hemorrhage and loss of reproduction function. Placenta percreta was confirmed histologically and with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Placenta percreta was treated conservatively with methotrexate. On follow-up, MRI showed a small calcified transmural extension of the placenta throughout the uterus in the right fundal area. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed no blood flow in the corresponding area, and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was undetectable. Use of MRI is a new method to detect abnormal placentation, and it could be used on follow-up in selective cases with other follow-up modalities. However, it seems likely that conservative management to preserve future fertility remains a secured and reasonable alternative when a patient has no active bleeding.

  16. DEPENDIENTES Y RACIONALES: LA FAMILIA HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marcos Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los conceptos que condicionan la bioética, que pueden hacer que prospere o naufrague. Nos centramos aquí en dos de ellos, a saber, el concepto de dependencia, que funciona como necesario complemento del de autonomía, y el concepto de familia humana, que tal vez debería funcionar como sustituto en contextos morales del de especie humana. Ambos remiten en el fondo a otro concepto, de larga tradición filosófica, el de naturaleza humana, que ha vuelto al centro del debate en los últimos años. La modernidad puede ser caracterizada como una búsqueda de la autonomía. La autonomía en muchos sentidos es un objetivo justo y deseable. Sin embargo, el énfasis unilateral en la autonomía ha generado una antropología parcial. De ahí la importancia de pensar también una antropología de la dependencia que vincule a los miembros de la familia humana.

  17. Concepto integral de la persona humana

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Angel, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    EI concepto de la persona humana es de fundamental interés práctico. Se trata no del hombre en general o sea, considerado bajo el aspecto genérico-específico, sino de «este» hombre-individuo, concreto y singular. Por este aspecto, el hombre es una unidad individual psicosomática.

  18. Optimal management strategies for placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A G; Porter, T F; Soisson, P; Silver, R M

    2009-04-01

    To determine which interventions for managing placenta accreta were associated with reduced maternal morbidity. Retrospective cohort study. Two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Utah. All identified cases of placenta accreta from 1996 to 2008. Cases of placenta accreta were identified using standard ICD-9 codes for placenta accreta, placenta praevia, and caesarean hysterectomy. Medical records were then abstracted for maternal medical history, hospital course, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal and neonatal complications were compared according to antenatal suspicion of accreta, indications for delivery, preoperative preparation, attempts at placental removal before hysterectomy, and hypogastric artery ligation. Early morbidity (prolonged maternal intensive care unit admission, large volume of blood transfusion, coagulopathy, ureteral injury, or early re-operation) and late morbidity (intra-abdominal infection, hospital re-admission, or need for delayed re-operation). Results Seventy-six cases of placenta accreta were identified. When accreta was suspected, scheduled caesarean hysterectomy without attempting placental removal was associated with a significantly reduced rate of early morbidity compared with cases in which placental removal was attempted (67 versus 36%, P=0.038). Women with preoperative bilateral ureteric stents had a lower incidence of early morbidity compared with women without stents (18 versus 55%, P=0.018). Hypogastric artery ligation did not reduce maternal morbidity. Scheduled caesarean hysterectomy with preoperative ureteric stent placement and avoiding attempted placental removal are associated with reduced maternal morbidity in women with suspected placenta accreta.

  19. Iron transportation across the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the classification of placental types among animals, the transfer of iron through the placenta can occur via: absorption connected to transferin through the outer surface of the trophoblast in direct contact with circulating maternal blood; absorption of the erythrocytes by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with accumulation of blood extravased from haemotophagous areas; absorption by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with iron enriched secretions from the endometrial glands and absorption by extravasations of the blood in the maternal-fetal surface and the subsequent phagocytosis of the erythrocytes by trophoblast cells described in bovine, small ruminants, canine and feline. The function of erythrophagocytosis observed after the extravasation of blood in the maternal-fetal interface is undefined in several species. Possibly, the iron is transferred to the fetus through the trophoblastic erythrophagocytosis in the hemophogous area of the placenta and also in the endometrial glands. In this literature survey, new methods of studies regarding placental transfer involving iron and other nutrients necessary for survival and maintenance of embryonic fetus to birth are proposed.De acordo com a classificação dos tipos de placenta existentes entre os animais e em relação com a passagem de substâncias pela barreira inter-hemática, a transferência de ferro pode ser realizada através da: absorção de ferro ligado a transferrina através da superfície externa do trofoblasto em contato direto com o sangue materno circulante; absorção de eritrócitos pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com acúmulos de sangue materno extravasado em áreas hematófagas, absorção de ferro pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com secreções ricas em ferro provenientes de glândulas endometriais e fagocitose dos eritrócitos pelas células trofoblásticas, a qual foi descrita em bovinos, pequenos ruminantes, caninos e

  20. Placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Šijanović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year old woman, with ten previous deliveries and history of two cesarean sections was admitted to our Department at 32 weeks of gestation with massive vaginal hemorrhage from an ultrasound diagnosed placenta previa. An emergency cesarean section with vertical abdominal incision was performed. A healthy 2300 g female infant was delivered. Attempts to manually remove the placenta caused massive hemorrhage. The lower uterine segment was widened due to placenta previa with suspicious placental invasion of the posterior wall of the bladder. Persistent hemorrhage demanded bilateral anterior internal iliac artery ligation and suture ligation of the bleeding vessels with supracervical hysterectomy done.

  1. Autophagy in term normal human placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, P; Avagliano, L; Virgili, E; Gagliostro, V; Doi, P; Braidotti, P; Bulfamante, G P; Ghidoni, R; Marconi, A M

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is an inducible catabolic process that responds to environment and is essential for cell survival during stress, starvation and hypoxia. Its function in the human placenta it is not yet understood. We collected 14 placentas: 7 at vaginal delivery and 7 at elective caesarean section after uneventful term pregnancies. The presence of autophagy was assessed in different placental areas by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We found that autophagy is significantly higher in placentas obtained from cesarean section than in those from vaginal delivery. Moreover there is a significant inverse relationship between autophagy and umbilical arterial glucose concentration.

  2. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sa...

  3. Cervical varicosities may predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Shinnmoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Wakana; Soyama, Hiroaki; Nakatsuka, Masaya; Natsuyama, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Takano, Masashi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this study was to prenatally predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. We identified 81 patients with singleton pregnancy who had undergone cesarean section due to posterior placenta previa at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of several well-known findings, and of cervical varicosities quantified using magnetic resonance imaging, in predicting placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa. To quantify cervical varicosities, we calculated the A/B ratio, where "A" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the deciduous placenta, and "B" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the amniotic placenta. The appropriate cut-off value of the A/B ratio was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three patients (3.7%) were diagnosed as having placenta accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of the well-known findings were 0 and 97.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the A/B ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the combined placenta accreta and A/B ratio curve was 0.96. When the cutoff value of the A/B ratio was set 0.18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 91%, respectively. It was difficult to diagnose placenta accreta in the posterior placenta previa using the well-known findings. The quantification of cervical varicosities could effectively predict placenta accreta.

  4. Raiva humana no Brasil, 1992 - 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Anilton Alves Araujo

    2002-01-01

    O estudo caracteriza os aspectos epidemiológicos da raiva humana no Brasil, no período de 1992 a 2001 e visa avaliar tendências da enfermidade no país e contribuir para a proposição de medidas de controle. Para análise dos casos, foi utilizado o banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância da Raiva Humana (VE6), e realizado estudo descritivo de 313 casos ocorridos no período de 1992 a 2001. Os resultados revelam a tendência de redução do número de casos ao longo do período estudado. O coeficiente ...

  5. Vida humana y luz de la palabra

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ortiz, Fernando María

    2016-01-01

    La paraula de l´home, signe per excel·lència de la comunicació humana, ha estat considerada pels filòsofs des de l´anomenat “gir llingüístic” com allò que o és l´única realitat o bé constitueix un obstacle per accedir a l´èsser de les coses i manifestar la veritat. Pel contrari, en aquesta investigació es pretén estudiar sota la guia del pensament de Tomàs d´Aquino que la llum de la paraula és el fonament del perfeccionament de la vida humana en totes les seves dimensions i que el llenguatge ...

  6. GESTIÓN HUMANA: TENDENCIAS Y PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN GUILLERMO SALDARRIAGA RÍOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace referencia a las tendencias y las perspectivas de gestión humana que se imponen en el mundo en la actualidad y que, a su manera, pretenden optimizar la administración del personal de la organización y contribuir al desarrollo e incremento de la productividad y la competitividad. Mediante la realización de un Estado del Arte se logran determinar algunas de las tendencias más relevantes en la actualidad y se concluye que, cada vez con mayor fuerza, dichas tendencias se sustentan en discursos que pretenden "rescatar" al ser humano dentro de la organización, lo que no necesariamente se traduce en los procesos de gestión humana que se realizan en las organizaciones nacionales e internacionales.

  7. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Marcelo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.

  8. Ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Rojas-Solano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Las ehrliquiosis humanas son zoonosis emergentes transmitidas por varias especies de garrapatas e infectan gran cantidad de animales silvestres y domésticos. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con un cuadro clínico y hallazgos de laboratorio compatibles con una probable ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica severa. El paciente se trató con doxicilina y respondió adecuadamente. Fue egresado en buena condición.

  9. Obstetric complications of placenta previa percreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparić Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Placenta previa is related to severe maternal and fetal morbidity. The increasing incidence of cesarean delivery rate causes a marked increase in abnormally invasive placenta over the past decades. The abnormally invasive placenta is becoming the foremost cause of obstetric hemorrhage and postpartum hysterectomy, causing a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. Maternal morbidity in such cases also comprise politransfusion, development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, uterine rupture, cystostomy, fistula formation, ureteral stricture, intensive care unit admission, infection, and prolonged hospitalization, adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, septicemia and even death. Case report. A 38-year-old gravida 3, para 2, was admitted to our hospital at 27 weeks of gestation as an emergency due to vaginal bleeding, previously diagnosed with an anterior placenta previa. Following tocolytic therapy, bleeding stopped. The patient was informed on the diagnosis and the possibility of lifethreatening hemorrhage necessitating preterm delivery. She was given corticosteroids to enhance fetal lung maturity. At 28 weeks of gestation, she experienced massive vaginal bleeding, and a decision was made to perform emergency cesarean section. We made a corporeal transverse uterine incision well above the uterovesical fold and tortuous vessels, at the same time avoiding the superior edge of the placenta. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the lower uterine segment, penetrating through it and infiltrating the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. An attempt to remove the placenta resulted in injury to the bladder wall and the uterine rupture at a previous cesarean scar. The decision was made to perform total abdominal hysterectomy with placenta left in situ. At present, both mother and the baby are well. Conclusion. Anticipation and the surgeon's judgment are leading factors for surgery, from the

  10. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.Spontaneous uterine rupture, without a history of trauma or associated infection by placenta percreta is an extremely rare pathology and it's responsible for high maternal morbidity and mortality. The prenatal diagnosis of placenta precreta is important to avoid catastrophic results after the obstetrical disorder and different procedures are used to get to this goal. We present here a case of placenta percreta and a revision of cases with this diagnosis from 1994 to 1999 at the Monseñor Sanabria Hospital, and a review of the literature.

  11. Relationship between placenta location and resolution of second trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; Li, Xue-Yin; Xiao, Juan; Li, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zeng, Xue; Chen, Xi; Chen, Kai-Yue; Fan, Lei; Chen, Su-Hua

    2017-06-01

    This prospective study was conducted to assess the rate of resolution of second trimester placenta previa in women with anterior placenta and posterior placenta, and that in women with and without previous cesarean section. In this study, placenta previa was defined as a placenta lying within 20 mm of the internal cervical os or overlapping it. We recruited 183 women diagnosed with previa between 20(+0) weeks and 25(+6) weeks. They were grouped according to their placenta location (anterior or posterior) and history of cesarean section. Comparative analysis was performed on demographic data, resolution rate of previa and pregnancy outcomes between anterior group and posterior group, and on those between cesarean section group and non-cesarean section group. Women with an anterior placenta tended to be advanced in parity (P=0.040) and have increased number of dilatation and curettage (P=0.044). The women in cesarean section group were significantly older (P=0.000) and had more parity (P=0.000), gravidity (P=0.000), and dilatation and curettage (P=0.048) than in non-cesarean section group. Resolution of previa at delivery occurred in 87.43% women in this study. Women with a posterior placenta had a higher rate of resolution (P=0.030), while history of cesarean section made no difference. Gestational age at resolution was earlier in posterior group (P=0.002) and non-cesarean section group (P=0.008) than in anterior group and cesarean section group correspondingly. Placenta location and prior cesarean section did not influence obstetric outcomes and neonatal outcomes. This study indicates that it is more likely to have subsequent resolution of the previa when the placenta is posteriorly located for women who are diagnosed with placenta previa in the second trimester.

  12. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, ves

  13. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n = 50

  14. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  15. [Management of placenta previa and accreta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, G; Keita, H

    2014-12-01

    Produce recommendations for the management of placenta previa and placenta accrete. A literature search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library over a period from 1950 to 31/12/2013. Recommendations of the latest scientific societies have also been consulted. In cases of placenta previa, if bleeding episode before 34weeks gestation occurs, a short hospitalization and tocolysis may help stop bleeding (grade C). Vaginal delivery is preferable when the distance between the internal cervical os and the placental edge is greater than 20mm. When this distance is less than 20mm, vaginal delivery is possible (professional consensus). Caesarean section is recommended in cases of placenta overlapping the internal os (professional consensus). Antenatal screening placenta accreta could improve care (EL3). Upon discovery of a placenta accreta during childbirth, it is better to avoid a forced removal of the placenta (grade C). Conservative treatment or cesarean hysterectomy are possible (grade C). The management of placental abnormalities should be planned and managed with a multidisciplinary team (professional consensus). The use of blood-saving techniques such as "cell saver" is possible in situations where early intraoperative bleeding would be>1500mL (grade C). There are no studies that have sufficient methodological value to recommend an anesthetic technique [general anaesthesia (GA) or neuraxial anaesthesia] over another in the context of placental abnormalities (grade B). When a major bleeding risk is identified, GA can be chosen in order to avoid emergency conversions in difficult conditions (professional consensus). Placental insertion abnormalities require anesthetic and obstetric coordination. Delivery must be planned in a suitable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  17. Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta by Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Patients With Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Young; Hwang, Han Sung; Jung, Inkyung; Park, Yong Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young Han

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the potential value of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in diagnosing placenta accreta. Clinical records of all deliveries between April 1991 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases of intrauterine growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, multiple pregnancies, fetal anomalies, chromosomal abnormalities, and maternal medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were excluded. A total of 11,210 cases were evaluated, including 403 cases of placenta previa without accreta (placenta previa) and 39 cases of placenta previa with accreta (placenta accreta). All patients underwent uterine artery Doppler velocimetry to measure the mean resistive index and pulsatility index (PI) in the third trimester. The analysis included participant characteristics such as age, parity, abortion history, previous cesarean delivery, gestational age at delivery, neonatal sex, and birth weight. The mean uterine artery PI was significantly lower in the placenta accreta group compared to previa alone (0.51 versus 0.57; P = .002). The odds ratios for placenta accreta were 2.4 for 2 or more previous abortions (P = .011) and 5.3 and 7.0 for 1 and 2 or more previous cesarean deliveries (P = .001 and .005). With an increase in the mean PI by 0.01, the odds ratio for placenta accreta decreased by 0.94 (P placenta accreta compared to those without accreta. The diagnostic accuracy of placenta accreta can be potentially improved if uterine artery Doppler values and the history of cesarean delivery are combined. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Placenta percreta in primigravida, an unsuspected situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvaneshwari Rajkumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta, the most severe form of placenta accreta, is a rare pregnancy disorder in which the placenta penetrates the uterine myometrium and serosa and can invade the surrounding organs. It is a potentially life-threatening condition with risk of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Although recognized obstetric risk factors allow the identification of most cases during the prenatal period, diagnosis is occasionally made at the time of delivery. Both sonography and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Prenatal diagnosis allows management of these patients in specialized tertiary centers, where a multidisciplinary approach will improve the outcome. Even in undiagnosed cases discovered at the time of delivery involving a team of anesthesiologist, obstetrician, urologist, neonatologist, and blood bank officer is needed for successful management of these patients. In this report we present the case of a primigravida with no known risk factors who was diagnosed to have placenta percreta at the time of caesarean delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 239-241

  19. Identificação imuno-histoquímica de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas fixadas em formol e embebidas em parafina Immunohistochemical identification of Listeria monocytogenes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Pires Schwab

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar Listeria monocytogenes (Lm em placentas humanas pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ e relacionar sua presença com as alterações histológicas encontradas com as alterações histológicas encontradas no exame convencional, com o trimestre gestacional, a idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e parto prematuro e a ocorrência de aborto habitual. MÉTODOS: um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado no setor de patologia de um hospital-escola de Porto Alegre no ano 2000. O material dos blocos de parafina de 254 placentas (exames anatomopatológicos, provenientes de aborto, de parto prematuro e de nascimento a termo, foi analisado pela técnica histológica convencional com a coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE. A técnica de IHQ foi realizada no material de 148 exames anatomopatológicos, que apresentaram alterações inflamatórias, hemorragia, necrose e trombose, utilizando anticorpo policlonal Rabbit A "Listeria monocytogenes" B65420R (Biodesign® na diluição 1:1000 e complexo avidina-biotina-estreptavidina. O teste c² foi aplicado para a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: a presença de Lm foi identificada em 33,7% das placentas analisadas pela técnica IHQ. Corioamnionite e vilite foram as alterações inflamatórias que estiverem associadas a diferença significativa nas placentas positivas. Lm esteve presente nas placentas de 1º, 2º e 3º trimestre gestacional. Não houve associação entre idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e/ou parto prematuro e a presença ou ausência de Lm nas placentas. Abortos habituais ocorreram em pacientes com ou sem Lm no tecido placentário. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica de IHQ pode ser utilizada para confirmar o diagnóstico histopatológico de listeriose em todos os trimestres gestacionais.PURPOSE: to identify Listeria monocytogenes (Lm in human placentas by immunohistochemistry (IHC and relate its presence to the histological alterations found on conventional examination, to the

  20. La conciencia humana y el emergentismo

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Ricardo; Universidad de Lima (Perú)

    2011-01-01

    En este ensayo se exploran los conceptos de conciencia y emergentismo, además de otros conceptos asociados al problema del origen y estatus metafísico y epistemológico de la conciencia humana. Se defiende la idea de que de ser viable la tesis del emergentismo como explicación del origen y características de la conciencia, esta tendría que ser un emergentismo fuerte a diferencia de otras alternativas. La teoría emergentista de D. Chalmers es analizada por ser una posición bastante discutida en...

  1. Periodismo de Frontera y Dignidad Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Cetina Presuel, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez Atala, Fernando (ed.); Corredoira y Alfonso, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    El presente libro explora cuál es el papel del Derecho y la Ética de la información en la protección de la dignidad humana, particularmente en relación con las actividades informativas que se dan en ámbitos transfronterizos, ya sea entre países colindantes o entre países y organizaciones que tienen influencia regional y en los asuntos internos de otros terceros países. Entre otros temas, el libro también mira hacia procesos de paz como el vivido en Colombia y por extensión analiza temas a...

  2. Metodologias multidimensionais em Ciências Humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Esther León Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cuestionamientos contemporáneos hechos a las ciencias humanas tienen como punto de partida la excesiva división disciplinar, aunada a la construcción de visiones deterministas y absolutas de la naturaleza, del ser humano, del espíritu, de las cosas, de las teorías y de los valores. El trabajo presentado por las docentes de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP apuntala sobre esos cuestionamientos desde la teoría de la complejidad del pensador judeo-francés Edgar Morin.

  3. Hidatidosis humana en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guerra Montero; María Ramírez Breña

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido conocer el estado de la hidatidosis humana, por la gran incidencia que presenta en nuestro país, principalmente en la región central andina. La recopilación de datos fue a partir de la revisión de fuentes primarias sobre epidemiología, el ciclo vital del parásito y del manejo del paciente afecto de Hidatidosis. Algunos hallazgos permiten afirmar que la hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el estado larval del cestodo Echinococcus del género Granulosu...

  4. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.

  5. Dirofilariose pulmonar humana: relato de sete casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALLAZZI RODRIGO SILVA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariose pulmonar humana é uma doença rara causada pelo parasita Dirofilaria immitis. Apresenta-se usualmente como um nódulo pulmonar solitário que mimetiza câncer de pulmão. Embora considerada uma doença clinicamente benigna, uma biópsia pulmonar excisional é quase sempre necessária para o diagnóstico. Relatam-se as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e radiológicas de sete casos de dirofilariose pulmonar humana em Florianópolis. De sete pacientes relatados, seis tiveram como achado radiológico um nódulo pulmonar e foram submetidos à biópsia pulmonar excisional para o diagnóstico. Em um paciente, a imagem radiológica não estava disponível para revisão e, portanto, não foi descrita no trabalho; o diagnóstico foi estabelecido pela biópsia transbrônquica.

  6. RUPTURA UTERINA ESPONTANEA POR PLACENTA PERCRETA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La rotura uterina en un útero sin cicatriz previa, y temprano en el tercer trimestre, es un evento raro. Se expone el caso clínico de una paciente que se presenta con abdomen agudo, cursando embarazo de aproximadamente 25 semanas, se realiza laparotomía exploradora encontrando hemoperitoneo, feto y placenta libres en la cavidad peritoneal y útero roto en el fondo invadido por la placenta, que compromete epiplón mayor. Se realiza histerectomía y se confirma el diagnóstico con biopsia

  7. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa and/or placenta accreta: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Luo

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion is a relatively safe method for treating placenta previa and/or placenta accreta during scheduled and emergency CS and might be helpful to prevent hysterectomy and embolization in women wishing to preserve fertility.

  8. Nitroglycerin for management of retained placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Shaaban, Omar M

    2015-11-12

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery, with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Use of nitroglycerin (NTG), either alone or in combination with uterotonics, may be of value to minimise the need for manual removal of the placenta in theatre under anaesthesia. To evaluate the benefits and harms of NTG as a tocolytic, either alone or in addition to uterotonics, in the management of retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field. Any adequately randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the use of NTG, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, with no intervention or with other interventions in the management of retained placenta. All women having a vaginal delivery with a retained placenta, regardless of the management of the third stage of labour (expectant or active). We included all trials with haemodynamically stable women in whom the placenta was not delivered at least within 15 minutes after delivery of the baby. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 175 women. The three published RCTs compared NTG alone versus placebo. The detachment status of retained placenta was unknown in all three RCTs. Collectively, among the three included trials, two were judged to be at low risk of bias and the third trial was judged to be at high risk of bias for two domains: incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. The three trials reported seven out of 23 of the review's pre-specified outcomes.The primary outcome "manual removal of the placenta" was reported in all three studies. No differences were seen between NTG and placebo for manual removal of the placenta (average risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.46; women = 175; I

  9. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  10. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Matsuzaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM. Study Design - Case report and review of the literature. Results - A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion - Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  11. Review: Placenta, evolution and lifelong health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R M; Cleal, J K; Hanson, M A

    2012-02-01

    The intrauterine environment has an important influence on lifelong health, and babies who grew poorly in the womb are more likely to develop chronic diseases in later life. Placental function is a major determinant of fetal growth and is therefore also a key influence on lifelong health. The capacity of the placenta to transport nutrients to the fetus and regulate fetal growth is determined by both maternal and fetal signals. The way in which the placenta responds to these signals will have been subject to evolutionary selective pressures. The responses selected are those which increase Darwinian fitness, i.e. reproductive success. This review asks whether in addition to responding to short-term signals, such as a rise in maternal nutrient levels, the placenta also responds to longer-term signals representing the mother's phenotype as a measure of environmental influences across her life course. Understanding how the placenta responds to maternal signals is therefore not only important for promoting optimal fetal growth but can also give insights into how human evolution affected developmental history with long-term effects on health and disease.

  12. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  13. THE PLACENTA INFECTED BY HIV AND HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón Sandoval OC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection HIV/HPV reaches the placenta through the maternal-fetal transmission from an infected uterus. In this connection HPV has epitheliotropic and cytolytic capabilities which can cause severe alterations to the structure of the placental villi associating with the activity of antivirals that can increase the proportion of these lesions. Objective: To evaluate morphological changes in placental villi of patient with coinfection HIV/HPV. Material and Method: Placenta obtained of patient with low socioeconomic resources and coinfection HIV/HPV at 38 weeks of pregnancy, without another signs of disease, live newborn, which was analized by Light microscopy. Normal placenta was used as control. A protocol of observation that described syncytial nodules,fibrinoid, edema, fibrosis, calcification and immaturity was used. Results: Stem villi appeared with vascular damage to the level of endothelium, muscular layer and tissue that surround to the vessels. Severe degenerative changes in the syncytium and stromal region were observed in different types of villi. Arborization of villi was scarcity. Fibrosis, deposition of fibrinoid and infarcts are notorious. Immature intermediate villi were seen abundant and degenerate. Conclusions: An unknown interaction of HIV/HPV has provoked on the structure of placental villi an effect higher compared when the viral activity of each one virus is produced individually. This viral attack leads to a destructive effect very strong on the placenta.

  14. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  15. PLACENTA PREVIA PERCRETA CON INVASION VESICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Perucca,Ernesto; Cazenave,Henry; Barra,Alejandro; Ochoa,Nelson; Villagrán,Gabriel; Espinoza,Rosemary; Estay,Ricardo; Bustamante,Rodrigo; Siebert,Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    Se presentan 3 nuevos casos de placenta percreta con invasión a vejiga ocurridos en nuestro Servicio. Uno de ellos fue diagnosticado durante el embarazo, los otros dos casos fueron hallazgos intraoperatorios. La evolución clínica de las tres pacientes fue satisfactoria

  16. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  17. Central placenta previa with placenta percreta partially invading bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Banu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Placenta previa, placenta accreta, increta and percreta are increasing day by day due to increased number of cesarean sections now days, but central placenta previa with placenta percreta invading bladder is a very rare obstetrical complication. A case of central placenta previa with placenta percreta partially invading bladder in woman who was G2P1L1 with 32+6 weeks of gestation and with history of previous cesarean section is presented in this manuscript. The patient was managed with intrapartum cesarean hysterectomy with bilateral ureter J stents and bladder repair following cesarean delivery of a preterm baby. Total estimated blood loss was 6000 mL. The patient was discharged on 28th December 2014 that is 29th day of admission with a healthy baby. The aim of this study is to bring awareness of such case and to discuss the risk factor, presentation, diagnosis, management and choice of anesthesia for the same. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 859-862

  18. Stereological Analysis of Human Placenta in Cases of Placenta Previa in Comparison with Normally Implanted Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Sakhavar, Nahid; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Ezazi-Bojnourdi, Tahmine

    2015-01-01

    Background Placenta previa (PP) is an obstetric complication that can affect maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is rising due to cesarean sections. There is no quantitative data of placenta in PP. In this study, quantitative parameters of placenta in cases with PP in comparison with normally implanted controls were investigated. Methods In this quasi experimental study, placentas from pregnancies with PP and normally implanted controls (n = 10) were obtained from women who underwent cesarean section. Three full-thickness columns of each placenta were sampled using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Columns were cut into slices and slices were sectioned with 4 µm thickness. SURS selected sections were stained by Masson's trichrome. Stereological analysis was done on 8-10 SURS microscopic fields of each section. Absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney-U test and significant level was set at p placenta. These changes probably can be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus. PMID:25927025

  19. Metafísica del alma humana

    OpenAIRE

    Guiu Andreu, Ignacio

    1991-01-01

    Con esta tesis me propongo una comprensión radical del alma humana en términos de ser. Un estudio del alma ut ens, ut habens esse. La composición real de esencia y ser es la clave que nos permite definir metafísicamente a todo ente finito y desentrañar así su estructura última y más profunda. Ahora bien, como la verdad se funda en el ser más que en la esencia, veritas fundatur in esse magis quam in quidditate (In I Sent., d. 19, q. 5, a. 1), la verdad del alma y, en consecuencia, la del hombr...

  20. Ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Rojas-Solano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Las ehrliquiosis humanas son zoonosis emergentes transmitidas por varias especies de garrapatas e infectan gran cantidad de animales silvestres y domésticos. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con un cuadro clínico y hallazgos de laboratorio compatibles con una probable ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica severa. El paciente se trató con doxicilina y respondió adecuadamente. Fue egresado en buena condición.Human ehrlichiosis are emergent tick-borne zoonoses, affecting many wild and domestic mammals. We report the case of a patient with a clinical picture and laboratory findings compatible with severe granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The patient was treated with doxyciclin and did fine.

  1. Libertad humana y presciencia divina en Boecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Correia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, me propongo mostrar que la discusión de Boecio sobre la compatibilidad de la libertad humana y la praescientia divina (De consolatione philosophiae, Libro V es una elaborada doctrina que une elementos neoplatónicos y lógica aristotélica. Según argumento, la discusión está conectada a la preocupación anterior sobre este tema mantenida por los estoicos, y sus principales líneas de desarrollo van a influir en pensadores como Santo Tomás de Aquino, L. Valla y G.W. Leibniz. En lo esencial, la doctrina de Boecio dice que no es la sola razón humana lo que hace al hombre libre, sino su fin, que es Dios como ser eternamente presente a los procesos necesarios y contingentes del universo. Esto está supuesto en sus palabras finales sobre el poder de la oraciónIn this article, I attempt to show that Boethius' discussion on the compatibility between human freedom and praescientia divina (De consolatione philosophiae, Book V is a refined piece of doctrine combining Neoplatonic elements and Aristotelian logic. The discussion, I argue, is connected to the Stoic early concern on the topic and its main lines of development are to be influential in later thinkers as St. Th. Aquinas, L. Valla and G.W. Leibniz. Basically, Boethius' doctrine means that it is not only the human reason by itself what makes the man free, but also the end of reason, i.e., God, who is eternally present to necessary and contingent processes in the universe. This is suggested by his final words on the power of prayer

  2. Epidemiologia da raiva humana na Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo R. Matta B. da Silva

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available A raiva humana se mantém como problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente nas áreas urbanas, onde o cão atua como principal reservatório e fonte imediata de infecção. A deficiência de programas de controle de cães vadios, de imunização sistemática e de educação sanitária, contribui para a perpetuação da cadeia epidemiológioa. O presente estudo analisa todos os casos de raiva humana, observados em habitantes do Estado da Guanabara, no período 1965-1969, segundo as variáveis: idade, sexo, côr, variação estacional, período de incubação e de duração da fase clínica, fonte de infecção, local de mordedura e uso de vacina posterior à exposição. Os principais resultados foram: 1. A ravia na Guanabara, parece ser mais comum nos grupos etários mais jovens e nos homens. 2. Não se observou variação estacional. 3. O período de incubação mediano foi de 45 dias e de duração da fase clínica de 3 dias. 4. Ocorreu uma associação entre período de incubação menor e vacinação incompleta.

  3. Review: Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, D E

    2011-03-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placental function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta-specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage specific birth and death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placentally expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placental biology.

  4. Coagulation and Placenta-Mediated Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Aharon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a physiological hypercoagulable state, preparing the mother for the hemostatic challenge of delivery. However, this is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis and placenta-mediated complications, which present major challenges for mother and fetus. Although these conditions are heterogeneous in their pathophysiology, hereditary and acquired thrombophilia has been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss and gestational vascular complications, such as early-onset pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Prevention of such placenta-mediated complications, which collectively complicate up to 15% of pregnancies, is a major issue for women’s health. Prospective interventional studies stratified by current knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms related to placental and systemic hemostatic alterations will impact on the management of pregnancies at risk of these complications.

  5. Placenta Percreta Presenting with Delayed Haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaskar, Vinayak Gorakhanath; Daga, Sudarshan Omprakash; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran

    2015-12-01

    Placenta percreta presents as life threatening complications with bladder invasion. A condition of placenta invading urinary bladder presented with differential diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on imaging and responded to chemotherapy. A 35-year-old primi-gravida presented at term with per vaginal bleeding. During caesarian section placental mass totally invading uterine myometrium was found. She was given single dose of Methotrexate. After 2 months she presented with gross haematuria with clot retention two times. Her MRI was suggestive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia of size 19 X 10 X 13cm. Her beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin levels were 691.23 mIU/ml. She was given total four doses of methotrexate. At present size of mass was 1.6 X1.3X 1.1cm. Her beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin level dropped down to 2mIU/ml. Patient was not willing for further intervention or for follow up.

  6. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Siwetz; Astrid Blaschitz; Julia Kremshofer; Jelena Bilic; Gernot Desoye; Berthold Huppertz; Martin Gauster

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in pla...

  7. Impact of placenta praevia on obstetric outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Meena

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that increased maternal age and parity, history of previous caesarean section are identified risk factors which are same as reported in western literature. Sonographic determination of the placental position where its location be-Neath the uterine incision is very important to predict maternal outcomes in placenta praevia patients, and such cases, close attention should be paid for massive haemorrhage. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 76-80

  8. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Joosten, I.; Lotgering, F.K.; Bulten, J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to expl

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  11. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  12. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  13. Fibulin-5 expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauster, Martin; Berghold, Veronika M; Moser, Gerit; Orendi, Kristina; Siwetz, Monika; Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-02-01

    Fibulin-5 is a secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein and displays a diverse panel of biological functions, which can be segregated into elastogenic as well as extra-elastogenic functions. While elastogenic functions of fibulin-5 include essential roles in early steps of elastic fibre assembly, extra-elastogenic functions are widespread. Depending on the cell type used, fibulin-5 mediates cell adherence via a subset of integrins, antagonizes angiogenesis and inhibits migration as well as proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this study, we focused on the spatiotemporal expression of fibulin-5 in the human placenta. With progressing gestation, placental fibulin-5 expression increased from first trimester towards term. At term, placental fibulin-5 mRNA expression is lower when compared with other well-vascularized organs such as lung, kidney, heart, uterus and testis. In first trimester, placenta immunohistochemistry localized fibulin-5 in villous cytotrophoblasts and extravillous cytotrophoblasts of the proximal cell column. In term placenta, fibulin-5 was detected in the endothelial basement membrane and adventitia-like regions of vessels in the chorionic plate and stem villi. Cell culture experiments with the villous trophoblast-derived cell line BeWo showed that fibulin-5 expression was downregulated during functional differentiation and intercellular fusion. Moreover, cultivation of BeWo cells under low oxygen conditions impaired intercellular fusion and upregulated fibulin-5 expression. The spatiotemporal shift from the trophoblast compartment in first trimester to the villous vasculature at term suggests a dual role of fibulin-5 in human placental development.

  14. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain.

  15. Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-25

    The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.

  16. Adiaspiromicose pulmonar humana Human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis

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    Lina Gomes dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A adiaspiromicose é uma doença fúngica sistêmica que acomete usualmente roedores e raramente atinge o homem. É causada pelo fungo Emmonsia crescens e ocorre após a inalação da forma contagiante (conídios. Embora estas formas não se multipliquem nem se disseminem no organismo humano, induzem uma reação inflamatória crônica granulomatosa de padrão miliar que pode levar a falência respiratória e morte. Apresentamos aqui um caso de adiaspiromicose pulmonar humana em paciente imunocompetente que exibia infiltrado intersticial pulmonar difuso ao exame de imagem e fora diagnosticado mediante biópsia pulmonar.Adiaspiromycosis is a systemic fungal disease that usually affects rodents and rarely infects humans. It is caused by the fungus Emmonsia crescens and occurs after inhalation of its contagious form (conidia. Although these forms neither multiply nor spread in the human body, they cause a chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction of miliary pattern, which may lead to respiratory failure and death. In this study we present a case of human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in an immunocompetent patient that showed a diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrate diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy.

  17. DE NUEVO SOBRE LA DIGNIDAD HUMANA

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    Antonio-Carlos Pereira-Menaut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available De la Segunda Guerra Mundial en adelante, la dignidad humana es recogida en muchas constituciones, declaraciones de derechos y tratados internacionales. Esto no significa que sea un concepto nuevo, pues su significado puede rastrearse sin dificultad en la tradición judeo-cristiana y, mucho más tarde, en la influyente comprensión kantiana; y tampoco significa que no haya tenido relación con el Derecho antes de 1945. Por otro lado, las nuevas tendencias filosóficas y antropológicas así como la politización del hombre, junto con los avances de la técnica, explican su presencia cada vez mayor en el Derecho. Sin embargo, la inclusión de la dignidad en los textos jurídicos no es capaz de agotar su significado —ni aunque los textos sean los constitucionales—, y el hecho de que los jueces la aleguen no significa que la empleen realmente como criterio para su decisión, como puede verse al estudiar algunas sentencias relevantes.

  18. Risk Factors of Neonatal Anemia in Placenta Previa

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    Dong Gyu Jang, Yun Sung Jo, Sung Jong Lee, Gui Se Ra Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa.Methods: The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors.Results: Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11 was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders.Conclusion: To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location.

  19. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B;

    2004-01-01

    early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...... genes were expressed in placenta and microsomal extracts from human placenta contained triglyceride transfer activity, indicating expression of bioactive MTP. To detect lipoprotein secretion, biopsies from term placentas were placed in medium with [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine for 3-24 h. Upon...... lipoproteins secreted from placental tissue showed spherical particles with a diameter of 47 +/- 10 nm. These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Placental lipoprotein formation constitutes a novel pathway...

  20. Risk Factors of Neonatal Anemia in Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Jo, Yun Sung; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Gui Se Ra

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa. Methods: The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors. Results: Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11) was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion: To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location. PMID:21960747

  1. Risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Jo, Yun Sung; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Gui Se Ra

    2011-01-01

    Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa. The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors. Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11) was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders. To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location.

  2. Autophagy in the human placenta throughout gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ho Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autophagy has been reported to be essential for pre-implantation development and embryo survival. However, its role in placental development and regulation of autophagy during pregnancy remain unclear. The aims of this study were to (1 study autophagy by characterizing changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B in human placenta throughout gestation; (2 determine whether autophagy is involved in regulation of trophoblast invasion in JEG-3 cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line; (3 examine the effects of reduced oxygen and glucose on the autophagic changes; and (4 investigate the effect of reoxygenation and supplementation of glucose after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD on the autophagic changes in primary cytotrophoblasts obtained from normal term pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An analysis of 40 placental samples representing different gestational stages showed (1 no significant differences in beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II levels in placentas between early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; (2 placentas from late gestation with cesarean section had lower levels of LC3B-II compared to early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; levels of DRAM were also lower compared to placentas from early and mid-gestation; and (3 using explant cultures, villous tissues from early and late gestation had similar rates of autophagic flux under physiological oxygen concentrations. Knockdown of BECN1, DRAM, and LC3B had no effects on viability and invasion activity of JEG-3 cells. On the other hand, OGD caused a significant increase in the levels of LC3B-II in primary cytotrophoblasts, while re-supplementation of oxygen and glucose reduced these changes. Furthermore, there were differential changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II in response to changes in oxygen and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that autophagy is involved in development of the human

  3. Abnormal placentation: evidence-based diagnosis and management of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria; Yankowitz, Jerome; Spinnato, Joseph A

    2012-08-01

    Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa cause significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of both cesarean delivery and pregnancies using assisted reproductive technology, these 3 conditions are becoming more common. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans to achieve the best outcomes for mother and baby. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on abnormal placentation including an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management.

  4. Pathological And Clinical Evaluation of Hypertensive Pregnants and Their Placentas

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    Havva Erdem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of hypertension on the placenta and fetus in pregnancy. Method: 25 hypertensive pregnants, 114 control women, and their infants were included in the study. Results: There was significant correlation between to the body mass index, weight before pregnancy, gestational week, hematocrit, birth weight, placenta size and weight between two groups (p=.002, .003, .003, .004, .000, .050, .032, respectively. The age, gravida, parity, abortus, living child, height, weight gain in pregnancy, hemoglobin, placenta diameter and thickness, volume of clot were similar between groups. Conclusion: As a result, hypertension in pregnancy affects the development of the fetus and placenta as well.

  5. Effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This retrospective cohort study includes 12,034 delivered pregnant women who were recruited for the study between 2004 and 2010 in Ege University Hospital. Data were collected by browsing the clinic's archives. The association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes was determined via Chi-square tests and Student's t test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors in evaluating the association between placenta previa and the adverse perinatal outcomes. There was no significant relationship between placenta previa and FGR or stillbirth. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly higher in the placenta previa group. According to logistic regression analysis, low birth weight was associated with an OR of 3.01 (95 % CI 2.05-4.52) and preterm delivery was associated with an OR of 8.14 (95 % CI 5.60-11.83); while, placenta previa did not affect FGR and stillbirth significantly. Although there is no consensus on the association between placenta previa and FGR in previous studies, we suggest that placenta previa is not a reason for placental insufficiency. Management of placenta previa especially depends on maternal hemodynamic parameters such as heavy hemorrhage and hypotensive shock rather than fetal well-being protocols based on serial growth ultrasound and fetal Doppler investigation.

  6. Conservative management of placenta previa complicated by abnormal placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bręborowicz, Grzegorz H; Markwitz, Wiesław; Gaca, Michał; Koziołek, Agnieszka; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Dera, Anna; Brych, Mariusz; Szymankiewicz-Bręborowicz, Marta; Kruszyński, Grzegorz; Gruca-Stryjak, Karolina; Madejczyk, Mateusz; Szpera-Goździewicz, Agata; Krzyścin, Mariola

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal implantation of placenta previa is life-threatening condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the conservative management of pregnancies with such complication on maternal morbidity rate and the chance for uterine preservation (fertility). Eleven patients with abnormal implantation of placenta previa were analyzed prospectively. This complication was diagnosed antenatally by two-dimensional ultrasound and color flow Doppler. The following outcomes were analyzed: need for blood transfusion, admission and duration of stay in intensive care unit, infections, coagulopathies, time between cesarean section and delivery of placenta, hysterectomy and preservation of uterus. Among the 20 085 women who had a singleton gestation, 11 (0.054%) were identified with placenta previa with abnormal placentation. In five patients (group A), hysterectomy was performed because of hemorrhage or placenta ablation. In six patients (group B), conservative management succeeded and placenta were preserved. In group A, placenta were delivered earlier (2 d-8 weeks) in comparison with group B (6-15 weeks). Estimated blood loss during the delayed delivery of placenta was higher in the group with hysterectomy (respectively, 450-1600 and 300-500 ml). Conservative management of placenta previa with abnormal implantation decreases the risk of severe hemorrhage at the time of delivery and can preserve fertility.

  7. The placenta in toxicology. Part III : Pathologic assessment of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Ernerudh, Jan; Faas, Marijke M; Göhner, Claudia; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Buse, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    This short review is derived from the peer-reviewed literature and the experience and case materials of the authors. Brief illustrated summaries are presented on the gross and histologic normal anatomy of rodent and macaque placentas, including typical organ weights, with comments on differences fro

  8. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors.

  9. Placenta-on-a-chip: a novel platform to study the biology of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Soo; Romero, Roberto; Han, Yu Mi; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Chong Jai; Hong, Joon-Seok; Huh, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Studying the biology of the human placenta represents a major experimental challenge. Although conventional cell culture techniques have been used to study different types of placenta-derived cells, current in vitro models have limitations in recapitulating organ-specific structure and key physiological functions of the placenta. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to leverage microfluidic and microfabrication technologies to develop a microengineered biomimetic model that replicates the architecture and function of the placenta. A "Placenta-on-a-Chip" microdevice was created by using a set of soft elastomer-based microfabrication techniques known as soft lithography. This microsystem consisted of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels separated by a thin extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. To reproduce the placental barrier in this model, human trophoblasts (JEG-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto the opposite sides of the ECM membrane and cultured under dynamic flow conditions to form confluent epithelial and endothelial layers in close apposition. We tested the physiological function of the microengineered placental barrier by measuring glucose transport across the trophoblast-endothelial interface over time. The permeability of the barrier study was analyzed and compared to that obtained from acellular devices and additional control groups that contained epithelial or endothelial layers alone. Our microfluidic cell culture system provided a tightly controlled fluidic environment conducive to the proliferation and maintenance of JEG-3 trophoblasts and HUVECs on the ECM scaffold. Prolonged culture in this model produced confluent cellular monolayers on the intervening membrane that together formed the placental barrier. This in vivo-like microarchitecture was also critical for creating a physiologically relevant effective barrier to glucose transport. Quantitative investigation of barrier function was

  10. Circadian Kisspeptin expression in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, M A; Morán, J; Díaz, I; Murias, L; Fernández-Plaza, C; González, C; Díaz, E

    2015-11-01

    Kisspeptin is an essential gatekeeper of reproductive function. During pregnancy high circulating levels of kisspeptin have been described, however the clear role of this neuropeptide in pregnancy remains unknown. We tested the existence of rhythmic kisspeptin expression in human full-term placenta from healthy pregnant women at six different time points during the day. The data obtained by Western blotting were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), demonstrating, for the first time, the existence of a circadian rhythm in placental kisspeptin expression.

  11. Teoria organizacional para la gerencia humana como factor de desarrollo a escala humana

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    Gregoria Polo de Lobatón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy, se debate en los países subdesarrollados y hasta en desarrollo caso América Latina el estancamiento económico rodeado de un mar de pobreza y exclusión social, en contrario, los paísesdesarrollados a partir de la crisis de 1929 muestran su crecimiento a partir de modelos de desarrollo económico como sustento teórico del pensamiento administrativo captado para las prácticas gerenciales; resultó útil identificar los aportes de la teoría del desarrollo como fundamentación de las teorías organizacionales y su incidencia en las prácticas gerenciales como factor de desarrollo. Metodológicamente la investigación se orientó en el enfoque cualitativo para el análisis fenomenológico de los datos encontrados en revisiones documentales. Los resultados determinaron que las prácticas gerenciales se fundamentan en teorías organizacionales clásicas y contemporáneas centradas en principios de eficiencia y productividad. A partir de las teorías contemporáneas un dinamismo con enfoques sociales y ambientales, su fundamento la escuela humana con los pensadores: Weber, Elton Mayo, reformistas y otros pensadores, que tenidas en cuenta para las prácticas gerenciales centradas en la suficiencia manifiestan interés por el acercamiento al desarrollo a escala humana.Palabras clave: Teorías organizacionales; paradigma de Gerencia Humana; Desarrollo a escala humana.Organizational theory for human management as a development factor to human scale AbstractToday, there are discussions in underdeveloped countries and even in developing ones, Latin American case, the economic halt surrounded by a sea of poverty and social exclusion, in contrast, developed countries starting from the crisis of 1929 show their growth from economic development models as a theoretical backup of the management thinking captured for management practices; proved useful to identify the contributions of development theory as the foundation of organizational theories and

  12. TRANSEXUALIDADE E DIGNIDADE DA PESSOA HUMANA

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    Edwirges Elaine Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resume-se a uma investigação sobre a transsexualidade ou disforia de gênero, em que o indivíduo não se identifica com o sexo que lhe foi imposto, mas sim, com o  gênero oposto ao seu. Os indivíduos transexuais enfrentam inúmeros preconceitos e dificuldades ao longo de suas vidas, podendo-se afirmar que para alcançar sua completude, o transexual necessita reconhecer-se como titular do sexo oposto em todos os sentidos, médico (adequação do sexo biológico ao sexo psicológico, social (inclusão social deste indivíduo, para que seja aceito pela sociedade e jurídico (perante a lei. No Brasil, não existe legislação específica a respeito da transsexualidade, assim, a regulamentação da cirurgia de transgenitalização é responsabilidade do Conselho Federal de Medicina, e após o árduo procedimento de transgenitalização, o transexual poderá obter a retificação do seu nome e sexo no registro civil, através de requerimento judicial. De maneira inovadora, alguns Tribunais, de acordo com o princípio da dignidade humana, têm concedido tais modificações antes mesmo da cirurgia de redesignação sexual, entretanto, este entendimento não está pacificado, o que acarreta grande injustiça e sofrimento a estas pessoas. Assim, busca-se demonstrar de maneira cristalina, a necessidade de legislação específica,  a fim de facilitar o acesso dos transexuais, tanto à cirurgia de transgenitalização, quanto às retificações de nome e sexo no assento civil. 

  13. Hidatidosis humana en el Perú

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    Luis Guerra Montero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido conocer el estado de la hidatidosis humana, por la gran incidencia que presenta en nuestro país, principalmente en la región central andina. La recopilación de datos fue a partir de la revisión de fuentes primarias sobre epidemiología, el ciclo vital del parásito y del manejo del paciente afecto de Hidatidosis. Algunos hallazgos permiten afirmar que la hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el estado larval del cestodo Echinococcus del género Granulosus, de alta prevalencia en nuestro país y más en la región central andina, esto se debe principalmente a la costumbre de convivir con perros y ganado ovino así como también a la falta de educación y concientización de la población. Los estudios serológicos como Elisa IgG y Wester Blot por su mayor sensibilidad y especificidad son las pruebas de primera línea para confirmar el diagnóstico. Dependiendo del tamaño, las características del quiste hidatídico y su localización se decide el tratamiento. La hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el cestodo Echinococcus Granulosus de alta prevalencia en el Perú y más aún en la región central andina (Cerro de Pasco, Junín, Huancavelica, tiene un lento crecimiento dentro de los órganos humanos pudiendo ser asintomáticos hasta la edad adulta, los órganos más afectados son el hígado y el pulmón donde son diagnosticados por sus antecedentes epidemiológicos, clínica sugestiva (dolor abdominal, vómica estudios de imagen principalmente ecografía abdominal, radiografía de tórax y exámenes de laboratorio como el Elisa IgG y Wester Blot.

  14. Kinetics of silica nanoparticles in the human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Mose, Tina; Maroun, Lisa Leth;

    2015-01-01

    choriocarcinoma cell line and the ex vivo perfused human placenta. Nanotoxicity in BeWo cells was examined by the MTT assay which demonstrated decreased cell viability at concentrations >100 µg/mL. In the placental perfusion experiments, antipyrine crossed the placenta rapidly, with a foetal:maternal ratio of 0...

  15. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten;

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies...

  16. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  17. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  18. Characterization and partial purification of phospholipase D from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    We report the existence in the human placenta of a phosphatidylcholine- hydrolyzing phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which has been characterized and partially purified. Triton X-100 effectively solubilized PLD from the particulate fraction of human placenta in a dose-dependent manner. However....... The present results form the basis for further purification of a PLD from human tissue....

  19. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  20. Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Ryan, K J

    1971-09-21

    This study demonstrated that the human placenta possesses an adenyl cyclase system responsive to catecholamines and sodium flouride (NaF). 2.5 gm human term placentas were homogenized, centrifuged, washed, resuspended, and used as the enzyme system when placed with various agents. Incubations and the determination of adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formed were performed. Samples stimulated by .0001 M catecholamines (L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine) or .01 M NaF had higher levels of cyclic AMP than the controls (p. 005 for catecholamine-treated samples and p. 001 for NaF-treated samples). A concentration of .0001 M L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine appeared to be a maximum effective dose and .0000001 M a minimum. L=epinephrine was 10 times as effective in the stimulation as L-norepinephrine. With .0001 M, 499 and 439 pmoles/10 minutes per 25 mg of tissue was formed, whereas in the control (no added hormones) 256 pmoles/10 minutes were formed. 3.2% ethanol activated the system by a small amount (p.02). Propranolol alone did not appear to have any effect; however, the effect of .0001 M L-epinephrine was reduced by 95% in the presence of .00001 M propranolol. Propranolol had no effect on NaF-stimulated activity.

  1. The programming power of the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimise substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring.

  2. The Programming Power of the Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Camm, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring.

  3. Vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, M E; DeKoninck, P; Friedman, R M

    2005-07-01

    Several recent publications have focused on the association between the occurrence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in diamniotic-monochorionic twins and the presence of a number of selected anatomic placental characteristics (distribution of vascular territory, cord insertion, type and number of inter-twin anastomoses). In contrast, the potential importance of the vascular distribution patterns of the individual twins remains to be elucidated. Based on its gross architectural distribution pattern, chorionic vasculature is traditionally described as disperse, magistral or mixed. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the relative prevalence of these vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas, and (2) to correlate these patterns with the presence of TTTS and known anatomic placental features linked to TTTS. The placentas of 89 consecutive diamniotic-monochorionic twins (15 with TTTS, 74 without TTTS), examined at Women and Infants Hospital, were studied. Disperse vascular patterns were seen in 53% of twins, and magistral or mixed patterns in 47%. The prevalence of magistral/mixed vascular patterns was significantly higher in TTTS gestations than in non-TTTS gestations (60% versus 44%, Ppatterns and marginal/velamentous cord insertion, low number of inter-twin anastomoses, and uneven distribution of the vascular territories. These findings suggest that the magistral/mixed vascular distribution pattern may represent an important placental architectural feature contributing to the complex pathophysiology of TTTS.

  4. DIGNIDAD HUMANA, DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL Y CALIDAD DE VIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Édgar Antonio López López

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo, se propone la calidad de vida como una expresión concreta de la dignidad humana que permite superar el relativismo en la discusión bioética sobre la diversidad cultural y los límites de una concepción universalista de los derechos humanos. Después de hacer referencia al proceso mediante el cual las nociones cristianas de dignidad humana y de derecho natural fueron secularizadas, se hace examen de la conservadora crítica culturalista de Lee Kwan yew y de la crítica comunitari...

  5. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  6. Placenta previa and immediate outcome of the term offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Immediate neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa is largely dependent on gestational age. We aimed to investigate whether placenta previa increases the risk for perinatal mortality and immediate morbidity of the offspring born at term. A population-based cohort study included all singleton pregnancies, with and without placenta previa, delivered at term. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics as well as immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality were compared. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. During the study period 233,123 consecutive term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2 % of the babies were born to mothers diagnosed with placenta previa. Women with placenta previa were significantly older and more likely to have had a previous cesarean section. Pregnancies were more likely to be complicated with pathological presentations and cesarean hysterectomies. Babies born at term following pregnancies with placenta previa were more likely to weigh less than 2500 g (OR 2.78 CI 1.9-3.9, p placenta previa pregnancies involve higher maternal morbidity rates, term offsprings are not at an increased risk for immediate adverse outcome.

  7. Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk factors of placenta previa differ around the world. This study evaluated risk factors of pregnancies complicated with placenta previa during a 5-year period in a referral center in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This case control study was conducted in Hamadan city (Hamadan Province of Iran from April 2013 to March 2017. The cases were women whose deliveries were complicated by placenta previa and the controls were those who delivered without placenta previa. We recruited 130 cases and 130 controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results: The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58 by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58 by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45 by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.  Conclusion: Our study suggests that high maternal age and prior operations of the uterine cavity are risk factors for placenta previa.

  8. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Fujisaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186±1438 ml versus 1656±848 ml, resp.; p=0.34. Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity.

  9. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohei; Oohashi, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone) were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186 ± 1438 ml versus 1656 ± 848 ml, resp.; p = 0.34). Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity. PMID:28523191

  10. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Sun, J; Gu, Y; Zhao, S; Groome, L J; Alexander, J S

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placenta, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We examined D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin was determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n = 6) and preeclamptic (n = 5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder.

  9. Illusory Liberalism in "Atlas de Geografía Humana"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    "Atlas de Geografía Humana" constitutes a critique of the much vaunted notion of a progressive Spain that has rectified the gender inequalities of the Francoist era, as one of the highly educated and successful protagonists, Fran, unwittingly adopts her mother's alignment with patriarchal norms. This novel elucidates the incompatibility…

  10. Fenomenología y esencia procesual humana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Beites, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Esta ponencia ofrece el esbozo de una posible “ontología fenomenológica de la persona”. El punto de partida es la aceptación del reto existencialista que exige contar con el carácter procesual o dinámico de la vida humana. Pero lo que se defien

  11. Capital humano y capacidad humana Human capital and human capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya Kumar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of invasive placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa G; Allen, Lisa; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John; Pollard, Lindsay; Pantazi, Sophia; Keating, Sarah; Carvalho, Jose C A; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l’efficacité d’une approche d’équipe multidisciplinaire visant l’atténuation de la morbidité maternelle grave chez les femmes qui présentent un placenta prævia invasif. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude prospective auprès de 33 femmes qui présentaient un placenta prævia et increta-percreta (diagnostiqué par échographie et/ou imagerie par résonance magnétique) et qui accouchaient au Mount Sinai Hospital de Toronto, à la suite du lancement (en janvier 2008) d’une approche d’équipe visant les femmes qui présentaient une telle placentation. Nous avons inclus les accouchements chez les femmes visées jusqu’en juin 2012. Nous avons analysé les dossiers prénataux (services externes et services hospitaliers) en vue d’y repérer l’utilisation par l’obstétricien titulaire de six composantes d’équipe prédéfinies : (1) consultation prénatale en médecine fœto-maternelle; (2) consultation en chirurgie gynécologique; (3) IRM prénatale; (4) consultation en radiologie interventionnelle et mise en place préopératoire de sondes à ballonnet dans les divisions antérieures des artères iliaques internes; (5) planification à l’avance de la date de chirurgie; et (6) chirurgie menée par des membres de l’équipe chirurgicale vouée aux cas de placenta invasif. Les détails de l’évolution prénatale, de l’accouchement et de la période postpartum ont été consignés afin d’établir un score composite de morbidité maternelle grave en cinq points fondé sur la présence ou l’absence de ce qui suit : (1) admission à l’USI à la suite de l’accouchement; (2) transfusion de plus de deux unités de sang; (3) anesthésie générale (administration ou conversion); (4) temps opératoire se situant dans le quartile le plus élevé (> 125 minutes); et (5) complications postopératoires significatives (réhospitalisation, hospitalisation postpartum prolongée et/ou embolie pulmonaire). R

  13. Tetany following resuscitation after abruptio placentae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, David J; Bessinger, Victoria J

    2002-05-01

    Serum ionized calcium and magnesium are normally decreased during later stages of pregnancy. A further rapid decline may be caused by the rapid infusion of blood bank products in which citrate is used as an anticoagulant/preservative. Tetany, as reported here, may be precipitated by such infusions. A gravid woman presented in hemorrhagic shock due to abruptio placentae. Rapid infusion of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma precipitated signs of tetany, muscle rigidity, posturing, high airway pressure during mechanical ventilation, etc. Ionized calcium and magnesium blood levels were very low (0.58 mmol/L and 1.0 mg/dL, respectively), but responded to rapid electrolyte administration. Binding of calcium and magnesium by citrate may lead to hypo-ionized calcemic and hypomagnesemic tetany after rapid replacement of blood products in the pregnant patient. This consequence is worsened when extreme alkalemia due to respiratory or metabolic causes is also present.

  14. Placenta Percreta With Invasion into the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare condition, which can lead to significant morbidity and potentially mortality. We present a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at 24 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding and was found to have complete placenta previa with placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder. Her hospital course was complicated by bilateral pulmonary emboli. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy, repeat Caesarean section, and total abdominal hysterectomy. Because of placental invasion into the bladder, the procedure was complicated by bladder and ureteral injuries for which urology carried out repair. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent bladder leak until postoperative day #39.

  15. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  16. Condi(aÇão Humana e Liberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lúcia Vieira Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:O objeto de estudo deste artigo é a condição humana. Qual a possibilidade de existência da condição humana fundamentada na liberdade? O objetivo é relacionar esfera pública, política, liberdade e condição humana. A elaboração teórica considerou obras de Etienne de La Boétie, Hannah Arendt, Cornelius Castoriadis, entre outros. Na atualidade, ocorre a supressão da condição humana, pois a esfera pública tem a ingerência da esfera privada, predominando a razão instrumental e a lógica do mercado, e o homem é afastado da vida política. Por isso, a nossa ação política pela liberdade é fundamental para a problematização do processo de banalização do mal e da servidão voluntária. A coragem é uma virtude indispensável à ação política, é necessária para nos libertarmos da dominação e do servilismo da vida privada e conquistarmos a vida política. A centralidade da ação política do homem é a sua condição de ser atuante para a reafirmação da esfera pública, do mundo da pluralidade, humano e comum. Todavia, a condição humana fundamentada na liberdade implica a superação da atividade e do pensamento pragmáticos e fragmentários da vida cotidiana e a constituição da praxis na dimensão humano-genérica consciente.

  17. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa and/or placenta accreta: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fangyuan; Xie, Lan; Xie, Ping; Liu, Siwei; Zhu, Yue

    2017-04-01

    To introduce the primary experience of using aortic balloon catheters during cesarean section for placenta previa and/or placenta accreta. From January 2013 to May 2015, 43 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with major placenta previa and/or placenta accreta and who underwent prophylactic aortic catheterization before caesarean section (CS) were included in the study. We analyzed the clinical data of the study population. Surgery- and catheterization-related complications were also reported. Major placenta previa or placenta accreta was surgically confirmed in 42 patients, 28 of whom had both conditions. The mean patient age was 32.3 ± 5.5 years, whereas the median gestational age at delivery was 260 (range, 153-280) days. Twenty-nine (67.4%) patients had previously undergone CS, and 13 (30%) patients had undergone emergency surgery for antenatal hemorrhage. The median estimated blood loss during surgery was 500 (range, 100-3,000) mL, and the median duration of occlusion was 20 (range, 5-32) minutes. Hysterectomy was performed in five (11.6%) patients and uterine artery embolization in two (4.6%) patients. Two patients with placenta percreta experienced surgery-related complications, and two patients required hospital readmission. No major catheterization-related complications were observed. Forty-two live births were recorded, and the Apgar score of the infants at 5 minutes was > 7. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion is a relatively safe method for treating placenta previa and/or placenta accreta during scheduled and emergency CS and might be helpful to prevent hysterectomy and embolization in women wishing to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  19. PLACENTA ACCRETA AND THE DEVELOPING WORLD – A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-12

    Dec 12, 2010 ... the incidence of placenta accreta might be on the increase and this might worsen the maternal .... many speculations and theories have been proposed during the ... vascular endothelial damage which occurs with aging,.

  20. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dzierzak, Elaine; Robin, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother, the placenta has increasingly become a focus of research concerning the ontogeny of the blood system. Here, we describe recent data showing the intrinsic hematopoietic potential and appearance of hematopoietic...

  1. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  2. [The role of placenta in hepatitis B virus intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Xu, D; Wang, W

    1999-07-01

    To determine the role of placenta in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission, and to trace the route of transplacental transmission and the timing of HBV infection in uterus. We collected 101 term placentas and newborn infants, 24 aborted first-trimester placentas, and 6 induced aborted fetuses and placentas from 131 HBsAg carrying pregnant women. Serologic HBV markers (HBsAg and HBV DNA) of pregnant women and newborns were detected by ELISA and PCR. The HBsAg, HBxAg, HBcAg and HBV DNA in placentas were determined by ABC immunohistochemical staining and in-situ hybridization. The HBV infection rates of placentas from first-trimester, second-trimester to term periods were 4.2%(1/24), 1/6, and 44.6%(45/101), respectively. In one induced aborted fetal liver tissue (19-week of pregnancy), the proteins and DNA of HBV were detected, and its placental villous capillary endothelial cells were also infected. The OR of HBV infection of villous capillary endothelial cells in intrauterine transmission was 18.46(95% CI = 2.83-152.78). HBV infection of placental capillary endothelial cell is a major risk factor of intrauterine transmission. HBV transplacental transmission route may be placental cell to cell transfer. The intrauterine infection may occur as early as on the 19th week of pregnancy, but the main timing is possibly in the third-trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Molecular characterization of the Neuronatin gene in the porcine placenta.

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    Ting Gu

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes play important roles in placental and embryonic development. Neuronatin (NNAT, first identified as an imprinted gene in human and mouse brains, played important roles in neuronal differentiation in the brain and in glucose-mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. In the pig, NNAT was reported to be imprinted in eleven tissues. Our previous microarray hybridization study showed that NNAT was differentially expressed in Yorkshire and Meishan pig placentas, but the imprinting status and function of NNAT in the placenta have not been investigated. We demonstrated for the first time that NNAT was monoallelically expressed in the placenta. Immunochemistry analysis showed that NNAT was located in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium in placentas. We also confirmed the differential expression of NNAT in Meishan and Yorkshire pig placentas by qPCR. Using IPA software and the published literature, we created a model network of the possible relationships between NNAT and glucose transporter genes. A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the crucial promoter region of NNAT contained a CANNTG sequence in the +210 to +215 positions, which corresponded to the E-box. Our findings demonstrated important roles of NNAT in placenta function.

  4. Case with pyoderma gangrenosum abruptly emerging around the wound of cesarean section for placenta previa with placenta accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Taro; Yoshida, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Aizawa, Atsuko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Takakuwa, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    A 39-year-old woman underwent emergency cesarean section (CS) due to placenta previa totalis with massive bleeding. Two major problems emerged in this patient after CS was carried out. One was partial retention of the placenta due to placenta accreta. Another major and more serious problem was pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) widely appearing at the skin of the abdomen around the CS wound. Conservative treatment was performed for the retained placenta, and it had completely disappeared by 76 days after the CS. The diagnosis of PG was promptly made in consultation with a plastic surgeon and a dermatologist when a wide ulcer emerged around the CS wound, and high-dose prednisolone was administered as treatment. At 90 days following the CS, near-complete epithelialization was achieved. This extremely rare case reflects the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of PG.

  5. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...... phthalate monoesters in fetal and maternal perfusates was established. In addition to perfusate background measures of phthalate monoesters, the concentrations in umbilical cord plasma and placenta tissue were measured. Monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), monobutyl phthalate (m...

  6. vida humana: cuestiones de método

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pardo Caballos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio ético de las intervenciones sobre el comienzo de la vida humana es decisivo conocer cuándo comienza ésta exactamente. Para conseguir este resultado, es necesario combinar conocimientos fi losófi cos sobre la vida y observaciones empíricas de los primeros momentos del desarrollo. A partir de ellos, se puederealizar un razonamiento que permite mostrar que la fecundación establece el momento de aparición de una nueva vida humana. Las refl exiones estrictamente científi cas, y las que basan su razonamiento solamente en aspectos genéticos del comienzo de la vida, son reduccionistas y no pueden determinar propiamente el comienzo de la vida.

  7. Voz humana sem amarras: abordagem a partir de Wolfsohn

    OpenAIRE

    Marambio, Denisse Elena Iturra

    2013-01-01

    Alfred Wolfsohn (1896-1962), alemão, pesquisador da expressão humana por meio da voz. Participou, como soldado, da primeira guerra mundial, o que lhe causou uma neurose de guerra: ponto de partida da formulação de suas ideias sobre a voz humana, principalmente em relação às condições orgânico-funcionais em associação às dimensões emocionais e afetivas da produção e preparação vocal. Wolfsohn desenvolveu uma detalhada proposta de preparação vocal de cantores e atores, embora ...

  8. Gestión humana: tendencias y perspectivas

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    Juan Guillermo Saldarriaga Ríos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace referencia a las tendencias y las perspectivas de gestión humana que se imponen en el mundo en la actualidad y que, a su manera, pretenden optimizar la administración del personal de la organización y contribuir al desarrollo e incremento de la productividad y la competitividad. Mediante la realización de un Estado del Arte se logran determinar algunas de las tendencias más relevantes en la actualidad y se concluye que, cada vez con mayor fuerza, dichas tendencias se sustentan en discursos que pretenden “rescatar” al ser humano dentro de la organización, lo que no necesariamente se traduce en los procesos de gestión humana que se realizan en las organizaciones nacionales e internacionales.

  9. Naturaleza humana y política en Denis Diderot

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    Pablo Scotto Benito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone relacionar la concepción que Diderot tiene del ser humano con sus ideas políticas. A pesar de que no se pueda hallar en la obra del “filósofo” un tratado sistemático en el que el estudio de la naturaleza humana sirva como fundamentación de un determinado sistema político, la epistemología empirista y el monismo materialista diderotianos, con la consecuente revalorización de las pasiones corporales, conducen a una moral y una política universalistas, acordes con la naturaleza humana y centradas en la felicidad de los individuos.

  10. The role of shear wave elastography in the assessment of placenta previa-accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alıcı Davutoglu, Ebru; Ariöz Habibi, Hatice; Ozel, Ayşegül; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Madazlı, Riza

    2017-05-09

    To evaluate the value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta. Forty-three women with normal placental location and 26 women with anteriorly localized placenta previa were recruited for this case-control study. Placental elasticity values in both the groups were determined by SWE imaging. SWE values were higher in the placenta previa group in all regions than in normal localized placentas (p placenta previa with and without morbidly adherent placenta (p > .05). Placental stiffness is significantly higher in placenta previa than normal localized placentas. However, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in the elasticity values between the placenta previa with and without accreta.

  11. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery for pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Ju; Shen, Jian; Jin, Jiaxi; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Wan

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery with hemostatic gelatin sponge particles to treat pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta during cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted of data from women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta who underwent direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery at a center in China between September 1, 2013, and February 28, 2015. Information regarding surgical procedures, operative data, and outcomes during hospitalization were obtained from medical records. The procedure was successful in all 16 cases included. Mean operative time was 78 minutes (range 65-90) and mean estimated blood loss was 1550 mL (range 1000-2500). Complications such as fever, buttock pain, or acute limb ischemia were not observed. The procedure was performed after partial cystectomy for two patients with bladder invasion. Postoperative Doppler imaging indicated uterine recovery and normalized uterine blood flow in all patients. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery was a safe, effective, simple, and rapid method to control hemorrhage among women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global DNA hypermethylation in down syndrome placenta.

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    Shengnan Jin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, commonly caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (chr21, occurs in approximately one out of 700 live births. Precisely how an extra chr21 causes over 80 clinically defined phenotypes is not yet clear. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS analysis at single base resolution revealed DNA hypermethylation in all autosomes in DS samples. We hypothesize that such global hypermethylation may be mediated by down-regulation of TET family genes involved in DNA demethylation, and down-regulation of REST/NRSF involved in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Genes located on chr21 were up-regulated by an average of 53% in DS compared to normal villi, while genes with promoter hypermethylation were modestly down-regulated. DNA methylation perturbation was conserved in DS placenta villi and in adult DS peripheral blood leukocytes, and enriched for genes known to be causally associated with DS phenotypes. Our data suggest that global epigenetic changes may occur early in development and contribute to DS phenotypes.

  13. Mitos y tabúes en la sexualidad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan consideraciones muy generales sobre el origen de los géneros y cómo esta formación favorece la presencia de mitos y tabúes en la expresión de la sexualidad de la pareja humana.Very general considerations are presented on the origin of genders and how this formation has favored myths and taboos in the expression of the human couple's sexuality.

  14. Relaciones Públicas y Relaciones Humanas: Conceptos y Zonas de Contacto

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Portales, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Como primer antecedente podemos seiialar que Relaciones Humanas considera al hombre como ser-personal y Relaciones Publicas estudia al hombre en su caracter de ser social. En esencia, ambas disciplinas analizan y procuran explicar la conducta del hombre en su naturaleza individual y social, y como unidad comun, ambas utilizan fuentes, mensajes, medios, puhlicos y efcctos. Pero sigamos examinando la autonomia y dependencia de cada una de estas areas.

  15. A busca da transdisciplinaridade nas ciências humanas

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    Aloísio Krohling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca elaborar uma retrospectiva histórica das raízes epistemológicas do pensamento moderno, passando pelo Iluminismo e todas as correntes teóricas, seguidoras da mesma fonte metodológica e epistemológica do SABER INSTRUMENTAL, o que se refletiu nas várias áreas do saber do campo das Ciências Humanas, com o objetivo de mostrar a importância da busca da transdisciplinaridade e da interdisciplinaridade nas Ciências Humanas, com o resgate do paradigma do Múltiplo. A busca da transdisciplinaridade será o fio da meada no sentido de voltar ao MÚLTIPLO heraclitiano e resgatar o “Pantha Rei” das mudanças e contradições da História e da cultura ocidentais. Questiona o atomismo e a fragmentação disciplinar da maioria dos cursos de graduação na área de Ciências Humanas, mormente na Educação, e de modo exacerbado no curso de Direito, com as suas dezenas de disciplinas atomizadas e fragmentadas e sem um fio condutor. É proposta a busca da transdisciplinaridade para o resgate da Metodologia Dialética e da Filosofia da Educação e Filosofia do Direito como as duas grandes alavancas para uma visão e prática holísticas nos Cursos de Educação e Direito bem como na área das Ciências Humanas.

  16. En torno a la realidad humana en Xavier Zubiri

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    Espinoza Lolas, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article inquires into the nature of human reality and its connection to the concept of person in the philosophy of Xavier Zubiri(1898-1983. The methodology of the analysis consists in reviewing the nature of human reality through the prism of noology, i.e., the final period of this author’s work, in order to introduce man from its always incarnate, prominently physical, dimension of human reality. This allows individual development and the historical and social display of the human being from a physical perspective to be represented.Este artículo indaga acerca del carácter de la realidad humana y su relación al concepto de persona en el pensamiento de Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983. La metodología de análisis consiste en revisar el carácter de la realidad humana desde la noología, esto es, la última etapa de la obra del autor, a fin de presentar al hombre desde su dimensión eminentemente física y siempre encarnada de la realidad humana, permitiendo repensar desde una perspectiva física el desarrollo individual, así como también, el despliegue social e histórico del ser humano.

  17. GEOGRAFÍA HUMANA Y GEOMÁTICA

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    Silvana Levi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La geografía humana y la geomática son disciplinas quehan recorrido un camino paralelo en la que a partir de ladécada de 1990, sus especialistas han tratado de acercarsecon miras a la resolución de problemas de índoleespacial. En este trabajo se plantea la relación históricade la geomática con la geografía humana, se le enmarcateóricamente en los estudios de análisis espacial, paradespués ahondar en el diálogo que se ha establecido entreambas disciplinas, y con ello responder a los cuestionamientosde ¿qué se ha hecho por establecer puentesentre ambas? y ¿cómo pueden beneficiarse la una dela otra? Para responder a estas preguntas se analiza eldebate que se dio en la década de los noventa entre losespecialistas en sistemas de información geográfica ycartografía digital para posteriormente, a partir de finalesde los 1990s, las propuestas que se hicieron desde lageografía, que con un enfoque teórico y en un intento pordiscutir el papel del espacio-tiempo en la geografía físicay la humana, y que tocó de manera relevante la relaciónde la geografía con la geomática.

  18. La tarea hermenéutica de las ciencias humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ávila Penagos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor sustenta la importancia y pertinencia de la tradición hermenéutica para todos los investigadores de las ciencias humanas. Dos casos paradigmáticos sirven para abrir y cerrar el texto. En ellos se muestra, de manera contundente, el impacto de las actividades hermenéuticas sobre la configuración de nuevos sentidos, el cambio en las maneras de mirar y el acceso a nuevas formas de vida en el universo social. En el intermedio, el autor describe el progresivo distanciamiento de las ciencias humanas respecto al paradigma positivista. Se detiene en la conceptualización de cuatro categorías fundamentales de la actividad hermenéutica: la comprensión, la explicación, la interpretación y la traducción. Sostiene que la traducción del comprender es la tarea complementaria de la comprensión del comprender, e incorpora la propuesta de Paul Ricoeur para una nueva comprensión de la explicación en este ámbito. Finalmente, argumenta que la autocomprensión y la autovaloración de las ciencias humanas dependen de su capacidad reflexiva para considerar sus teorías y sus prácticas como textos susceptibles de autoexamen.

  19. DIGNIDAD HUMANA, DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL Y CALIDAD DE VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Antonio López López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se propone la calidad de vida como una expresión concreta de la dignidad humana que permite superar el relativismo en la discusión bioética sobre la diversidad cultural y los límites de una concepción universalista de los derechos humanos. Después de hacer referencia al proceso mediante el cual las nociones cristianas de dignidad humana y de derecho natural fueron secularizadas, se hace examen de la conservadora crítica culturalista de Lee Kwan yew y de la crítica comunitarista de Charles Taylor a la concepción universal de los derechos humanos. A partir de las respuestas de Thomas Pogge y de Amartya Sen a dichas críticas, fi nalmente se establece la relación que hay entre libertad, calidad de vida y capacidades humanas en la teoría de Sen.

  20. A formação humana em debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soares Della Fonte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a questão da formação humana a partir do conflito entre formulações educacionais pós-críticas e críticas. De modo mais preciso, problematiza a perspectiva de formação humana das teorizações educacionais pós-críticas, ao mesmo tempo em que sinaliza um possível caminho a ser explorado e desenvolvido pela pedagogia histórico-crítica no enfrentamento das limitações que lhe são impostas. Conclui que a compreensão de omnilateralidade em Marx pode contribuir para inspirar formulações pedagógicas críticas na consolidação de uma concepção humana que supere, de um lado, tendências racionalistas ou cognitivistas e, de outro, perspectivas estetizantes.

  1. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  2. The cervix as a natural tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gelany, Saad A A; Abdelraheim, Ahmed R; Mohammed, Mo'men M; Gad El-Rab, Mohammed T; Yousef, Ayman M; Ibrahim, Emad M; Khalifa, Eissa M

    2015-11-11

    Placenta previa and placenta accreta carry significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Several techniques have been described in the literature for controlling massive bleeding associated with placenta previa cesarean sections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of the cervix as a natural tamponade in controlling postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta. This prospective study was conducted on 40 pregnant women admitted to our hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. All participating women had one or more previous cesarean deliveries and were diagnosed with placenta previa and/or placenta previa accreta. Significant bleeding from the placental bed during cesarean section was managed by inverting the cervix into the uterine cavity and suturing the anterior and/or the posterior cervical lips into the anterior and/or posterior walls of the lower uterine segment. The technique of cervical inversion described above was successful in stopping the bleeding in 38 out of 40 patients; yielding a success rate of 95%. We resorted to hysterectomy in only two cases (5%). The mean intra-operative blood loss was 1572.5 mL, and the mean number of blood units transfused was 3.1. The mean time needed to perform the technique was 5.4 ± 0.6 min. The complications encountered were as follows: bladder injury in the two patients who underwent hysterectomy and wound infection in one patient. Postoperative fever that responded to antibiotics occurred in 1 patient. The mean duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 days This technique of using the cervix as a natural tamponade appears to be safe, simple, time-saving and potentially effective method for controlling the severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by placenta previa/placenta previa accreta. This technique deserves to be one of the tools in the hands of obstetricians who face the life-threatening hemorrhage of placenta

  3. Differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben-Zhou Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance. Methods:Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected and GPR30 expression levels were detected;human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and processed with GRP30 inhibitor and GRP30 agonist combined with hypoxia-reoxygenation respectively, and cell apoptosis as well as pro-angiogenesis molecule and apoptosis molecule contents were detected. Results:mRNA content and protein content of GRP30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue were significantly lower than those in normal placenta tissue;apoptosis rate of G15 group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of H/R group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of G1 group was significantly lower than that of H/R group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly higher than those of H/R group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly lower than those of H/R group. Conclusions:Low expression of GPR30 in placenta tissue is closely associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia, enhancing GPR function can reduce endothelial cell apoptosis and increase the contents of pro-angiogenesis factors, and it has endothelial protection effect.

  4. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  5. RISK FACTORS OF PLACENTA PREVIA AMONG RURAL INDIAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was to find out risk factors of placenta previa among rural Indian women. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted over two years. 220 women with placenta previa were taken as cases and 440 women without placenta previa were taken as control. RESULTS: Advanced maternal age (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.84-3.97, increased parity (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13-2.22, previous abortions (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.5-3.35, previous uterine surgery (OR 5.91; 95% CI: 3.56-9.87, uterine anomalies (OR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.41-15.27 and tobacco chewing (OR 3.58; 95% CI: 1.04-12.37 are the potential risk factors. No significant associations have been found with socio economic status, religion, previous history of placenta previa, infertility treatment and sex of the newborn. CONCLUSION: Placenta previa have some identifiable risk factors. Tobacco chewing is a novel potential risk factor

  6. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T; Tanaka, H; Noguchi, J; Hata, K

    2011-02-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of the placenta during pregnancy. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes the morphology, anatomy, location, implantation, anomaly, size, and color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment of the placenta. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of the placenta, such as surface-rendered imaging and volume measurement. With the recent advances in 3D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound as well as quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis, quantitative and qualitative assessments of the vascularization and blood flow of the placenta have become feasible. These novel techniques may assist in the evaluation of the feto-placental function, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional 2D sonographic assessments. 3D ultrasound may be an important modality in future placental research, in the evaluation of feto-placental insufficiency in clinical practice, and in the prediction of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, although some limitations regarding the assessment of the placenta employing 3D ultrasound still remain unresolved.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saben, J; Zhong, Y; McKelvey, S; Dajani, N K; Andres, A; Badger, T M; Gomez-Acevedo, H; Shankar, K

    2014-02-01

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies using RNA-seq. To identify genes that were highly expressed and unique to the placenta we compared placental RNA-seq data to data from 7 other tissues (adipose, breast, hear, kidney, liver, lung, and smooth muscle) and identified several genes novel to placental biology (QSOX1, DLG5, and SEMA7A). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the RNA-seq results and immunohistochemistry indicated these proteins were highly expressed in the placental syncytium. Additionally, we mined our RNA-seq data to map the relative expression of key developmental gene families (Fox, Sox, Gata, Tead, and Wnt) within the placenta. We identified FOXO4, GATA3, and WNT7A to be amongst the highest expressed members of these families. Overall, these findings provide a new reference for understanding of placental transcriptome and can aid in the identification of novel pathways regulating placenta physiology that may be dysregulated in placental disease.

  8. Placenta previa after prior abortion: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the role of prior abortion on placenta previa in subsequent pregnancies. We conducted an updated, comprehensive meta-analysis of placenta previa after prior abortion. The search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases from the database inception to January 31, 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was evaluated by Q-test and I2 statistical test. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test and Egger's test. Results of odds ratio (OR estimates with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were pooled using random-effects modeling. The literature search included 872 articles up until January 2017 with 2,134,529 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, we found a significant association between prior spontaneous abortions and placenta previa (1.77; 95% CI: 1.60, 1.94 and between prior induced abortions and placenta previa (1.36; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69. The meta-analysis study herein showed that prior abortion is a risk factor for placenta previa.

  9. Smoking and placenta previa: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-01-04

    Previous studies found a positive association between placenta previa and smoking during pregnancy. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. The aim was to perform meta-analysis of the association between smoking during pregnancy and placenta previa. Major electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched until June 2015. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I(2) statistic. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 991 publications until October 2015 with 9,094,443 participants. Based on the random effect model, compared to nonsmoker women, the estimated OR and RR of placenta previa was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.54) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.35), respectively. There is sufficient documents based on the observational studies that smoking during pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of placenta previa. Therefore, smoking during pregnancy can be considered as a predictor of placenta previa.

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy after Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kuang Yang

    2004-09-01

    Conclusion: There are few reports of successful pregnancy following conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment may increase the risk of secondary infertility, recurrent placenta accreta, and probably ectopic pregnancy.

  11. Trophoblast invasion and oxygenation of the placenta: measurements versus presumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Weiss, Gregor; Moser, Gerit

    2014-03-01

    Invasion of extravillous trophoblast into maternal tissues has a profound effect on the oxygenation of the placenta and hence the fetus. The main route of trophoblast invasion is interstitial invasion into the tissues of the decidua and myometrium. From this main route side branches reach the spiral arteries (endovascular trophoblast) as well as the uterine glands (endoglandular trophoblast) to open both structures toward the intervillous space. This enables histiotrophic nutrition in the first trimester and hemotrophic nutrition in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Failure of endovascular trophoblast invasion has profound effects on the oxygenation of the placenta. Interestingly, this does not lead to hypoxia as has long been presumed. Rather, all measurements available today point to increased oxygen levels within the placenta in patients with a failure of spiral artery transformation. This should lead to a rethink regarding pathological conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia.

  12. [Maternal outcomes in pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-kun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yu-mei; Ying, Jun; Chen, Dan-qing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the maternal outcomes of pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa (PPP). Clinical data of 470 patients with placenta previa admitted in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from August 2012 to August 2014 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into pernicious group(n=101) and non-pernicious group(n=369) according to the history of cesarean section and location of placenta attached to the uterine. The general profiles, maternal outcomes of two groups were compared. The age, gravidity and rate of recurrent cavity surgery of pernicious group [(32.5 ± 4.1) y, 3.4 ± 1.2, 28.7%] were higher than those of non-pernicious group [(30.7 ± 4.5) y, 2.1 ± 1.4,13.6%] (Pplacenta accrete was significantly associated with postpartum massive hemorrhage in pernicious group (Pplacenta previa.

  13. A Case of Placenta Increta Mimicking Submucous Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ekiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33–50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case.

  14. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  15. Type and location of placenta previa affect preterm delivery risk related to antepartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Kawabata, Ikuno; Hayashi, Masako; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta previa, particularly when the placenta is located on the anterior

  16. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant ...

  17. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyman, A [Physical Dosimetry Department, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Gabriel, C [MCL-P, Newbury RG14 5PY, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Benedickter, H R; Froehlich, J, E-mail: Azadeh.peyman@hpa.org.uk [Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-07

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  18. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON VASCULAR PATTERN OF CHORIONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  20. Clinical Analysis of Placenta Previa Complicated with Previous Caesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-kun Ma; Na Han; Jian-qiu Yang; Xu-ming Bian; Jun-tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment of placenta previa complicated with previous caesarean section.Methods The clinical data of 29 patients with placenta previa complicated with a previous caesarean section (RCS group) admitted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during a period from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 243 patients with placenta previa without a previous caesarean section (FCS group) during the same period.Results There was no difference in the mean age (28.9±3.6 vs.28.1±4.5 years) and the average gravidity (2.35 ± 1.48 vs.2.21 ± 1.53) between RCS group and FCS group (all P>0.05).The RCS group had more preterm births (24.1% vs.13.2%),complete placenta previa (55.2% vs.4.9%),placenta accreta (34.5% vs.2.5%),more blood loss during caesarean section (1412±602 vs.648 ±265 mL),blood transfusion (51.7% vs.4.9%),disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.8% vs.2.1%),and obstetric hysterectomy ( 13.8 % vs.0.8 %) than the F C S group (all P< 0.05).The preterm infant rate ( 30.0% vs.13.0%),neonatal asphyxia rate (10.0% vs.4.9%),and perinatal mortality rate (6.7% vs.0.4%) of the RCS group were higher than those of the FCS group (all P<0.05).Conclusions More patients had complete placenta previa and placenta accreta,postpartum hemorrhage,transfusion,uterine packing,obstetric hysterectomy,and perinatal morbidity in the placenta previa patients with previous caesarean section.The patient should be informed of the risk and unnecessary first cesarean sections should be avoided.

  1. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M S; Aleksunes, L M; Boeuf, P; Chung, M K; Daoud, G; Desoye, G; Díaz, P; Golos, T G; Illsley, N P; Kikuchi, K; Komatsu, R; Lao, T; Morales-Prieto, D M; Nanovskaya, T; Nobuzane, T; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R; Tamura, I; Tamura, K; Than, N G; Tomi, M; Umbers, A; Wang, B; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, K; Yoshie, M; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta.

  2. Rabia humana en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Restrepo de Meza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de encefalitis rábica sin sospecha clínica en una mujer de 20 años de edad. El diagnóstico se comprobó con la técnica de inmunofluorescencia directa para antígeno rábico en tejido cerebral fijado en formalina. El carácter esporádico de la rabia humana en la actualidad en el Valle del Cauca exige mantener la vigilancia epidemiológica y considerar esta posibilidad en todo caso de encefalitis de causa no aclarada.

  3. Antropologia Forense e Identificação Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Trigo da Silva de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A identificação de vítimas mortais é uma necessidade das sociedades, por razões jurídicas, sociais e humanitárias. A Antropologia Forense é uma das subdisciplinas da Antropologia Física que se dedica à identificação humana, nomeadamente em investigações arqueológicas, criminais e de desastres de massa. A Antropologia Forense...

  4. La importancia de la escala humana para la ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Del Prado, Luis

    1988-01-01

    Generalmente cuando en arquitectura y urbanismo hablamos de escala humana nos estamos refiriendo a la utilización del hombre como patrón de medida para el establecimiento de las proporcionalidades geométricas, armónicas, justas y placenteras. "La revolución humanística había desplazado de nuevo la tención desde Dios al Hombre…El hombre encontraba de nuevo la medida de las cosas…por lo que la búsqueda de los módulos y de las proporciones, deducidas contemporáneamente de la de los intervalos...

  5. Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana em Odontopediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Hugo Miguel Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida é uma lesão infeciosa letal causada pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, que afeta principalmente linfócitos T CD4+, levando a uma imunossupressão progressiva e consequentes infeções oportunistas graves. Os doentes com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida não morrem portanto da...

  6. Formas predominantes de hormona de crecimiento humana (hgh en sueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Pinzón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se compararon las formas predominantes de la Hormona de Crecimiento Humana (hGH, proveniente de sueros de pacientes con hipersecreción hormonal, para determinar los cambios que presenta en ellas y que puedan servir de diagnóstico para la detección de patologías, tales como acromegalia, como también alteraciones en el metabolismo degradativo de la proteína o en la unión a sus receptores específicos.

  7. Bases anatómicas de la marcha humana

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Nogueras, Ana María

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Es importante para el fisioterapeuta conocer el patrón de marcha normal a fin de disponer del modelo a seguir durante la recuperación funcional. OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de marcha normal. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión bibliográfica de los principales textos y artículos. RESULTADOS: Se presenta de forma clara y precisa la descripción de las principales fases de la marcha humana incluyendo los aspectos más relevantes para la fisioterapia en la recuperación funcional de los s...

  8. BIOACCESIBILIDAD ORAL HUMANA DE METALES PESADOS EN SUELOS URBANOS CONTAMINADOS

    OpenAIRE

    QUILODRAN ROJAS, CRISTIAN ALEX

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la bioaccesibilidad oral humana de cadmio, cinc, cobre y plomo en un suelo urbano contaminado y cómo influyen los cambios físicos y químicos producidos al incorporar al suelo materia orgánica y metales. Para este fin se utilizó un suelo de la serie Mapocho, del orden Inceptisol, recolectado en el sector de La Farfana en la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. El suelo se trató con ácidos húmicos y metal para obtener suelos con diferentes niveles de materia orgánica y de ...

  9. Seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rendón González, J.; Moreno Montañez, T.; Becerra Martell, C.; Martínez Cruz, Setefilla

    1992-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio sobre seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y hemaglutinación indirecta. La muestra encuestada se compone de 443 sueros, 356 personas supuestamente sanas (estudiantes fundamentalmente) y 87, consideradas de “alto riesgo” (enfermos del Hospital “Reina Sofía”). La positividad obtenida para el total de la muestra ha sido del 43,79 % con IFI y 53,50 % para HAI. Con respecto al sexo, la prevale...

  10. CIENCIAS HUMANAS Y EMERGENCIA DE LA EDAD DIGITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Estamos pasando de la era del fuego a la era digital, o sea, de la era de la energía, que incluye el fuego, el viento, el agua, la electricidad y la energía nuclear, a la era de la información. Pasamos así del binomio energía-materia a un nuevo paradigma epistemológico e instrumental, el de una codificación binaria y de una programación algorítmica con las cuales pretendemos reinterpretar el universo e instrumentarlo con una nueva potencia humana superior a la de las leyes habituales de la na...

  11. Estudos sobre a estabilidade do desenho da figura humana (DHF)

    OpenAIRE

    Taborda, Alejandra; UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE SAN LUIS; Barbenza, Claribel M. de; UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE SAN LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Com o intuito de pesquisar a estabilidade do desenho da figura humana (DHF) e a pertinência das modificações feitas pela autora deste trabalho, comparam-se as normas de revalidação para crianças de 5 e 6 anos elaboradas por Koppitz (1968), e as desenvolvidas em Ottawa por Groves e Fried (1991) com as elaboradas por Taborda-Barbenza em San Luis, Mendoza e San Juan (Argentina, 1993). Este estudo comparativo realizou-se também em 127 crianças de 4 anos de San Luis e Villa Mercedes, considerando ...

  12. "Blade Runner" o la pregunta por la dignidad humana

    OpenAIRE

    García Manrique, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Al pensar en la relación entre el fundamento de la dignidad humana y la resolución de algunos problemas bioéticos, me vino a la cabeza Blade Runner, la película de Ridley Scott basada en un relato de Philip K. Dick que lleva el extravagante título de ¿Sueñan los androides con ovejas eléctricas? (extravagante si vemos la película pero no tanto si leemos el relato)...

  13. La importancia de la escala humana para la ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Del Prado, Luis

    1988-01-01

    Generalmente cuando en arquitectura y urbanismo hablamos de escala humana nos estamos refiriendo a la utilización del hombre como patrón de medida para el establecimiento de las proporcionalidades geométricas, armónicas, justas y placenteras. "La revolución humanística había desplazado de nuevo la tención desde Dios al Hombre…El hombre encontraba de nuevo la medida de las cosas…por lo que la búsqueda de los módulos y de las proporciones, deducidas contemporáneamente de la de los intervalos...

  14. Rnas inhibidores frente al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Luque, Francisco Jos??

    2012-01-01

    En la presente tesis se describe la generaci??n de peque??as mol??culas de RNA con funci??n inhibidora frente al Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana de Tipo 1 (VIH-1). Este virus es el agente causal del S??ndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida y perteneciente al g??nero Lentivirus de la familia Retroviridae. El virus presenta una alternancia en cuanto al tipo de material gen??tico en su ciclo de vida, siendo RNA en las part??culas virales y DNA en el provirus (durante la fase de latencia o e...

  15. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björkman, S.; Oliviero, C.; Rajala-Schultz, P.J.; Soede, N.M.; Peltoniemi, O.A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis was that a prolonged parturition impairs placenta expulsion and can lead to retained placentas in sows. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of oxytocin around the time of expulsion of the first placental part improves placenta expulsion. We recorded 142 parturitions of 10

  16. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495 p

  17. Frequency of placenta previa in women with history of previous caesarean and normal vaginal deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Adeela; Jadoon, Humaira Naz; Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2012-01-01

    Placenta previa is known to be associated with previous caesarean deliveries, advanced maternal age, increasing parity, smoking, curettage and myomectomy. This study was carried out to compare the frequency of placenta previa, in women with previous caesareans versus those with normal vaginal deliveries. It was one year study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit B, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. One hundred women were included in the study, 50 in Group A with previous caesarean deliveries, and 50 in Group B with previous normal vaginal deliveries. Frequency of placenta previa in both groups was analysed. Placenta previa was found in one (2%) woman in Group A, and in two women (4%) in Group B. It was not found in para 4 or less in both groups. One woman in Group A and two women in Group B with parity 4 or more had placenta previa (p placenta previa, while with previous 2 scars one had placenta previa (p placenta previa in Group A and both women with placenta previa in Group B were more than 25 years old. Placenta previa was not found in women below 25 years of age. Previous one caesarean section did not increase the frequency of placenta previa. Increasing number of scars, increasing maternal age beyond 25 years and increasing parity beyond 4 were associated with placenta previa.

  18. The evolving placenta: Convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting...

  19. [Application of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S H; Zhi, Y X; Zhang, K; Zhang, L D; Shen, L N; Gao, Y N

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the value of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2016, 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta were treated with temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta(the study group)before cesarean, and 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta did not receive balloon occlusion(the control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume, the perioperative hemoglobin level, the hysterectomy rate and the related complications were compared retrospectively.Also, the hospitalization time, the blood coagulation parameters after operation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer and reperfusion injury parameters including creatine phosphokinase(CK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and serum creatinine were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The blood loss[750 ml(400- 2 000 ml)vs 2 000 ml(1 500- 2 375 ml); Z=-3.214, P=0.001]and blood transfusion volume[200 ml(0-800 ml)vs 800 ml(0-1 200 ml); Z=- 2.173, P=0.030]in the study group were lower than in the control group. The hemoglobin difference between before and after operation in the study group was lower than the control group[(12.8±13.4)g/L vs(22.9±20.1)g/L; t=-2.041, P=0.047]. In the study group, there were still bleeding in 13 cases after releasing the balloon, 5 of them received uterine artery embolization, 5 cases received uterine artery ligation, and 3 cases received uterine packing. One case had venous thrombosis in the right lower limb. Two cases(8%,2/24)in the control group had hysterectomy, while none in the study group, there was no statistical significance(P= 0.489). Conclusions: Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively reduce blood loss and blood transfusion in the treatment of

  20. Exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rivas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han asociado las patologías observadas en distintas especies animales y en el hombre con la exposición a contaminantes medio ambientales con actividad hormonal. Se ha acuñado el término de disruptores endocrinos (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals / EDCs para definir el conjunto de compuestos químicos que interaccionan con el sistema endocrino, sobre el que inducen efectos potencialmente debidos a su capacidad para:1 mimetizar la acción de las hormonas endógenas; 2 antagonizar la acción de las hormonas; 3 alterar su patrón de síntesis y metabolismo; o bien 4 modular los niveles de los receptores correspondientes.La exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos es universal y puede provenir de numerosas fuentes. Además, los compuestos acumulados en la grasa son transmitidos a la descendencia a través de la madre durante la gestación y después de la lactancia.Los efectos sobre la salud humana de la exposicición continua a los disruptores endocrinos necesitan ser investigados en más profundidad.

  1. Estudo retrospectivo da peste humana no Nordeste oriental do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1970-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando dados do Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, o autor faz um estudo retrospectivo da peste humana no Nordeste Oriental do Brasil no período de 1935-1967. Os aspectos epidemiológicos abordados foram os seguintes: morbidade, mortalidade, letalidade, "point" epidêmicos, tendência secular e variações mensais. Os coeficientes de morbidade e mortalidade variaram muito. A letalidade apresentou-se bastante alta. Dez anos de "point" epidêmicos foram registrados no periodo estudado. A análise estatística dos casos distribuídos por mês mostrou que a peste humana atinge o pcnto máximo na estação sêca. Ficou demonstrada urna variação cíclica da doença, em que aumentos e decréscimos ocorrem em períodos que variam de 6 a 12 anos.

  2. Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Leptospirosis Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez Alonso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un trabajo de revisión del tema de la leptospirosis humana por constituir un problema de salud en nuestro país y en gran parte del mundo. Tenemos en consideración el análisis de los pilares sustanciales para el diagnóstico de cualquier entidad: epidemiología, cuadro clínico y laboratorio; además la importancia del diagnóstico anatomopatológico en los fallecidos por leptospirosis humana, brindándose los aspectos patognómicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Así mismo se exponen los esquemas actuales del tratamiento de elección para CubaA review is made on the topic of human leptospirosis, since it is a health problem in our country and in many other parts of the world. We take into consideration the analysis of the essential milestones for the diagnosis of any entity: epidemiology, clinical picture and laboratory. The importance of the anatomopathological diagnosis in the dead due to human leptospirosis is also taken into account. The pathognomonic aspects in relation to this disease are given here. Likewise, the current schemes of the elective treatment for Cuba are dealt with

  3. [Risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa: a retrospective study of 3 840 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, B; Chen, M; Liu, X X

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa through retrospective study of 3 840 placenta previa cases. The clinical data of 3 840 patients with placenta previa who delivered in West China Second University Hospital between Jan 2005 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship of certain factors and peripartum hysterectomy was analyzed, including maternal age, residence place, parity, prior curettage, prior cesarean section, twin or multiple pregnancy, antenatal vaginal bleeding, type of placenta previa, suspected placenta accreta, antenatal level of hemoglobin and gestational age at delivery. The prevalence of placenta previa was 4.84%(3 840/79 304)in West China Second University Hospital during the study period, and the incidence of preipartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa was 2.76%(106/3 840). One-factor analysis demonstrated that residence place, parity, times of prior curettage, prior cesarean section, prenatal vaginal bleeding, anterior placenta, type of placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and gestational age at delivery were potential risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy(Pplacenta(OR=4.8, 95%CI:2.1-10.7), complete placenta previa(OR=5.9, 95%CI: 1.8-42.5), placenta accreta(OR=11.2, 95%CI:6.8-18.6), antenatal hemoglobinplacenta previa(Pplacenta, complete placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and delivery before 34 gestational weeks are high risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa patients. Perinatal care and risk evaluation before cesarean section are important to improve perinatal outcomes and reduce peripartum hysterectomy.

  4. Invasive placenta previa: Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Guangbin; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-08-02

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. • Placental bulge type-II demonstrated the strongest independent association with PP. • Uterine serosal hypervascularity is a useful feature for differentiating PP from PA. • MRI features associated with abnormal vessels increase the risk of massive haemorrhage.

  5. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  6. Placenta previa: outcomes in scarred and unscarred uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Dayanand Katke

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, primary prevention in the form of reduction in the rate of primi cesearean section must be done in order to prevent likelihood of placenta previa in scarred uteri. Early diagnosis by Ultrasound and planned delivery should be the goal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2728-2732

  7. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-07

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  8. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line;

    2007-01-01

    , and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...

  9. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  10. Oxygen diffusive conductance in placentae from control and diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1993-01-01

    Random tissue sections of placentae from control and diabetic deliveries were analysed stereologically. The aim was to test whether or not adaptations in oxygen diffusive conductances occur to help compensate for fetal hypoxic stress in utero. Organs were from 34 control and 55 diabetic deliveries...

  11. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Robert, E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); Gläser, Marcus [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jena University Hospital (Germany); Hofmann, Andreas [HTS Systeme GmbH, Wallenfels (Germany); Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10{sup −8} Am{sup 2}) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100–150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  12. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  13. Kinetics of gold nanoparticles in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllynen, Päivi K; Loughran, Michael J; Howard, C Vyvyan; Sormunen, Raija; Walsh, Adrian A; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2008-10-01

    We studied the transfer of PEGylated gold nanoparticles through perfused human placenta. In 'once-through' perfusions using 15 and 30nm nanoparticles both maternal and fetal outflows were collected. Recirculating perfusions using 10 or 15nm nanoparticles lasted 6h. The gold concentration in samples was analysed on ICP-MS. The reference compound antipyrine crossed the placenta rapidly, as expected. In open perfusions nanoparticles were detected in maternal but not in fetal outflow, suggesting the lack of placental transfer. During 6h re-circulating perfusions, no particles were detected in fetal circulation. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and silver enhancement, nanoparticles could be visualized in the placental tissue mainly in the trophoblastic cell layer. In in vitro experiments, nanoparticles were taken up by BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and retained inside the cells for an extended period of 48h. In conclusion, PEGylated gold nanoparticles of the size 10-30nm did not cross the perfused human placenta in detectable amounts into the fetal circulation within 6h. Whether PEGylated gold nanoparticles eventually are able to cross placenta and whether nanoparticles affect placental functions needs to be further studied.

  14. Epidemiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Garmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta is a severe pregnancy complication and is currently the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. It is becoming an increasingly common complication mainly due to the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Main risk factor for placenta accreta is a previous cesarean delivery particularly when accompanied with a coexisting placenta previa. Antenatal diagnosis seems to be a key factor in optimizing maternal outcome. Diagnosis can be achieved by ultrasound in the majority of cases. Women with placenta accreta are usually delivered by a cesarean section. In order to avoid an emergency cesarean and to minimize complications of prematurity it is acceptable to schedule cesarean at 34 to 35 weeks. A multidisciplinary team approach and delivery at a center with adequate resources, including those for massive transfusion are both essential to reduce neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management after delivery of the neonate is vague since randomized controlled trials and large cohort studies are lacking. Cesarean hysterectomy is probably the preferable treatment. In carefully selected cases, when fertility is desired, conservative management may be considered with caution. The current review discusses the epidemiology, predisposing factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and management options of this condition.

  15. The metallome of the human placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverso, Marco; Berté, Chiara; Di Marco, Valerio; Lapolla, Annunziata; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Visentin, Silvia; Cosmi, Erich

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining the knowledge of the "omics" and therefore of the metallomics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be a necessary task to obtain information about the molecular causes of this disease. In this study, the metallome of GDM and of other types of diabetes mellitus was first reviewed. The comparative analysis of the published data revealed that no GDM elemental markers could be identified with sufficient reliability in blood or in the other considered samples, with the partial exception of selenium. The placenta was chosen as an alternative target organ for the analysis of the GDM metallome. The full elemental average composition of 19 healthy placentas was obtained by ICP-MS. Analyses were then performed on 28 placentas from women affected by GDM. The statistical tests and the principal component analysis evidenced that cadmium was found in lower concentrations and selenium was found in higher concentrations in GDM placentas than in those of the control group. These results were interpreted in light of literature data, and they attract attention on two key elements for understanding the molecular pathways of GDM.

  16. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Robert; Gläser, Marcus; Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  17. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    of medicines under the Indian system. The percentage of pearl formation in the natural population of P. placenta is higher in Goa (about 35%) compared to other regions in India. There is considerable scope of this important resource particularly for extracting...

  18. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  19. Placenta retention in the cow: Report of three cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-06-17

    Jun 17, 2016 ... August, 2016. 73. ROP has a significant adverse impact on health, .... as well as many other metabolic or reproductive conditions ... in vitro study when placenta samples from human, equine and ... agents (Arthur & Bee, 1996). This however ... implication of eating such meat since that uterus was highly ...

  20. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D;

    2013-01-01

    Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx...

  1. The evolution of the mammal placenta — a computational approach to the identification and analysis of placenta-specific genes and microRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a placenta is an important synapomorphy that defines the mammal clade. From the fossil record we know that the first placental mammal lived approximately 125 million years ago, with the chorioallantoic placenta evolving not long after. In this thesis a set of 22 complete genomes from Eutherian, non-Eutherian and outgroup species are compared, the aim being to identify protein-coding and regulatory alterations that are likely to be implicated in the emergence of mammal placenta...

  2. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; Lotgering, F K; Bulten, J; van Kempen, L C

    2010-12-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in immune response in the basal decidua between PA and control placentas (CP). We performed a descriptive analysis of immunohistochemical differences in 17 PA and 10 CP. Our results show that in PA the amount of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells is significantly reduced (0.2 uNK cell/standardised area) as compared to CP (9.8 uNK cell/standardised area, p placenta.

  3. Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Krzysztof Wirstlein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry staining
    of inhibitors of the complement cascade, DAF and MCP proteins, in the placentas of thrombophilic women.
    Placentas were collected from eight women with inherited thrombophilia and ten with acquired thrombophilia.
    The levels of DAF and MCP transcripts were evaluated by qPCR, the protein level was evaluated by Western
    blot. We observed a higher transcript (p < 0.05 and protein (p < 0.001 levels of DAF and MCP in the placentas
    of thrombophilic women than in the control group. DAF and MCP were localized on villous syncytiotrophoblast
    membranes, but the assessment of staining in all groups did not differ. The observed higher expression level of
    proteins that control activation of complement control proteins is only seemingly contradictory to the changes
    observed for example in the antiphospholipid syndrome. However, given the hitherto known biochemical changes
    associated with thrombophilia, a mechanism in which increased expression of DAF and MCP in the placentas is
    an effect of proinflammatory cytokines, which accompanies thrombophilia, is probable.Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry

  4. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  5. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.

  6. Estrategia Internacional para la seguridad humana en los desastres naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Torroja Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los rasgos principales de la estrategia internacional universal de seguridad humana en casos de desastres naturales liderada por la ONU. La estrategia se basa en dos grandes funciones: la prevención y preparación ante desastres naturales y la movilización y coordinación de la asistencia humanitaria a las víctimas, incluida la de los propios órganos operacionales de la ONU. Del desarrollo de ambas funciones se encargan diversos órganos operacionales (UNISDIR, PNUD, OCHA.... Con respecto a ambas finalidades se han adoptado directrices políticas y normativas por la Asamblea General. Destaca en este sentido el interés actual de la CDI, quien trabaja en un proyecto de artículos sobre la protección de personas en casos de desastres.

  7. O problema da natureza humana em Jacques Maritain

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    Névio de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir o problema da natureza humana em Jacques Maritain, destacando sua crítica ao humanismo antropocêntrico e a concepção do humanismo integral. Apoia-se na obra Humanismo Integral e nos debates da História Intelectual para problematizar a origem de seus escritos (contexto de produção e a acepção de humanismo teocêntrico (História da Filosofia proposta por esse filósofo tomista. Esta discussão permite-nos afirmar que o humanismo antropocêntrico é acusado por Maritain de conformar, nos tempos modernos, a própria tragédia do homem, da cultura e de Deus, assim como sustentar que o humanismo integral foi postulado como filosofia reintegradora da unidade ocidental, cindida pela filosofia naturalista (Renascimento/Reforma/Iluminismo/Comunismo.

  8. Prácticas de histología humana

    OpenAIRE

    Hilario Rodríguez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La Histología en su quehacer diario es una disciplina eminentemente práctica. La docencia de la Histología Humana se desarrolla básicamente a través de clases magistrales, seminarios y clases prácticas. Para la realización de estas últimas el alumno dispone de un microscopio óptico y diferentes preparaciones histológicas, así como de fotografías de microscopía electrónica. El programa práctico de la asignatura se desglosa a lo largo de veinticinco temas, que comienzan con la Histología Gen...

  9. Presencia de residuos y contaminantes en leche humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Flores Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  10. Notas sobre o autotelismo discursivo em ciências humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Lopes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O Ateliê de Semiótica Discursiva, coordenado por Denis Bertrand, propôs focalizar, no ano letivo 1991-1992, a " Estética do Discurso Erudito", no quadro da temática "Estética da Ética" do Seminário de Semântica Geral, de A.J . Greimas, na Escola de Altos Estudos em Ciências Sociais de Paris (E. H. E. S. S.. Bertrand distribuiu cópias de trechos de textos célebres em ciências humanas (Lévi-Strauss, Deleuze e Guattari, Greimas, Barthes, Foucault e outros, sobre os quais os participantes deveriam realizar análises que tomassem como modelo, por exemplo, aquelas praticadas por Greimas e Landowski em lntroduction à L 'Analyse du Discours en Sciences Sociales ( 1979.

  11. PRESENCIA DE RESIDUOS Y CONTAMINANTES EN LECHE HUMANA

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    Guadalupe Prado Flores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  12. Toxocariosis humana en pacientes con lesión ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrma Espinoza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de toxocariosis humana en sujetos con sintomatología ocular sospechosa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudió personas atendidas en servicios de Oftalmología de varios hospitales de Lima, quienes luego de la evaluación especializada presentaban síntomas y lesiones compatibles con toxocariosis intraocular. Se obtuvo muestras de sangre de cada participante y se realizó serología para Toxocara mediante la técnica de ELISA, así mismo recuento de leucocitos y fórmula diferencial. También se aplicó una encuesta epidemiológica para identificar conductas que pudieran asociarse a mayor riesgo de infección. RESULTADOS: Se estudió 45 personas, 19 varones y 26 mujeres; el 55,6% fue reactivo en la prueba de ELISA. No hubo diferencias en cuanto a sexo y el resultado de serología; entre los participantes de 15 y 44 años, se encontró 63% de reactivos. No se evidenció diferencias significativas con los factores epidemiológicos estudiados. Tampoco se observó asociación entre el hallazgo de eosinofilia y el resultado de la serología. CONCLUSIÓN: La infección humana por Toxocara es frecuente en sujetos clínicamente sospechosos y afecta principalmente a población en edad productiva, por lo que debería buscarse precozmente la infección para prevenir complicaciones.

  13. Educación centrada en valores y dignidad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa YUREN CAMAREN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La imagen esperanzadora que perfilaron no pocos intelectuales, políticos, banqueros y empresarios a partir del término de la guerra fría, del supuesto «fin de las ideologías» y de la idea de la «aldea global» se desvaneció bajo los trazos que la realidad fue delineando como signos de una creciente tendencia a la barbarie que pone en peligro la vida en el plantea y que lesiona, de muchas maneras y en muchos rincones de la tierra, la dignidad humana3. Ante este panorama, se ha vuelto insistente la pregunta respecto de si los procesos educativos escolares pueden contribuir en algo para oponerse a esa tendencia. La respuesta positiva a esta interrogante se ha traducido en diversos esfuerzos para desarrollar lo que se ha llamado «educación valoral», o «educación centrada en valores, esfuerzos que si bien difieren en el signo teórico e ideológico y en el tipo de estrategia aplicada, han estimulado la interlocución, la reflexión y el estudio sobre el tema. El presente trabajo tiene la intención de contribuir a ese debate teórico al aportar algunos elementos que sustentan la tesis de que una educación escolar centrada en valores ha de ser un proceso eminentemente formativo que tenga como horizonte axiológico la dignidad humana.

  14. Expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen in human abort placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D U; Jeschke, U; Bergemann, C; Makovitzky, J; Lüthen, F; Karsten, U; Briese, V

    2005-01-01

    The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF), or more precisely epitope, has been known as a pancarcinoma antigen. It consists of galactose-beta1-3-N-acetylgalactose. We have already described the expression of TF in the normal placenta. TF is expressed by the syncytium and by extravillous trophoblast cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TF in the abort placenta. Frozen samples of human abort placentas (12 placentas), obtained from the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and, for comparison, samples of normal placentas (17 placentas) from the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, were used. Expression of TF was investigated by immunohistochemical methods. For identification of TF-positive cells in abort placentas, immunofluorescence methods were used. Evaluation of simple and double immunofluorescence was performed on a laser scanning microscope. Furthermore, we isolated trophoblast cells from first and third trimester placentas and evaluated cytokeratin 7 and Muc1 expression by immunofluorescence methods. We observed expression of TF antigen in the syncytiotrophoblasts layer of the placenta in all three trimesters of pregnancy in normal and abort placentas evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. There was no expression of TF antigen in the decidua of abort placentas. Immunofluorescence double staining of TF antigen and cytokeratin 7 showed reduced expression of both antigens in the abort decidua and co-expression of both antigens in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of normal and abort placentas. TF expression in the syncytiotrophoblast was reduced in abort placentas. In the isolated trophoblast cells, no TF expression was found, however, Muc1 expression was visualized. Expression of TF antigen was reduced in the first and second trimester abort decidua compared to the normal decidua during the same time of pregnancy. TF antigen was restricted to the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells in the decidua. Abort placentas

  15. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-02-24

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using ultrasound (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  16. The evolving placenta: convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-05-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting of maternal endothelium, interstitial lamina, trophoblast, individual or conjoint basal laminas, and fetal endothelium. We commonly think of such placentas as having hypertrophied maternal endothelium with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and as having hemophagous regions. Considering them as a whole, the trophoblast may be syncytial or cellular, fenestrated or nonfenestrated, and there may or may not be hemophagous regions. Variations also appear in the extent of hypertrophy of the maternal endothelium and in the abundance of rER in these cells. This combination of traits and a few other features produces many morphological variants. In addition to endotheliochorial as a definitive condition, a transitory endotheliochorial condition may appear in the course of forming a hemochorial placenta. In some emballonurid bats the early endotheliochorial placenta has two layers of trophoblast, but the definitive placenta lacks an outer syncytial trophoblast layer. In mollosid bats a well developed endotheliochorial placenta is present for a short time even after a definitive hemochorial placenta has developed in a different region. It is concluded that the endotheliochorial placenta is more widespread and diversified than originally thought, with the variant with cellular trophoblast in particular appearing in several species studied recently.

  17. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin......-Sepharose affinity chromatography, the EL protein eluted as a single peak without detectable phospholipid or triglyceride (TG) lipase activity. The major portion of LPL protein eluted slightly after EL. This peak also had no lipase activity and most likely contained monomeric LPL. Fractions eluting at a higher Na......Cl concentration contained small amounts of LPL protein (most likely dimeric LPL) and had substantial TG lipase activity. In situ hybridization studies showed EL mRNA expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and endothelial cells and LPL mRNA in syncytiotrophoblasts. In contrast, immunohistochemistry showed EL and LPL...

  18. Sonographic features of placenta accreta after first-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zheng, Qichao; Xiong, Bin; Cai, Hongbing

    2013-08-01

    We assessed 5 patients with histologically/clinically confirmed placenta accreta after first-trimester abortion. In 4 patients, sonography showed an unclear endometrium, absence of an endometrium-myometrium interface, a well-vascularized hyperechoic lesion in the uterine body with a low resistive index, and myometrial thinning near the lesion. In 2 patients, contrast-enhanced sonography showed rapid irregular lesion enhancement. Chemotherapy reduced the lesions in 3 patients, and a decreased blood supply increased the resistive index in all lesions. Two patients each underwent hysterectomy and uterine curettage. The fifth patient had a cervical pregnancy; sonography showed a well-vascularized hyperechoic lesion in an enlarged cervix. Methotrexate gradually reduced this lesion. Sonography, especially contrast-enhanced sonography, can detect placenta accreta and guide treatment.

  19. Infectious lesions of placenta as cause of miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kolobov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature demonstratesimportant role played of infections in causes of miscarriage. The paper is based upon retrospective analysis of 12371 screening results of histological and selective immunohistochemical studies of placentas in 2009-12. Preterm births were in 706 cases (5.71%. Infection of the placenta was noted in early preterm labor in all cases (100%, and in premature labor at 28-36 weeks of gestation – in 97.35% of natural delivery cases and in 92.09% when cesarean delivery. Are described the typical structural changes that allow to suspect infections caused by Treponema pallidum, herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus with following verification by immunohistochemical study. 

  20. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: A 3-year Nordic collaboration...... National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...

  1. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  2. Expression of RhoA in Placenta of Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to detect the expression of RhoA in placenta from normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and evaluate the role of RhoA in preeclampsia, the expression of RhoA in placenta collected from 40 preeclampsia patientsand 20 normotensive controls was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. RhoA was found in syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. The mean density of RhoA protein in placental tissues of mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. The expression level of RhoA mRNA in mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy. Increased expression of RhoA in placental tissues might play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  3. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  4. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  5. MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY PLACENTA PREVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated with placenta previa at tertiary care centre and to evaluate the potential risk factors involved in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa at tertiary care C ent re. METHOD: We carried out 2 year retrospective observational study during period from November 2009 to October 2011 Tertiary care hospital and medical college. ANC cases with history of bleeding per vaginum after 28 weeks attending ANC clinic and emergenc y ward were included in study with appropriate age parity matched controls with other complications like pregnancy induced hypertension, abruption placentae, multiple gestation were excluded. Demographic data, medical and surgical histories, all the events regarding maternal and perinatal mortality were recorded. Data was analysed by using appropriate software . RESULTS: 136 cases of placenta previa were analysed and found prevalence of placenta previa was 1.36%. During the present study 41.80% cases were bo oked and 58.20% cases were unbooked. Maximum number of cases in present study were in the age group of 18 - 24 years. Previous caesarean (57.49% and previous abortion (42.53% found important risk factors.41.04% cases were delivered at 33 - 36 weeks of gestat ion followed by 33.58% in 28 - 32 weeks of gestation. Expectant management was given to 37.32% of cases while 62.68% cases were managed on active basis. In present study maternal morbidity were postpartum hemorrhage (56.71%, sepsis (37.31%, urinary tract i nfection (5.22%, wound infection (5.22%,wound gape (4.47%, hysterectomy (2.23%, prolonged hospital stay >10 days (17.91%. There were two (1.49% maternal mortality in present study. Maximum number of infants i.e . 58.20% had bir th eight between 1.6 to 2.4kg. O ut of this 16.41% were of 1.6 - 2kg and 41.79% comprised of 2.1 - 2.4 kg. 39.55% infant required NICU admission and 60.45% of cases were with mother. Perinatal

  6. Sir William Turner and his studies on the mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Reginald

    2003-06-01

    William Turner was appointed Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in 1867, and from 1903 until his death in 1916, he was Principal and Vice-Chancellor. He was an outstanding teacher and many of those he taught went on to occupy chairs of anatomy. He published widely on anatomical subjects and one of his interests was comparative anatomy and physiology of the placenta. This paper takes a brief look at Turner's studies on the anatomical structure of the placenta, its comparative anatomy, his thoughts about its physiology and its place in the evolutionary process. At the time, these lectures constituted an anatomical and physiological classic. At the time Turner prepared his lectures, which were delivered in 1875 and 1876, little was known about the gestatory process in marsupials or monotremes. These mammals have a very brief period of intrauterine gestation and placentation and mention is made of studies that have been done in recent times on this subject.

  7. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  8. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. I...

  9. Differentially expressed miRNAs in trisomy 21 placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Iveta; Korabečná, Marie; Calda, Pavel; Břešťák, Miroslav; Pazourková, Eva; Pospíšilová, Šárka; Krkavcová, Miroslava; Novotná, Michaela; Hořínek, Aleš

    2016-08-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS) is still incompletely understood. Epigenetic mechanisms, including miRNAs gene expression regulation, belong to potential influencing factors. The aims of this study were to compare miRNAs expressions in placentas with normal and trisomic karyotype and to associate differentially expressed miRNAs with concrete biological pathways. A total of 80 CVS samples - 41 with trisomy 21 and 39 with normal karyotype - were included in our study. Results obtained in the pilot study using real-time PCR technology and TaqMan Human miRNA Array Cards were subsequently validated on different samples using individual TaqMan miRNA Assays. Seven miRNAs were verified as upregulated in DS placentas (miR-99a, miR-542-5p, miR-10b, miR-125b, miR-615, let-7c and miR-654); three of these miRNAs are located on chromosome 21 (miR-99a, miR-125b and let-7c). Many essential biological processes, transcriptional regulation or apoptosis, were identified as being potentially influenced by altered miRNA levels. Moreover, miRNAs overexpressed in DS placenta apparently regulate genes involved in placenta development (GJA1, CDH11, EGF, ERVW-1, ERVFRD-1, LEP or INHA). These findings suggest the possible participation of miRNAs in Down syndrome impaired placentation and connected pregnancy pathologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Pan; Yu-Ping Wang; Zheng Zheng; Yan Tian; Ying-Ying Hu; Su-Hui Han

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently.The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014.Maternal characteristics,preoperative evaluation,operative reports,and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail.Results:There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries.Comparing the study periods between 2004-2010 and 2011-2014,OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948).Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05),and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05).Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta.A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta.Conclusion:As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen,there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta.An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography,and MRI,and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  11. Re-aproximaciones y posibles aplicaciones del concepto de seguridad humana

    OpenAIRE

    Waldimeiry Corrêa da Silva; Roberta Silva Machado

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo describe y analiza el concepto de seguridad humana en el ámbito de Naciones Unidas y de las Relaciones Internacionales y su relación con la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger (R2P). Pretendemos responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿La utilización de la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger amplía el concepto de la seguridad humana o lo reduce a su dimensión vertical? ¿El concepto de seguridad humana contribuye a la comprensión y enfrenta...

  12. La "Dignitatis humanae" e la nuova laicità oltre la rivoluzione e la controrivoluzione

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, V.V. (V.Vittorio)

    2012-01-01

    La declaración sobre la libertad religiosa, Dignitatis humanae, representa un paso importante tanto en la presentación de la libertad humana dentro de la Iglesia como en el campo político. Al consagrar la conciencia y la libertad religiosa como un bien supremo, Dignitatis humanae completa la reflexión de Gaudium et spes sobre la Iglesia en el mundo moderno. Se establece el cristianismo como una religión del Logos, del diálogo y de la búsqueda. En la actual era de la gl...

  13. Mujeres y dignidad humana. Antecedentes en el Sistema Interamericano y en el Derecho constitucional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bohórquez Monsalve

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto analiza la aplicación del derecho a la dignidad humana en casos relacionados con los derechos humanos de las mujeres. Primero se indaga por los principales instrumentos interamericanos que protegen la dignidad humana. Posteriormente se estudian los alcances y las limitaciones de los informes de la Comisión Interamericana y la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana. En tercer lugar se presenta la postura de la Corte Constitucional de Colombia en casos de mujeres relacionados con los postulados internacionales. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones acerca del alcance y efectividad del derecho a la dignidad humana de las mujeres.

  14. Manifiesto por una reconfiguración de las ciencias humanas/sociales. una perspectiva vygotskyana

    OpenAIRE

    Bronckart, Jean Paul; Clémence, Alain; Schneuwly, Bernard; Schurmans, Marie Noëlle

    2010-01-01

    En este Manifiesto sostenemos que la metodología global de las ciencias humanas/sociales es del orden de la comprensión. Sobre el fondo del pre-conocimiento de la actividad humana de la cual participa, el investigador está siempre confrontado a la interpretación de acciones y de textos, a través de los cuales intenta leer las modalidades de organización de las representaciones humanas, y a través de las cuales intenta por consiguiente una mejor comprensión. Es entonces en este contexto global...

  15. 前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的关系研究%Relationship research of placenta previa,adherent placenta and placenta implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的相关性。方法对入我院进行分娩的3280例孕妇资料进行分析,选择其中342例发生胎盘异常孕妇进行研究,包括未经人工流产和人工流产的孕妇前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入的发生率;人工流产的次数与前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入的关系以及围产期感染相关因素的研究。结果未经人工流产孕妇胎盘总的异常率为3.7%,人工流产孕妇胎盘总的异常率为14.3%,两组胎盘异常总发生率比较显著差异(P<0.05);流产次数越多,胎盘异常发生率随着次数增高而增高;围产期感染与产前贫血、宫腔感染和产妇营养不良关系密切(P<0.05)。结论前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的关系密切,多次人工流产易导致胎盘异常情况的发生,又易由于胎盘异常导致产后出血,育龄女性应尽量避免人工流产。%Objective To study the correlation between placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation. Methods Data of 3280 pregnant women delivered in our hospital were analyzed, of which 342 pregnant women with abnormal placenta were selected for research, including the incidences of placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation of the pregnant women having gone and having not gone through induced abortion, relationship between the times of induced abortion and the placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation, and study on perinatal infection related factors. Results The total abnormal placenta rate of the pregnant women having not gone through induced abortion was 3.7%and that of those having gone through induced abortion was 14.3%, with significant difference between the total incidences of abnormal placenta(P < 0.05).The incidence of abnormal placenta went up as the times of induced abortion rose; Perinatal infection was closely related to

  16. Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternkamp, S E; Gregory, K E

    1999-01-01

    Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.

  17. SUCCENTURIATE PLACENTA: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING DURING CESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unmesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigation were found to be normal her pulse was 100 beats/min, tachycardia present, BP -100/70mmHg. On obstetric examination, uterus was 30 weeks size, 1-2 contraction lasting for 15- 20 seconds, Breech presentation, FHR was 124 per minute, regular, decreased liquor clinically. On vulvovaginal examination- Frank leaking per vagina present. Ultrasound showed single live intrauterine pregnancy of 29 weeks 3 days with breech presentation with oligohydramnios, Placenta was at fundal region, Biophysical profile was 6/8, FHR 124 bpm. After taking high risk consent in view of fetal prematurity, patient was posted for Emergency LSCS. And extracted a single live preterm female baby of weight of 1.45 kg by breech. During the cesarean section, on opening abdomen lower segment was found to be congested with torturous vessels. So we suspected missed diagnosis of placenta previa. After delivery of the baby, we found succenturiate lobe of the placenta occupying lower uterine segment with vessels running across the membrane.

  18. Management of Amniotic Sheet with a Hammock-like Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amniotic sheet is a septation in the amniotic cavity with a perforation that allows amniotic fluid to pass through. Although the incidence of abnormal placental implantation is higher in such cases, the management recommendations remain unclear. We report a case of an amniotic sheet with a hammock-like placenta located in the center of the uterine cavity. A 25-year-old woman with a history of two dilation and curettage procedures was found to have an amniotic cavity separated by a septum that contained part of the placenta. At gestational Week 32, magnetic resonance images revealed that the placenta was attached from the anterior to posterior uterine walls and resembled a hammock hanging in the center of the uterus. Subsequently, continuous intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate were given. The pregnancy was extended to Week 36. Elective cesarean section was performed, and a 3212-g female infant was delivered. Thus, owing to the risk of umbilical cord complications and placental injury secondary to premature rupture of membranes, aggressive and careful perinatal management is required in such cases.

  19. [A retrospective analysis on the pernicious placenta previa from 2008 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Hu, K J; Yang, H X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the incidence changes, clinical characteristics and pregnant outcomes of pernicious placenta previa. A retrospective cohort analysis on 316 cases with placenta previa in the Peking University First Hospital from January 2008 to December 2014. The research group were 60 cases with the patients of placenta previa with the history of cesarean section, and the control group were placenta previa without the history of cesarean section. Compared with the incidence, intraoperative blood loss, the pregnancy outcomes and so on. (1) The average incidence rate of placenta previa during the past 7 years was 10.96 ‰ (316/28 837). And the cases of pernicious placenta previa was 60 (2.08‰, 60/28 837), the incidence of pernicious placenta previa was rising from 2008 to 2014 (0.91‰-3.08‰). (2) There were 145 cases of placenta privia had been translation from other hospitals in the past 7 years. The referral rate of pregnant women with placenta previa was 45.9% (145/316), and the referral rate of pernicious placenta previa (63.3%, 38/60) was significantly higher than that of non-pernicious placenta previa group (41.8%, 107/256; χ(2)=9.080, P=0.003). Referral the outcomes of these patients were good, and no maternal death occurred. (3) The placenta in the research group were mainly adhered in the front wall of the uterine, and the incidence was 38.5% (15/39), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa (12.1%, 21/174; χ(2)=57.636, Pplacenta increased in research group was 53.3% (32/60), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa, compared with the control group, there was significant difference (15.6%, 40/256; χ(2)= 39.041, Pplacenta previa were respectively 4.7% (12/256), 12.9% (33/256), 1.2% (3/256), 8.6% (22/256), compared those in other two groups, there were not significant difference (Pplacenta previa increased year by year, patients with placenta previa has a history of cesarean section often combined with

  20. Influência de células tronco mesenquimais de placenta humana sobre a biologia de neurônios e astrócitos de camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Etcheverria, Camila Erlinda

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Florianópolis, 2013. O Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) isquêmico é uma das doenças que mais levam a óbito no mundo, sendo uma das doenças neurológicas que podem levar a um permanente dano neuronal. O único tratamento aprovado para o AVC agudo é a terapia trombolítica intravenosa, realizada através do ativador de plasminogênio t...

  1. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Seify, Zahra; Haghighi, Ladan; Khoshnood Shariati, Maryam; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh

    2016-11-01

     Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (Pplacenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  2. A danish national cohort study on neonatal outcome in singleton pregnancies with placenta previa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone N; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the incidence of placenta previa and to assess neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies with placenta previa after adjustment for previous cesarean section, smoking, multiparity, maternal age and in-vitro fertilization. Design. National cohort study. Setting. Danish ...... score, being transferred to neonatal intensive care and for death.......Objective. To describe the incidence of placenta previa and to assess neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies with placenta previa after adjustment for previous cesarean section, smoking, multiparity, maternal age and in-vitro fertilization. Design. National cohort study. Setting. Danish....... Main outcome measures. Gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score after 5min, stillbirth, neonatal mortality and admittance to neonatal intensive care unit. Results. The incidence of placenta previa in Denmark was 0.54% in 2006. Neonates born after pregnancies with placenta previa had a higher risk...

  3. [Diagnosis of placenta previa accreta by two dimensional ultrasonography and color doppler in patients with cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huafang; Pi, Pixiang; Ding, Yiling

    2012-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of two dismensional sonography and color doppler in diagnosing placenta previa accreta in patients with previous cesarean section. Forty-one patients with previous cesarean sections were confirmed to have partial or total placenta previa in the current pregnancy and were given ultrasound examinations after the 28th week of gestation. Specific ultrasound features of the placenta and its interphase with the uterus and the bladder for placenta accreta were checked by two-dimensional ultrasonography and color Doppler. All the patients were traced until delivery. The golden standard in diagnosis was the intraoperative finding and the pathologic exam. Twenty-two patients had ultrasonographic evidence of placenta previa, 20 of which were later confirmed placenta previa accreta intraoperatively. Nineteen patients had no ultrasound evidence of placenta previa, and 1 of which was later confirmed placenta previa accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa accreta were 95.24% and 94.74% respectively. The most prominent feature to suggest placenta accreta in twodismensional sonography was the presence of multiple lakes that represented dilated vessels extending from the placenta through the myometrium. The most prominent color Doppler feature was the presence of interphase hypervascularity with abnormal vessels linking the placenta to the bladder, and the rate was 95.24%. Placenta previa accreta can be diagnosed made with a thorough two dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler examination in patients with previous cesarean scar and placenta previa.

  4. ClinicalAnalysisofDangerousPlacentaPreviaComplicatedwithPlacentaAccreta%凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌燕

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的发病率、诊断方法、治疗及预防措施。方法对我院65例凶险性前置胎盘进行回顾性分析,其中并发胎盘植入29例。结果本研究凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入发生率为44.62%(29/65),其产后出血量>2000mL发生率、弥漫性血管内凝血(DIC)发生率、产褥感染率及子宫切除率高于未并发胎盘植入者;早产率及新生儿预后情况两者无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入者,产后出血量大,易致失血性休克、DIC、产褥感染,增加子宫切除风险;降低剖宫产率,是减少凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的关键。%Objective To discuss the incidence, diagnostic methods ,treatment methods and prevention of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta. Methods Retrospective analysis 65 cases of dangerous placenta previa admitted to our hospital in June 2007-2012, including 29 cases complicated with placenta accreta. Results In the present study the incidence rate of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta was 44.62%(29/65). The postpartum incidence and hemorrhage, the incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), puerperal infection rate and the rate of hysterectomy of dangerous placenta praevia complicated with placenta accreta in patients was more than not complicated with placenta accreta in patients. The rate of preterm birth and neonatal prognosis has no signiifcant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion Dangerous placenta praevia complicated with placenta accreta in patients have a high incidence of postpartum hemorrhage, prone to cause hemorrhagic shock, DIC, puerperal infection, increase the risk of uterine resection. The key to reduce the dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta is reducing the rate of cesarean section.

  5. Estudio psicométrico de la prueba figura humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhilde Sánchez de Gallardo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la prueba proyectiva Test de la figura humana (Machover, 1976, administrada en la exploración aptitudinal de los aspirantes a cursar estudios en la mención orientación, una de las diez menciones de la carrera Educación, en La Universidad el Zulia, Venezuela. Se utilizaron como autores principales Cohen y Swerdlik (2006, Hogan (2004, Larsen y Buss (2005 y Shaughnessy, Zechmeister y Zechmeister (2007. La metodología fue descriptiva, de campo, diseño no experimental. La prueba se aplicó a 559 personas, 484 de sexo femenino y 75 de sexo masculino, con edades entre 17 a 47 años. El coeficiente de fiabilidad obtenido con el método de la división por mitades fue de 0,77 interpretado medio alto, lo cual indica que el test es fiable, es decir existe correlación entre las mitades y los ítemes de cada una de las partes de la prueba. La confiabilidad interobservadores, efectuada por tres evaluadores independientes, resultó en un coeficiente de 0.87 la cual se interpreta como alta. Para determinar la validez de la prueba se utilizó la de constructo, con el índice de consistencia interna, encontrándose un valor de 0,51, que indica poca relación entre los diferentes aspectos medidos por la prueba, lo cual demuestra heterogeneidad de estos elementos. Se construyó un baremo local y se obtuvieron las normas de interpretación para la población mencionada. Se concluye que el test de la figura humana tiene fiabilidad y validez, sus resultados son consistentes y el instrumento mide el constructo que se pretende medir, recomendándose la utilización de las normas obtenidas para la interpretación de resultados.

  6. Assessment of total placenta previa by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography to detect placenta accreta and its variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Nuri; Turan, Volkan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ozgur; Sever, Ahmet; Kazandi, Mert; Zekioglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting placental adherence defects. Patients diagnozed with total placenta previa (n = 40) in whom hysterectomy was performed due to placental adherence defects (n = 20) or in whom the placenta detached spontaneously after a Cesarean delivery (n = 20) were included into the study between June 2008 and January 2011, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ege University (lzmir Turkey). Gray-scale US was used to check for any placental lacunae, sub-placental sonolucent spaces or a placental mass invading the vesicouterine plane and bladder Intra-placental lacunar turbulent blood flow and an increase in vascularization in the vesicouterine plane were evaluated with color Doppler mode. Subsequently all patients had MRI and the results were compared with the histopathologic examinations. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of placental adherence defects before the operation was 95%, with a specificity of 95%. In the presence of at least one diagnostic criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 87.5% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of color Doppler US was 62.5% with a specificity of 100%. Currently MRI appears to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. None of the ultrasonographic criteria is solely sufficient to diagnose placental adherence defects, however they assist in the diagnostic process.

  7. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  8. Clinical study of placenta previa and its effect on maternal health and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Advancing maternal age, multiparity, prior cesarean section, and prior abortions are independent risk factors for placenta previa. Placenta praevia remains a risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The detection of placenta previa should encourage a careful evaluation with timely delivery to reduce the associated maternal and perinatal complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3496-3499

  9. Patologia cardiovascular en pacientes con infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Rodriguez, German

    2012-01-01

    La infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) estuvo asociada a un incremento de la morbimortalidad, dado que inducia un estado de inmunosupresion severa, la cual facilitaba la aparicion de infecciones oportunistas...

  10. El concepto de dignidad humana y la utopia realista de los derechos humanos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Habermas, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    En este articulo Habermas defiende la tesis que sostiene que siempre ha existido una conexion interna entre la nocion moral de dignidad humana y la concepcion juridica de los derechos humanos, aunque...

  11. Alternative management in a case of placenta accreta with previous caesarean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani M. Parikh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of caesarean is increasing day by day, and with it the chance of repeat caesarean. This has led to a rise in the chance of occurrence of placenta accreta. Control of bleeding is the main goal in such cases, which usually necessitates hysterectomy. But alternative methods are useful when retaining fertility is important. We present this case of a 30 yr old female who was admitted as a case of central placenta previa with previous caesarean. Per operatively, placenta was attached along the incision and baby was delivered by separating the placenta attached above the upper margin of incision. On attempting to remove the placenta attached to lower part of incision, it was found to be adherent along the previous scar. So placenta was removed piece meal, some part was left behind. Box sutures were taken over that part and uterine packing was done to control the bleeding. Post operatively the patient was fine and given injection Methotrexate on 8th day following the regime of 1, 3, 5, 7 days. She failed to expulse the placenta by 6wks, so D&E was done and retained products were removed. Leaving the placenta in situ followed by Methotrexate and interval removal of placenta can thus be helpful in conserving the uterus and hence, the fertility. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 58-60

  12. Prophylactic Hypogastric Artery Ballooning in a Patient with Complete Placenta Previa and Increta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kyong Wook; Seo, Tae-Seok; So, Kyeong A; Paek, Yu Chin; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal attachment of the placenta (Placenta accreta, increta, and percreta) is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of maternal mortality from massive postpartum hemorrhage. A 33-yr-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a placenta previa, was referred at 30 weeks gestation. On ultrasound, a complete type of placenta previa and multiple intraplacental lacunae, suggestive of placenta accreta, were noted. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis MRI was performed and revealed findings suspicious of a placenta increta. An elective cesarean delivery and subsequent hysterectomy were planned for the patient at 38 weeks gestation. On the day of delivery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within the hypogastric arteries, prior to the cesarean section. In the operating room, immediately after the delivery of the baby, bilateral hypogastric arteries were occluded by inflation of the balloons in the catheters previously placed within. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed in the usual fashion. The occluding balloons were deflated after closure of the vaginal cuff with hemostasis. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period; she was discharged six days after delivery without complications. The final pathology confirmed a placenta increta. PMID:20358016

  13. Antioxidants activities and concentration of selenium, zinc and copper in preterm and IUGR human placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozna, Monika; Gawlik, Małgorzata; Nowak, Barbara; Marcinek, Antoni; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in activities of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) levels and copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) concentrations, and to assess the possible differences between preterm placentas, placentas from term pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and full-term control placentas. The enzyme activities and the level of GSH decreased in IUGR and preterm placentas in comparison with the control group. CCO activity and GSH level in preterm placentas were markedly lower compared with the IUGR (P<0.01; P<0.05) and control (P<0.01; P<0.05) placentas, respectively. In IUGR placentas the level of Cu was reduced by 23% (P<0.05) and Zn by 37%. In preterm placentas the level of Cu was reduced by 19% and Zn by 42%. Se level in IUGR and preterm placentas was higher (P<0.05) by 28% and 32% than in control group, respectively. The strong relation was observed between birth weight and CCO activity, birth weight and Cu-Zn SOD activity, and a low level of Zn and Cu influenced the birth weight especially in IUGR cases. Moreover, the strong inverse correlation between Se level and birth weight, Se level and placental weight and Se level and CCO activity are new findings.

  14. La persona humana como relación en el orden del Origen

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del artículo es mostrar que la noción de persona humana significa relación en orden al Origen, es decir, a Dios. Tal relación no es una operación o actividad (accidente) propia de la esencia humana, sino constitutiva del acto de ser personal humano. ‘El hombre es persona’ equivale a ‘el hombre nace de Dios’.

  15. 前置胎盘与胎盘植入相关因素分析%Study on related factors for placenta praevia and placenta accreta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭冬梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结前置胎盘与胎盘植入的相关因素及对母婴的影响.方法 对2007年10月至2010年4月间收治的96例前置胎盘和12例前置胎盘合并胎盘植入患者的孕周、胎盘位置、产妇年龄、妊娠次数、产后出血量及新生儿Apgar 评分等指标进行回顾性分析.结果 7 968产妇中,前置胎盘者发生率为1.20%(96/7 968).前置胎盘合并胎盘植入者12例,占前置胎盘的12.5%(12/96).胎盘植入的发生率与产妇孕产次、胎盘位置明显相关,而与其年龄、孕周关系无明显相关性.中央型胎盘胎盘植入的发生率明显高于边缘性胎盘,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).合并胎盘植入组产后出血、新生儿窒息和早产发生率均明显高于前置胎盘组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 胎盘植入与前置胎盘有相关关系,中央型前置胎盘及3次以上妊娠为胎盘植入的高危因素.胎盘植入严重危害母婴生命,针对胎盘植入的危险因素加以预防,对提高母婴生活质量有重要意义.%Objective To explore the related factors for placenta praevia and placenta aeereta and the impact on mother and child.Meth-ods The clinical data of ninety six patients with placenta praevia and 12 of them combined with placenta aeereta admitted in this hospital during JanumT 2007 to April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed for gestational age,placental location,maternal age,number of pregnancy,postpartum hemorrhage and Apgar scores of newborns.Results Among 7 968 pregnant wonlen,the incidence rate of placenta praevia was 1.20%(96/7 968).Twelve cases of placenta praevia combined with placenta aeereta accounted for 12.5%of patients with placenta praevia(12/96).The oc-currence of placenta accreta was related to tinms of gravid and delivery and location of placenta,and there was no significant relationship with their age and gestational age.The incidence of placenta accreta in central placenta was significantly higher than that oeeun'ed at

  16. Dignidad humana y situaciones terminales Human dignity and terminal situations

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    J. Masiá

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available No hay que confundir la dignidad con las condiciones indignas en que puede encontrarse una persona por circunstancias exteriores o por la enfermedad. La persona paciente en situación terminal tiene dignidad humana, que exige ser respetada, no por ser paciente terminal, sino simplemente por ser persona. Pero es cierto que en situaciones terminales puede verse particularmente amenazada la dignidad. Sin embargo, no se debe deducir del criterio de respetar la dignidad la conclusión de prolongar la vida biológica a toda costa, sino la de garantizar la mejor calidad del vivir durante el proceso de morir y de acompañar dignamente a la persona que se aproxima a la muerte ayudándole a asumirla.Dignity should not be confused with the unbecoming conditions that a person can find himself in due to external situations or disease. The person/patient in a terminal situation has human dignity, which must be respected not because he/she is a terminal patient but simply because he/she is a person. But it is true that in terminal situations dignity can be particularly threatened. Nonetheless, one must not deduce from the criterion of respecting dignity the conclusion of prolonging biological life at all costs, but instead that of guaranteeing the best quality of living during the process of dying and of worthily accompanying the person who is approaching death by helping him to accept this.

  17. El significado del éxito reproductivo en poblaciones humanas

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    Crognier, Emile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la sociobióloga, el éxito reproductivo a sido desde el principio, la medida universal del valor adaptivo. La noción es muy discutible, considerando que se trata de una estimación individual, inapropiada a evaluar el valor selectivo de un (supuesto genotipo, pero a pesar de su inadecuación y de la simplificación de su evaluación en la mayoridad de los estudios, el éxito reproductivo permanezco una medida muy popular. En el caso de las poblaciones humanas, su medida tuvo que ser aun más simplificada para tomar en cuenta la larga extinción de las generaciones, hasta ser el número de descendientes sobreviviendo hasta madurez sexual. Sin embargo, su definición aun no logro de ser ni precisa ni satisfactoria y los últimos trabajos parecen indicar que así como el coeficiente de consanguinidad, su significado se revela en la profundidad de la sucesión de las generaciones. Se discuta este tema, apoyándose en datos de grupos Beraber de Marueccos y Aymara de Bolivia

  18. El zinc, micronutriente importante en la salud humana

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La importancia biológica del zinc fue admitida por primera vez hace más de un siglo y en la actualidad continúan los estudios que avalan su valor en la nutrición humana. Se ha comprobado que la falta de zinc es bastante frecuente en la población de los países en vías de desarrollo, sobre todo en edades pediátricas, y se asocia en general a malnutrición y deficiencias de otros micronutrientes. El diagnóstico de la deficiencia leve de zinc en el hombre es difícil, ya que produce muchos síntomas clínicos inespecíficos. Por todo ello se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, para contribuir a incrementar los conocimientos del personal médico sobre su importancia, alimentos donde se puede encontrar, patologías en las que más está indicado su uso en pediatría y la forma de administración

  19. Toxocariosis humana: ¿problema de salud pública?

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    Pedro Huapaya H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar y sistematizar la información existente sobre la infección humana por el género Toxocara. Se describe los mecanismos de transmisión, epidemiología, formas clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, esquemas de tratamiento. Además, se resalta su importancia como causa infecciosa de ceguera, en población joven, que resulta potencialmente prevenible y curable mediante el diagnóstico precoz. Por lo cual, se plantea propuestas para implementar la vigilancia epidemiológica. Asimismo, algunas sugerencias para mejorar la legislación existente que permita disminuir el riesgo de la transmisión a la población en general e incrementar el conocimiento que existe sobre esta infección en nuestro país.

  20. Conectividade: limitações humanas no uso de emails

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    Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoje vivenciamos o que costumo denominar de era da conectividade. Trata-se de um momento da história humana onde a comunicação tem sido muito exercitada por uma quantidade cada vez mais crescente de usuários da Internet. A conectividade propiciada pela Internet tem servido e muito ao que denomino de propulsor dos três C’s que compreendem comunicação, colaboração e compartilhamento como discutido em outros artigos [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] e [6]. Embora os usuários tenham usado cada vez mais a Internet para os três C’s, comunicação é uma arte vez e esta requer atenção e habilidade por parte dos usuários da Internet. Nesse sentido este artigo discute aspectos da comunicação influenciados pelo uso da Internet.

  1. Nuestra esencia: la condición humana

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    Bertilio Neri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo paradigma del conocimiento está asociado a la intersubjetividad, la trans disciplina y la complejidad. La comprensión e interpretación de los procesos y fenómenos de la realidad, es posible si se atiende a la trama discursiva en la que se genera la contextualidad que da forma y contenido a las formas cognitivas de la razón, a partir de la diversidad, incertidumbre y las contradicciones. Se está en presencia de una reforma radical del pensamiento y de las instituciones, en todos sus órdenes y saberes. La universidad, debe responder a este reto creando las condiciones históricas para reformar el pensamiento, apren diendo de otro modo a saber pensar desde la crítica liberadora y el diálogo con las otras disciplinas y culturas. Los estudios de doctorado deben recoger en sus pensa y programas de investigación el nuevo rol de la epis te me en la construcción de un científico social más comprometido con su condición humana y ciudadana.

  2. Altas tecnologías, conflictos armados y seguridad humana

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    Elena del Mar García Rico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El examen de las amenazas para la seguridad y el bienestar de las personas inherentes al concepto de seguridad humana exige ocuparse también de las consecuencias que la utilización de las altas tecnologías puedan ocasionar en relación con los conflictos armados actuales. De ahí que en este trabajo abordemos los cambios relevantes en la naturaleza y características de los nuevos conflictos armados provocados por la celeridad y amplitud en el empleo de altas tecnologías y su desigual distribución entre los beligerantes, tal y como muestran las llamadas guerras de coste cero, de cuarta generación o asimétricas, e incluso las híbridas. Asimismo, el desarrollo reciente de las capacidades militares cibernéticas, de los sistemas de armas autónomos y de los vehículos aéreos no tripulados plantea nuevos retos al Derecho Internacional Humanitario, aspectos contemplados en este estudio.

  3. CIENCIAS HUMANAS Y EMERGENCIA DE LA EDAD DIGITAL

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    Fischer, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estamos pasando de la era del fuego a la era digital, o sea, de la era de la energía, que incluye el fuego, el viento, el agua, la electricidad y la energía nuclear, a la era de la información. Pasamos así del binomio energía-materia a un nuevo paradigma epistemológico e instrumental, el de una codificación binaria y de una programación algorítmica con las cuales pretendemos reinterpretar el universo e instrumentarlo con una nueva potencia humana superior a la de las leyes habituales de la naturaleza. El hombre ha escogido marcar con su sello nuestra evolución y hablamos aquí de lo antropoceno. McLuhan fue el último gran pensador de la era del fuego, de los medios de difusión eléctricos; pero no podría ser el nuevo gurú de la era digital. La energía destruye le información. Lo digital la crea y la difunde.

  4. Re-aproximaciones y posibles aplicaciones del concepto de seguridad humana

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    Waldimeiry Corrêa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y analiza el concepto de seguridad humana en el ámbito de Naciones Unidas y de las Relaciones Internacionales y su relación con la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger (R2P. Pretendemos responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿La utilización de la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger amplía el concepto de la seguridad humana o lo reduce a su dimensión vertical? ¿El concepto de seguridad humana contribuye a la comprensión y enfrentamiento a la Trata de Personas (la Trata? Con miras a contestar estas preguntas, el artículo está estructurado en tres partes: en la primera parte, presentamos el marco teórico- conceptual de la seguridad humana con base en los documentos de Naciones Unidas y la teoría de las relaciones internacionales; en la segunda, desde la noción de la R2P, su contenido y práctica internacional, observamos su contribución para el concepto de seguridad humana; en la tercera, utilizamos el enfoque de la seguridad humana para una comprensión global de la Trata.

  5. Diagnosis of Placenta Previa and Placenta Implantation With MRI%前置胎盘及胎盘植入的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 罗莎

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the application value of MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of front disc and implantation of placenta previa. Methods Retrospective analysis of our hospital 16 cases of placental MRI examination conifrmed byoperation and pathology after cesarean section. Results8 cases of central placenta previa, 5 cases of partialplacenta previa, 2 cases of marginal placenta previa, low-lying placenta 1 cases, 2 cases of Placenta Adhesion, 2 cases of placenta implantation, including 1 cases of transmural implantation, placenta in the posterior inferior wall in 11 cases, 4 cases of anterior inferior wall, 2 cases of lateral wall.Conclusion MRI on placenta previa placenta implantation in the clinical diagnosis and timely and reasonable treatment plan have some certain signiifcance.%目的:探讨MRI在诊断产前前置前盘及植入性前置胎盘的应用价值。方法剖宫产后回顾性分析我院经手术及病理证实的16例胎盘MRI检查。结果中央性前置胎盘8例,部分性前置胎盘5例,边缘性前置胎盘2例,低置胎盘1例,胎盘粘连2例,胎盘植入2例,其中1例透壁植入,胎盘位于后下壁11例,前下壁4例,侧壁2例。结论 MRI对前置胎盘及胎盘植入诊断对临床及时合理制定治疗方案有一定意义。

  6. Can 3-dimensional power Doppler indices improve the prenatal diagnosis of a potentially morbidly adherent placenta in patients with placenta previa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ziad A; Papanna, Ramesha; Sibai, Baha M; Tatevian, Nina; Viteri, Oscar A; Vowels, Patricia C; Blackwell, Sean C; Moise, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, 2-dimensional ultrasound parameters have been used for the diagnosis of a suspected morbidly adherent placenta previa. More objective techniques have not been well studied yet. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of prenatal 3-dimensional power Doppler analysis of flow and vascular indices to predict the morbidly adherent placenta objectively. A prospective cohort study was performed in women between 28 and 32 gestational weeks with known placenta previa. Patients underwent a two-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound that determined management decisions. 3-Dimensional power Doppler volumes were obtained during the same examination and vascular, flow, and vascular flow indices were calculated after manual tracing of the viewed placenta in the sweep; data were blinded to obstetricians. Morbidly adherent placenta was confirmed by histology. Severe morbidly adherent placenta was defined as increta/percreta on histology, blood loss >2000 mL, and >2 units of PRBC transfused. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Student t and χ(2) tests, logistic regression, receiver-operating characteristic curves, and intra- and interrater agreements using Kappa statistics were performed. The following results were found: (1) 50 women were studied: 23 had morbidly adherent placenta, of which 12 (52.2%) were severe morbidly adherent placenta; (2) 2-dimensional parameters diagnosed morbidly adherent placenta with a sensitivity of 82.6% (95% confidence interval, 60.4-94.2), a specificity of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 69.7-97.1), a positive predictive value of 86.3% (95% confidence interval, 64.0-96.4), a negative predictive value of 85.7% (95% confidence interval, 66.4-95.3), a positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.9), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.48); (3) mean values of the vascular index (32.8 ± 7.4) and the vascular flow index

  7. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

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    Asra Anjum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  8. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  9. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  10. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

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    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  12. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

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    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  13. Influence of placental position on obstetric morbidity in placenta previa

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    Shripad S. Hebbar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: It is difficult to assign a maternal or perinatal morbidity risk to a particular type of placental location. The need for specialized surgical intervention such as uterine / internal iliac artery ligation, peripartum hysterectomy can arise irrespective of placental location, whether underneath the surgical incision (anterior, proximity to main uterine trunks (lateral or encountered after the delivery of the baby (posterior. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa must be delivered in the hospitals having expertise of senior and skilled surgeons and well equipped blood bank and good neonatal intensive care unit. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 585-591

  14. Anatomy and physiology of the embryo, fetus and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V. (Diagnostic Technology Consultants, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Davis, J.M. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States). Medical Center)

    1992-01-01

    Complexities of fetal and placental development introduce unique problems in quantitating a fetal radiation dose from internal radionuclide contamination. The paper briefly describes the many transitory stages in the development of the fetal organs and placenta from the time of the union of the egg and sperm. Descriptions of migration, differentiation and functional changes of cell lines will illustrate the difficulties in establishing a radiation history. The development of the cells responsible for hematopoiesis are reviewed, along with the thyroid gland and blood brain barrier, because of the importance of these tissues in radiation protection. (author).

  15. [Procedure for purifying RNA polymerase II from human placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandyba, L V; Matsanova, V R; Shamovskiĭ, I V; Raĭt, V K

    1994-12-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IIB having a specific activity of 320 u./mg has been isolated from the term placenta homogenate using extraction performed at 4-6 degrees C in the presence of 75 mM ammonium sulfate and 1.5% nonidet P40, fractionation on DEAE-cellulose DE 23, desalting and heparin-agarose chromatography, resulting in 330-fold purification and a 18% yield. Technical details have been determined which are of crucial importance for reproducibility of affinity chromatography. The possibility of proteolysis of the IIc subunit during enzyme purification has been demonstrated.

  16. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  17. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  18. Progreso en el conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal humana

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    Virginia Robles-Alonso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de nuevas técnicas de secuenciación así como el desarrollo de herramientas bioinformáticas han permitido no sólo describir la composición de la comunidad bacteriana que habita el tracto gastrointestinal, sino también las funciones metabólicas de las que proveen al huésped. La mayoría de los miembros de esta amplia comunidad bacteriana pertenecen a Dominio Bacteria, aunque encontramos también Archaea y formas eucariotas y virus. Únicamente entre 7 y 9 de las 55 Phyla del Dominio Bacteria conocidos están presentes en flora fecal humana. Su mayoría pertenecen además a las Divisiones Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, encontrando también Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria y Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium y Bifidobacterium son los Géneros más abundantes aunque su abundancia relativa es muy variable entre individuos. El análisis metagenómico de la flora intestinal ha permitido describir una colección de 5 millones de genes microbianos que codifican para aproximadamente 20.000 funciones biológicas relacionadas con la vida de las bacterias. El ecosistema intestinal humano puede clasificarse en torno a tres grupos de acuerdo a la abundancia relativa de tres Géneros: Bacteroides (enterotipo 1, Prevotella (enterotipo 2 y Ruminococcus (enterotype 3. Estos grupos han sido denominados "enterotipos" y su descripción sugiere que las variaciones entre individuos están estratificadas. Una vez descrita la composición bacteriana sería interesante establecer la relación entre la alteración de equilibrios ecológicos con estados de enfermedad que puedan desembocar en una novedosa vía terapéutica.

  19. Alojamiento conjunto madre-hijo y lactancia humana exclusiva

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    FLORES-HUERTA SAMUEL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la influencia del alojamiento conjunto (AC madre-hijo, en la frecuencia de lactancia humana exclusiva (LHE, desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de vida. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no aleatorizado realizado en la clínica de lactancia del Hospital "Luis Castelazo Ayala", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de enero de 1993 a octubre de 1994, en el que participaron 178 binomios madre-hijo (BMH sanos con gestación de término. El grupo con alojamiento conjunto (AC se integró con 90 BMH, y la madre recibió asesoría para lactar; 88 se atendieron en forma separada, sin asesoría para lactar. Se realizó análisis estadístico de los datos para apreciar frecuencia y asociaciones de las variables. Resultados. La alimentación se registró como LHE, fórmula o ambas. Los grupos con y sin AC se estratificaron por la forma de nacimiento, parto o cesárea. Con X² de Mantel-Haenszel y de rango logarítmico se aceptaron diferencias con p< 0.05. Durante el estudio la lactancia global fue semejante entre los grupos. En el primer mes la LHE fue mayor en el grupo con AC, 61 vs 42%, independientemente de la forma de nacimiento (p< 0.05. El AC fue la única variable que influyó para que se diera LHE. Conclusiones. El AC madre-hijo favorece la LHE en el primer mes posnacimiento.

  20. Indicadores de Criatividade no Desenho da Figura Humana

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    Karina da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar evidências de precisão e de validade para um protocolo de análise de características criativas presentes no Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH. Para isso, realizaram-se dois estudos. A amostra foi composta por cinco juízes e 208 crianças de escolas públicas e particulares, com idades entre nove anos e 11 anos e 11 meses. O primeiro estudo referiu-se à precisão do protocolo, e o instrumento foi considerado adequado segundo os critérios de 75% de concordância e análise de Correlação de Pearson. Para o segundo estudo foram utilizados dois instrumentos, sendo um o protocolo de triagem criativa para o DFH e o Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil. Os instrumentos foram comparados por meio de Correlação de Pearson e Análise Fatorial. Os resultados apontaram que indicadores tais como Elaboração, Expressão de Emoção e Movimento estão relacionados à características criativas no DFH. Foram observadas influências das variáveis tipo de escola e sexo para os itens de criatividade como movimento, perspectiva incomum e uso de contextos. Conclui-se que o protocolo de triagem criativa do DFH pode apresentar indicadores válidos de criatividade.

  1. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

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    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  2. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  3. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Koets, A.P.; Kuijpers, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Eldik, van P.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test th

  4. Gray scale and Doppler ultrasound in placenta accreta: Optimization of ultrasound signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shawky

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound and Doppler examinations of placenta have signs highly suggestive of placenta accreta due to high sensitivity and specificity with placental lacunae of turbulent flow and retro-placental myometrial thickness ⩽1 mm are of the highest specificity.

  5. Placenta accreta and maternal morbidity in the Republic of Ireland, 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upson, K.; Silver, R.M.; Greene, R.; Lutomski, J.E.; Holt, V.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the nationwide prevalence of placenta accreta and to quantify its impact on maternal morbidity. Methods: Using discharge data for public hospitals in Ireland, years 2005-2010, deliveries with placenta accreta were identified using ICD-10-AM code for morbidly adherent

  6. Tumorigenic Factor CRIPTO-1 Is Immunolocalized in Extravillous Cytotrophoblast in Placenta Creta

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    Carla Letícia Bandeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CRIPTO-(CR1 is a protein associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that CR-1 expression in normal and creta placentas is associated with various degrees of uterine invasion. Cytokeratin (CK and CR-1 protein expression was visualized by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental specimens (control placentas, n=9; accreta, n=6; increta, n=10; percreta, n=15. The pattern of extravillous trophoblast (EVT cell morphology was distinctive in creta placentas: densely-compacted cell columns and large star-shaped cells with a typically migratory phenotype, not common among third trimester control placentas. Quantification revealed higher CR-1 immunoreactivities in accreta (P=0.001, increta (P=0.0002, and percreta placentas (P=0.001 than in controls. In contrast to controls, there was a significant positive relationship between CR-1 and CK reactivity in all creta placentas (accreta, P=0.02; increta, P=0.0001, and percreta, P=0.025. This study demonstrated CR-1 expression in the placental bed, its increased expression in creta placentas, and EVT cells as the main CR-1-producing cell type. Morphological examination revealed an immature and invasive trophoblast profile in creta placentas, suggesting impairment of the trophoblast differentiation pathway. These findings provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of abnormal creta placentation and its gestational consequences.

  7. Comparative study of transperineal and transvaginal sonography for localization of placenta in antepartum haermorrhage

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    Pushpa Dahiya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: So, to conclude transperineal sonography is easy to perform, well tolerated accurate diagnostic tool with high sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values for localisation of placenta cases of APH. TVS can be replaced by TPS in cases of APH for localisation of placenta. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 48-52

  8. GLUT12 expression in human placenta in first trimester and term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, NM; Stevenson, JL; Rogers, S; Best, JD; Kalionis, B; Erwich, JJHM; Timmer, A; King, RG

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of a novel glucose transporter protein GLUT12 in human placenta. GLUT12 mRNA expression was identified by RT-PCR in extracts from five normal term placentae and in extracts from cultured cells of the JAR, JEG-3 and HTR-8Svneo cell lines. In fu

  9. Placenta accreta and maternal morbidity in the Republic of Ireland, 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upson, K.; Silver, R.M.; Greene, R.; Lutomski, J.E.; Holt, V.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the nationwide prevalence of placenta accreta and to quantify its impact on maternal morbidity. Methods: Using discharge data for public hospitals in Ireland, years 2005-2010, deliveries with placenta accreta were identified using ICD-10-AM code for morbidly adherent

  10. Persistence of placenta previa in twin gestations based on gestational age at sonographic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohari, Katherine S; Roman, Ashley S; Fox, Nathan S; Feinberg, Jessica; Saltzman, Daniel H; Klauser, Chad K; Rebarber, Andrei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gestational age at sonographic detection of placenta previa as a predictor of previa persistence until delivery in twin gestations. A retrospective cohort of twin pregnancies with placenta previa in a single ultrasound unit was analyzed from 2005 to 2010. Pregnancies were ascertained from a database. Diagnoses were confirmed by transvaginal imaging. Previa was categorized as complete if the placenta completely covered the internal os or marginal if the inferior placental edge reached within 2 cm. Gestational ages were grouped into intervals from 15 to 35 weeks. The study outcome was placenta previa at delivery. Only twin pregnancies at 25 weeks' gestation and later were analyzed using nonparametric statistics as appropriate, with P Placenta previa was detected in 120 twin pregnancies in the second trimester: 32 complete and 88 marginal. Of those with placenta previa at 15 to 19, 20 to 23, 24 to 27, 28 to 31, and 32 to 35 weeks, previa persisted until delivery in 8.3%, 19.2%, 50%, 75%, and 92.5%, respectively. Only at 15- to 19- and 20- to 23-week intervals was complete previa more likely to persist than marginal previa (P placenta previa persistence in twins is dependent on the gestational age at sonographic detection. Only at earlier gestations does the type of previa affect its persistence. As gestational age advances, the likelihood of resolution of placenta previa diminishes regardless of the type noted.

  11. Histopathological examination of the placenta : key issues for pathologists and obstetricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, S. J.; Dahlstrom, J. E.; Khong, T. Y.; Ellwood, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The placenta is often not submitted for histopathological examination and obstetricians may be sceptical of the value of the examination. This article looks at the reasons for histopathological assessment of the placenta, examines what clinical information should be provided to pathologists and

  12. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding its role in health and disease The Human Placenta Project is a long-term research ...

  13. More than clinical waste? Placenta rituals among Australian home-birthing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the "afterbirth." In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a "special" and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked.

  14. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

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    Bhawna Satija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG with color Doppler (CDUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta. All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity. MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity. There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00 and specificity (P = 0.687 between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta

  15. Utility of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Wadhwa, Leena; Gupta, Taru; Kohli, Supreethi; Chandoke, Rajkumar; Gupta, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Context: Placenta accreta is the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall and the most common cause for emergency postpartum hysterectomy. Accurate prenatal diagnosis of affected pregnancies allows optimal obstetric management. Aims: To summarize our experience in the antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta on imaging in a tertiary care setup. To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (USG) with color Doppler (CDUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Settings and Design: Prospective study in a tertiary care setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted on pregnant females with high clinical risk of placenta accreta. Antenatal diagnosis was established based on CDUS and MRI. The imaging findings were compared with final diagnosis at the time of delivery and/or pathologic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for both CDUS and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity values of USG and MRI were compared by the McNemar test. Results: Thirty patients at risk of placenta accreta underwent both CDUS and MRI. Eight cases of placenta accreta were identified (3 vera, 4 increta, and 1 percreta). All patients had history of previous cesarean section. Placenta previa was present in seven out of eight patients. USG correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in seven out of eight patients (87.5% sensitivity) and the absence of placenta accreta in 19 out of 22 patients (86.4% specificity). MRI correctly identified the presence of placenta accreta in 6 out of 8 patients (75.0% sensitivity) and absence of placenta accreta in 17 out of 22 patients (77.3% specificity). There were no statistical differences in sensitivity (P = 1.00) and specificity (P = 0.687) between USG and MRI. Conclusions: Both USG and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta; however

  16. Placenta Prévia: Fatores de risco para o Acretismo Placenta Previa: Risk Factors for Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Torloni

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: investigação dos fatores de risco associados ao acretismo em pacientes com placenta prévia (PP. Métodos: foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva caso-controle de todos os prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de PP que tiveram seus partos na Maternidade Escola Vila Nova Cachoeirinha (São Paulo entre 1986 e 1998. O grupo com acretismo foi comparado ao grupo sem acretismo quanto à idade, paridade, antecedentes de abortamentos, curetagens e cesarianas, o tipo de PP e a área predominante de inserção placentária. Para avaliar a associação entre a variável dependente (acretismo placentário e as variáveis independentes (características maternas e placentária foram utilizados o teste do chi², análise univariada e multivariada, considerando-se significantes os valores de p Purpose: to investigate risk factors associated with accretion in placenta previa (PP patients. Methods: this was a retrospective case-control study of all the records of patients who delivered between 1986-1998 at Maternidade Escola de Vila Nova Cachoeirinha (São Paulo with a diagnosis of placenta previa. The groups with and without accretion were compared regarding age, parity, previous history of miscarriage, curettage and cesarean section, type of PP and predominant area of placental attachment. Possible associations between the dependent (accretion and independent (maternal and placental characteristics variables were evaluated using the chi² test, univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: reviewing 245 cases of PP, two risk factors were significantly associated with accretion: central placenta previa (odds ratio (OR: 2.93 and two or more previous cesarean sections(OR: 2.54. Based on these data, a predictive model was constructed, according to which a patient with central PP and two more previous cesarean sections has a 44.4% risk for accretion. Conclusions: results of the current study may help obstetricians in the classification of their

  17. Prenatal Diagnosis and Perinatal Management of Placenta Previa Accreta: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Chou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported incidence of placenta accreta varies widely in the English literature, from 1:540 to 1:93,000 deliveries. In Taiwan, the quoted incidence ranges from 1:625 to 1:1,652 deliveries in tertiary medical centers. Massive obstetric hemorrhage is still the leading cause of pregnancy-related death, and placenta previa accreta remains one of the major predisposing factors. With the increasing rates of cesarean delivery and uterine curettage for abortion, both placenta previa and accreta are steadily increasing in frequency. Therefore, more cases of placenta previa accreta can be expected in obstetric practice. In several recent series, placenta accreta has emerged as the major indication for peripartum hysterectomy, accounting for 40% to 60% of cases. It has, therefore, become a challenging problem of increasing clinical significance in obstetrics.

  18. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible.

  19. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

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    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  20. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...... background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour...... of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists...

  1. Cervical varix complicated by placenta previa: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mie; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yosuke; Endo, Masayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Uterine cervical varix is rare, and its clinical course is poorly understood. Therefore, we present a case report of cervical varix complicating placenta previa before describing our findings in the context of an electronic database search of relevant reports. In the case report, we describe the clinical course and imaging results of a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with cervical varix complicated by placenta previa. Investigation by magnetic resonance imaging, serial ultrasonography, and speculum confirmed the diagnosis, and a healthy baby was successfully delivered at 36 weeks of gestation by cesarean section. An electronic search identified nine previous cases of cervical varix complicated by placenta previa in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of cervical varices when managing placenta previa to avoid iatrogenic rupture or misdiagnosis of placenta accreta by magnetic resonance imaging. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Uterine artery embolization, not cesarean section, as an option for termination of pregnancy in placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingling; Awale, Reenu; Tang, Hui; Zeng, ZhiShan; Li, FuRong; Chen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    To summarize our experiences in the treatment of labor induction in placenta previa using uterine artery embolization. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of seven patients with placenta previa who underwent antepartum uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery. After antepartum embolization, five patients with placenta previa had successful vaginal deliveries and two cases of placenta previa with accreta underwent emergency hysterectomy. Some complications were reported in this experience. The follow-up study showed that most patients resumed their normal menstruation and some of them were able to conceive. For the management of placenta previa, uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive technique that helps to avoid cesarean section. The impact on menstruation and fertility is yet to be seen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Successful outcome of placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Sayeeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 41 year old multiparous lady, with previous history of one cesarean section presented at her 24 weeks of gestation with frank hematuria. The case was diagnosed as placenta previa percreta with the bladder involvement by ultrasound doppler and confirmed by MR urogram. So, peripartum hysterectomy was planned. On opening of the abdomen, a hugely distended bladder was found, which when retracted engorged blood vessels were found over the lower segment of uterus. Baby was delivered by giving a transverse incision in the upper segment. By keeping placenta in situ, total abdominal hysterectomy was done with quick successive clamping. Severe per-operative bleeding was occurred. Bladder irrigation started following total abdominal hysterectomy. Continuous small clots were coming out through catheter. A large old blood clot was removed by cystostomy done by an urologist. A sprouting vessel and a linear injury were noticed at the base of the bladder. The vessel was ligated and the injury was repaired. After proper hemostasis, the abdomen was closed in layers. The patient was shifted to ICU. Patient developed complications like MI, watery diarrhoea, low grade fever which was managed accordingly. She was discharged healthy on her 19th post-operative day.

  4. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more {sup 14}C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose and (6-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro.

  5. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  6. Drug interactions at the human placenta: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eRubinchik-Stern

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women (and their fetuses are treated with a significant number of prescription and nonprescription medications. Interactions among those drugs may affect their efficacy and toxicity in both mother and fetus. Whereas interactions that result in altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma are detectable, those involving modulation of placental transfer mechanisms are rarely reflected by altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma. Therefore, they are often overlooked. Placental-mediated interactions are possible because the placenta is not only a passive diffusional barrier, but also expresses a variety of influx and efflux transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes. Current data on placental-mediated drug interactions are limited. In rodents, pharmacological or genetic manipulations of placental transporters significantly affect fetal drug exposure. In contrast, studies in human placentae suggest that the magnitude of such interactions is modest in most cases. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, such interactions may be of clinical significance. This review describes currently known mechanisms of placental-mediated drug interactions and the potential implications of such interactions in humans. Better understanding of those mechanisms is important for minimizing fetal toxicity from drugs while improving their efficacy when directed to treat the fetus.

  7. Suspected invasive placenta: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Laurence; Place, Vinciane; Bendavid, Sandra; Fargeaudou, Yann [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Portal, Jean-Jacques [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Ricbourg, Aude [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris cedex 10 (France); Sebbag, Delphine; Dohan, Anthony; Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France); Vicaut, Eric [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    To determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing invasive placenta (IP). MRI findings in 32 women with suspected IP were evaluated independently by four readers. Interobserver agreement was calculated with kappa (κ) statistics. Associations between MRI findings and IP were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were estimated. Sixteen women (16/32; 50 %) had confirmed IP. Interobserver correlation for the diagnosis of IP was fair (κ = 0.40). Univariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface (P < 0.0001) was the most discriminating MRI variable in the differentiation between normal and IP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were 84 % [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % [95 % CI: 66-93 %], respectively. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the most accurate finding (88 %) in the diagnosis of IP. Multivariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the single independent predictor of IP (P = 0.0006; OR = 64.99). MR imaging has 84 % sensitivity [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % specificity [95 % CI: 66-93 %] for the diagnosis of IP. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface is the most discriminating independent MR variable in differentiating between normal placenta and IP. (orig.)

  8. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  9. A RARE CASE OF PLACENTA PERCRETA AND ITS OBSTETRIC OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old woman G2P1L1 with previous caesarean section presented at 39 weeks of gestation to CG Hospital attached to JJM medical college, Davangere. Ultrasound showed features suggestive of placenta accrete. The patient was taken for elective cesarean delivery with blood in hand. On table, there was massive hemorrhage with atonic Post-partum hemorrhage. The obstetricians immediately proceeded with an emergency hysterectomy, during which time the lower uterine segment was found to be densely adherent to the bladder wall and the placental tissue invading into the bladder wall. The adherent part of placenta was left behind. She developed reactionary hemorrhage after 9 hrs. Relaparotomy was done and bleeding was found from the placental tissue adherent to bladder. Ligation of the internal iliac artery was done. She was discharged home on postoperative day 9 after removal of the abdominal drain. Her USG after one month shows non vascular placental tissue of 17 ml and her beta HCG values were less than 1

  10. DNA flow cytometric analysis in variable types of hydropic placentas

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    Fatemeh Atabaki pasdar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management. Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry. Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions and 20 molar (complete and partial moles, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic yielded diploid histograms. Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion.

  11. Identification and analysis of multi-protein complexes in placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Placental malfunction induces pregnancy disorders which contribute to life-threatening complications for both the mother and the fetus. Identification and characterization of placental multi-protein complexes is an important step to integratedly understand the protein-protein interaction networks in placenta which determine placental function. In this study, blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS-PAGE and Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were used to screen the multi-protein complexes in placenta. 733 unique proteins and 34 known and novel heterooligomeric multi-protein complexes including mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, integrin complexes, proteasome complexes, histone complex, and heat shock protein complexes were identified. A novel protein complex, which involves clathrin and small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel protein 2, was identified and validated by antibody based gel shift assay, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that BN/SDS-PAGE, when integrated with LC-MS/MS, is a very powerful and versatile tool for the investigation of placental protein complexes. This work paves the way for deeper functional characterization of the placental protein complexes associated with pregnancy disorders.

  12. Placenta accreta and the developing world--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezurike, C C; Feyi-Waboso, P A

    2010-12-01

    The rising Caesarean section rate in the developing world implies that the incidence of placenta accreta might be on the increase and this might worsen the maternal mortality burden. To draw the attention of Obstetricians and other relevant professionals to this emerging but challenging trend. Original research findings and reviews published in the English literature. Additional information was obtained from texts and electronic books such as CD ROMS. Online searches of electronic database (Medline, Pubmed and Embase), requests for reprints from corresponding authors and institutional/private subscriptions. Information obtained was categorised accordingly. Optimal treatment of women with placenta accreta requires recognition of the clinical risk factors, accurate pre-operative diagnosis and meticulous planning to ensure safety at the time of delivery. In view of the rising incidence of this condition, and the absence of a highly reliable antenatal diagnostic method especially in developing countries, a high index of suspicion and advanced preparation is required to reduce its associated maternal morbidity and mortality.

  13. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2014-09-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming.

  14. Evolution of the interhaemal barrier in the placenta of rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mess, A M; Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A recent phylogenetic analysis achieved good resolution between the 5 suborders of rodent. As a novel finding it suggested a basal split that gave rise to a monophyletic group comprising Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. We asked whether the new tree could cast light on the evolution of the interh......A recent phylogenetic analysis achieved good resolution between the 5 suborders of rodent. As a novel finding it suggested a basal split that gave rise to a monophyletic group comprising Hystricomorpha and Sciuromorpha. We asked whether the new tree could cast light on the evolution...... of the interhaemal barrier in rodents where at least seven variants have been described. To supplement existing data we first examined the placenta of the common gundi, Ctenodactylus gundi. It was shown to be haemochorial with a single layer of syncytiotrophoblast in the interhaemal membrane but with nests...... of cytotrophoblast elsewhere. Next we used character mapping on the recent tree to determine the pattern of evolution of the placenta with respect to principal type (e.g. haemochorial) and the trophoblast found within the interhaemal barrier. This indicated that the common ancestor of living rodents had...

  15. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : reproductive performance after foal heat breeding versus breeding in a subsequent heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    Postpartum reproductive performance was studied in 54 Friesian brood mares with and 50 without retained placenta. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. The group of mares with retained placenta was subdivided into mares i

  16. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: A randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. van Beekhuizen (Heleen); A.B. Pembe (Andrea); H. Fauteck (Heiner); F.K. Lotgering (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger

  17. Treatment of retained placenta with misoprostol: a randomised controlled trial in a low-resource setting (Tanzania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Pembe, A.B.; Fauteck, H.; Lotgering, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retained placenta is one of the common causes of maternal mortality in developing countries where access to appropriate obstetrical care is limited. Current treatment of retained placenta is manual removal of the placenta under anaesthesia, which can only take place in larger health care

  18. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  19. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  20. Placenta previa and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Kancherla, Vijaya; Kramer, Michael R; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether there is an association between placenta previa and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn and to quantify the contribution of individual risk factors for SGA that are associated with placenta previa stratified by maternal parity. A cross-sectional study using the Finnish Medical Birth Register during 2000-2010. All singleton births (N=596,562) were included; major congenital anomalies were excluded. An association between SGA (less than 2 standard deviations below the mean) and placenta previa was modeled by parity-specific unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Placenta previa complicated 625 of 249,476 singleton births among nulliparous women (2.50/1,000) and 915 of 347,086 singleton births among multiparous women (2.64/1,000). Among nulliparous women, the most common risk factor for placenta previa was in vitro fertilization; placenta previa was not associated with an increased prevalence of SGA controlling for maternal age, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-1.17). Among multiparous women, placenta previa was associated with a twofold increased risk of SGA controlling for maternal age, parity, prior preterm birth, prior caesarean delivery, prior SGA newborn, prior preeclampsia, smoking, in vitro fertilization, socioeconomic status, and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.50-2.89). Furthermore, only one-fourth of the association between SGA and placenta previa could be explained by controlling for risk factors clustering with placenta previa among multiparous women. Placenta previa is associated with impaired fetal growth in multiparous but not nulliparous women. II.

  1. Decreased placental and maternal serum TRAIL-R2 levels are associated with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ersoy, Ebru; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Uygur, Dilek; Yucel, Aykan; Ergin, Merve; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) is produced both by decidual and trophoblast cells during pregnancy and known to participate in apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine and to compare maternal serum and placental TRAIL-R2 levels in patients with placenta accreta, non-adherent placenta previa and in healthy pregnancies. We also aimed to analyze the association of placenta accreta with the occurrence of previous C-sections. A total of 82 pregnant women were enrolled in this case-control study (27 placenta accreta patients, 26 non-adherent placenta previa patients and 29 age-, and BMI-matched healthy, uncomplicated pregnant controls). TRAIL-R2 levels were studied in both maternal serum and placental tissue homogenates. Determining the best predictor(s) which discriminate placenta accreta was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Both placental and serum TRAIL-R2 levels were significantly lower in placenta accreta group (median 34.82 pg/mg and 19.85 pg/mL, respectively) when compared with both non-adherent placenta previa (median 39.24 pg/mg and 25.99 pg/mL, respectively) and the control groups (median 41.62 pg/mg and 25.87 pg/mL, respectively) (p placenta accreta (OR: 0.934 95% CI 0.883-0.987, p = 0.016 and OR:7.725 95% CI: 2.717-21.965, p placenta accreta, suggesting a possible role of apoptosis in abnormal trophoblast invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adiaspiromicose humana. Relato de um caso tratado com cetoconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz M. Martins

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um caso de adiaspiromicose humana, da forma pulmonar disseminada, no qual se empregou o cetoconazol. O paciente, oriundo de Goianésia, GO, referia tosse produtiva, dispnéia e emagrecimento. Doente há dois meses, já fizera uso do esquema tríplice tuberculostático, devido a um radiograma do tórax ter acusado lesões sugestivas de tuberculose miliar. Esse tratamento não surtiu o efeito esperado, pelo que foi ele submetido a uma biópsia pulmonar a céu aberto. A medida permitiu o reconhecimento da natureza fúngica da doença. Passou-se, então, ao emprego do cetoconazol, quando o processo já completara três meses de evolução. Dois meses depois, foi o paciente novamente visto, para controle do tratamento: todas as manifestações respiratórias haviam cessado e um novo radiograma mostrou regressão completa das alterações pulmonares. Apesar disso, é discutida a eficácia do cetoconazol contra C. parvum var crescens, tendo-se em conta o fato de o microrganismo não se reproduzir no hospedeiro.A case of human disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis is reported. The patient, from Goianesia, GO, was admitted to the Brasilia University Hospital, in November 1992, with wet cough, dyspnea and weight loss3/4manifestations that had appeared two months before. Prior to admission, he had been treated for a suspected miliary tuberculosis, because a chest roentgenogram had shown a diffuse reticulonodular infiltrate in both lungs. This therapy brought no improvement to the patient status. An open chest biopsy was then performed, and the microscopic examination of the lung tissue revealed the fungal nature of the disease. Ketoconazole, 400mg/day, was started and the patient discharged from the hospital. He was seen again two months later: the respiratory manifestations had disappeared and a new chest roentgenogram showed complete resolution of the pulmonary lesions. The usefulness of ketoconazole is, however, questioned, since, as there

  3. Prenatal MRI diagnosis of placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta%前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的MRI产前诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华; 李丽红; 代海洋; 黎昕; 刘锦文

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的产前MRI诊断价值。材料与方法回顾性分析经手术病理证实的48例前置胎盘患者的临床及MRI资料,包括前置胎盘合并胎盘植入者12例,总结分析其MRI影像学特征。结果 MRI术前诊断前置胎盘43例,其中完全性前置胎盘31例,部分型前置胎盘9例,边缘型前置胎盘3例,总体诊断符合率为89.5%(43/48)。MRI术前正确诊断胎盘植入9例,诊断符合率为75.0%(9/12)。结论 MRI对前置胎盘及胎盘植入有较高的诊断价值,综合MR不同成像序列可提高术前诊断准确率。%Objective: To investigate the prenatal MRI imaging features of placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta.Materials and Methods:The clinical and MRI data of 48 cases of placenta previa including 12 placenta accreta conifrmed by clinic and surgery were retrospectively analyzed.Results: Forty-three cases of placenta previa were diagnosed by MRI pre-operation, including 31 cases of complete placenta previa, 9 cases of partial placenta previa and 3 cases of marginal placenta previa. The overall diagnose accordance rate was 89.5% (43/48). Nine cases of placenta accreta were diagnosed by MRI pre-operation, the diagnose accordance rate was 75.0% (9/12).Conclusions:MRI has a high accuracy for the diagnosis of placenta previa, the combination of different MR sequence can make accurate diagnosis possible.

  4. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  5. La consultoría de gestión humana en empresas medianas1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban López Zapata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es resultado de una investigación que busca describir el mercado de la consultoría de gestión humana para empresas medianas de Medellín. Se identifican el concepto y las características de la consultoría gerencial y se plantea su pertinencia para cada proceso de gestión humana. Con una muestra de 57 empresas medianas y 19 empresas consultoras, se analiza el comportamiento de la demanda y la oferta en el contexto local. Se identifican los atributos de las empresas demandantes y sus dependencias de gestión humana, la composición de las empresas consultoras, las necesidades y ofertas de consultoría actuales y futuras, el proceso de compra y las dificultades frecuentes de los proyectos de consultoría.

  6. Fundamentos filosóficos de la dignidad humana y su incidencia en los derechos humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Bardales, Coloníbol

    2015-01-01

    El ser humano tiene dos vidas. Una física y otra humana. Ambas son diferentes pero están íntimamente relacionadas. La vida humana no es biológica, no es la persona de carne y huesos; no son los músculos ni la masa encefálica, ni los demás órganos que le dan existencia física. Su origen se encuentra en la organización de la sociedad, en las instituciones sociales, y entre ellas, la familia es clave fundamental. La dignidad humana es el epicentro de la constitución política del Estado, base fil...

  7. LA GERENCIA DEL TALENTO HUMANO BAJO LA PERSPECTIVA DE LA CONDICIÓN HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMAR CABRALES SALAZAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo destaca la importancia de los atributos de la condición humana y del desarrollo del potencial humano en la optimización de las competencias de los gerentes de hoy. Se plantea que con el propósito de mejorar la gestión del talento humano y poder comprender y gestionar mejor a su equipo de trabajo, el gerente debe conocer cuáles son los atributos de la condición humana y cómo desarrollar las competencias para trabajarlos con optimismo, de manera tal que implemente estrategias para la mejora del talento de su gente. En este marco el talento se observa como una variable inagotable y susceptible de permanente desarrollo. El documento concluye haciendo un llamado al reconocimiento de la condición humana en las organizaciones, como estrategia necesaria para afrontar las inequidades de la sociedad actual.

  8. LA CONSULTORÍA DE GESTIÓN HUMANA EN EMPRESAS MEDIANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTEBAN LÓPEZ ZAPATA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es resultado de una investigación que busca describir el mercado de la consultoría de gestión humana para empresas medianas de Medellín. Se identifi can el concepto y las características de la consultoría gerencial y se plantea su pertinencia para cada proceso de gestión humana. Con una muestra de 57 empresas medianas y 19 empresas consultoras, se analiza el comportamiento de la demanda y la oferta en el contexto local. Se identifi can los atributos de las empresas demandantes y sus dependencias de gestión humana, la composición de las empresas consultoras, las necesidades y ofertas de consultoría actuales y futuras, el proceso de compra y las difi cultades frecuentes de los proyectos de consultoría.

  9. Clinical analysis of placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta%前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢培玲; 辛崇敏; 徐宝兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的高危因素、临床特点、诊断及治疗.方法 对日照市中医医院4年间8 964例产妇中12例前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的患者资料进行分析.结果 在8 964例产妇中前置胎盘发生率为0.97%(87/8 964);87例前置胎盘患者均为多孕次产妇,经产妇占58.62%(51/87),高龄产妇占65.52%(57/87).前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的发生率为0.13%(12/8 964),占前置胎盘的13.79%(12/87),有前次剖宫产史者占83.33%(10/12),凶险型前置胎盘并胎盘植入至原子宫切口瘢痕处3例,占25.00%(3/12).植入组前次剖宫产史率明显高于对照组(χ2=17.789,P<0.01).结论 随着剖宫产率的提高,前置胎盘合并胎盘植入发生率也在不断升高,前置胎盘合并胎盘植入的发生与瘢痕子宫密切相关,因此要重视对其进行早期诊断及合理治疗,改善母婴结局.%Objective To investigate the risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of placenta previa complicated with placenta accrete. Methods 12 cases of placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta diagnosed in Rizhao Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine in recent 4 years were analyzed. Results Among 8 964 deliveries, the incidence of placenta previa was 0.97% ( 87/8 964 ). All of 87 cases of placenta previa were multiple pregnancy women. Multipara occupied 58.62%( 51/87 ) and elder gravida occupied 65.52% ( 57/87 ). The incidence of placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta was 0.13%( 12/8 964 ), occupying 13.79%( 12/87 ) of the placenta previa. Patients with previous cesarean section histrory accounted for 83.33%( 10/12 ). There were 3 cases of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta at original uterine incesion scar, occuping 25.00% ( 3/12 ). The rate of previous cesarean section histroy in the group with placenta accreta was obviously higher than that in control group ( X2 = 17. 789, P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The

  10. Manual Removal of the Placenta after Vaginal Delivery: An Unsolved Problem in Obstetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Urner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH, which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. Active management of the third stage of labour is generally accepted as standard of care as already its duration is contributing to the risk of PPH. Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. Pathologic adhesion of the placenta in the low risk situation usually is diagnosed at the time of delivery; therefore a pre- or intrapartum screening opportunity for placenta accreta would be desirable. But diagnosis of abnormalities of placentation other than placenta previa remains a challenge. Nevertheless the use of ultrasound and doppler sonography might be helpful in the third stage of labor. An improvement might be the implementation of standardized operating procedures for retained placenta which could contribute to a reduction of maternal morbidity.

  11. The placenta and neurologic and psychiatric outcomes in the child: study design matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K B; Blair, E

    2011-09-01

    Much information exists about functions of the human placenta and about potential mechanisms by which the placenta may influence human health or disease, including developmental disorders of brain. Recent studies indicate a high frequency of placental pathology in infants with developmental brain disorders, or with risk factors for such disorders. However, most clinical studies of the association of placental features with adverse neurologic or psychiatric outcome have substantial methodologic limitations. We discuss issues of study design as they relate to studies of the placenta and human brain disorders. In addition to the need for further consensus on procedures and terminology for placental evaluation, there are a number of special features that make clinical studies of the association of placental features with neurologic and psychiatric disorders especially difficult: most such disorders are not diagnosed until months or years after the majority of placentas have been discarded; these disorders are individually uncommon, so that prospective studies - needed to provide denominator data to enable estimation of risks - will require very large sample sizes; the administrative structures required to relate features of the placenta with clinical outcome will be complicated and costly. We offer some suggestions concerning study design in the face of these practical difficulties. Systematic and methodologically rigorous exploration of the role of the placenta in human developmental brain disorders has scarcely begun. A new generation of studies, difficult but potentially enormously rewarding, will be needed for clinical investigations of the placenta and fetal brain development.

  12. Different characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different layers of full term placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin A; Heo, Jin-Chul; Han, Woo-Jung; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics. Methods Placenta was divided into amniotic epithelium (AE), amniotic membrane (AM), chorionic membrane (CM), chorionic villi (CV), chorionic trophoblast without villi (CT-V), decidua (DC), and whole placenta (Pla). Cells isolated from each layer were subjected to analyses for their morphology, proliferation ability, surface markers, and multi-lineage differentiation potential. MSCs were isolated from all placental layers and their characteristics were compared. Findings Surface antigen phenotype, morphology, and differentiation characteristics of cells from all layers indicated that they exhibited properties of MSCs. MSCs from different placental layers had different proliferation rates and differentiation potentials. MSCs from CM, CT-V, CV, and DC had better population doubling time and multi-lineage differentiation potentials compared to those from other layers. Conclusions Our results indicate that MSCs with different characteristics can be isolated from all layers of term placenta. These finding suggest that it is necessary to appropriately select MSCs from different placental layers for successful and consistent outcomes in clinical applications. PMID:28225815

  13. Expression of cystathionine beta-synthase and histopathological observations in placentas of patients with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, J Martínez; Ayala-Ramírez, P; García-Robles, R; Olaya-C, M; Bermúdez, M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most frequent aneuploidy in live births, with an overall frequency of 1/600-700 births. The overexpression of cystathionine β-synthase is thought to participate in the presentation of some phenotypes observed in Down syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of cystathionine β-synthase and histopathological observations from placentas of infants with Down syndrome and healthy newborns. Six placentas of fetuses/infants with Down syndrome and sixteen placentas of healthy fetuses were studied. Cystathionine β-synthase mRNA and protein expression were performed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We observed an increase in cystathionine β-synthase mRNA expression (p = 0.0465) and protein levels (p = 0.009) in placentas of fetus/infants with Down syndrome compared with controls. Significantly more circinate edges (p = 0.0007) and trophoblast inclusions (p = 0.0037) were observed in the group with Down syndrome compared with control group. The results demonstrate overexpression of cystathionine β-synthase mRNA and protein in placentas of fetuses/infants with trisomy 21. Further histological abnormalities were found in placentas of patients with Down syndrome, suggesting an alteration in the development of placenta.

  14. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Jeong, Eun-Hwan

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique.

  15. Placenta previa: an outcome-based cohort study in a contemporary obstetric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ann K; Hibbard, Judith U

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the study is to characterize the maternal and neonatal morbidities of women with placenta previa. This retrospective group study used the Consortium on Safe Labor electronic database, including 12 clinical centers, and 19 hospitals. Patients with placenta previa noted at the time of delivery were included. Maternal and neonatal variables were compared to a control group of women undergoing cesarean delivery with no previa. Logistic regression and general linear regression were used for the analysis, with p placenta previa group and 18,617 in the control group. Neonates born to mothers with placenta previa had lower gestational ages and birth weights. In univariate analysis only, these neonates were at increased risk of lower 5 min Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, anemia, respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and intraventricular hemorrhage. There was no association of placenta previa with small for gestational age infants, congenital anomalies or death. As previously shown, women with placenta previa have significantly more maternal morbidities. Increased maternal morbidity was noted; however, only those neonatal morbidities associated with preterm delivery occurred in the placenta previa group.

  16. Manual Removal of the Placenta after Vaginal Delivery: An Unsolved Problem in Obstetrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more difficult to establish. Active management of the third stage of labour is generally accepted as standard of care as already its duration is contributing to the risk of PPH. Despite scant evidence it is commonly advised that if the placenta has not been expelled 30 minutes after delivery, manual removal of the placenta should be carried out under anaesthesia. Pathologic adhesion of the placenta in the low risk situation usually is diagnosed at the time of delivery; therefore a pre- or intrapartum screening opportunity for placenta accreta would be desirable. But diagnosis of abnormalities of placentation other than placenta previa remains a challenge. Nevertheless the use of ultrasound and doppler sonography might be helpful in the third stage of labor. An improvement might be the implementation of standardized operating procedures for retained placenta which could contribute to a reduction of maternal morbidity. PMID:24812585

  17. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Saleh Gargari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (P<0.001 and history of stillbirth (OR=117.2, CI=58.3-236.0. In the other hand, the most substantial outcome of this disorder was a reduction of gestational age (P<0.001 and low birth weight neonatally (P<0.001. The conservative follow-up should be programmed for women with placenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  18. Changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa and association with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tülek, Fırat; Kahraman, Alper; Taşkın, Salih; Özkavukçu, Esra; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    To assess the possible changes in first trimester screening test parameters in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and to determine whether there is an association between hyperemesis gravidarum and placenta previa. A total of 131 singleton spontaneously conceived pregnancies that were complicated by placenta previa and delivered between May 2006 and May 2013 were evaluated from birth charts. Ninety patients without placenta previa were selected amongst patients who delivered within the same period of time as the control group. Cases of low lying placenta (n=52) within the study group were assessed as a separate group. The rest of the cases was considered to be in a different group. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) multiples of medians (MoMs) and nuchal translucency (NT) MoMs were significantly higher in the placenta previa group in comparison with the low lying placenta and control groups. Apgar scores at both the 1st and 5th minutes were significantly lower in the placenta previa group. Hyperemesis gravidarum was found to be significantly more frequent in the placenta previa group. The prevalence of hyperemesis gravidarum in the first trimester is higher in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. Paying more attention to the development of placenta previa in the routine pregnancy follow-up of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum could be considered.

  19. MUROS ABSURDOS E CONDIÇÃO HUMANA NA OBRA DE ALBERT CAMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Oliveira Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Albert Camus descreve a condição humana como sendo contingente, frágil e absurda, para isso ele utiliza a noção de “muros absurdos”, que são situações que enfrentamos e contra as quais não podemos escapar. Se a princípio, a morte, a velhice, a desumanidade parecem experiências banais, no pensamento camusiano, elas se revelam como possibilidade de tomada de consciência do absurdo de nossa condição. Palavras-chave: absurdo; condição humana; consciência.

  20. La familia, experiencia humana y sacramento de salvación

    OpenAIRE

    Corpas de Posada, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Más que una categoría socioantropológica, la familia es una experiencia humana fundamentada en la calidad de las relaciones entre sus miembros, que se abre a la trascendencia y es capaz de transignificar, es decir, ser signo e instrumento del amor y la salvación de Dios. La intención del presente artículo es abordar la dimensión personal y social de la experiencia humana de familia, al mismo tiempo que su dimensión sacramental y eclesial como sacramento de salvación, a las cuales corresponden...

  1. Reflexões Bioéticas Sobre Sexualidade e Reprodução Humana

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Siqueira

    2007-01-01

    Los avances producidos por los modernos métodos de control de la natalidad y de la fertilización humana asistida introdujeron en la reflexión ética nuevos valores como dignidad personal,autonomia y paternidad responsable. Loa antíguos preceptos de sumisión a la moralidad heterogénea de la Ley Natural fueronsustituidos por una ética de reflexión autónoma en los campos de la sexualidad y reproducción humana asistida.

  2. El discernimiento ético de la pareja humana. Un don, una tarea

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, José Silvio

    2010-01-01

    "El discernimiento ético de la pareja humana, un don, una tarea” es una reflexión dirigida a las parejas en vista a a ayudarles a tomar conciencia de su capacidad de discernimiento y de responsabilidad de frente a los conflictos que las ‘antinomias’ de la existencia humana (ley-libertad, doctrina-vida, norma-situación concreta) les plantean a diario. La enseñanza del post-Concilio Vaticano II reconoce a las parejas de esposos la capacidad de discernir y decidir siguiendo el dictamen de la con...

  3. Reflexões Bioéticas Sobre Sexualidade e Reprodução Humana

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo de Siqueira

    2007-01-01

    Los avances producidos por los modernos métodos de control de la natalidad y de la fertilización humana asistida introdujeron en la reflexión ética nuevos valores como dignidad personal,autonomia y paternidad responsable. Loa antíguos preceptos de sumisión a la moralidad heterogénea de la Ley Natural fueronsustituidos por una ética de reflexión autónoma en los campos de la sexualidad y reproducción humana asistida.

  4. Estudo correlacional entre o Teste de Pfister e o Desenho da Figura Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,Lucila Moraes; Capitão,Cláudio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo buscar as correlações existentes entre os indicadores emocionais e cognitivos das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister e do Desenho da Figura Humana, tanto no sistema DFH-Koppitz como no DFH-Sisto. As técnicas das Pirâmides Coloridas de Pfister (TPC) e do Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH) são instrumentos projetivos que permitem que se conheçam aspectos da personalidade de quem os executa. De acordo com a literatura, os dois métodos medem o mesmo construto, justificando ...

  5. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  6. Thrombophilia prevalence among women with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Charlotte; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of thrombophilia in patients with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC). METHODS: Patients referred for thrombophilia testing at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, owing to PMPC between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, were included...... in the present retrospective study. Data collected from patient medical records included the type of PMPC, history of previous thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 103 patients were included in the study; 25 (24.3%) were diagnosed with thrombophilia. Among the study population......, factor V Leiden was the most dominant thrombophilia and was diagnosed in 11 (10.7%) patients (compared with 7% prevalence in the general population). The prevalence of all thrombophilias (except prothrombin mutation) was significantly higher in patients with PMPC in comparison with the reported...

  7. Radical scavenging activity of ribonuclease inhibitor from cow placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Haiping

    2006-05-01

    Cow placenta ribonuclease inhibitor (CPRI) has been purified 5062-fold by affinity chromatography, the product being homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the radical scavenging activities of CPRI toward different reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion (O2-*), hydroxyl radical (OH*), lipid-derived radicals (R*), and singlet oxygen (1O2). CPRI could effectively scavenge O2-*, OH*, R*, and 1O2 at EC50 of 0.12, 0.008, 0.009, and 0.006 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, the radical scavenging activities of CPRI were higher than those of tea polyphenols, indicating that CPRI is a powerful antioxidant.

  8. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D; Duus, Karen; Højrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx (sCnx) was consistently identified in a separate ion exchange chromatography peak. The sCnx was further purified and characterised. This showed that the protein had been cleaved after residue 472 (between Gln and Met), thus liberating it from the transmembrane and cytoplasmic parts of Cnx. The extraction and initial purification steps were carried out in the presence of protease inhibitors, thus ruling out that the cleavage was an artefact of the isolation procedure. This indicates that sCnx may have a physiological chaperone function similar to that of Crt.

  9. [HISTOLOGYCAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AREOLAE IN THE PIG PLACENTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraziev, R Z

    2015-01-01

    Rounded white lustreless dome-shaped wheels are detected by visually from allantochorion side in the in fetal areas epiteliochorial pig's placenta on day 30 of pregnancy. These structures are located over the opening of the uterine glands. Areolaes consist from maternal and foetal parts. Areola include glandular epithelium, chorial and endometrial stroma at the mouth of the uterine glands, areolar cavity-enhanced formed by endometrial and chorial invaginations. Chorion gives in cavity radial folds lining differences high epithelium. Glycogen, neutral and acid sulfated glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronates, total and cationic protein, RNA, arginine, gistidine, lysin were founded in structural components of areoles during gestation period. Numerous areolas serve as specialized sites for absorption the secrets of uterine glands; they are form a powerful functional system of histotrophic nutrition.

  10. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  11. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of Pl......GF and summarize data on expression of PlGF in cancer patients. Data from early-phase clinical trials of TB-403 (RO5323441), a monoclonal antibody inhibiting PlGF, are discussed. Future development strategies, therapeutic potentials and limitations of TB-403 are further evaluated. EXPERT OPINION: There are some...... conflicting data on the function of PlGF and the importance of its role in primary tumor growth. Data from some preclinical models of PlGF inhibition and early-phase clinical trials with TB-403 are, however, promising, although the true potential of the drug is yet to be determined. Further clinical...

  12. Buenas prácticas de manufactura en Bancos de Leche Humana de la Red Nacional de Bancos de Leche Humana de Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evany Guzmán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo verificar el cumplimiento de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura (BPM en siete Bancos de Leche Humana (BLH de la Red Nacional, estableciendo las condiciones y recomendaciones de infraestructura, equipos, procesos, procedimientos y personal para el mejoramiento de los BLH con el fin de asegurar su adecuado funcionamiento. Se realizó una auditoría diagnóstica evaluando las condiciones de BPM en los BLH de la Red Nacional utilizando la ficha de inspección de BPM del Reglamento Técnico Centroamericano (RTCA 67.01.33:06. La información recolectada se analizó mediante estadística descriptiva calculando un valor sobre 100 puntos, con el fin de valorar las condiciones y realizar un informe donde se detallaron las deficiencias y recomendaciones para mejorar el sistema y garantizar leche humana inocua, que fue entregado a cada BLH evaluado. Los BLH del Hospital General San Juan de Dios (HGSJD y del Hospital Regional de Antigua Guatemala obtuvieron punteos que indica que poseen buenas condiciones y son aptas para procesar la leche humana; los BLH del Hospital Regional de Cobán y Puerto Barrios con regulares condiciones con correcciones para el proceso con riesgo de contaminación; los BLH de Santa Rosa y Totonicapán con condiciones ineficientes que urge corregir y el BLH de Zacapa obtuvo punteo que indica condiciones inaceptables que sugieren considerar el cierre. La mayoría de BLH posee deficiencias claras, sin embargo, son aptos para procesar la leche humana con resultados inocuos con excepción del BLH de Zacapa.

  13. Barrier Capacity of Human Placenta for Nanosized Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Peter; Malek, Antoine; Manser, Pius; Meili, Danielle; Maeder-Althaus, Xenia; Diener, Liliane; Diener, Pierre-Andre; Zisch, Andreas; Krug, Harald F.; von Mandach, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans have been exposed to fine and ultrafine particles throughout their history. Since the Industrial Revolution, sources, doses, and types of nanoparticles have changed dramatically. In the last decade, the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology has led to an increase of engineered nanoparticles with novel physical and chemical properties. Regardless of whether this exposure is unintended or not, a careful assessment of possible adverse effects is needed. A large number of projects have been carried out to assess the consequences of combustion-derived or engineered nanoparticle exposure on human health. In recent years there has been a growing concern about the possible health influence of exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy, hence an implicit concern about potential risk for nanoparticle exposure in utero. Previous work has not addressed the question of whether nanoparticles may cross the placenta. Objective In this study we investigated whether particles can cross the placental barrier and affect the fetus. Methods We used the ex vivo human placental perfusion model to investigate whether nanoparticles can cross this barrier and whether this process is size dependent. Fluorescently labeled polystyrene beads with diameters of 50, 80, 240, and 500 nm were chosen as model particles. Results We showed that fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameter up to 240 nm were taken up by the placenta and were able to cross the placental barrier without affecting the viability of the placental explant. Conclusions The findings suggest that nanomaterials have the potential for transplacental transfer and underscore the need for further nanotoxicologic studies on this important organ system. PMID:20064770

  14. Intraoperative bleeding control during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with transient occlusion of uterine arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Joung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soo-Jung; Kwack, Jae Young; Kwon, Yong Soon

    2015-11-01

    There are few methods to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of placenta previa. Transient occlusion of uterine arteries (TOUA) during operation has previously been reported as a quick and safe method to control intra-operative uterine bleeding. We reported 2 cases of cesarean delivery with complete placenta previa in which TOUA was performed to safely reduce intra-operative complication, especially heavy intra-operative bleeding. In the 2 cases, cesarean deliveries were safe and without any complications under the TOUA method. TOUA can be a good method to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with risk of heavy bleeding.

  15. Placenta previa percreta left in situ - management by delayed hysterectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovic Vedran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Placenta percreta is an obstetric emergency often associated with massive hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old African woman, gravida 7, para 5, with placenta percreta managed by an alternative approach: the placenta was left in situ, methotrexate was administered, and a delayed hysterectomy was successfully performed. Conclusions Further studies are needed to develop the most appropriate management option for the most severe cases of abnormal placentation. Delayed hysterectomy may be a reasonable strategy in the most severe cases.

  16. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  17. A 3D co-culture microtissue model of the human placenta for nanotoxicity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muoth, Carina; Wichser, Adrian; Monopoli, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking. Using the scaffold-free hanging drop technology, we developed a well-organized...... and highly reproducible 3D co-culture microtissue (MT) model consisting of a core of placental fibroblasts surrounded by a trophoblast cell layer, which resembles the structure of the in vivo placental tissue. We could show that secretion levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were significantly higher...

  18. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os mecanismos de ação da lactoferrina humana na proteção de morbidades gastrintestinais. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão não sistemática da literatura utilizando como estratégia de busca pesquisa bibliográfica em bases de dados, as quais incluíram SciELO, Lilacs e MedLine entre 1990 e 2011. Os descritores utilizados foram: lactoferrina, leite materno/humano, gastrintestinal e imunidade, nos idiomas português e inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A lactoferrina é a segunda proteína predominante no leite humano, com concentrações mais elevadas no colostro (5,0 a 6,7mg/mL em relação ao leite maduro (0,2 a 2,6mg/mL. Em contraste, o leite de vaca contém teores inferiores, 0,83mg/mL no colostro e 0,09mg/mL no leite maduro. A lactoferrina desempenha diversas funções fisiológicas na proteção do trato gastrintestinal. A atividade antimicrobiana está relacionada à capacidade de sequestrar ferro dos fluidos biológicos e/ou de desestruturar a membrana de micro-organismos. A lactoferrina possui também a capacidade de estimular a proliferação celular. A ação anti-inflamatória desempenhada pela lactoferrina está associada à capacidade de penetrar no núcleo do leucócito e bloquear a transcrição do fator nuclear Kappa B. Diante da importância da lactoferrina na prevenção de doenças infecciosas em crianças aleitadas ao peito, a indústria vem, por meio da engenharia genética, desenvolvendo tecnologias para expressar esta proteína recombinante humana em plantas e animais, na tentativa de adequar a composição das fórmulas infantis àquela do leite humano. CONCLUSÕES: A lactoferrina humana é um peptídeo com potencial para prevenir morbidades, especialmente às gastrintestinais. Evidências científicas dos efeitos protetores da lactoferrina humana fortalecem ainda mais a recomendação para prática do aleitamento materno.OBJETIVO: Describir los mecanismos de acción de la lactoferrina humana en la protecci

  19. Entre libertad y determinismo. Genes, cerebro y ambiente en la conducta humana. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cuadrado, J.A. (José Ángel)

    2008-01-01

    Reseña de Luis M» GONZALO SANZ, Entre libertad y determinismo. Genes, cerebro y ambiente en la conducta humana. Cristiandad (Colección Ciencia y Fe), Madrid 2007, 231 pp., 10,5 X 17,5, ISBN 978- 84-7057-519-8.

  20. Ocorrência de fascioliasis humana no município de Volta Redonda, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pile

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Através do resultado de exames coprológicos realizados em pacientes atendidos em postos de saúde e hospitais do município de Volta Redonda, assinala-se a primeira ocorrência da fascioliasis humana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  1. Humana looks to ISO registration to address quality improvement and customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Seeking new ways to improve standardization of clinical operations and customer focus, Louisville, KY-based Humana, Inc. announced in November that it has become the first healthcare company to be registered in the U.S. under ISO 9001:2000, a quality management standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

  2. Hacia una Salud Pública Pluralista: El Caso de los Plaguicidas y la Salud Humana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Idrovo, Álvaro Javier

    2005-01-01

    .... El caso de los plaguicidas y los efectos en la salud humana es usado como ejemplo para mostrar los aportes y limitaciones de diferentes modelos teóricos en salud pública (sanitarista, biomédico, epidemiológico...

  3. La comunicación humana : principios básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Viana Orta, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Principios básicos de la comunicación humana. Comunicación oral, no verbal y persuasiva. El material forma parte de cursos de formación en temas de resolución de conflictos, comunicación y mediación.

  4. La clonación humana y el problema de la identidad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calise, Santiago Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    ... technique.El siguiente trabajo se propone indagar los problemas que la clonación humana acarrearía para la identidad, debido a que este concepto se ha erigido en uno de los principales argumentos para intentar fundamentar...

  5. La comunicación humana : principios básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Viana Orta, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Principios básicos de la comunicación humana. Comunicación oral, no verbal y persuasiva. El material forma parte de cursos de formación en temas de resolución de conflictos, comunicación y mediación.

  6. Recent advances in the study of active endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei; Zhang; Jing; Shi; Shuying; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses(ERVs) are a component of the vertebrate genome and originate from exogenous infections of retroviruses in the germline of the host. ERVs have coevolved with their hosts over millions of years. Envelope glycoproteins of endogenous retroviruses are often expressed in the mammalian placenta, and their potential function has aroused considerable research interest, including the manipulation of maternal physiology to benefit the fetus. In most mammalian species, trophoblast fusion in the placenta is an important event, involving the formation of a multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer to fulfill essential fetomaternal exchange functions. The key function in this process derives from the envelope genes of endogenous retroviruses, namely syncytins, which show fusogenic properties and placenta-specific expression. This review discusses the important role of the recognized endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta.

  7. Maternal Death Due to Placenta Percreta with Bladder Involvement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ayati M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placenta accreta is a life-threatening complication after previous cesarean delivery. The aim of this case report is to present a case of placenta percreta with bladder involvement and subsequent maternal death.Case presentation: The patient was a 37-year old who had an unwanted pregnancy due to tubectomy failure two years afterwards. She was hospitalized at 26th and 30th week of gestation because of gross hematuria. Sonography reported placenta previa. Cesarean section was performed at 34th gestational week. Due to severe hemorrhage, hysterectomy with resection of some part of the bladder was done. Died at the operating room after four hours of severe uncontrollable hemorrhage. Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of different forms of placenta accreta is the result of the ever-increasing rate of cesarean deliveries. One of the strategies to prevent this catastrophic obstetric complication is decreasing the number of cesarean deliveries without appropriate indications.

  8. Role of Doppler US and MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Hamisa

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, data of the present study show that the use of transabdominal color Doppler ultrasonography complemented by MRI in suspected cases improves the diagnostic accuracy in prediction of placenta accreta in patients with previous cesarean delivery.

  9. Expression of Androgen Receptor in Human Placentas from Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Yao Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: These data suggest that the increased AR expression may alter AR-mediated function on syncytiotrophoblasts and stromal cells in PE placentas, and be a possible mechanism for its association with preeclampsia.

  10. The Triple-P procedure as a conservative surgical alternative to peripartum hysterectomy for placenta percreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Rao, Sridevi; Belli, Anna-Maria; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2012-05-01

    The reported maternal mortality for morbidly adherent placenta ranges from 7% to 10% worldwide. Current treatment modalities for this potentially life-threatening condition include radical approaches such as elective peripartum hysterectomy with or without bowel/bladder resection or ureteric re-implantation (for placenta percreta infiltrating these organs), and conservative measures such as compression sutures with balloon tamponade and the placenta remaining in situ. However, both conservative and radical measures are associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. The present article describes the Triple-P procedure-which involves perioperative placental localization and delivery of the fetus via transverse uterine incision above the upper border of the placenta; pelvic devascularization; and placental non-separation with myometrial excision and reconstruction of the uterine wall-as a safe and effective alternative to conservative management or peripartum hysterectomy. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-09

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

  12. Ki-67 proliferation index in patients with placenta previa percreta in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, Nese; Kocarslan, Sezen; Vural, Mehmet; Incebiyik, Adnan; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate proliferative capacity of placenta previa percreta in the third trimester via evaluating Ki-67 proliferating index. The paraffin blocks of placental tissues, which were obtained from the patients who underwent hysterectomy for placenta previa percreta (n = 12, gestational age > 28 weeks), from legal abortions (n = 12, gestational age  38 weeks), between January 2011 and April 2013, were included into the study. The paraffin blocks of the patients were stained with Ki-67 (proliferating cell marker) immunohistochemically, and Ki-67 proliferation index levels were calculated. Ki-67 proliferation index levels were higher in patients with legal abortions than patients with placenta percreta or noncomplicated cesarean delivery group. However, any statistically significant difference was not detected between the percreta and noncomplicated groups (p > 0.05). The tissue samples of the patients with placenta previa percreta exhibited low proliferative capacity similar to the samples of normal placentation group.

  13. Thomas Huxley and the rat placenta in the early debates on evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L

    2004-01-01

    The 19th century debates on mammalian classification in the light of the new evolutionary thinking led to controversies between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen concerning the value of the placenta as a representative key organ. As a main point in his argument, Huxley provided a detailed description of a sectioned rat placenta, highlighting the importance of decidualization of the uterus as an argument supporting an evolutionary relationship between rodents, insectivores and primates, an idea hotly contested by Owen. In addition, he illustrated and correctly interpreted the maternal blood supply from uterus to placenta in striking detail. During the succeeding decades the key role of trophoblast in placenta formation was discovered, and the decidua became neglected in later comparative studies. Nevertheless, at the present time trophoblast-decidual interaction is regarded as an extremely important feature of placental development in both primates and rodents, and Huxley can therefore rightfully be considered as an early pioneer in placental research.

  14. Longitudinal parallel compression suture to control postopartum hemorrhage due to placenta previa and accrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Tai Li

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Longitudinal parallel compression suture is a safe, easy, effective, practical, and conservative surgical technique to stop intractable PPH from the lower uterine segment, particularly in women who have a cesarean scar and placenta previa/accreta.

  15. Apoptotic and stress signaling markers are augmented in preeclamptic placenta and umbilical cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda H. Afroze

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Apoptotic and stress signaling are augmented in preE placenta and cord tissue that alter the intrauterine environment and activates the detrimental signaling that is transported to fetus.

  16. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elane C; Miles, Jeremy R; Lents, Clay A; Rempel, Lea A

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient placenta development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 days of gestation. Between day 22 and 42 the placenta consists of a central highly vascular placenta (HVP), adjacent to the fetus, a less vascular placenta (LVP), on either side of the fetus, and necrotic tips (NT). The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate uterine-placenta characteristics during early gestation in the gilt and determine time points and physiological changes. Gilts (n=25) were artificially inseminated at first detection of estrus (day 0) and 24h later, and harvested at 22, 27, 32, 37 or 42 days of gestation. Litter size, 12.1±3.4, was similar for all days of gestation. Fetal and placenta weight increased with day of gestation. The greatest increase in placenta weight occurred between 37 and 42 days of gestation. The LVP zones had no measurable fold formation until day 27. Necrotic tips became apparent after 27 days of gestation. Unoccupied areas of the uterus developed folds with changes in endometrial cell size and morphology from day 32 to 42 of gestation. Limited changes occurred in either fetal growth or placenta weight from day 27 through 32 of gestation; however, significant morphological changes occur at the maternal-fetal interface, demonstrating the dynamic architecture of the developing porcine placenta during early gestation. This work establishes fundamental time points in placenta development corresponding to fetal growth and microfold formation that may influence fetal growth and impact fetal survival.

  17. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Asra Anjum; D.Suseelamma; S. Saritha; T V Ramani; D. Nagajyothi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, patholog...

  18. Asymptomatic "placental prolapse" with cervical funneling in a patient with complete placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, Henry; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Bronshtein, Elena; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-02-01

    We describe the transvaginal sonographic findings in a patient with complete placenta previa and increased risk of preterm birth owing to a prior history of mid-trimester pregnancy loss in whom we observed a short cervix and prolapse of the placenta and fetal membranes into the endocervical canal. We believe that this could lead to antepartum hemorrhage and mandate close observation when diagnosed. We introduced the term "placental prolapse" to describe our finding.

  19. Creation of plastinated placentas as a novel teaching resource for medical education in obstetrics and gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Karalyn E; Davies, Gregory A L; Easteal, Ronald A; Smith, Graeme N

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of the gross anatomy of the placenta is fundamental in order to help identify potential complications during pregnancy. The placenta is difficult to study without a three-dimensional appreciation of its structure. The aim of this study was to develop a collection of plastinated placenta specimens and accompanying clinical educational materials to provide learning resources for placental abnormalities and their associated pregnancy outcomes. These plastinates and educational modules were used as teaching resources for both undergraduate and post-graduate medical trainees in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Placentas were plastinated by S10 silicone plastination. Clinical education materials were created that included ultrasound images, photographs and information on the associated pregnancy outcomes. Utility of the plastinates was assessed using questionnaires completed by 70 medical students and 33 attendees at the 8th and 9th Annual International Human Placenta Workshop held at Queen's University, Kingston, ON. Attendees included graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, medical residents, research investigators and clinicians. Data collected demonstrated that 76.7% of medical student (n = 60) and 78.1% of Placenta Workshop attendees (n = 32) preferred plastinates as a supplemental learning resource compared to textbooks and images alone (36.7% and 37.5% respectively). All respondents also expressed the desire to have plastinated placentas available for future learning opportunities. Plastinated placentas are a valuable addition as teaching resources for many demographic groups with an interest in placental anatomy and pathology. Medical trainees and residents in Obstetrics and Gynaecology would benefit from the availability of plastinates as educational tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comprehensive investigation of DNA methylation and gene expression in trisomy 21 placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Shin Young; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Park, So Yeon; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2016-06-01

    Trisomy 21 (T21) is the most common aneuploidy affecting humans and is caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21 (chr21). DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that plays an important role in human diseases via regulation of gene expression. However, the integrative association between DNA methylation and gene expression in T21 fetal placenta has yet to be determined. We profiled expression of 207 genes on chr21 and their DNA methylation patterns in placenta samples from normal and DS fetuses using microarray analysis and predicted the functions of differentially expressed genes using bioinformatics tools. We found 47 genes with significantly increased expression in the T21 placenta compared to the normal placenta. Hypomethylation of the 47 genes was observed in the T21 placenta. Most of hypomethylated DNA positions were intragenic regions, i.e. regions inside a gene. Moreover, gene expression and hypomethylated DNA position showed significantly positive associations. By analyzing the properties of the gene-disease network, we found that increased genes in the T21 placenta were significantly associated with T21 and T21 complications such as mental retardation, neurobehavioral manifestations, and congenital abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively survey the association between gene expression and DNA methylation in chr21 of the T21 fetal placenta. Our findings provide a broad overview of the relationships between gene expression and DNA methylation in the placentas of fetuses with T21 and could contribute to future research efforts concerning genes involvement in disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraoxonase 2 protein is spatially expressed in the human placenta and selectively reduced in labour

    OpenAIRE

    Alwarfaly, Samy; Abdulsid, Akrem; Hanretty, Kevin; Lyall, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Humans parturition involves interaction of hormonal, neurological, mechanical stretch and inflammatory pathways and the placenta plays a crucial role. The paraoxonases (PONs 1–3) protect against oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulation of apoptosis. Nothing is known about the role of PON2 in the placenta and labour. Since PON2 plays a role in oxidative stress and inflammation, both features of labour, we hypothesised that placental PON...

  2. A comparative study of neonatal outcomes in placenta previa versus cesarean for other indication at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Megan; Balayla, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Currently, no ACOG guidelines address the issue of the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa. Though there is an increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality when electively delivered preterm, it is unclear whether adverse neonatal outcomes exist when these pregnancies make it beyond term. By comparing neonatal outcomes amongst pregnancies with placenta previa versus those from cesarean for another indication at term, the objective of this study was to determine whether placenta previa is an independent risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes at term. We conducted a population-based cohort-study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States. The effect of placenta previa on the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 3,550,842 deliveries meeting inclusion criteria. The incidence of placenta previa at term was 1.3/1000 (n = 4,492), accounting for 40.6% of all previa cases. Relative to cesareans for other indications, pregnancies with placenta previa had an increased risk of IUGR 3.20 [2.50-4.10], SGA 2.70 [2.45-2.97], respiratory distress 3.82 [2.91-5.00], prolonged ventilation 3.41 [2.70-4.32] and neonatal anemia 6.87 [4.43-10.65]. Rates of meconium aspiration syndrome, seizures, birth injury and overall infant mortality do not appear to be affected by this condition. Relative to cesareans for other indications, placenta previa is associated with increased morbidity, but not mortality, at term. This information might be helpful in the development of future guidelines, which are currently needed to guide and standardize clinical practice regarding the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa.

  3. Placenta previa and risk of major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Heinonen, Seppo

    2015-06-01

    Placenta previa has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but its association with congenital malformations is inconclusive. We examined the association between placenta previa and major congenital malformations among singleton births in Finland. We performed a retrospective population register-based study on all singletons born at or after 22+0 weeks of gestation in Finland during 2000 to 2010. We linked three national health registers: the Finnish Medical Birth Register, the Hospital Discharge Register, and the Register of Congenital Malformations, and examined several demographic and clinical characteristics among women with and without placenta previa, in association with major congenital malformations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of placenta previa was estimated as 2.65 per 1000 singleton births in Finland (95% confidence interval, 2.53-2.79). Overall, 6.2% of women with placenta previa delivered a singleton infant with a major congenital malformation, compared with 3.8% of unaffected women (p ≤ 0.001). Placenta previa was positively associated with almost 1.6-fold increased risk of major congenital malformations in the offspring, after controlling for maternal age, parity, fetal sex, smoking, socio-economic status, chorionic villus biopsy, In vitro fertilization, pre-existing diabetes, depression, preeclampsia, and prior caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.90). Using a large population-based study, we found that placenta previa was weakly, but significantly associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations in singleton births. Future studies should examine the association between placenta previa and individual types of congenital malformations, specifically in high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [The Application of Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion in Pernicious Placenta Previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Xing-Hui; You, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Rong; Xing, Ai-Yun; Zhang, Li; Ning, Gang; Zhao, Fu-Min; Li, Kai-Ming

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical application value of internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in pernicious placenta previa. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients of pernicious placenta previa in a single center from Jan, 2010 to Jan, 2015. The patients were divided into two groups, internal iliac artery balloon occlusion group and the control group without endovascular intervention. Blood loss in operation, volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, operating time, hospital days after operation and postoperative morbidity were compared between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly less blood loss, the volume of transfused blood products, caesarean hysterectomy, hospital day after operation than the control group had. There was no statistical difference in operating time, intensive care units (ICU), hypotension, infection, hypoxemia, bladder injury, bowel obstruction, neonatal asphyxia between the two groups. The balloon occlusion group had significantly higher rate in coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalance. Among the patients whose uterus were preserved, the blood loss was not significantly difference between the two groups. Among the patients with the complication of placenta accreta, caesarean hysterectomy was less in balloon group, and blood loss between the two groups was not significantly different. Among the patients without placenta accrete, the blood loss was less in balloon group, and caesarean hysterectomy between the two groups was not significantly different. The risk of hysterectomy in balloon group was related to placenta accreta, uterine arteries engorgement, placental invasive serosa, taking placenta by hand, placental invasive bladder, barrel-shaped thickening of lower uterine segment, unable to remove placenta. Internal iliac artery balloon occlusion is an effective treatment for pernicious placenta previa.

  5. Morphological study of human heart and placenta in the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Ogly L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Probability of abnormal development is high in certain periods when the increased sensitiveness of embryo and fetus takes place. Influence of damaging factors as maternal infection and, consequently, fetal infection is a reason of abnormal development. Morphological characteristics of heart and placenta were studied during the first trimester of prenatal period of ontogenesis. 17 embryos, fetuses and placenta of 4-12 weeks were used. Abortions were made according to medical statements or mate...

  6. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta

    OpenAIRE

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L.; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase...

  7. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (PMCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a compensatory mechanism attempting to increase T3 uptake by trophoblast cells.

  8. Gerente de projetos: habilidades humanas e comportamentais / Project manager: human and behaviours skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Um gerente de projetos deve priorizar as habilidades humanas e comportamentais do que as habilidades técnicas para a obtenção de êxito de projetos; uma vez que são as pessoas e a equipe que compõem um projeto. O artigo tem o propósito de descrever as habilidades humanas requeridas para um gestor conduzir a implementação de um projeto em uma organização, na busca de mitigar os conflitos com os stakeholders. Foi elaborada uma pesquisa descritiva alicerçadas por técnicas como a pesquisa-ação e estudo de caso. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da experiência de um dos pesquisadores deste artigo no projeto e por meio de seis entrevistas com membros da equipe. Os pesquisadores estabeleceram cinco habilidades humanas e comportamentais que são requeridas aos gerentes: liderança, comunicação, gestão de mudança, motivação e gestão de conflito; e as usou para fins de análise e discussão dos resultados. Concluiu-se, pelo projeto de implementação do ERP pesquisado neste estudo, que esta organização considerou prioritariamente as habilidades técnicas do que as humanas ao selecionar alguns de seus gestores; e foi exatamente a ausência de repertório de habilidades humanas que comprometeu o gerenciamento do projeto.

  9. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of placenta previa: comparison between transabdominal and transperineal ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Byun, Woo Mok; Hwang, Mi Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan; Cho, Kil Ho; Lee, Tae Hyeung [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    Sometimes, the diagnosis of placenta previa by transabdominal ultrasonography may be difficult, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy, because of obscuration of internal os of the cervix by overlying placenta as advancing pregnancy. In such situations, however, the transperineal ultrasonography may offer an additional view of internal os of the cervix without obscuration by overlying fetal parts or placenta. We evaluated forty pregnant women in whom placenta previa were suspected clinically, with both transabdominal and transperineal ultrasonography. The menstrual age at the time of ultrasonography, ranged from 27 to 36 weeks. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of each procedure with the final diagnosis at the time of delivery. Transabdominalul trasonography provided to correct diagnosis in 25 cases. In remaining 15 cases, the confident diagnosis could not be made because of poor visualization of internal os of the cervix. However, transperineal ultrasonography provided the correct diagnosis in all 40 cases. We conclude that the transperineal ultrasonography is relatively easy and convenient technique and valuable for detection of placenta previa, especially when the diagnosis of placenta previa is difficult by transabdominal ultrasonography

  10. Selenoprotein P expression in liver, uterus and placenta during late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, J W; Rice, E J

    1995-01-01

    To identify genes that exhibit increased expression in the placenta during late pregnancy, the technique of differential cDNA library screening was used to isolate a clone subsequently identified as the 3' untranslated region of the mouse selenoprotein p gene. Random primed radiolabelled cDNA probes were constructed from this clone and these probes were used to conduct Northern hybridizations against total RNA purified from mouse placenta, liver (maternal and fetal) and uterus collected sequentially during the latter third of pregnancy. Signal is present in the placenta and beginning 4 days before birth, the level of message increases, reaching maximal levels at term. The level of expression in the placenta at maximum is approximately 25 per cent of that observed in adult liver. In liver obtained from pregnant females, the level of message is increased compared to nonpregnant adults, but returns to normal shortly after birth. Message is also found in the fetal liver beginning at 4 days before birth and exhibits a pattern of expression similar to the placenta. The similarity of expression observed in fetal liver and placenta suggests a coordinated regulation of expression of this gene in these tissues. There is a minimal amount of signal present in the uterus and the expression does not appear to vary. We speculate that selenoprotein p may play a role in the transplacental transport of selenium to the fetus during late pregnancy.

  11. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Unverdorben

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10 and chimera-type (gal-3 galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA and recurrent abortions (RA in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10 in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas.

  12. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates.

  13. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all pcesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  14. Placenta previa. A 13 years experience at a tertiary care center in Western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S; Bahkali, Nedaa M; Al-Basri, Samera F; Al Hachim, Estabrq; Shoudary, Ibrahim H; Dause, Wesam R; Mira, Mohammed Y; Khojah, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    To review cases of placenta previa in the last 13 years in a tertiary teaching hospital to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity.  A retrospective analysis of all cases of placenta previa managed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2013.    The total number of deliveries was 55,862 deliveries, and 11,412 (20.3%) delivered by cesarean section (C/S). The charts of 230 cases diagnosed with placenta previa was reviewed, and different variables were collected and analyzed. Diagnoses were achieved in 94% of them using ultrasound. The prevalence rate of placenta previa was 4.1 per 1000 births. Cesarean section was carried out as an emergency procedure in 130 (56.5%) women and as elective in 100 (43.5%) women. Of them, 26 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (11.3%), all of which received blood transfusion >6 units and 22 patients had a hysterectomy for uncontrollable bleeding.   Placenta previa is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Every hospital must have a protocol, or algorithm for the management of placenta previa. Risk factors for maternal morbidity included complete previa, history of previous C/S, emergency C/S at a gestational age of less than 36 weeks, and estimated blood loss more than 2000 ml.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Uterine Artery Embolization in Pregnancy Termination with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Renguang; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping; Huang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoxing; Yang, Xiaohua

    2017-03-01

    To appraise the efficacy and safety of prophylactic uterine artery embolization in pregnancy termination with placenta previa. A cohort of 54 consecutive patients with placenta previa underwent prophylactic uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery from February 2012 to March 2015. Vaginal delivery was attempted in all patients. Cesarean section or hysterectomy was introduced when vaginal delivery failed. Vaginal delivery succeeded in 50 patients (93.6%) and failed in 4 patients (6.4%), thereupon converted to cesarean delivery. No patients resorted to hysterectomy. Six patients (11.1%) underwent blood transfusion. None of clinical characteristics, including maternal age, gestational age, history of abortion, history of cesarean delivery, and volume of vaginal bleeding, was significantly associated with complete placenta previa (P > 0.05). However, patients with complete placenta previa had a significantly lower successful rate of vaginal delivery than did patients without complete placenta previa (81 vs 100%, P = 0.038). The rate of complications was 3.7%. No major complications were observed. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe technique to assist pregnancy termination with placenta previa, which may lower the risk of cesarean section, hysterectomy, and blood transfusion.

  16. 经腹彩色多普勒超声在前置胎盘并发胎盘植入诊断中的价值%Value of abdominal color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of placenta placenta complicated with pla-centa implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢艳芳; 江艳丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨经腹彩色多普勒超声在前置胎盘并发胎盘植入诊断中的价值。方法:收治前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的患者82例,所有患者均选用彩色多普勒超声进行检查,对胎盘位置、胎盘后间隙、胎盘回声、胎盘周围组织以及胎盘的血流情况进行观察。结果:产前彩色多普勒超声诊断前置胎盘并发胎盘植入阳性44例,阳性检出率53.7%。结论:经腹彩色多普勒超声在诊断前置胎盘并发胎盘植入方面有着较高的临床价值。%Objective:To explore the value of abdominal color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of placenta placenta complicated with placenta implantation.Methods:82 patients with placenta placenta complicated with placenta implantation were selected.All the patients were examined by color Doppler.The location of the placenta,the clearance of the placenta,the echo of the placenta,the blood flow of the surrounding tissues and the placenta were observed.Results:The positive rate of 44 cases was positive,and the positive rate was 53.7%.Conclusion:The abdominal color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of placenta placenta complicated with placenta implantation has a high clinical value.

  17. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2 expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handschuh Karen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT. During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  18. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2) expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Blaise, Sandra; Handschuh, Karen; Gerbaud, Pascale; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Heidmann, Thierry; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT). During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies. PMID:18215254

  19. Pathologic examination of the placenta and its clinical utility: a survey of obstetrics and gynecology providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odibo, Imelda; Gehlot, Ashita; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T; Magann, Everett F

    2016-01-01

    To determine provider awareness of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) recommended guidelines for examination of placenta and evaluate the Obstetrician -Gynecologist's perception of the clinical utility of placenta pathology reports. An anonymous survey of Obstetrician Gynecologists who attended the national conference of The Central Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (CAOG) in 2013 assessing their knowledge of the CAP guidelines and utilization of information obtained from pathology reports. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate association between specialists and non-specialist providers as related to survey questions and multivariable logistic regression used to explore factors associated with utilization and awareness of the guidelines. A total of 218 providers attended the conference and 111 surveys were completed. Only 36% of participants were aware of the CAP guidelines for pathologic examination of the placenta. The odds that a physician with more than 15 years of experience will send a placenta for examination was 0.210 times that of physicians with less than 15 years of experience (CI 0.084, 0.521). The odds for awareness of the CAP guideline among subspecialists who participated in the study were 3.630 times the odds for non-specialist (CI 1.44, 9.147). In addition, the odds of sending a placenta for those physicians in a community hospital are 0.300 times that of physicians in a University hospital (CI 0.110, 0.820). The presence of a pathologist skilled in obstetrics and gynecology did not seem to affect awareness of the CAP guidelines, perception of the usefulness of the guidelines and likelihood of sending a placenta for examination. Only 21% of participants reported understanding the nomenclature used in pathology reports "all the time". Participants ranked the explanation of adverse pregnancy outcome as the most useful clinical application of placenta pathologic examination and most advocated for continued

  20. Poor agreement between operators on grading of the placenta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal placental grading is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver variability in placental grading. Five expert sonographers independently graded 90 images on two occasions, each viewing separated by 1 week. A number of measures were employed to standardise assessment and minimise potential for variation: prior agreement was established between observers on the classifications for placental grading; a controlled viewing laboratory was used for all viewings; ambient lighting was optimal and monitors were calibrated to the GSDF standard. Kappa (κ) analysis was used to measure observer agreement. Substantial variations between individuals\\' scores were observed. A mean κ-value of 0.34 (range from 0.19 to 0.50) indicated fair interobserver agreement over the two occasions and only nine of the 90 images were graded the same by all five observers. Intraobserver agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.52, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.45 to 0.66. This study demonstrates that, despite standardised viewing conditions, Grannum grading of the placenta is not a reliable technique even among expert observers. The need for new methods to assess placental health is required and work is ongoing to develop 2D and 3D software-based methods.

  1. Discovery of eight novel divergent homologs expressed in cattle placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joshua H; Kumar, Charu G; Everts, Robin E; Green, Cheryl A; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Band, Mark R; Lewin, Harris A

    2006-05-16

    Ten divergent homologs were identified using a subtractive bioinformatic analysis of 12,614 cattle placenta expressed sequence tags followed by comparative, evolutionary, and gene expression studies. Among the 10 divergent homologs, 8 have not been identified previously. These were named as follows: cattle cerebrum and skeletal muscle-specific transcript 1 (CSSMST1), cattle intestine-specific transcript 1 (CIST1), hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 amino-terminal domain-containing protein (HAVCRNDP), prolactin-related proteins 8, 9, and 11 (PRP8, PRP9, and PRP11, respectively) and secreted and transmembrane protein 1A and 1B (SECTM1A and SECTM1B, respectively). In addition, two previously known divergent genes were identified, trophoblast Kunitz domain protein 1 (TKDP1) and a new splice variant of TKDP4. Nucleotide substitution analysis provided evidence for positive selection in members of the PRP gene family, SECTM1A and SECTM1B. Gene expression profiles, motif predictions, and annotations of homologous sequences indicate immunological and reproductive functions of the divergent homologs. The genes identified in this study are thus of evolutionary and physiological importance and may have a role in placental adaptations.

  2. Poor agreement between operators on grading of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M; Ryan, J; Higgins, M; Brennan, P C; McAuliffe, F M

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal placental grading is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to measure intra- and interobserver variability in placental grading. Five expert sonographers independently graded 90 images on two occasions, each viewing separated by 1 week. A number of measures were employed to standardise assessment and minimise potential for variation: prior agreement was established between observers on the classifications for placental grading; a controlled viewing laboratory was used for all viewings; ambient lighting was optimal and monitors were calibrated to the GSDF standard. Kappa (κ) analysis was used to measure observer agreement. Substantial variations between individuals' scores were observed. A mean κ-value of 0.34 (range from 0.19 to 0.50) indicated fair interobserver agreement over the two occasions and only nine of the 90 images were graded the same by all five observers. Intraobserver agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.52, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.45 to 0.66. This study demonstrates that, despite standardised viewing conditions, Grannum grading of the placenta is not a reliable technique even among expert observers. The need for new methods to assess placental health is required and work is ongoing to develop 2D and 3D software-based methods.

  3. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  4. Altered gene expression in human placenta after suspected preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, D; Strunk, M; Breton, P; Paules, C; Benito, R; Moreno, E; Garcés, M; Godino, J; Schoorlemmer, J

    2017-07-01

    Suspected preterm labour occurs in around 9% of pregnancies. However, almost two-thirds of women admitted for threatened preterm labour ultimately deliver at term and are considered risk-free for fetal development. We examined placental and umbilical cord blood samples from preterm or term deliveries after threatened preterm labour as well as term deliveries without threatened preterm labour. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (IL6, IFNγ, and TNFα) and modulators of angiogenesis (FGF2, PGF, VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFR1). A total of 132 deliveries were analysed. Preterm delivery and term delivery after suspected preterm labour groups showed similar increases in TNFα expression compared with the term delivery control group in umbilical cord blood samples. Placental samples from preterm and term deliveries after suspected preterm labour exhibited significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL6 and decreased expression of IFNγ. Suspected preterm labour was also associated with altered expression of angiogenic factors, although not all differences reached statistical significance. We found gene expression patterns indicative of inflammation in human placentas after suspected preterm labour regardless of whether the deliveries occurred preterm or at term. Similarly, a trend towards altered expression of angiogeneic factors was not limited to preterm birth. These findings suggest that the biological mechanisms underlying threatened preterm labour affect pregnancies independently of gestational age at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A.; D' Agostino, J.B.; Frazier, M.L.; Besch, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a /sup 32/P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II.

  6. Transposable element recruitments in the mammalian placenta: impacts and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emera, Deena; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements found at high frequency in mammalian genomes. Although these elements are generally perceived as genomic parasites, they have the potential to influence host genome function in many beneficial ways. This article discusses the role TEs have played in the evolution of the placenta and pregnancy in viviparous mammals. Using examples from our own research and the literature, we argue that frequent recruitment of TEs, in particular of retroelements, has facilitated the extreme diversification of tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. We also discuss the mechanisms by which TEs have been recruited for functions during pregnancy. We argue that retroelements are pre-adapted to becoming cis-regulatory elements for host genomes because they need to utilize host regulatory signals for their own life cycle. However, although TEs contain some of the signals necessary for host functions upon insertion, they often require modification before acquiring a biological role in a host tissue. We discuss the process by which one TE was transformed into a promoter for prolactin expression in the endometrium, describing a model for TE domestication called 'epistatic capture'.

  7. Increased Levels of Cell-Free Human Placental Lactogen mRNA at 28-32 Gestational Weeks in Plasma of Pregnant Women With Placenta Previa and Invasive Placenta

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive place...

  8. Efeito protetor da lactoferrina humana no trato gastrintestinal Efecto protector de la lactoferrina humana en el sistema gastrointestinal Protective effect of human lactoferrin in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Valterlinda Alves de O. Queiroz; Ana Marlúcia O. Assis; Hugo da Costa R. Júnior

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os mecanismos de ação da lactoferrina humana na proteção de morbidades gastrintestinais. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão não sistemática da literatura utilizando como estratégia de busca pesquisa bibliográfica em bases de dados, as quais incluíram SciELO, Lilacs e MedLine entre 1990 e 2011. Os descritores utilizados foram: lactoferrina, leite materno/humano, gastrintestinal e imunidade, nos idiomas português e inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A lactoferrina é a segunda proteína predomi...

  9. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-10-01

    Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa planning and implementation adequate health care systems and treatment

  10. 凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入处理体会%Treatment experience of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆红; 周晓红

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入的诊断及治疗。方法:收治凶险性前置胎盘并胎盘植入孕妇18例,对其具体情况进行回顾分析。结果:产前彩超胎盘植入时检出率55.55%(10/18),10例行MRI检查,检出率100%(10/10),8例行“8”缝扎剥离面及结扎双侧子宫血管。7例行“8”缝扎剥离面及结扎双侧子宫血管后效果不佳,急行子宫动脉栓塞治疗,保留子宫成功。3例直接行子宫切除。结论:凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入易产后出血,充分术前准备,个体化,多方式治疗,降低并发症。%Objective:To explore the diagnosis and treatment of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta. Methods:18 cases of pregnant women with dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta were selected,the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The detection rate of prenatal ultrasound placenta implantation was 55.55%(10/18),10 patients were given MRI examination,the detection rate was 100% (10/10),8 cases were given "8" suture wound surface and bilateral uterine vessel ligation.The effect of "8" suture wound surface and bilateral uterine vessel ligation in 7 cases was poor, they were given emergency uterine artery embolization treatment,uterus was successfully retained.3 patients were given hysterectomy.Conclusion:Postpartum hemorrhage in dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta was easy to occur,we should have adequate preoperative preparation and individualized treatment in many ways,so as to reduce the complications.

  11. Review: A high capacity of the human placenta for genetic and epigenetic variation: implications for assessing pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, R K C; Robinson, W P

    2011-03-01

    Genetic and epigenetic studies of the human placenta can help to clarify the underlying mechanisms of placenta-associated diseases. However, such studies have also revealed a considerable degree of within- and between-placenta variability, which can be attributed to a variety of influences. We illustrate the inherent heterogeneity in the placenta using examples from two types of studies: 1) chromosomal mosaicism and 2) DNA methylation variation. We discuss the factors that may influence the distribution of variation and how, understanding the source of this variation is important for interpreting data used to investigate and predict clinical outcomes.

  12. Effects of netrin-1 and netrin-1 knockdown on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and angiogenesis of rat placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H; Zou, L; Zhu, J; Yang, Y

    2011-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process essential for the development of placenta. Netrin-1 was first discovered in nervous system and was later found to play roles in angiogenesis. In order to better understand the functional relevance of netrin-1 in placental angiogenesis, we investigated the effect of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat placenta by employing up-regulation and down-regulation strategies. HUVECs and rat placenta were treated with recombinant netrin-1, and netrin-1 expression in the cells and placenta was reduced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition efficiency was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The expression of netrin-1 was immunohistochemically located. The results demonstrated that netrin-1 promoted viability, proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. A strong reduction in cell capability was observed in vitro after netrin-1 expression was inhibited with shRNA. Netrin-1 accelerated neovascularization of placenta in pregnant rats. Suppression of netrin-1 expression in placenta resulted in reduced vascular sprouting in vivo. These findings suggest that netrin-1 is essential for the proper functioning of HUVECs and angiogenesis of rat placenta, and it is involved in the development of placenta and fetus. The proangiogenic effect of netrin-1 might offer an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of vascular disease of placenta.

  13. Effect of placenta previa on neonatal respiratory disorders and amniotic lamellar body counts at 36-38weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Tomomi; Sumigama, Seiji; Mano, Yukio; Hua, Li; Hayakawa, Hiromi; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancies with placenta previa are significantly associated with preterm delivery and cesarean section. Therefore particular attention should be paid to the incidence of neonatal respiratory disorders in pregnancies with placenta previa. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between placenta previa and neonatal respiratory disorders, including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), and to evaluate the impact of placenta previa on the amniotic lamellar body count (LBC) values. We analyzed the data from 186 registered elective cesarean cases without fetal or maternal complications at 36-38weeks of gestation. Amniotic fluid samples were analyzed immediately without centrifugation, and the LBC was measured using a platelet channel on the Sysmex XE-2100. RDS was present in four neonates (2.2%) and TTN in 12 neonates (6.5%). The rate of TTN was significantly higher and the LBC values were significantly lower in the placenta previa group than in the control group (P=0.002 and P=0.024). The adjusted odds ratio for neonatal TTN was 7.20 (95% confidence interval: 6.58-7.88) among females with placenta previa. In placenta previa, warning bleeding was a significant factor protecting against neonatal respiratory disorders (P=0.046). Placenta previa in itself is a risk factor for neonatal TTN. When an elective cesarean section is performed in cases with uncomplicated placenta previa, special care should be taken to monitor for neonatal TTN even at 36-38weeks of gestation. © 2013.

  14. Placenta Increta after First-Trimester Dilatation and Curettage Manifesting as an Unusual Uterine Mass: Magnetic Resonance Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, W.; Kim, S.C. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Medical Research Inst., School of Medicine, Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2007-10-15

    Placenta increta during the first trimester of pregnancy is extremely rare. Only a few cases of placenta accreta during the latter half of pregnancy manifesting as a uterine mass have been published. This report describes a case of placenta increta that caused prolonged bleeding after a first-trimester abortion, and was identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a heterogeneous mass in the myometrium. This is the first report of a placenta increta detected as a uterine mass after first-trimester dilatation and curettage, and its MRI findings.

  15. Ultrasonic detection and developmental changes in calcification of the placenta during normal pregnancy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirav, C; Lu, Y; Mu, J; Qu, D W; Zhou, Y Q; Slevin, J; Holmyard, D; Foster, F S; Adamson, S L

    2005-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound imaging of the mouse placenta during development revealed highly echogenic foci localized near the materno-placental interface in early gestation and, near term, in the placental labyrinth (the exchange region of the placenta). Echogenic foci and calcium deposits identified in histological sections using Alizarin red staining showed similar localization and changes with gestation. Calcium deposits caused the echogenic foci because incubating uteri in a decalcifying solution eliminated both the deposits and echogenic foci. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and electron diffraction were used to show that deposits were calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcium deposits were extensive and densely packed at days 7.5-9.5 of gestation at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of ectoplacental cone. After the formation of the chorio-allantoic placenta (approximately day 10.5), calcification deposits appeared larger and more rarefied but were still localized at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of the placenta. Calcification deposits were not observed in the labyrinthine region of the mouse placenta until > or = day 15.5 (day 18.5 is full term). We conclude that deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the mouse placenta are detectable by high resolution ultrasound imaging. These deposits provide an ultrasound detectable marker of the maternal-placental interface that is particularly prominent during the establishment of the chorio-allantoic placenta between days 7.5 and 9.5 of gestation. (c) Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of glycosaminoglycans and heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Souza, Renan Salvioni; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Melo Pompei, Luciano; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder whose etiology remains unclear. It is already known that circulation of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is directly involved in pre-eclampsia development. However, the molecular mechanisms involved with sFlt-1 shedding are still unidentified. We identified, quantified glycosaminoglycans and determined the enzymatic activity of heparanase in placentas of women with preeclampsia, in order to possibly explain if these compounds could be related to cellular processes involved with preeclampsia. A total of 45 samples collected from placentas, 15 samples from placentas of preeclampsia women and 30 samples from non-affected women. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis, whilst hyaluronic acid was quantified by an ELISA like assay. Heparanase activity was determined using biotynilated heparan sulfate as substrate. The results showed that dermatan sulfate (P=0.019), heparan sulfate levels (P=0.015) and heparanase activity (P=0.006) in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups for hyaluronic acid expression in placentas (P=0.110). The present study is the first to demonstrate directly the increase of heparan sulfate in human placentas from patients with preeclampsia, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfate could be involved in the release of sFlt-1 from placenta, increasing the level of circulating sFlt-1. Alterations of extracellular matrix components in placentas with preeclampsia raise the possibility that heparan sulfate released by heparanase is involved in mechanisms of preeclampsia development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Stereological Changes of Human Placenta in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Compared with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can cause changes in the placenta. In this study, quantitative changes of placenta were investigated using stereological methods.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 10 placentas from systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancy (antinuclear antibody>10, and 10 placentas from normal uncomplicated pregnancy were obtained from Imam Ali Hospital. Volume of placentas was estimated using Cavalieri's principle. 3 full-thickness columns of each placenta were taken using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS. After fixation in modified Lillie's solution, they were cut into 5 mm slices. 5-7 sections selected from each slice using SURS and stained by Masson’s trichrome. Then stereological analyses were done on 8-10 SURS fields of each section. Placental volume, absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. The Mann Whitney-U test was employed to determine statistically significant differences between the means. Significant level was set at p<0.05.Results: Total volume and volume density of fibrin and total volume and volume density of blood vessels significantly increased in SLE group in comparison with control group (p<0.01. Volume density of syncytiotrophoblast increased 50% in SLE group in comparison with control group, this increase was statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: Results showed that systemic lupus erythematosus disease can cause significant changes in the structure of placenta that may be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus.

  18. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ALTERS APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION OF TROPHOBASTS FROM HUMAN TERM PLACENTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGEE, Thomas R.; ROSS, Michael G.; WEDEKIND, Lauren; DESAI, Mina; KJOS, Siri; BELKACEMI, Louiza

    2014-01-01

    AIM Increased placental growth secondary to reduced apoptosis may contribute to the development of macrosomia in GDM pregnancies. We hypothesize that reduced apoptosis in GDM placentas is caused by dysregulation of apoptosis related genes from death receptors or mitochondrial pathway or both to enhance placental growth in GDM pregnancies. METHODS Newborn and placental weights from women with no pregnancy complications (controls; N=5), or with GDM (N=5) were recorded. Placental villi from both groups were either fixed for TUNEL assay, or snap frozen for gene expression analysis by apoptosis PCR microarrays and qPCR. RESULTS Maternal, placental and newborn weights were significantly higher in the GDM group vs. Controls. Apoptotic index of placentas from the GDM group was markedly lower than the Controls. At a significant threshold of 1.5, seven genes (BCL10, BIRC6, BIRC7, CASP5, CASP8P2, CFLAR, and FAS) were down regulated, and 13 genes (BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L11, CASP4, DAPK1, IκBκE, MCL1, NFκBIZ, NOD1, PEA15, TNF, TNFRSF25, and XIAP) were unregulated in the GDM placentas. qPCR confirmed the consistency of the PCR microarray. Using Western blotting we found significantly decreased placental pro-apoptotic FAS receptor and FAS ligand (FASL), and increased mitochondrial anti-apoptotic BCL2 post GDM insult. Notably, caspase-3, which plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis, and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly down regulated in GDM placentas, as compared to non-diabetic Control placentas. CONCLUSION . Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for having macrosomic newborns, and larger placentas with reduced apoptosis. Decreased apoptosis subsequent to alterations in apoptotic and inflammatory genes may promote elevated weight in the GDM placentas. PMID:24768206

  19. Color-dye injection of monochorionic placentas and correlation with pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanna, Mariano Matteo; Consonni, Dario; Faiola, Stefano; Schena, Vito; Ratti, Martina; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Rustico, Maria Angela

    2015-10-01

    Vascular anastomoses in monochorionic (MC) twin placenta can be easily identified with color-dye injection. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different type of anastomoses and twin pregnancy complications. From January 2011 to October 2014, MC placentas were analyzed with color-dye injection and five group of pregnancies were identified: those that were not complicated (NC), those complicated with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), or twin anemia-polycitemia sequence (TAPS) and those with amniotic fluid discordance (AFD) between twins. Cases of TTTS treated with endoscopic laser coagulation of placenta anastomoses or cases with in utero death of one twin were excluded. A total of 118 MC placentas were observed, 58 (49%) NC, 35 (30%) sIUGR, 10 (8%) TTTS, 13 (11%) AFD and 2 (2%) TAPS. The median number of anastomoses was 7 (range 1-15), 8 (2-18), 4 (2-11), 7 (2-13) and 1 (1-1), respectively. At least one artero-venous anastomoses was found in the placenta observed, while the prevalence of artero-arterial anastomoses was 95% for NC, 91% for sIUGR, 60% for TTTS, and 77% for AFD; no TAPS placenta had this type of anastomoses. The diameter of arteroarterial anastomoses was greater in the AFD group (3.3 mm), compared to the NC, sIUGR and TTTS groups (2.3, 2.5 and 1.4 respectively, p 0.04). In this large serie of MC placenta analyzed with color-dye injection, a specific distribution of anastomoses emerged for twins with amniotic fluid discordance, which points to a need for intensive surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  1. Anatomopathological characterization of placentas from HIV+ patients associated with p24 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Lozoya López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study of placentas from pregnant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive women has become the subject of numerous studies in the literature. Morphological, viral, immune and inflammatory placental aspects have been analyzed in order to grasp the vertical transmission of the virus. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most frequent findings in the placentas by associating them with a viral antigen and correlating them with the infection of newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five placentas from HIV- positive pregnant women were pathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed with the use of p24 antibody in the period from 1992 to1997 in accordance with the routine laboratory testing from the Anatomopathological Department - Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense (APD/HUAP/UFF. RESULTS: The microscopic alterations detected in all cases, including those with vertical transmission, were arteriopathy in the fetal blood circulation, chorioamnionitis, perivillous fibrin deposition, syncytial knotting, villous edema and villous immaturity. No specific macroscopic or histopathological changes were found in these placentas. The neonatal infection was observed in five cases. Vertical transmission was identified in two out of five placentas that had low weight for the respective stage of pregnancy. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed 14 positive cases, two of which showed vertical transmission. The viral protein was not identified in 10 out of 14 placentas from patients who had been medicated with zidovudine (AZT. CONCLUSION: Our study has contributed to the anatomopathological investigation into placentas from HIV-positive patients, although p24 expression per se did not allow a definite and early diagnosis of the vertical transmission.

  2. A 5-year review of pattern of placenta previa in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokanye, L O; Olatinwo, A W O; Salaudeen, A G; Ajiboye, A D; Durowade, K A

    2017-01-01

    Placenta previa, a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, is potentially life-threatening to the mother and frequently results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective study of all cases of placenta previa managed at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 5-year from January 2011 to December 2015. A pro forma template was used to harvest information from case notes of patients involved in the study. There were a total of 10,250 deliveries over the 5-year study and 164 cases of placenta previa were managed during this period; giving an incidence of 1.6% of the total deliveries. Of these patients, 65.9% were unbooked while 34.1% were booked. 110 (67%) were above 30 years of age and 51.2% were grand multiparous women. The majority (81.7%) of the patients belonged to the low socioeconomic class. Painless vaginal bleeding (62.2%), intrapartum hemorrhage (22.6%), and abnormal lie presentation (8.5%) were the most common mode of presentation. Vaginal delivery occurred in (29.3%) of patients while 70. 7% were delivered through cesarean section. There was a significant association between patients' age, parity, booking status, and types of placenta previa (P placenta previa (P placenta previa are advanced maternal age above 35 years, grand multiparity, and booking status. Early recognition, appropriate referral of these patients and availability of ultrasound facilities, blood transfusion facilities, improvement in neonatal facilities and trained personnel will go a long way in reducing the perinatal mortality from placenta previa.

  3. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P M; Stieger, B; Verrey, F; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S-Y

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR n = 22). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that all the mRNAs encoding TH transporters are expressed in human placenta from 6 weeks gestation and throughout pregnancy. MCT8, MCT10, OATP1A2 and LAT1 mRNA expression increased with gestation. OATP4A1 and CD98 (LATs obligatory associated protein) mRNA expression reached a nadir in mid-gestation before increasing towards term. LAT2 mRNA expression did not alter throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry localised MCT10 and OATP1A2 to villous cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, and extravillous trophoblasts while OATP4A1 was preferentially expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblasts. Whilst MCT8 protein expression was increased, MCT10 mRNA expression was decreased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies delivered in the early 3rd trimester compared to age matched appropriately grown for gestational age controls. No significant change was found in the mRNA expression of the other transporters with IUGR. In conclusion, several TH transporters are present in the human placenta from early 1st trimester with varying patterns of expression throughout gestation. Their coordinated effects may regulate both transplacental TH passage and TH supply to trophoblasts, which are critical for the normal development of the fetus and placenta. Increased MCT8 and decreased MCT10 expression within placentae of pregnancies complicated by IUGR may contribute to aberrant development of the fetoplacental unit.

  4. 前置胎盘胎盘植入研究进展%Research Progress on the Placenta Accrete of Placenta Previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池一婵; 隗伏冰(综述); 唐莉(审校)

    2015-01-01

    前置胎盘是常见的妊娠晚期出血性疾病,可危及母儿生命。胎盘植入与前置胎盘、剖宫产史等因素高度相关。出血多且采取保守治疗无效时应及时行子宫切除术。对于凶险性前置胎盘要引起高度重视,切实做好术前准备、术中有效处理,以减少出血量及子宫切除率。该文就前置胎盘胎盘植入病因、对母儿影响、临床表现及诊断、治疗、预防等方面的研究进展予以综述。%Placenta previa is one of the most common hemorrhagic diseases in late trimester of preganancy ,it may threaten the maternal and fetal life .Placenta accrete is associated with previous cesarean section and pla-centa previa,hysterectomy would be performed if massive bleeding could not be alleviated with conservative treatment.Dangerous type of placenta previa should be paid a lot of attention ,in order to make necessary pre-operative preparation and conduct effective intraoperative treatment to control massive bleeding and hysterec-tomy rate.Here is to make a review of the research progress on the pathogenesis,impact on mothers and infants,clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment,and prevention of placenta previa.

  5. Seguridad humana para las mujeres en las ciudades: reflexiones para politicas publicas urbanas con enfoque de genero

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montoya Ruiz, Ana Milena

    2013-01-01

    ... por el enfoque de seguridad humana, en las cuales se establecen los minimos que requieren las mujeres para gozar de una vida urbana renovada y superar las limitaciones existentes en la ciudad como espacio...

  6. Valor agregado por las áreas de gestión humana a las organizaciones colombianas

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Hernández, Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    A partir de dos cuestionamientos ¿cuál es el papel de las áreas de gestión humana? y ¿cómo hacer para que la acción de gestión humana sea significativa para las empresas? formulados en el seno del comité académico de la Asociación Colombiana de Gestión Humana, ACRIP, surge la presente investigación cuyo interrogante central fue ¿Agregan valor las áreas de gestión humana a las organizaciones colombianas? y ¿cómo lo hacen? Los resultados de la investigación se estructuran en ocho capítulos,...

  7. Seguridad humana en Colombia: donde no hay bienestar no puede haber paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Aya Smitmans

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre los retos que amenazan a la soberanía clásica en el sistema internacional y, en especial, a la seguridad humana. Ésta, entendida como una concepción ampliada de la seguridad tradicional, refuerza la idea del individuo como centro de las relaciones internacionales y pone su seguridad por encima de la seguridad estatal. Asimismo, el surgimiento de nuevos actores hacen que la gobernabilidad estatal se vea debilitada a menos que se piense en aumentar la responsabilidad estatal para con sus ciudadanos. Es así como la seguridad humana constituye un concepto importante en el siglo XXI para una gobernabilidad responsable. El artículo examina el caso colombiano

  8. Seguridad humana en Colombia: donde no hay bienestar no puede haber paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Aya Smitmans

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre los retos que amenazan a la soberanía clásica en el sistema internacional y, en especial, a la seguridad humana. Ésta, entendida como una concepción ampliada de la seguridad tradicional, refuerza la idea del individuo como centro de las relaciones internacionales y pone su seguridad por encima de la seguridad estatal. Asimismo, el surgimiento de nuevos actores hacen que la gobernabilidad estatal se vea debilitada a menos que se piense en aumentar la responsabilidad estatal para con sus ciudadanos. Es así como la seguridad humana constituye un concepto importante en el siglo XXI para una gobernabilidad responsable. El artículo examina el caso colombiano.

  9. El problema del discurso acerca de la individualidad genética humana

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Vásquez, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Se abordó el problema filosófico acerca de la individualidad genética humana, desde un discurso ontológico. Determinándose un problema lógico, epistemológico, semiológico y ontológico, al mismo tiempo que genético. Se presenta el paralelismo entre rasgos de la individualidad señalados por la tradición filosófica clásica y su posible reformulación del discurso desde la genética humana actual. Prueba la pertinencia semiótica de Peirce - biosemiótica en el desarrollo del problema y propone un mo...

  10. Manipulação genética e dignidade humana

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Simone Born de

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas Um tema como a manipulação genética e dignidade humana: da bioética ao direito, tem por fim verificar o desenvolvimento da pesquisa científica na área da genética, com suas manipulações e respectivas conseqüências sobre a dignidade humana, a bioética e o direito. Tem que ser possível definir a influência da ética e do direito no desenvolvimento das pesquisas científicas. Para definir essas possibi...

  11. ¿Qué pasa en el cerebro de los perros cuando ven caras humanas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V. Cuaya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuando tu perro te ve, no sólo se iluminan sus ojos, también su cerebro. Aquí resumimos un experimento que realizamos para conocer el procesamiento cerebral de las caras humanas en perros, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética funcional, en el que encontramos actividad en la corteza temporal, frontal y el núcleo caudado. La actividad en la corteza temporal sugiere que los perros procesan las caras de manera similar a nosotros. Fue inesperado encontrar actividad en el núcleo caudado, porque sugiere que los perros procesan las caras humanas como recompensas, incluso si son caras de humanos desconocidos.

  12. A psicoterapia diante da liberdade humana: uma discussão orteguiana

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    Eloisa Nogueira Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a liberdade humana a partir do legado filósofo de José Ortega y Gasset como possibilidade de caminho para a compreensão humana. Afinal, a psicoterapia lida essencialmente com o problema da liberdade, já que o homem responde ao que lhe vem ao encontro. O filósofo madrileno, ao colocar o homem como protagonista de sua vida, favorece a abertura a um modo específico de atenção, demarcando uma atitude clínica que renuncie qualquer redução do humano a dimensões meramente orgânicas, psicológicas ou sociais, reduzindo-o, portanto, à figura amorfa de quem, nada ou pouco, pode fazer por si mesmo.

  13. Interdisciplinaridade e complexidade: uma construção em ciências humanas

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    Carlos Alberto Severo Garcia Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2015v12n2p1 O presente ensaio é um percurso de reflexão em torno de conceitos relacionados à construção e produção de conhecimentos interdisciplinar em ciências humanas. Parte-se de ponderações sobre os conceitos de disciplinaridade, multidisciplinaridade, interdisciplinaridade, transdisciplinaridade e desdobra-se na discussão do pensamento complexo proposto por Edgar Morin. Compreende-se que a partir da aventura interdisciplinar é possível ponderações acerca das relações e transformações da condição humana frente aos novos alicerces de saberes na modernidade e suas consequências sociais, econômicas e subjetivas.

  14. Dirofilariose pulmonar humana, adquirida no Brasil: comunicação de um caso

    OpenAIRE

    Amato Neto,Vicente; Amato,Valdir Sabbaga; Moraes Júnior,Antonio Carlos Pedroso de; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    1993-01-01

    É comunicado caso de dirofilariose humana, adquirida no Brasil. Trata-se do segundo acometimento dessa natureza publicado em literatura científica. Como expressão clínica, foram evidenciados dois nódulos pulmonares, através de exame radiológico convencional e de tomografia computadorizada. O diagnóstico decorreu de análise histopatológica de uma das lesões.

  15. FORMAÇÃO HUMANA: CURRÍCULO PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO HUMANO

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    Adreana Dulcina Platt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo pretendemos debater a análise crítico-reflexiva das premissas que sustentam a práxis da formação humana perpassando transversalmente os conceitos de desenvolvimento humano e o currículo. Entendemos o currículo de formação humana a partir da filosofia da práxis. Coadunando com nossas perspectivas epistemológicas, concordamos com a leitura de Semeraro (2001b, quando aponta que Gramsci melhor desvela o processo de elaboração da filosofia da práxis a partir de novas relações sociais; ou seja, desligado das puras abstrações, o filósofo italiano observa na “unidade das tensões dualistas e as contradições ricas e complexas” (“entre teoria/prática, intelectuais/massa, organização/espontaneidade, sociedade política/sociedade civil, ocidente/oriente, norte/sul, história do mundo/história particular”, a articulação para o desenvolvimento da atividade humana plena. A partir destes pressupostos colocados aqui enquanto premissas para a sistematização de nossos estudos, nos debruçaremos sobre dois grandes objetivos: (1 compreender o processo de humanização a partir da esfera das objetivações sociais e (2 a constituição do currículo de formação humana atrelado aos diferentes modos de produção, uma vez que demanda em diferentes formações sociais.

  16. Hans Sperber e Freud: a origem sexual da linguagem humana e a psicanálise

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    Maria Antonieta Amarante de Mendonça Coh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, discute-se a relação entre a psicanálise, a linguageme sua origem sexual, tendo por base dois autores: Hans Sperber(1912, cuja proposta é a de que a linguagem humana falada temuma origem e um desenvolvimento vinculados ao sexual; SigmundFreud, nos textos em que trata de questões relativas à linguagemem sentido estrito.

  17. Posibles Efectos en la Salud Humana por Ingestión Excesiva de Fluoruros

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Trejo Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta un compendio de información relacionada con los beneficios asociados a la ingesta de dosis correctas de fluoruros, sobre los procedimientos para medir la concentración de éstos en el agua y sobre los efectos que puede causar a la salud humana la ingestión de cantidades inmoderadamente altas de fluoruros; y también sobre algunas maneras de atenuación de estos efectos indeseables

  18. Relevancia e Inferencia: Procesos cognitivos propios de la comunicación humana

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    Moya Pardo Constanza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende mostrar los planteamientos cognitivos más representativos de la Teoría de la Relevancia propuesta por Spelber & Wilson con respecto al modelo ostensivoinferencial. Este modelo plantea un mecanismo deductivo explícito que da cuenta de los procesos y estrategias que permiten el paso del significado literal a la interpretación pragmática de los mensajes en el proceso de comunicación humana.

  19. A formação humana na perspectiva histórico-ontológica

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    Dermeval Saviani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la formación humana está en el centro de la filosofía de la educación cuyo objetivo es precisamente el proceso de promoción humana, llevado a cabo por la educación. Partiendo de la vigilancia crítica, propia de la filosofía, el texto esboza una fenomenología de la época actual comprobando que las ideas actualmente hegemónicas en la educación, son centradas en la crítica a la razón y a las nociones de la verdad y de la objetividad. A ese neo pragmatismo que con la intención de oponerse a la metafísica acaba siendo profundamente metafísico reduciendo todo al lenguaje, los autores contraponen el pensamiento de Marx como una filosofía de historicismo en que la causa no son los sujetos abstractos, sino los individuos reales, sujetos históricos que se constituyen como síntesis de relaciones sociales. Para esto se recurre a la reflexión histórica ontológica sobre la formación humana incluida en los "Manuscritos Económico Filosóficos de 1844" de Marx. El artículo concluye con la defensa de la tesis de que el acceso a los clásicos es condición necesaria para la formación humana.

  20. Manifestaciones psiquiátricas desencadenadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2014-01-01

    La alta morbilidad de perturbaciones mentales y del comportamiento, desencadenada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), asombra a colaboradores cubanos en la ciudad de Maputo, capital de Mozambique. Solo apelando a los conocimientos actuales de la Psicoendocrinoneuroinmunologia, que describe la vinculación basada en la teoría de la complejidad de este suprasistema, que comparte receptores y mediadores químicos, se puede disipar el asombro y llegar a comprender la esencia científi...