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Sample records for placenta humana normal

  1. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of placenta lacunae and a lack of a clear zone in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shoko; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Okai, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the frequencies of placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are higher in cases of placenta previa compared with those without it. Ultrasonographic findings just before delivery, including placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were prospectively evaluated in consecutive subjects. After collection, a case-control study with 1:5 matched pairs was conducted. The frequencies of ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta. Seventy cases with placenta previa and 350 cases with normal placentas were observed. Five and zero cases with abnormal placental adherence were observed in cases with placenta previa and normal placenta, respectively. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 60 and 1.5% of cases with and without the placental adherence (p = 0.001). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone were observed in 31.4 and 9.7% of cases with and without placenta previa [odds ratio (OR) 4.2]. Lack of a clear zone was observed in 5.7 and 0.9% of cases with and without placenta previa (OR 7.0). Placenta lacunae and lack of a clear zone are frequently observed in placenta previa even when there is no adherence of the placenta. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Placenta: How It Works, What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common placental problems include placental abruption, placenta previa and placenta accreta. These conditions can cause potentially ... nutrients. In some cases, early delivery is needed. Placenta previa. This condition occurs when the placenta partially or ...

  4. Histological and histochemical changes in placenta of diabetic pregnant females and its comparision with normal placenta

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    Vineeta Tewari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the histological and histochemical changes in placenta of diabetic pregnant females and compare them with normal placenta. Methods: The histological and histochemical features of 60 placenta, 30 obtained from normal pregnant females and 30 from diabetic pregnant females, were studied. These placenta were obtained from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, GSVM Medical College Kanpur and ERA ’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital Lucknow. Results: On histological examination, the diabetic placenta showed increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, trophoblastic basement membrane thickening, villous stromal fibrosis, villous oedema, crowding of villi, thickening of vessel wall and fibrin deposition. On histochemical study it was found that the PAS reactivity was stronger in diabetic placenta as compared to normal. Sudan Black reactivity was higher among diabetic placenta in comparison to normal placenta. Conclusions: It is concluded that distinct histological and histochemical changes could be seen in placenta of diabetic pregnant females.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta.

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    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  7. La Placenta Humana Nuevo Sustrato Proteico Empleado para la Obtención de Bases Nutritivas.

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    Diana Rosa Viera Oramas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El hidrolizado de placenta humana es una nueva base nutritiva con un elevado contenido de nutrientes y constituyen un paso importante en el desarrollo de una metodología para su obtención a partir de residuos de placenta. Además de ser un nuevo producto en la gama de BIOCEN y brindar la posibilidad de utilizar en sustitución de bases nutritivas importadas. Con el objetivo de desarrollar y evaluar la funcionalidad de dicha base se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio, se estudió la influencia de parámetros fundamentales en el proceso de obtención tales como: cantidad de enzima, tiempo de hidrólisis y relación sustrato agua. Definiendo que 0,4 g de papaína por Kg de sustrato, durante 4 hora de hidrólisis y en una relación 1: 5 sustrato agua, además de un tratamiento térmico durante 30 min fueron los elementos críticos prefijados en la tecnología de obtención del hidrolizado. Se obtuvo un producto con elevada calidad cuyos valores óptimos de los índices fisicoquímicos fueron: nitrógeno amínico 2,38 % nitrógeno total 13,62 % y un rendimiento 14,56 % . Al realizar la evaluación microbiológica de la peptona a nivel piloto se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios y correspondiente a los descrito en la documentación. Esta nueva base nutritiva es una prueba de la posibilidad de utilizar los residuos de placenta humana en calidad de sustrato proteico con una calidad adecuada comparable con los productos de similar propósito existentes en el mercado internacional.

  8. Autophagy in term normal human placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, P; Avagliano, L; Virgili, E; Gagliostro, V; Doi, P; Braidotti, P; Bulfamante, G P; Ghidoni, R; Marconi, A M

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is an inducible catabolic process that responds to environment and is essential for cell survival during stress, starvation and hypoxia. Its function in the human placenta it is not yet understood. We collected 14 placentas: 7 at vaginal delivery and 7 at elective caesarean section after uneventful term pregnancies. The presence of autophagy was assessed in different placental areas by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We found that autophagy is significantly higher in placentas obtained from cesarean section than in those from vaginal delivery. Moreover there is a significant inverse relationship between autophagy and umbilical arterial glucose concentration.

  9. Stereological Analysis of Human Placenta in Cases of Placenta Previa in Comparison with Normally Implanted Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Sakhavar, Nahid; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Ezazi-Bojnourdi, Tahmine

    2015-01-01

    Background Placenta previa (PP) is an obstetric complication that can affect maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is rising due to cesarean sections. There is no quantitative data of placenta in PP. In this study, quantitative parameters of placenta in cases with PP in comparison with normally implanted controls were investigated. Methods In this quasi experimental study, placentas from pregnancies with PP and normally implanted controls (n = 10) were obtained from women who underwent cesarean section. Three full-thickness columns of each placenta were sampled using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Columns were cut into slices and slices were sectioned with 4 µm thickness. SURS selected sections were stained by Masson's trichrome. Stereological analysis was done on 8-10 SURS microscopic fields of each section. Absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney-U test and significant level was set at p placenta. These changes probably can be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus. PMID:25927025

  10. Esterilización mediante radiación gamma de un extracto liofilizado de placenta humana: Reporte Preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Emma; Ticona, Nohemí; Linares, Marco

    2008-01-01

    En la práctica odontológica, la hemostasia quirúrgica debe tenerse en cuenta durante el acto operatorio, porque accidentalmente puede provocarse hemorragia. Para el control del sangrado son muy útiles agentes hemostáticos. El factor tisular (FT) es una glicoproteína que participa activamente en la formación del coágulo lo que lo convierte en un potencial hemostático. La placenta humana es un órgano muy rico en FT, a partir de la cual, éste puede ser extraído. El proceso de procuración de las...

  11. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta. Obtención salina y estandarización del tiempo de protrombina utilizando tromboplastina de placenta humana.

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    Deysi González Sarría

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.
    Fundamento: La determinación del tiempo de protrombina es un importante examen complementario en el estudio de los trastornos de la coagulación de la sangre. Para la realización del ensayo, se utiliza como reactivo principal tromboplastina, sustancia que se encuentra en varios tejidos y que habitualmente se ha obtenido de cerebro humano o de ciertos animales, pero su extracción en el laboratorio o su adquisición comercial en estos momentos se dificulta. Objetivos: Obtener tromboplastina a través de la extracción salina de placenta humana y estandarizar la determinación del tiempo de protrombina con el reactivo obtenido. Métodos : Se utilizó placenta de partos normales de la cual se obtuvo la tromboplastina utilizando extracción salina. Se comparó el reactivo con una tromboplastina de cerebro humano del Hospital ¨Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ de Ciudad de La Habana

  12. Frequency of placenta previa in women with history of previous caesarean and normal vaginal deliveries.

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    Bashir, Adeela; Jadoon, Humaira Naz; Abbasi, Aziz-un-Nisa

    2012-01-01

    Placenta previa is known to be associated with previous caesarean deliveries, advanced maternal age, increasing parity, smoking, curettage and myomectomy. This study was carried out to compare the frequency of placenta previa, in women with previous caesareans versus those with normal vaginal deliveries. It was one year study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit B, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. One hundred women were included in the study, 50 in Group A with previous caesarean deliveries, and 50 in Group B with previous normal vaginal deliveries. Frequency of placenta previa in both groups was analysed. Placenta previa was found in one (2%) woman in Group A, and in two women (4%) in Group B. It was not found in para 4 or less in both groups. One woman in Group A and two women in Group B with parity 4 or more had placenta previa (p placenta previa, while with previous 2 scars one had placenta previa (p placenta previa in Group A and both women with placenta previa in Group B were more than 25 years old. Placenta previa was not found in women below 25 years of age. Previous one caesarean section did not increase the frequency of placenta previa. Increasing number of scars, increasing maternal age beyond 25 years and increasing parity beyond 4 were associated with placenta previa.

  13. Metodologia para estudo do volume e densidade absoluta da placenta humana de termo

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    Del Nero Ulisses

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar duas metodologias para o cálculo do volume placentário em gestações normais de termo: a do princípio de Arquimedes e a do volume do cilindro, para estimar a densidade absoluta da placenta. Definir a metodologia mais adequada para o cálculo do volume e densidade placentários, que se relacione com o peso e classificação do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas 50 placentas provenientes de gestações de termo sem complicações e calculados o volume e a densidade absoluta placentários: a pelo princípio de Arquimedes e b na suposição de que a placenta seria uma secção de cilindro com duas alturas diferentes do bolo placentário: com a altura média e com a altura da média aritmética do centro e extremidades. As densidades absolutas placentárias foram calculadas pelo quociente entre o peso ao ar da placenta e os diferentes volumes. RESULTADOS: a maioria das gestantes eram multíparas, idade média de 25,4 anos, volume placentário médio entre 547,8 e 610 cmsuperscript three e densidade média entre 0,94 e 1,14 g/cmsuperscript three, dependendo da metodologia empregada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia mais adequada para estimar o volume placentário no termo foi a do princípio de Arquimedes, pela melhor correlação com o peso dos recém-nascidos, o índice placentário e a classificação do peso dos recém-nascidos em relação à idade gestacional.

  14. Differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben-Zhou Feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the differential expression of GPR30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue and its clinical significance. Methods:Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected and GPR30 expression levels were detected;human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured and processed with GRP30 inhibitor and GRP30 agonist combined with hypoxia-reoxygenation respectively, and cell apoptosis as well as pro-angiogenesis molecule and apoptosis molecule contents were detected. Results:mRNA content and protein content of GRP30 in preeclampsia placenta tissue were significantly lower than those in normal placenta tissue;apoptosis rate of G15 group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of H/R group was significantly higher than that of control group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly lower than those of control group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly higher than those of control group;apoptosis rate of G1 group was significantly lower than that of H/R group, VEGF and bFGF contents in supernatant were significantly higher than those of H/R group, and mRNA contents of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in cells were significantly lower than those of H/R group. Conclusions:Low expression of GPR30 in placenta tissue is closely associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia, enhancing GPR function can reduce endothelial cell apoptosis and increase the contents of pro-angiogenesis factors, and it has endothelial protection effect.

  15. Validación del sistema ultramicroelisa en la certificación de placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética

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    Maydelin Trujillo Alfonso

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Laboratorio de Control Viral de la Planta Derivados de la Placenta realiza la certificación de la placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética mediante el sistema ultramicroanalítico. Objetivo: validar el sistema ultramicroelisa de determinación de antígeno de superficie del virus de la hepatitis B, anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C y virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 y 2 en muestras de suero de cordón umbilical. Métodos: se realizó la calificación de la operación y la validación del desempeño analítico de los sistemas UMELISA HBsAg Plus, UMELISA HCV y UMELISA HIV 1+2 Recombinant empleandocomo sistemas de referencia el Hepanostika HBsAg Uni-FormII, Hepanostika HCV Ultra y Vironostika HIV-Uni-Form II Ag/Ab. Resultados: la calificación de la operación para las tres técnicas analíticas resultó satisfactoria. Los parámetros de especificidad diagnóstica y analítica fueron de 100 %, así como la concordancia con las técnicas de referencia. El coeficiente de variación fue menor del 10 % durante el estudio de precisión interensayo, menor que el 20 % intraensayo y se demostró la robustez de las técnicas para pequeños cambios en la temperatura de incubación. Conclusiones: los sistemas ultramicroelisa utilizados como método de control de la calidad de la placenta humana resultaron específicos, precisos y robustos en las condiciones ensayadas, por lo que pueden emplearse de manera segura y confiable.

  16. Localización inmunocitoquímica de la hormona gonadotropina corionica en la placenta humana y en celulas tumorales

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    Geranina Escovar V.

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de los métodos de peroxidasa anti-peroxidasa e inmunofluorescencia aplicada a tejidos desparafinados y tratados con tripsina, se estudiaron inmunocitoquímicamente un grupo de placentas y tumores malignos. Al utilizar anticuerpos anti-GCH, la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (GCH fue localizada en células del sincitiotrofoblasto de placentas de diferentes estados de desarrollo, se encontró, además, que las c6lulas de Langhan's y del citotrofoblasto fueron negativas a la inmuno-reacción. La mayoría de los tumores estudiados fueron encontrados positivos al aplicar los métodos mencionados. Se postula que la inmunosupresión selectiva del huésped por tumores y la inmunosupresión selectiva de tejidos maternos por tejidos fetales. podría estar mediada por la hormona gonadotropina coriónica.

  17. Caracterización del canal epitelial de sodio en sinciciotrofoblasto de placenta humana preeclamptica Characterization of the epithelial sodium channel in human pre-eclampsia syncytiotrophoblast

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    Silvana del Mónaco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El sinciciotrofoblasto (SCT de placenta humana regula la transferencia de solutos y agua entre la sangre fetal y materna. En el presente trabajo observamos que el canal de sodio ENaC (asociado a cuadros como el síndrome de Liddle y pseudohipoaldosteronismo está presente en la membrana apical del SCT y que la subunidad a del canal tiene una expresión reducida en placentas con hipertensión gestacional (preeclampsia. Realizamos estudios a nivel de expresión de ARN (RT-PCR y a nivel proteico (western blot e inmunohistoquímica. En la línea celular BeWo (modelo de SCT humano el canal se encuentra presente y la expresión del mismo es regulada por las hormonas aldosterona, vasopresina, estradiol y progesterona. Analizamos la actividad del ENaC por electrofisiología y observamos corrientes sensibles a amiloride (10 µM cuando las células BeWo se cultivaron 12 horas con aldosterona (100 nM. Esta corriente presentó una magnitud 20 veces mayor que las corrientes basales, un potencial de reversión cercano a 3 mV y una conductancia de 127 ± 26 pS/pF entre los pulsos de -60 y -140 mV aplicados. Las características de esta corriente son similares a las producidas por ENaC en otros tejidos y evidencian la presencia de un canal funcional. El papel del ENaC en el SCT es poco comprendido, aunque la diferencia de expresión en la preeclampsia podría tener consecuencias para el transporte placentario de agua y iones. Nuestros datos son un aporte para futuros estudios de los mecanismos involucrados en la patofisiología de la preeclampsia.The syncytiotrophoblast (SCT, a multinucleated epithelium forming the outer layer of chorionic villi, acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. Electrolyte homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume are maintained primarily by regulated Na+ transport. The present study was conducted to analyze the presence of the

  18. Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Estela Gamiño-Arroyo; Minerva Paola Barrios-Ceballos; Lydia Patricia Cárdenas de la Peña; Fernando Anaya-Velázquez; Felipe Padilla-Vaca

    2005-01-01

    La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Se ha descrito que una de las funciones más importantes de la flora normal es la resistencia que confiere a la invasión por agentes patógenos a través de diversos mecanismos como es la producción de bacteriocinas, ácido láctico o peróxido de hidrógeno entre otros. Destacan los lactobac...

  19. Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana Flora Normal, Probióticos y Salud Humana

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    Fernando Anaya-Velázquez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota es el conjunto de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios del cuerpo humano. Varios factores permiten que se mantenga el equilibrio necesario para conservar la salud. Se ha descrito que una de las funciones más importantes de la flora normal es la resistencia que confi ere a la invasión por agentes patógenos a través de diversos mecanismos como es la producción de bacteriocinas, ácido láctico o peróxido de hidrógeno entre otros. Destacan los lactobacilos (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus y L. bifidus, habitantes del tracto gastrointestinal y vaginal, que inhiben el crecimiento de bacterias y virus como Salmonella y el VIH respectivamente. Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos, no patógenos, los cuales administrados en cantidades adecuadas confieren un beneficio sobre la salud del huésped. La investigación de diversas bacterias resulta alentadora debido a su uso potencial para mantener y restaurar la flora normal lo cual puede ser benéfico para la nutrición, la prevención de enfermedades y en un futuro ser parte de un tratamiento integral. The microbiota is the group of microorganisms that live normally in different parts of the human body. Several factors allow the maintenance of the required equilibrium to preserve health. It has been described that one of the most important functions of the normal flora is the resistance they confer to humans against invasion by pathogenic agents by different mechanisms such as production of bacteriocins, lactic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Among the most noticeable microorganisms are lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei, L. acidophilus and L. bifidus, inhabitants of gastrointestinal and genital tract which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and viruses such as Salmonella and VIH, respectively. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Research conducted with several

  20. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2 expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

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    Handschuh Karen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT. During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies.

  1. Human endogenous retrovirus-FRD envelope protein (syncytin 2) expression in normal and trisomy 21-affected placenta

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    Malassiné, André; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Blaise, Sandra; Handschuh, Karen; Gerbaud, Pascale; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Heidmann, Thierry; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Human trophoblast expresses two fusogenic retroviral envelope proteins, the widely studied syncytin 1, encoded by HERV-W and the recently characterized syncytin 2 encoded by HERV-FRD. Here we studied syncytin 2 in normal and Trisomy 21-affected placenta associated with abnormal trophoblast differentiation. Syncytin 2 immunolocalization was restricted throughout normal pregnancy to some villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT). During the second trimester of pregnancy, syncytin 2 was immunolocalized in some cuboidal CT in T21 placentas, whereas in normal placentas it was observed in flat CT, extending into their cytoplasmic processes. In vitro, CT isolated from normal placenta fuse and differentiate into syncytiotrophoblast. At the same time, syncytin 2 transcript levels decreased significantly with syncytiotrophoblast formation. In contrast, CT isolated from T21-affected placentas fused and differentiated poorly and no variation in syncytin 2 transcript levels was observed. Syncytin 2 expression illustrates the abnormal trophoblast differentiation observed in placenta of fetal T21-affected pregnancies. PMID:18215254

  2. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

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    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Abruptio Placentae Cases and Comparision of Normal Pregnancies

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    Ahmet Kale

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze of 94 abruptio placentae cases retrospectively during 1 years period.We evaluated of 94 abruptio placentae cases (group1 retrospectively during 5 years period in our clinic. Maternal age, parity, prepartum estimated gestasional week, birth weight, cesarean section ratio, hypertension pregnancies were evaluated and compared with 127 normal pregnancies (group2 who had given births . The ratio of abruptio placentae was 1.38% during five years period. Prepartum estimated mean gestasional week in group 1 was 32.0±3.3 and 15.35 % of women had pregnancy induced hypertension. Cesarean section was performed 81.91 % of cases. All of cesarean endications was abruptio placentae (p0.05. Mean 1.minute APGAR score was 3.02±1.10 in grup 1 and 6.80±2.5 in group 2 (p<0.001. Mean 5.minute APGAR score was 3.99 ± 1.17 in grup 1 and 8.42±1.50 in group 2 (p<0.001. Early neonatal mortality ratio was 69.14 %in group 1 and, %3.9 in group 2 (p<0.001.Abruptio placentae still remains as an important obstetric problem which is associated with a high perinatal mortality rate.

  4. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

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    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  5. Evaluation of 5-HT7 receptor expression in the placentae of normal and pre-eclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irge, Emine; Halici, Zekai; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Cadirci, Elif; Karakus, Emre

    2016-01-01

    In this study, by examining 5-HT7 receptor expression in placentae from pre-eclamptic and normal pregnancies, we aimed to discover a new step of pathophysiological cascade for preeclampsia. Patients whose blood pressure over the 140/90 mmHg were included when study after 20 weeks of gestation. 5-HT7 receptor expression was investigated on the placentae obtained after birth by real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. Pre-natal-post-natal, systolic-diastolic blood pressure values, proteinuria and renal function indicators as BUN and creatinine levels of pre-eclamptic pregnant women were higher than the healthy group. Similarly, 5-HT7 receptor expression determined in healthy placentae increased 8-fold in pre-eclamptic women. This study, for the first time we showed 5-HT7 receptor expression in normal placenta and increased expression in pre-eclamptic placenta.

  6. Differential transferrin expression in placentae from normal and abnormal pregnancies: a pilot study

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    Bukovsky Antonin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The placenta is an important site for iron metabolism in humans. It transfers iron from the mother to the fetus. One of the major iron transport proteins is transferrin, which is a blood plasma protein crucial for iron uptake. Its localization and expression may be one of the markers to distinguish placental dysfunction. Methods In the experimental study we used antibody preparation, mass spectrometric analysis, biochemical and immunocytochemical methods for characterization of transferrin expression on the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR (JAR cells, placental lysates, and cryostat sections. Newly designed monoclonal antibody TRO-tf-01 to human transferrin was applied on human placentae from normal (n = 3 and abnormal (n = 9 pregnancies. Results Variations of transferrin expression were detected in villous syncytiotrophoblast, which is in direct contact with maternal blood. In placentae from normal pregnancies, the expression of transferrin in the syncytium was significantly lower (p Conclusion These observations suggest that in the case of abnormal pregnancies, the fetus may require higher levels of transferrin in order to prevent iron depletion due to the stress from the placental dysfunction.

  7. Analysis of Placental Growth Factor in Placentas of Normal Pregnant Women and Women with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the expressions of placental growth factor (PLGF) in placenta with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), 45 women with HDP and 20 normally pregnant women were studied. Among 45 women with HDP, there were 23 cases of severe preeclampsia and one case of eclampsia. The location and level of PLGF proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expression of PLGF mRNA in placenta was assessed by reverse transcriptionalpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that: (1) The distribution of PLGF in placenta with HDP was similar to normal one, which was mainly in the cytoplasm of villous syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma; (2) The expression of PLGF protein was significantly decreased in placentas with mild and severe preeclampsia compared to the normal ones (0.3±0.4 vs 0.6± 0.4, 0.2±0.5 vs 0.6±0. 4, P<0.01). There were no differences between the gestational hypertension placenta and normal one (0.5±0.6 vs 0.6±0.4, P>0. 05); (3) The transcription levels of the PLGF mRNA in placentas with preeclampsia were significantly lower than in normal groups (3.33±0.39 vs4.87±0.60, 1.97±0.29 vs 4.87±0. 60, P<0.01), and no differences were found between the gestational hypertension placenta and normal groups. These findings suggest that the abnormal expression of PLGF in placentas is related to the pathogenesis of HDP.

  8. The effects of pravastatin on the normal human placenta: Lessons from ex-vivo models

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    Swissa, Shani S.; Feinshtein, Valeria; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Holcberg, Gershon; Dukler, Doron

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Research in animal models and preliminary clinical studies in humans support the use of pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia. However, its use during pregnancy is still controversial due to limited data about its effect on the human placenta and fetus. Methods In the present study, human placental cotyledons were perfused in the absence or presence of pravastatin in the maternal reservoir (PraM). In addition, placental explants were treated with pravastatin for 5, 24 and 72 h under normoxia and hypoxia. We monitored the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II. Results The concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sEng were not significantly altered by pravastatin in PraM cotyledons and in placental explants compared to control. Under hypoxic conditions, pravastatin decreased sFlt-1 concentrations. eNOS expression was significantly increased in PraM cotyledons but not in pravastatin-treated placental explants cultured under normoxia or hypoxia. eNOS phosphorylation was not significantly affected by pravastatin. The feto-placental vascular tone and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II, did not change following exposure of the maternal circulation to pravastatin. Conclusion We found that pravastatin does not alter the essential physiological functions of the placenta investigated in the study. The relevance of the study lays in the fact that it expands the current knowledge obtained thus far regarding the effect of the drug on the normal human placenta. This data is reassuring and important for clinicians that consider the treatment of high-risk patients with pravastatin, a treatment that exposes some normal pregnancies to the drug. PMID:28199380

  9. Transrectal combined thickness of the uterus and placenta in normal pregnant Egyptian buffalo-cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, H; Abdalla, H; Labib, F; Eidaroos, A

    2012-04-15

    The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) is one of the characteristics that can be used to assess fetal development and/or placental function in bovine. The current study was designed to establish reference values for the CTUP throughout pregnancy in normal pregnant buffalo-cows. The CTUP at the intracotyledonary space was measured monthly from the second month until full term using electronic calipers of the ultrasound machine. The CTUP increased monthly from 2.5 mm at the second month to 12 mm at the full term. During the last trimester, the monthly increase in the CTUP was higher than that recorded during the first and second trimesters. The result of the current study can be used as normal values for future studies of CTUP in pathologically pregnant buffalo-cows.

  10. Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1

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    Wbeimar Aguilar-Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Conclusión. Los resultados contrastantes de los niveles de HBD se deben, probablemente, a estímulos virales y sugieren que el VIH-1 induce una expresión diferencial de beta-defensinas humanas en placenta y que estas proteínas podrían estar involucradas en la protección contra el VIH-1, al menos, en las etapas tempranas del embarazo. Sin embargo, no fue posible asociar estos hallazgos con la protección contra la transmisión vertical del VIH-1, puesto que ninguno de los bebés adquirió la infección.

  11. A CROSS SECTIONAL MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF HYPERTENSIVE WITH NORMAL PLACENTAE AND ITS CORRELATION WITH FETAL OUTCOME

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    Sabita Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Placenta “the vital organ” for maintaining healthy pregnancy is unique in its development, being derived from both mother and fetus. Thus hypertensive disorder affecting mother has a deleterious impact on placenta which may lead to poor fetal outcome. Aim: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken to analyze and assess the morphological changes in hypertensive placentae and to clinically correlate it with fetal and maternal parameters. Materials and Methods: 50 placentae were freshly collected from pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH cases (study group and 50 from normal pregnancy (control group. Study group was divided into three categories depending upon severity of the disease. Observations and Results: 70% in study group were primigravida and were from rural area.46% were in age group of 15 – 20yrs.50% under low socio-economic status and 60% were without any regular antenatal checkup. Preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death accounted to 10%, 12%, 18% and 10% respectively in study group. The average diameter, thickness, volume and number of cotyledons in study group were 15.91±2.11cm, 2.39±.54cm, 297.64±67.90ml and 10.02±4.13respectively. Mean placental weight was 376.41±17.198gm (mild PIH, 330.72±2.90gm (severe PIH, 329.73±3.19gm (eclampsia and mean birth weight was 2680.29±198.46gm (mild PIH, 2212.06±36.41gm (severe PIH and 2073.60±9.47gm (eclampsia respectively in study group. Various pathological changes like retro placental hematoma, infarction and calcification had been noticed. Conclusion: Placental morphometric parameters were significantly reduced (<.001 in study group as compared to control group. Decreased placental weight was associated with reduced birth weight and feto-placental ratio with increase in severity of hypertension significantly (<.001. A significant increase (<.05 in incidence of preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death were found in study group. Assessment of

  12. Lipoprotein lipase and lipid profiles in plasma and placenta from normal pregnancies compared with patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z M; Ye, Y F; Zhang, Y K; Yang, S F; Ye, X L

    2016-08-01

    To analyse lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and lipid levels in placenta and plasma of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies. This prospective study included 30 patients with ICP and 30 gestational-age-matched pregnancies without any complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate plasma LPL levels from 28 weeks of gestation, at 4-weekly intervals, to 38 weeks of gestation, and data were assessed longitudinally. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect placental LPL expression and activity. Placental triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were also analysed. The clinical data related to ICP and lipid profiles were collected retrospectively. Plasma LPL concentration increased with gestational age in both groups, but the increase was limited in the ICP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed LPL staining mainly in syncytiotrophoblasts, and 3,3'-diamino-benzidine tetrahydrochloride wt% was lower in ICP placenta compared with normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL protein and mRNA expression in ICP placenta were significantly lower than in normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL activity was not significantly different in both groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the plasma LPL level was negatively associated with the corresponding concentration of total bile acid (r=-0.57) in the ICP group. Reduced LPL expression in placenta, limited increase in LPL level in maternal plasma, and abnormal lipid profiles were found in patients with ICP. LPL was possibly related to ICP by participating abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Presenting as a Placenta Accreta in a Twin Pregnancy with a Coexisting Normal Fetus: Case Report

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    Marijo Aguilera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a coexisting normal fetus (CHMF is a rare clinical scenario, and it carries many associated pregnancy and postnatal risks. Limited numbers of case studies exist reporting an outcome of live birth, and only three prior cases report the presentation of a hydatidiform mole as a placenta previa. We report a case of CHMF with the molar component presenting antenatally as a placenta previa, which ultimately resulted in placenta accreta at the time of delivery. A live male infant was delivered at 34 weeks’ gestation via planned cesarean section, and a hysterectomy was performed following unsuccessful removal of the molar component. We additionally utilized previously described methods of placing internal iliac balloons and ureteral stents prior to delivery. In such a high-risk pregnancy with a known molar previa component, these surgical preparation measures may be of benefit.

  14. Characteristics of glucose transport across the microvillous membranes of human term placenta Características del transporte de glucosa a través de las membranas con microvellosidades de la placenta humana a término

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    Ravinderjit Kaur Anand

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport characteristics of D-glucose were studied in the microvillous vesicles isolated from the human term placenta. Transport occurred by selective and rapid facilitated diffusion system which was inhibitable by phloretin and HgCl2. The transport was dependent on a transmembrane. Na+-gradient indicating a "secondary active transport" system operating. The transport influx was saturable and the kinetic analysis based on Hanes-Woolf plot produced a kt and Jmax value of 1.2 mM and 34 nmoles. mgprotein-1.min-1, respectively. The efflux of D-glucose from the membrane vesicles in a pre-equilibrated assay conditions showed a distinct biphasic pattern differing significantly in the half time efflux. The t1/2 of the fast and slow components was found to be 15 sec and 660 sec, respectively. The transport showed distinct sensitivity to temperature and the Ea values both below and above the transition temperature of 37 ºC, as calculated from the Arrhenius plot were found to be 7600 and 5472 kCa1.mol-1, respectively. Inhibition studies with a number of sugars for hexose transport pathway showed that the glucose epimers, phosphorylated sugars, and even the disaccharides and the pentose sugars competed effectively with D-glucose. The influx was also inhibited by a number of steroids such as progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and estrogen. Insulin was found to increase glucose transport in a dose- dependent fashion at a concentration of 0.2-1 unit.ml-1. Ouabain, dinitrophenoi and nicotine strongly inhibited D-glucose uptake in the membrane vesicles.Se estudiaron las características del transporte de la D-glucosa en las vesículas con microvellosidades aisladas de la placenta humana a término. El transporte ocurría por un sistema de difusión selectiva y facilitada rápida que podía inhibirse por floretina y por HgCl2. El transporte dependía de un gradiente de Na+ transmembrana,indicativo de un sistema operativo de "transporte activo

  15. Clinical correlation with pathology of placenta in medical disorders of pregnancy and its comparison in normal pregnancy

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    Ratnamala Siddheshware

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy placenta is responsible for maintaining pregnancy and promoting normal foetal development. It reflects the intrauterine status of the foetus. Methods: In the present prospective study, total 50 Placentae from Medical Disorders of Pregnancies were studied and compared with equal number of Placentae from normal Pregnancies. Results: The significant macroscopic changes were calcification and infarction seen in Hypertensive Disorder. Extensive placental infarction was associated with high incidence of low APGAR (82% and perinatal deaths (66.67%. No significant gross macroscopic changes were seen in Anaemia, Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Disease. Increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid degeneration, vasculo-syncytial membrane paucity were significant microscopic changes in Hypertensive Disorder. In Anaemia stromal fibrosis, increased syncytial knots were seen, whereas in Diabetes Mellitus villous edema was the most significant microscopic finding. No significant microscopic change was found in Heart Disease. Increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid degeneration, vasculo-syncytial membrane paucity, stromal fibrosis were associated with increased perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Gross and microscopic examination of placenta is strongly recommended in cases where maternal co-morbid conditions is likely to have an adverse perinatal outcome.

  16. Expression of Androgen Receptor in Human Placentas from Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies

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    Te-Yao Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: These data suggest that the increased AR expression may alter AR-mediated function on syncytiotrophoblasts and stromal cells in PE placentas, and be a possible mechanism for its association with preeclampsia.

  17. Ultrasonic detection and developmental changes in calcification of the placenta during normal pregnancy in mice.

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    Akirav, C; Lu, Y; Mu, J; Qu, D W; Zhou, Y Q; Slevin, J; Holmyard, D; Foster, F S; Adamson, S L

    2005-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound imaging of the mouse placenta during development revealed highly echogenic foci localized near the materno-placental interface in early gestation and, near term, in the placental labyrinth (the exchange region of the placenta). Echogenic foci and calcium deposits identified in histological sections using Alizarin red staining showed similar localization and changes with gestation. Calcium deposits caused the echogenic foci because incubating uteri in a decalcifying solution eliminated both the deposits and echogenic foci. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and electron diffraction were used to show that deposits were calcium hydroxyapatite crystals. Calcium deposits were extensive and densely packed at days 7.5-9.5 of gestation at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of ectoplacental cone. After the formation of the chorio-allantoic placenta (approximately day 10.5), calcification deposits appeared larger and more rarefied but were still localized at the border between the maternal decidua and the fetal trophoblast giant cells of the placenta. Calcification deposits were not observed in the labyrinthine region of the mouse placenta until > or = day 15.5 (day 18.5 is full term). We conclude that deposits of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the mouse placenta are detectable by high resolution ultrasound imaging. These deposits provide an ultrasound detectable marker of the maternal-placental interface that is particularly prominent during the establishment of the chorio-allantoic placenta between days 7.5 and 9.5 of gestation. (c) Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identificação de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas humanas e espécimes de aborto pela técnica de imunoistoquímica Identification of Listeria monocytogenes in human placentas and abortion species through immunohistochemical technique

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    Jussara Pires Schwab

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A listeriose é causada por um microrganismo que se encontra amplamente disseminado na natureza e tem sido isolado do solo, de fezes humanas e de animais e pode, eventualmente, contaminar os alimentos. A Listeria monocytogenes é patogênica para o homem e tornou-se o principal patógeno nas doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos. Tendo-se em vista que a incidência de listeriose humana não é bem conhecida e as placentites possuem aspecto morfológico inespecífico e não são, muitas vezes, investigadas para este fator etiológico, surgiu a motivação para desenvolver a técnica de imunoistoquímica para o diagnóstico de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas ou produtos de aborto, utilizando um anticorpo policlonal anti-Listeria (Biodesign®. Um projeto-piloto foi realizado a partir do material encontrado em dez placentas provenientes de abortos ou partos prematuros ocorridos no ano de 2000 no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. As lâminas foram analisadas através do exame microscópico convencional (HE e de imunoistoquímica (IHQ. Os resultados deste projeto revelaram a presença de Listeria monocytogenes em cinco dos dez (50% casos estudados. Todos os casos apresentaram alterações sugestivas de processo inflamatório agudo supurativo. Frente a estes achados torna-se importante considerar a infecção por Listeria monocytogenes detectável por IHQ como um elemento no diagnóstico da patogenia do aborto ou das infecções perinatais, podendo este achado contribuir para o tratamento dos recém-nascidos ou das parturientes. As características microscópicas de listeriose na placenta, embora não-patognomônicas, permitem ao patologista um diagnóstico presuntivo, e a confirmação pode ser realizada pelo método de imunoistoquímica.Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne, human-infecting pathogen, is widespread in nature and has been isolated from soil, human and animal feces. Since the incidence of human listeriosis is not well

  19. Estudio histológico, inmuno-histoquímico y de cultivo celular de mamas humana y canina normal y cancerosa

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    Carine Fernandes B.; Marcelo José V.; Ricardo Junqueira Del C.; Liana Mesquita V.; Mastoby Martinez M.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas de células normales y cancerosas derivadas de glándulas mamarias de las especies humana y canina. Materiales y métodos. Fueron colectadas 10 muestras de parénquima mamario normal y 14 de parénquima tumoral de la especie canina, así como seis muestras de parénquima mamario normal y tres de parénquima tumoral de la especie humana. Para el cultivo de células fue utilizada la técnica de cultivo de células de mamíferos y para la histoquími...

  20. Effect in vitro of the Phenobarbital on the Activity of the Enzyme Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase of Sodium and Potassium Dependent in Human Placenta. Efecto in vitro del fenobarbital sobre la actividad de la enzima Adenosintrifosfatasa de sodio y potasio dependiente en placenta humana.

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    Pedro Sánchez Frenes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Most of the drugs can pass to the fetus through the placenta, conditioning alterations of the development and fetal growth. Objective: To evaluate the effect in vitro of Phenobarbital on the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent in human placenta. Method: A study in vitro was carried out, in total homogenizes of placentas coming from 30 mothers that were assisted in the Gynecological and Obstetric Educational Provincial Hospital ¨Mariana Grajales¨, in Santa Clara, during the period March-July 1993. Phenobarbital was administered in concentrations of 0,1 mg/ml, 0,15 mg/ml and 0,2 mg/ml, keeping in mind the therapeutic dose to which was prescribed. The analyzed variables were: enzymatic activity and inhibition type. Results: The enzymatic activity of the adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and potassium dependent, diminished in a significant way, proportionally with the diminishment of the administered concentration of Phenobarbital. The inhibitory effect of the drug also turned out to be dependent of the concentration, presenting a major inhibition as the dose was increased. Conclusion: Phenobarbital produced highly significant decrease in the activity of adenosine triphosphatase of sodium and dependent potassium. This inhibition is of competitive type.

    Fundamento: La mayoría de los fármacos, en mayor o menor medida, son capaces de pasar al feto a través de la placenta, condicionando alteraciones del desarrollo y del crecimiento fetal. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto in vitro del fenobarbital sobre la actividad de la Adenosintrifosfatasa de sodio y potasio dependiente de placenta humana. Método: Se realizó un estudio in vitro, en homogeneizados totales de placentas provenientes de 30 madres que fueron atendidas en el Hospital Provincial Docente Ginecobst

  1. Placenta abruptio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 18. Hull AD, Resnik R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and vasa previa. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene ...

  2. Expression of Resistin Protein in Normal Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Pregnant Women Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yongming; GUO Tiecheng; ZHANG Muxun; GUO Wei; YU Meixia; XUE Keying; HUANG Shiang; CHEN Yanhong; ZHU Huanli; XU Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta and the relationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta was detected by using Western blotting method.Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), serum triglycerides (TG), serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay to calculate insulin resistance index (IRI). Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF %). Resistin protein expression in pregnant women placental tissue (67 905±8441) (arbitrary A values) was much higher than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue in pregnant women abdomen (40 718 ± 3818, P < 0.01), non-pregnant women abdomen (38 288±2084, P<0.01), normal human abdomen (39 421±6087, P<0.01)and thigh (14 942 ±6706, P<0. 001) respectively. The resistin expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no significant difference among pregnant, non-pregnant women and normal human, but much higher than that in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0. 001). Pearson analysis revealed that resistin protein was correlated with BMI (r=0.42), fasting insulin concentration (r=0.38),IRI (r=0. 34), BF % (r=0.43) and fasting glucose (r=0. 39), but not with blood pressure,CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. It was suggested that resistin protein expression in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was much higher

  3. Estudio histológico, inmuno-histoquímico y de cultivo celular de mamas humana y canina normal y cancerosa

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    Carine Fernandes B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar las características morfológicas de células normales y cancerosas derivadas de glándulas mamarias de las especies humana y canina. Materiales y métodos. Fueron colectadas 10 muestras de parénquima mamario normal y 14 de parénquima tumoral de la especie canina, así como seis muestras de parénquima mamario normal y tres de parénquima tumoral de la especie humana. Para el cultivo de células fue utilizada la técnica de cultivo de células de mamíferos y para la histoquímica la técnica de la avidina- biotina- peroxidasa, con utilización del anticuerpo monoclonal 32-2B (anti-desmogléina-1. Resultados. A los estudios histológicos y morfológicos las células de la glándula mamaria normal humana demostraron semejanzas con las células de la glándula mamaria normal canina. Se observó adhesión y proliferación de células normales en ambas especies por aproximadamente tres meses de cultivo. Las células normales de las especies humana y canina mostraron baja actividad de proliferación cuando se compararon con las cancerosas de las especies en estudio. Los grupos de células epiteloides que se adhirieron al sustrato de los dos cultivos tuvieron dependencia de las células estromales, porque en la medida que las células fibroblastoides se retiraron, las células epiteloides detuvieron su crecimiento. Conclusiones. Comparando los resultados obtenidos por medio de análisis inmuno-histoquímico de células normales de mujeres y perras fue posible observar cambios en el patrón de coloración en células cancerosas en ambas especies, demostrando que las estructuras relacionadas con la adhesión celular (desmosomas pueden estar alteradas.

  4. Expression of metalloproteinases 1, 2, 7, 9, and 12 in human cytotrophoblastic cells from normal and preeclamptic placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marie; Ribaux, Pascale; Epiney, Manuella; Irion, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific pregnancy disorder which could be due, at least in part, to impaired invasion of trophoblastic cells. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the predominant proteases involved in trophoblastic invasion, we investigated and compared expression of MMP-1, 2, 7, 9 and 12 of cytotrophoblastic cells (CTB) purified from preeclamptic (PE) placentas to control CTB. In order to evaluate invasive properties of cells, purified CTB were seeded on collagen-coated insert following boyden chamber principle and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression was evaluated by qPCR. Our results showed that PE CTB are less invasive than control CTB in vitro. In parallel, expression of MMPs, except for MMP-2, tends to be decreased in PE CTB compared to control CTB. At the exception of MMP-2, this study confirms the importance of MMPs in development of PE.

  5. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

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    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  6. Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shigemitsu, Sadahiko [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ryugasaki Saiseikai General Hospital, Ryagasaki (Japan); Ichikawa, Yoshihito; Sohda, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-06-01

    Retained placenta accreta can cause catastrophic postpartum hemorrhage. This study aims to determine whether MR imaging can differentiate retained placenta accreta from postpartum hemorrhage caused by other conditions. Fourteen cases suspicious for retained placenta were examined with MR imaging. Signal intensity, the enhancing pattern of uterine contents, and flow voids within the myometrium were retrospectively studied. As hysterectomy was performed in only two cases, final diagnosis was based on clinical outcome and analysis of uterine contents. Final diagnoses were retained placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one. All seven cases with placenta accreta had a very hyperintense area on T2-weighted images, showing transient early enhancement. None demonstrated delayed strong enhancement around the hyperintense area. In two cases with retained normally attached placenta and in both with hematomas, there were no hyperintense areas on T2-weighted images. Of these, only one showed transient early enhancement. Flow voids were observed in four cases with placenta accreta, one with normally attached placenta, and the case with PSTT. A markedly hyperintense area on T2-weighted images and transient early enhancement without delayed strong enhancement between the mass and the myometrium can indicate retained placenta accreta. (orig.)

  7. Placenta abruption - definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 178. Hull AD, Resnik R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio placentae, and ... R, Iams JD, et al, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. ...

  8. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  9. Placenta accreta with placenta previa. Case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández-Ojeda, Humberto; Torres-Hernández, Rosa María; Rivera-Hernández, Jorge Onasis

    2014-01-01

    The placenta praevia and acretism placental were concurrently and are conditions of abnormal placenta, in which the villus sampling invade the myometrium at the site of implantation and is associated...

  10. Psicología del preescolar: desarrollo de la conducta humana normal de los 3 a los 7 años de edad

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Bellido, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Siguiendo el camino iniciado en estas charlas sobre la psicología de la conducta humana a través del transcurso de la vida, nos corresponde en la lecci6n de hoy detenernos a considerar al niño en su periodo preescolar, en su primera infancia según algunos auto res y en la segunda para otros, en la época de su vida comprendida aproximadamente entre los tres y los siete años de edad. Cada periodo del desarrollo del ser humano tiene su importancia especial. Para la madre cada fase de la vida de ...

  11. [Placenta accreta with placenta previa. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ojeda, Humberto; Torres-Hernández, Rosa María; Rivera-Hernández, Jorge Onasis

    2014-08-01

    The placenta praevia and acretism placental were concurrently and are conditions of abnormal placenta, in which the villus sampling invade the myometrium at the site of implantation and is associated with the partial or complete absence of the decidua. Clinical case: Patient's 32 years of age, with 34 weeks pregnancy. Obstetric history of previous cesarean section, transvaginal bleeding several times; the diagnosis by ultrasound showed placenta praevia occlusive. Surgical treatment was abdominal total hysterectomy.

  12. Musica Humana og musikterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Karin

    2005-01-01

    I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres for defi......I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres...... for definitioner af relevante niveauer af musikterapi i denne sammenhæng; Musica Humanas formål; MusiCure’s tilblivelse; baggrunden for og relevansen af en musikterapeuts tilstedeværelse i Musica Humana, samt hvilken rolle musikterapeuten kan spille i denne sammenhæng. Medlemmer af Musica Humanas styregruppe...... bidrager med udsagn om deres opfattelse af relevansen af en musikterapeut som ressourceperson i Musica Humana....

  13. Musica Humana og musikterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Karin

    2005-01-01

    I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres for defi......I pressen har Musica Humanas projekter på flere danske sygehuse jævnligt været omtalt i de seneste to år, særligt i forbindelse med udgivelsen af serien MusiCure’s foreløbig fire Cd’er. Ordet ’musikterapi’ er blevet anvendt til beskrivelse af disse projekters metode. I artiklen redegøres...... for definitioner af relevante niveauer af musikterapi i denne sammenhæng; Musica Humanas formål; MusiCure’s tilblivelse; baggrunden for og relevansen af en musikterapeuts tilstedeværelse i Musica Humana, samt hvilken rolle musikterapeuten kan spille i denne sammenhæng. Medlemmer af Musica Humanas styregruppe...... bidrager med udsagn om deres opfattelse af relevansen af en musikterapeut som ressourceperson i Musica Humana....

  14. The expression and significance of syncytin in placenta of normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia%Syncytin在正常妊娠及子痫前期胎盘组织中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春芳; 苟文丽; 李雪兰; 杨婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨syncytin在正常妊娠及子痫前期胎盘组织中的表达及意义.方法 采用荧光实时定量PCR( Realtime FQ-PCR)方法检测正常晚期妊娠(20例)、晚发型子痫前期轻度(20例)、重度(25例)及早发型重度子痫前期(15例)胎盘组织中syncytin mRNA表达.结果 Syncytin mRNA在正常妊娠晚期及子痫前期胎盘组织中均有表达;晚发型子痫前期与正常晚孕比较,胎盘组织syncytin mRNA表达降低,且与病情严重程度相关;早发型与晚发型比较,早发型重度子痫前期表达降低更为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论Syncytin mRNA在子痫前期胎盘组织中表达降低,早发型降低更为明显,而syncytin与滋养细胞融合有关,提示滋养细胞融合障碍可能在子痫前期发病中发挥作用.%Objective To detect the expression and significance of syncytin mRNA in placenta of pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy. Methods The expression of syncytin mRNA in placenta of 45 late-onset pre-eclampsia patients (20 cases of mild pre-eclampsia and 25 cases of severe pre-eclampsia), 15 early-onset severe pre-eclampsia and 20 normal pregnant women was determined by Real-time FQ-PCR. Results Syncytin mRNA was expressed in placenta of normal and pre-eclanjpsia; it was significantly decreased in late-onset pre-eclampsia than in normal placenta, and the expression level was related to the severity of pre-eclampsia. Syncytin mRNA was significantly lower in early-onset severe pre-eclampsia than in late-onset pre-eclampsia placenta (P<0. 01). Conclusion Syncytin mRNA has a lower expression in placenta of pre-eclampsia, especially in early-onset severe pre-eclampsia; and expression of syncytin is related to trophocyte fusion, suggesting that disorder of trophocyte fusion may play a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  15. The role of shear wave elastography in the assessment of placenta previa-accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alıcı Davutoglu, Ebru; Ariöz Habibi, Hatice; Ozel, Ayşegül; Yuksel, Mehmet Aytac; Adaletli, Ibrahim; Madazlı, Riza

    2017-05-09

    To evaluate the value of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta. Forty-three women with normal placental location and 26 women with anteriorly localized placenta previa were recruited for this case-control study. Placental elasticity values in both the groups were determined by SWE imaging. SWE values were higher in the placenta previa group in all regions than in normal localized placentas (p placenta previa with and without morbidly adherent placenta (p > .05). Placental stiffness is significantly higher in placenta previa than normal localized placentas. However, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in the elasticity values between the placenta previa with and without accreta.

  16. Review: Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, D E

    2011-03-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placental function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta-specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage specific birth and death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placentally expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placental biology.

  17. Vida humana y persona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marlasca López

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo, más que un juego lingüístico de términos y expresiones, se tratara de enfatizar los términos vida humana y persona humana, como estos de la simple sinonimia en la conversación habitual, han sido trastocados en sofisticado instrumento jurídico, al concluir en Costa Rica la Sala Constitucional, por quien sabe que ciencia infusa, que el embrión recién fecundado ya es persona. Por tanto se enfatiza con fuerza el contrasentido de aseverar que el principio y el producto son lo mismo, entendiendo que la semilla es diferente al fruto, citando a Savater, cuando dijo que el que come un huevo no ha comido pollo. El embrión recién fecundado o pre-embrión, es principio, semilla, potencia, quizás un día sea persona, de ahí la conclusión de que no toda vida humana es persona humana.In this essay, more than a linguistic game of terms and expressions, we treat the meanings of human life and the human person, and how this simooms in the habitual language, have been to changed into a sophisticated judicial tool, by the conclusion of the Costa Rican Constitutional Court, who using a mysterious science, has said that once the ovule has been fecund, it is a human being. For that reason we emphasize the contra sense to sever that the beginning is the same than the product, understanding that the seed is different than the fruit, referring to Savater, when he said, when you eat an egg you are not eat chicken. The embryo recently fecund or pre-embryo is beginning, seed, potency, maybe one day it will be a human person, from there the conclusion that not all human life is a human person.

  18. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten;

    2016-01-01

    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies...

  19. Retained placenta in Friesian mares : incidence, risk factors, therapy, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns incidence, risk factors, therapy and consequences of retained placenta after normal foalings in Friesian mares. Retained placenta was defined as failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 hours after the delivery of the foal. Incidence of retained placenta was studied in 495 p

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Normal Fetus and Placenta in Medium to Late Pregnancy%MR在妊娠中晚期正常胎儿及胎盘检查中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓华; 姜伦; 罗先富; 陈文新; 叶靖; 孔嶷; 吴晶涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate normal MR anatomy and findings of fetus and placenta in medium and late pregnancy. Materials and Methods Thirty six pregnancy women underwented MR examination. Coronal, sagital and axial plane MR SSFSE sequence was performed. The normal MR anatomy of fetus and placenta, including brain,lungs,heart,liver , spleen,gastrointestinal tract, urinary collecting systems, bladder, bones, spine and placenta, was observed in different gestational age. Results MR findings of fetus showed that the main organs had developed at 20 weeks. (1)Central nervous system; at 20 weeks gestation,the three layers of the cerebrum were identified including the hyperintense white matter, the hypointense cortical gray matter, and the lower signal intensity germinal matrix. The ventricular system demonstrated physiologic enlargement until 25 weeks gestation. Before 20 weeks, the surface of the fetal brain was smooth. The sylvian fissure demonstrated a squared appearance at 23 weeks. At 23 to 30 weeks of gestation ,the primary fissure developed slowly , until by 30 to 37 weeks, the remainder of the hemispheric fissures were developed. ( 2 ) Respiratory and circulation system : The lungs showed high signal intensity , the heart and great vessels appeared hypointense. (3) Digestive system; stomach bubble,the gallbladder showed as high signal. The intestine showed low signal and meconium showed as low signal in part of the intestine. Liver and spleen showed low signal located in right and left side of the abdomen. (4) Urinary system; kidneys showed oval shape with low signal and bladder showed high signal in pelvic cavity. (5) Skeletal, muscular system; spine, limbs showed low signal, and muscle showed equal signal. (6)The placenta signal changed from uniform, slightly higher signal to the uneven, slightly lower signal with the gestational age, and the edge of the placenta changed from the smooth to lobulated shape. Conclusion Normal anatomy and MR findings of fetal main

  1. PERSONA HUMANA Y PERSONALISMO

    OpenAIRE

    Elio Sgreccia

    2013-01-01

    En la primera parte del artículo se analiza la evolución histórico-filosófica del concepto de persona humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el pensamiento contemporáneo, enunciando las ideas más relevantes al respecto. En la segunda parte se realiza un análisis crítico de las posiciones reduccionistas o empiristas, en particular de las de Engelhardt y el utilitarismo, analizando algunas de sus consecuencias prácticas en bioética. El autor concluye enunciando lo que serían los principios fundament...

  2. Phenotype-associated lectin-binding profiles of normal and transformed blood cells: a comparative analysis of mannose- and galactose-binding lectins from plants and human serum/placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K K; André, S; Gabius, H J; Sharp, J G

    1994-10-01

    Surface glycoconjugates of normal and transformed blood cells are commonly characterized by plant lectins. To infer physiological significance of protein-carbohydrate interactions, mammalian lectins are obviously preferable as research tools. So far, human serum lectins have not been used to assess their binding to immunophenotyped human normal or transformed blood cells. Thus, our study combines two groups of lectins with different specificity from plant and human sources. Besides concanavalin A (ConA) we have isolated the mannose-binding protein and serum amyloid P component from human serum. Especially the mannose-binding protein is believed to play a role in host defence against bacteria and yeast cells with unknown impact on normal and tumor cells. These three lectins establish the first group. In addition to the immunomodulatory mistletoe lectin, whose binding can elicit enhanced cytokine secretion from mononuclear blood cells, we included the beta-galactoside-binding lectin (14 kDa) from human placenta in the second group. The initial series of measurements was undertaken using two-color flow cytometry to determine the phenotype-associated binding (based on cluster designation; CD) of the lectins to blood and bone marrow cells from normal donors and the cell line CEM (T-lymphoblastoid), KG1-A (primitive myeloid leukemia) and Croco II (B-lymphoblastoid). Heterogeneity was apparent for each lectin in the CD-defined cell populations. Significant differences in binding were noted between Viscum album agglutinin (VAA) and other lectins for CD4+ cells from blood and between mannose-binding protein (MBP) and VAA versus 14 kDa, ConA and serum amyloid P component (SAP) for CD19+ cells from bone marrow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. La agresividad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia López Avendaño

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se comparan los planteamientos de Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse y Erich Fromm en torno a la agresividad humana. Analizar esta temática en el contexto actual es relevante dado el incremento de acciones que conllevan gran dosis de violencia tanto en el plano físico, como en el psicológico y espiritual, así como la urgencia de plantear soluciones. La posición de los tres autores permite visualizar la pertinencia de explicaciones que tienden a asumirse en la vida cotidiana en torno a este fenómeno y, sobre todo, construir nuevas perspectivas que las relean, trasciendan y enriquezcan.

  4. PERSONA HUMANA Y PERSONALISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Sgreccia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del artículo se analiza la evolución histórico-filosófica del concepto de persona humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el pensamiento contemporáneo, enunciando las ideas más relevantes al respecto. En la segunda parte se realiza un análisis crítico de las posiciones reduccionistas o empiristas, en particular de las de Engelhardt y el utilitarismo, analizando algunas de sus consecuencias prácticas en bioética. El autor concluye enunciando lo que serían los principios fundamentales de la bioética personalista, su fundamentación ontológica, así como el posible desarrollo contemporáneo de la intuición inicial, enunciada por vez primera por Sgreccia en los ochenta.

  5. Management of placenta percreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Lönn, Lars; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in the management of the conditions. A PubMed search was performed in April 2013 and the final review included 119 published placenta percreta cases. Conservative management, where the placenta is left in situ for resorption, seems to be associated with severe long-term complications of hemorrhage and infections...... cases for the local resection technique might in part explain the lower complication rates with that approach. Future prospective data collection activities should include intended as well as actual management, and long-term follow-up of all cases is of vital importance....

  6. De placenta bij rhesus antagonisme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wormgoor, Bernard Hendrikus

    1952-01-01

    In de inleiding worden de te behandelen problemen aan de orde gesteld. Het uitganspunt hiervan is de studie van de morphologie van de placenta. Bij het histologisch onderzoek van de placenta waren het vooral de afwijkingen in de placenta bij Erythroblastosis Foetalis (verderop aan te duiden als E.F.

  7. LA FORMA HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN ENRIQUE BELTRÁN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Como pedagogos constituimos una gran organización  de sinceros aspirantes al poder que proviene del conocimiento,  y el conocimiento es el único poder que necesitamos.  Nos circundan por todos lados las más poderosas fuerzas,  podemos pensar que la dinámica es un poder maravilloso,  una fuerza de gran potencia, cuando se le deja libre,  pero este poder no es nada en comparación con la potencia  del poder y fuerza contenidos en el electrón invisible o átomo  de materia, si pudiéramos liberarlo con tal facilidad como  lo hacemos con la fuerza de la dinámica.  La fuerza llamada de gravitación no es más potente que la  fuerza que cualquier motor eléctrico halla sido capaz de  producir. La fuerza y poder que existe dentro del cuerpo  humano, llamada también vitalidad humana o magnetismo  es mucho mas grande y dinámica de lo que nos imaginamos.  Tenemos también el poder, la fuerza potente que se  manifiesta a través de la mente humana.

  8. Expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) tumor antigen in human abort placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D U; Jeschke, U; Bergemann, C; Makovitzky, J; Lüthen, F; Karsten, U; Briese, V

    2005-01-01

    The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF), or more precisely epitope, has been known as a pancarcinoma antigen. It consists of galactose-beta1-3-N-acetylgalactose. We have already described the expression of TF in the normal placenta. TF is expressed by the syncytium and by extravillous trophoblast cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TF in the abort placenta. Frozen samples of human abort placentas (12 placentas), obtained from the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and, for comparison, samples of normal placentas (17 placentas) from the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy, were used. Expression of TF was investigated by immunohistochemical methods. For identification of TF-positive cells in abort placentas, immunofluorescence methods were used. Evaluation of simple and double immunofluorescence was performed on a laser scanning microscope. Furthermore, we isolated trophoblast cells from first and third trimester placentas and evaluated cytokeratin 7 and Muc1 expression by immunofluorescence methods. We observed expression of TF antigen in the syncytiotrophoblasts layer of the placenta in all three trimesters of pregnancy in normal and abort placentas evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. There was no expression of TF antigen in the decidua of abort placentas. Immunofluorescence double staining of TF antigen and cytokeratin 7 showed reduced expression of both antigens in the abort decidua and co-expression of both antigens in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of normal and abort placentas. TF expression in the syncytiotrophoblast was reduced in abort placentas. In the isolated trophoblast cells, no TF expression was found, however, Muc1 expression was visualized. Expression of TF antigen was reduced in the first and second trimester abort decidua compared to the normal decidua during the same time of pregnancy. TF antigen was restricted to the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells in the decidua. Abort placentas

  9. La agresividad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Avendaño, Olimpia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se comparan los planteamientos de Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse y Erich Fromm en torno a la agresividad humana. Analizar esta temática en el contexto actual es relevante dado el incremento de acciones que conllevan gran dosis de violencia tanto en el plano físico, como en el psicológico y espiritual, así como la urgencia de plantear soluciones. La posición de los tres autores permite visualizar la pertinencia de explicaciones que tienden a asumirse en la vida cotidiana en torno a este fenómeno y, sobre todo, construir nuevas perspectivas que las relean, trasciendan y enriquezcan. In this article the expositions regarding human aggressiveness by Sigmund Freud, Herbert Marcusse and Erich Fromm are compared. The relevance of this subject's analysis in the present context is due to the increase of actions that entail a great dose of violence in the physical, psychological and spiritual planes; and to the urgency of raising solutions. The three authors' position allows us to see how adequate are the explanations that tend to be assumed in everyday life; and above all allow us to build new perspectives that make a new interpretation of them, that extend and enrich them

  10. Ultrasonography evaluations of placenta previa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Seo; Yim, Neung Jae; Oh, Eun Ock [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Soung [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become one of the most useful tools in the practice of obstetrics. It has been of particular utility in the placental localization. We analyzed 34 patients of placenta previa scanned by ultrasound. The results were as follows; 1. The age of patient ranged from 22 to 39 years, showing the highest incidence in 26 to 30 years. 2. The accuracy of correct localization was 70.6%. 3. Among 13 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as total placenta previa, 2 cases were partial placental previa and 1 was low-lying placenta at the time of delivery. 4. Among 9 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as partial placenta previa, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was low-lying placenta and 1 case was upper segment placenta. 5. Among 10 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as low-lying placenta, 2 cases were partial placenta previa. 6. Among 2 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as upper segment placenta, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was partial placenta previa. 7. Among 9 cases done serial ultrasound, 3 cases revealed that the placenta migrates toward fundus in the course of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental scanning should be repeated in the last month before term to decide the mode of delivery. Conclusively, ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of placenta localization because it provides speedy and repeatable way without any known risk to both mother and fetus itself. Careful performance and accurate interpretation should be needed for more correct placental localization.

  11. The placenta in toxicology. Part III : Pathologic assessment of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Ernerudh, Jan; Faas, Marijke M; Göhner, Claudia; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Markert, Udo R; Pfarrer, Christiane; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Buse, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    This short review is derived from the peer-reviewed literature and the experience and case materials of the authors. Brief illustrated summaries are presented on the gross and histologic normal anatomy of rodent and macaque placentas, including typical organ weights, with comments on differences fro

  12. Moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal: importancia del receptor 1 de transferrina y de la ferroportina en la placenta humana = Molecules implicated in maternal-fetal iron transport across the placental barrier: Role of Transferrin Receptor 1 and Ferroportin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Agudelo, Lady Vanessa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La adecuada transferencia placentaria de hierro es crucial para satisfacer los altos requerimientos del feto y promover su adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo intrauterino; de otra parte, contribuye a prevenir la ferropenia y la anemia, entidades altamente prevalentes en los lactantes durante los primeros dos años de edad, que se asocian con mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en la infancia. La placenta es un órgano capaz de realizar diferentes adaptaciones en la producción de moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal en respuesta al estado de hierro celular, para proveer la mayor disponibilidad de este mineral al feto. Esta revisión, pretende acercar al lector a los mecanismos metabólicos y moleculares relacionados con la captación, el transporte y la salida de hierro por la placenta hacia el feto, así como su regulación, para proporcionar elementos que le permitan comprender en forma integrada, la importancia de un adecuado estado de hierro materno antes y durante la gestación.

  13. THE PLACENTA INFECTED BY HIV AND HPV

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    Castejón Sandoval OC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection HIV/HPV reaches the placenta through the maternal-fetal transmission from an infected uterus. In this connection HPV has epitheliotropic and cytolytic capabilities which can cause severe alterations to the structure of the placental villi associating with the activity of antivirals that can increase the proportion of these lesions. Objective: To evaluate morphological changes in placental villi of patient with coinfection HIV/HPV. Material and Method: Placenta obtained of patient with low socioeconomic resources and coinfection HIV/HPV at 38 weeks of pregnancy, without another signs of disease, live newborn, which was analized by Light microscopy. Normal placenta was used as control. A protocol of observation that described syncytial nodules,fibrinoid, edema, fibrosis, calcification and immaturity was used. Results: Stem villi appeared with vascular damage to the level of endothelium, muscular layer and tissue that surround to the vessels. Severe degenerative changes in the syncytium and stromal region were observed in different types of villi. Arborization of villi was scarcity. Fibrosis, deposition of fibrinoid and infarcts are notorious. Immature intermediate villi were seen abundant and degenerate. Conclusions: An unknown interaction of HIV/HPV has provoked on the structure of placental villi an effect higher compared when the viral activity of each one virus is produced individually. This viral attack leads to a destructive effect very strong on the placenta.

  14. Determinants of placenta previa: a case-control study

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    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk factors of placenta previa differ around the world. This study evaluated risk factors of pregnancies complicated with placenta previa during a 5-year period in a referral center in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This case control study was conducted in Hamadan city (Hamadan Province of Iran from April 2013 to March 2017. The cases were women whose deliveries were complicated by placenta previa and the controls were those who delivered without placenta previa. We recruited 130 cases and 130 controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results: The OR of placenta previa was 4.08 (95% CI= 1.44, 11.58 by maternal age, 4.08 (95% CI =1.44, 11.58 by preterm labor, and 6.64 (95% CI =1.09, 40.45 by prior operations of the uterine cavity, compared to normal deliveries and after adjusting for other variables. Multiparity, prior spontaneous abortions, and prior cesarean sections were not statistically significant risk factors for placenta previa, when adjusted for other variables.  Conclusion: Our study suggests that high maternal age and prior operations of the uterine cavity are risk factors for placenta previa.

  15. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yael Baumfeld; Reli Herskovitz; Zehavi Bar Niv; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Adi Y. Weintraub

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications...

  16. clonación humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída María Ponce del Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El incesante desarrollo de la ingeniería genética en el ámbito mundial genera profundos cuestionamientos éticos, legales y sociales por las consecuencias que estas investigaciones pueden tener tanto en los individuos en lo particular, como en el futuro de la especie humana en general. El experto en bioética Leon R. Kass ha realizado un profundo estudio de los alcances de esas experimentaciones, y particularmente con respecto a la clonación humana, advirtiendo situaciones complejas que no se deben pasar por alto. A lo largo de este trabajo examino el pensamiento de Leon Kass respecto a la clonación de seres humanos que, según nos refiere, despersonalizaría la reproducción humana, tendría influencia significativa sobre las generaciones futuras y, finalmente provocaría la degradación del hombre.

  17. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Baumfeld

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an increased rate of placental insufficiency associated complications in women with placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications.

  18. Placenta associated pregnancy complications in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfeld, Yael; Herskovitz, Reli; Niv, Zehavi Bar; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that pregnancies complicated with placenta previa have an increased risk of placental insufficiency associated pregnancy complications (IUGR, preeclampsia, placental abruption and perinatal mortality). Our study included all deliveries that occurred at Soroka University Medical Center (Beer Sheva, Israel) between January 1998 and December 2013. Of them 1,249 were complicated by placenta previa and represented our study group. A composite outcome was created to include conditions associated with placental insufficiency. It included hypertensive disorders (i.e. gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, HELLP and eclampsia), small for gestational age neonates and placental abruption. Patients with pregnancy complicated by placenta previa had significantly different obstetrical characteristics including bad obstetric history (8% vs. 4%, p placenta previa had higher rates of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy (3% vs. 0%, p placenta (4% vs. 0.5%, p placenta previa group (21% vs. 13%, p placenta previa. This is of clinical relevance and suggests that a careful surveillance for women with placenta previa may help in minimizing maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cellular localization of AT1 receptor mRNA and protein in normal placenta and its reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of vasorelaxants.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; M Shams; Zhu, J; Khalig, A; Wilkes, M; Whittle, M; Barnes, N; Ahmed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a potent vasoconstrictor and growth promoter. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using the nonselective radioligand [125I]ANG II and subtype-selective competing compounds demonstrated the presence of both ANG II receptor (AT)1 and AT2 receptor recognition sites. In addition, a relatively small population of apparently non-AT1/non-AT2 sites was identified that may represent a novel high affinity ANG II recognition site in human placenta. Using placental membrane p...

  20. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  1. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Saini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fetus, placenta and mother constitute a triad of contributors to pregnancy outcome. When pregnancy is complicated by a medical problem like, diabetes mellitus which affects maternal health, architecture and functions of the placenta may even jeopardize the fetal normalcy. The placenta being the bridge between maternal and fetal activities, considered as a window through which maternal dysfunctions and their impacts on fetal well being can be understood. Aim: The aim was to study gross morphology of placentae of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare the results with normal pregnancies. Methods: It was an observational study. After due approval from institutional ethics committee, 40 placentae from pregnant women clinically diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and 40 placentae from uncomplicated normal pregnant women were collected from labour room and operation theatre of department of obstetrics and gynaecology of government medical college hospital in Jaipur (Rajasthan. Confirmed gestational diabetic cases were selected purposively while controls were taken sequentially. Gross morphological features of each placenta were recorded. The statistical methods used were unpaired ‘t’ test and chi square test. Results: The results showed that weight, diameter, surface area, central thickness and number of cotyledons of placentae from diabetic mothers were significantly more than placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies, while no significant differences were observed in shape and site of umbilical cord insertion. Conclusion: The gross morphology of placentae with gestational diabetes mellitus significantly differs from normal pregnancies which may be associated with alteration in physiological functioning of placenta and ultimately fetal outcome.

  2. GLUT12 expression in human placenta in first trimester and term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, NM; Stevenson, JL; Rogers, S; Best, JD; Kalionis, B; Erwich, JJHM; Timmer, A; King, RG

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of a novel glucose transporter protein GLUT12 in human placenta. GLUT12 mRNA expression was identified by RT-PCR in extracts from five normal term placentae and in extracts from cultured cells of the JAR, JEG-3 and HTR-8Svneo cell lines. In fu

  3. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

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    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  4. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery for pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Ju; Shen, Jian; Jin, Jiaxi; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Wan

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery with hemostatic gelatin sponge particles to treat pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta during cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted of data from women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta who underwent direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery at a center in China between September 1, 2013, and February 28, 2015. Information regarding surgical procedures, operative data, and outcomes during hospitalization were obtained from medical records. The procedure was successful in all 16 cases included. Mean operative time was 78 minutes (range 65-90) and mean estimated blood loss was 1550 mL (range 1000-2500). Complications such as fever, buttock pain, or acute limb ischemia were not observed. The procedure was performed after partial cystectomy for two patients with bladder invasion. Postoperative Doppler imaging indicated uterine recovery and normalized uterine blood flow in all patients. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery was a safe, effective, simple, and rapid method to control hemorrhage among women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Khokhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

  6. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, R S; Baaj, J; Khan, M U; Dammas, F A; Rashid, N

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta) is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome.

  7. Gestión humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ignacio Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo resume el trabajo que esta realizando el grupo PYMES de investigación de la EAN en Bogotá D.C., sobre el componente organizacional de gestión humana y cultura organizacional y como se traduce en competencias de nivel cuatro o de categoría mundial para PYMES que quieran crear escenarios de innovación en valor.

  8. Placenta accreta: the silent invader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Incidence of placenta accrete has increased now a days because of increased incidence of cesarian sections, placenta accreta was seen in primi due to uterine procedures done deliberately in both diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Morbidly adherent placenta is always a nightmare for the obstetrician. Suspicion of a case on history, preoperative confirmation of diagnosis, planned management with bundle of care, with multi-disciplinary approach can save many patients from the clutches of inevitable death. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1501-1505

  9. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery.......It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery....

  10. Placenta Praevia: Incidence, Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6,7,8,9 caesarean section, myomectomy or metroplasty . The risk of occurrence of ... erythroblastosis, assisted conception, structural .... 7,16 maternal death were reported from other studies . Placenta praevia is common in our environment.

  11. Prophylactic Hypogastric Artery Ballooning in a Patient with Complete Placenta Previa and Increta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kyong Wook; Seo, Tae-Seok; So, Kyeong A; Paek, Yu Chin; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal attachment of the placenta (Placenta accreta, increta, and percreta) is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of maternal mortality from massive postpartum hemorrhage. A 33-yr-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a placenta previa, was referred at 30 weeks gestation. On ultrasound, a complete type of placenta previa and multiple intraplacental lacunae, suggestive of placenta accreta, were noted. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis MRI was performed and revealed findings suspicious of a placenta increta. An elective cesarean delivery and subsequent hysterectomy were planned for the patient at 38 weeks gestation. On the day of delivery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within the hypogastric arteries, prior to the cesarean section. In the operating room, immediately after the delivery of the baby, bilateral hypogastric arteries were occluded by inflation of the balloons in the catheters previously placed within. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed in the usual fashion. The occluding balloons were deflated after closure of the vaginal cuff with hemostasis. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period; she was discharged six days after delivery without complications. The final pathology confirmed a placenta increta. PMID:20358016

  12. Autophagy in the human placenta throughout gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ho Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autophagy has been reported to be essential for pre-implantation development and embryo survival. However, its role in placental development and regulation of autophagy during pregnancy remain unclear. The aims of this study were to (1 study autophagy by characterizing changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B in human placenta throughout gestation; (2 determine whether autophagy is involved in regulation of trophoblast invasion in JEG-3 cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line; (3 examine the effects of reduced oxygen and glucose on the autophagic changes; and (4 investigate the effect of reoxygenation and supplementation of glucose after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD on the autophagic changes in primary cytotrophoblasts obtained from normal term pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An analysis of 40 placental samples representing different gestational stages showed (1 no significant differences in beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II levels in placentas between early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; (2 placentas from late gestation with cesarean section had lower levels of LC3B-II compared to early and mid-gestation, and late gestation with vaginal delivery; levels of DRAM were also lower compared to placentas from early and mid-gestation; and (3 using explant cultures, villous tissues from early and late gestation had similar rates of autophagic flux under physiological oxygen concentrations. Knockdown of BECN1, DRAM, and LC3B had no effects on viability and invasion activity of JEG-3 cells. On the other hand, OGD caused a significant increase in the levels of LC3B-II in primary cytotrophoblasts, while re-supplementation of oxygen and glucose reduced these changes. Furthermore, there were differential changes in levels of beclin-1, DRAM, and LC3B-II in response to changes in oxygen and glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that autophagy is involved in development of the human

  13. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  14. 正常妊娠与子痫前期患者胎盘组织VEGF和p53的表达与意义%The expressions and significances of VEGF and p53 in placenta of normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳琳; 马玉燕; 徐银涛; 桑洪爱; 朱晓丹; 方燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨子痫前期( PE)患者胎盘组织血管内皮生长因子( VEGF)和抑癌基因p53的表达变化、相互关系及其在PE发病过程中的作用。方法:采用链酶菌抗生物素蛋白-过氧化物酶连接( SP)法检测35例PE患者(轻度15例和重度20例)和25例正常妊娠(对照组)胎盘组织中VEGF和p53的表达变化。结果:(1)重度PE患者胎盘组织中VEGF表达强度显著低于正常对照组和轻度PE组( P均0.05);(2)PE患者胎盘组织中p53的表达强度较正常对照组均显著升高(P0 . 05 ) . ( 2 ) The expression intensity of p53 in the placenta of patients with preeclampsia was significantly increased comparing with normal control group ( P<0 . 05 ) . The placental expression intensity of p53 in the severe preeclampsia group was also significantly higher than that in the mild preeclampsia group ( P<0 . 05 ) . ( 3 ) The ex-pressions of VEGF and p53 in placenta were significantly negatively correlated (r=-0. 428,P=0 . 001 ) . Conclusion:The VEGF and p53 in placenta tissues might be involved in the pathogen-esis of preeclampsia together.

  15. Fraccionando la microbiota gastrointestinal humana

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Bondia, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    La microbiota gastrointestinal humana es una de las comunidades microbianas más diversa y compleja que se puede encontrar en la naturaleza. Las nuevas tecnologías de secuenciación permiten obtener una amplia visión de la diversidad microbiana, lo que ha revelado una gran cantidad de bacterias no cultivables. A pesar del potencial de estas tecnologías de alto rendimiento la metagenómica no muestra la imagen completa. La citometría de flujo es una metodología que permite describir y/o separa...

  16. Desarrollo local a escala humana

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Marques, Heitor

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo aclarar algunos conceptos sobre desarrollo local a escala humana, a través una revisión bibliográfica. Para este propósito el trabajo está conformado de dos partes: conceptos sobre desarrollo local, y desarrollo local y su semántica. En la primera parte se aborda el desarrollo local en sentido etimológico, semántico, de espacio, de territorio, de comunidad, lugar y paisaje. En la segunda parte se presentan los supuestos y datos históricos, variaciones ...

  17. Uterine artery embolization, not cesarean section, as an option for termination of pregnancy in placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingling; Awale, Reenu; Tang, Hui; Zeng, ZhiShan; Li, FuRong; Chen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    To summarize our experiences in the treatment of labor induction in placenta previa using uterine artery embolization. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of seven patients with placenta previa who underwent antepartum uterine artery embolization before vaginal delivery. After antepartum embolization, five patients with placenta previa had successful vaginal deliveries and two cases of placenta previa with accreta underwent emergency hysterectomy. Some complications were reported in this experience. The follow-up study showed that most patients resumed their normal menstruation and some of them were able to conceive. For the management of placenta previa, uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive technique that helps to avoid cesarean section. The impact on menstruation and fertility is yet to be seen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Principio activo citotoxico de Espeletia killipii Cuatr. sobre células tumorales y su toxicidad frente a células normales humanas Princípio ativo citotóxico de Espeletia killipii Cuatr. sobre células tumorais e sua toxicidade frente a células normais humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Jaimes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available De Espeletia killipi Cuart. foi isolado uma sesquiterpenlactona identificada como acetato de longipilina que mostrou atividade citotóxica. A citotoxidade foi avaliada em células normais obtidas de sangue periférico, tiróide, testículo e epitélio da boca. Células da medula óssea de pacientes com leucemia crônica mielóide, linfoma de Hodking (do Instituto Nacional de Câncer de Bogotá, Colômbia e células K562 também foram avaliadas. A citotoxidade foi determinada através do teste MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl Tetrazolium Bromid. Os ensaios mostraram que a substância não é tóxica para células normais mas a 3 mg/mL apresentou significante atividade em células tumorais e linhagem K562. Conseqüentemente, lavando-se em conta essa significante ação, novas investigações podem ser consideradas plausíveis.The compound responsible for the citotoxic effect was identified as longipilin acetate, a sesquiterpenelactone isolated from Espeletia killipi Cuatr. Citotoxicity was assessed by using normal cells obtained from peripheral blood, thyroid, testicle and mouth epithelium. Bone marrow cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, Hodking lymphoma (from Cancer National Institute, Bogotá Colombia and the cell line K562 were also assayed. Citotoxicity was determined by the MTT cell viability test (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl Tetrazolium Bromid]. The assays revealed that the substance is risk-free on normal cells but at 3 mg/mL has significant activity on tumor cells and K562 cell line. Consequently, taken into account this significant action, new research approaches can be foreseen.

  19. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  20. Tumorigenic Factor CRIPTO-1 Is Immunolocalized in Extravillous Cytotrophoblast in Placenta Creta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Letícia Bandeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CRIPTO-(CR1 is a protein associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that CR-1 expression in normal and creta placentas is associated with various degrees of uterine invasion. Cytokeratin (CK and CR-1 protein expression was visualized by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental specimens (control placentas, n=9; accreta, n=6; increta, n=10; percreta, n=15. The pattern of extravillous trophoblast (EVT cell morphology was distinctive in creta placentas: densely-compacted cell columns and large star-shaped cells with a typically migratory phenotype, not common among third trimester control placentas. Quantification revealed higher CR-1 immunoreactivities in accreta (P=0.001, increta (P=0.0002, and percreta placentas (P=0.001 than in controls. In contrast to controls, there was a significant positive relationship between CR-1 and CK reactivity in all creta placentas (accreta, P=0.02; increta, P=0.0001, and percreta, P=0.025. This study demonstrated CR-1 expression in the placental bed, its increased expression in creta placentas, and EVT cells as the main CR-1-producing cell type. Morphological examination revealed an immature and invasive trophoblast profile in creta placentas, suggesting impairment of the trophoblast differentiation pathway. These findings provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of abnormal creta placentation and its gestational consequences.

  1. Bases anatómicas de la marcha humana

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Nogueras, Ana María

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Es importante para el fisioterapeuta conocer el patrón de marcha normal a fin de disponer del modelo a seguir durante la recuperación funcional. OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón de marcha normal. METODOLOGÍA: Revisión bibliográfica de los principales textos y artículos. RESULTADOS: Se presenta de forma clara y precisa la descripción de las principales fases de la marcha humana incluyendo los aspectos más relevantes para la fisioterapia en la recuperación funcional de los s...

  2. 正常孕妇和子(疴)前期患者胎盘缺氧诱导因子脯氨酸羟化酶的表达%Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase in placentas of normal pregnant women and patients with pre-eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 林其德; 王树军

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析正常孕妇和子(疴)前期患者胎盘组织缺氧诱导因子脯氨酸羟化酶( HPH) mRNA的表达,探讨子(疴)前期胎盘缺氧的发生与滋养叶细胞氧敏感性的关系.方法 行剖宫产分娩或接受计划生育手术的孕妇共66名,分为早孕组(n=13)、中孕组(n=9)、晚孕组(n=13,作为子(疴)前期组和妊娠期高血压组的对照)、子(疴)前期组(n=20)和妊娠期高血压组(n=11).采用原位杂交和Real-Time PCR技术对胎盘或绒毛组织中HPH-1、-2、-3 mRNA的表达进行定位和定量检测.结果 HPH-1、-2、-3 mRNA主要在胎盘滋养叶细胞的细胞质内表达,HPH-1 mRNA在绒毛外滋养叶细胞的细胞质内呈强特异性表达.随着妊娠进展,HPH-1 mRNA表达量明显增加(r=0.616,P<0.001).子(疴)前期组HPH-1 mRNA表达量显著低于晚孕组(P<0.05);妊娠期高血压组HPH-1 mRNA表达量也低于晚孕组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).子(疴)前期组患者胎盘质量与HPH-1 mRNA表达量呈正相关(r=0.457,P<0.05).结论 子(疴)前期患者滋养叶细胞氧敏感性降低(HPH-1 mRNA低表达)是导致胎盘缺氧表现(缺氧反应途径过度激活)的重要原因.%Objective To investigate the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase ( HPH) in placentas of normal pregnant women and patients with pre-eclampsia, and explore the relationship between oxygen sensitivity of trophoblast and hypoxia in preeclamptic placenta. Methods Sixty-six pregnant women undergoing cesarean section or family planning surgery were divided into early pregnancy group (n = 13), mid-pregnancy group ( n = 9), late pregnancy group (n = 13, controls for pre-eclampsia group and gestational hypertension group), pre-eclampsia group (n =20) and gestational hypertension group (n = 11). The expression of HPH-1, HPH-2 and HPH-3 mRNA in placentas and villous tissues was determined by in situ hybridization and Real-Time PCR. Results HPH-1, HPH-2 and HPH-3 mRNA was mainly

  3. Expression of RhoA in Placenta of Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to detect the expression of RhoA in placenta from normal pregnancy and preeclampsia and evaluate the role of RhoA in preeclampsia, the expression of RhoA in placenta collected from 40 preeclampsia patientsand 20 normotensive controls was determined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. RhoA was found in syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts. The mean density of RhoA protein in placental tissues of mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. The expression level of RhoA mRNA in mild and severe preeclampsia groups was significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy. Increased expression of RhoA in placental tissues might play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  4. OBSERVATIONS ON VASCULAR PATTERN OF CHORIONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  5. MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN PLACENTA PREVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basa Akkamamba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the-  Risk factors for placenta previa.  Signs of placenta previa.  Modes of delivery.  Maternal and foetal outcome.  Incidence of placenta previa. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a longitudinal prospective study group consisting of 75 cases of pregnancies with placenta previa. Analysis of maternal and neonatal outcome in cases of placenta previa occurring over a period of 2 years from November 2013 to October 2016. This study was carried out at Government General Hospital, Kakinada, attached to Rangaraya Medical College. RESULTS Maternal morbidity in placenta previa is due to antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications. Maternal mortality due to placenta previa was nil. Perinatal death with minor placenta previa was 5.12% with major placenta previa was 47.22%. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, incidence of antepartum haemorrhage was 0.87% and placenta previa contributed to 37.12% of cases. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. But, maternal morbidity was high that is more than 60% of cases had antenatal, intranatal and postnatal complications and anaemia worsened the clinical state of patient.

  6. Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Placental disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are all associated with vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. They are also important causes of serious fetal and maternal morbidity and even mortality. Moreover, the rates of previa and accreta are increasing, probably as a result of increasing rates of cesarean delivery, maternal age, and assisted reproductive technology. The routine use of obstetric ultrasonography as well as improving ultrasonographic technology allows for the antenatal diagnosis of these conditions. In turn, antenatal diagnosis facilitates optimal obstetric management. This review emphasizes an evidence-based approach to the clinical management of pregnancies with these conditions as well as highlights important knowledge gaps.

  7. Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in placenta organization of normal full-term pregnancy and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy%MMP-2及TIMP-2在正常足月妊娠与妊娠期高血压疾病胎盘组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连李斌; 袁宁霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究基质金属蛋白酶-2(matrix metallopreteinases -2,MMP-2)与基质蛋白酶组织抑制因子-2(tissue inhibitor of metallopreteinases -2,TIMP-2)在正常足月妊娠与妊娠期高血压疾病胎盘组织中的表达。方法选择2012~2014年陕西中医学院第二附属医院妇产科收治的住院期间诊断有妊娠期高血压疾病的产妇60例作为观察组,健康正常足月妊娠的产妇60例作为对照组。检测分析两组产妇胎盘MMP-2与TIMP-2的表达情况。结果两组产妇TIMP-2水平比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);观察组MMP-2水平与免疫组化积分均显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。结论 MMP-2在妊娠期高血压疾病产妇的胎盘组织内呈低表达,导致胎盘组织内滋养细胞的浸润能力明显下降,与产妇妊娠期高血压疾病的发病密切相关,是胎盘发生病理改变的基础。%Objective To explore the expression of matrix metallopreteinases -2 ( MMP -2 ) and tissue inhibitor of metallopreteinases -2 ( TIMP-2 ) in placenta organization of normal full -term pregnancy and hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy .Methods 60 cases with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy in the The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from 2012 to 2014 were selected as observation group .60 cases of normal full -term pregnancy were selected as control group , The expression of MMP -2 and TIMP-2 of two groups were measured .Results TIMP-2 level between two groups had no statistically significant difference ( P >0.05 ) .MMP -2 level and immunohistochemical integral in observation group were significantly lower than the control group ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion The MMP-2 has a low expression in placenta organization of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy leading to the invasion ability of trophoblast cells in placenta tissues decreased significantly , which is closely related to

  8. Tetany following resuscitation after abruptio placentae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, David J; Bessinger, Victoria J

    2002-05-01

    Serum ionized calcium and magnesium are normally decreased during later stages of pregnancy. A further rapid decline may be caused by the rapid infusion of blood bank products in which citrate is used as an anticoagulant/preservative. Tetany, as reported here, may be precipitated by such infusions. A gravid woman presented in hemorrhagic shock due to abruptio placentae. Rapid infusion of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma precipitated signs of tetany, muscle rigidity, posturing, high airway pressure during mechanical ventilation, etc. Ionized calcium and magnesium blood levels were very low (0.58 mmol/L and 1.0 mg/dL, respectively), but responded to rapid electrolyte administration. Binding of calcium and magnesium by citrate may lead to hypo-ionized calcemic and hypomagnesemic tetany after rapid replacement of blood products in the pregnant patient. This consequence is worsened when extreme alkalemia due to respiratory or metabolic causes is also present.

  9. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (PMCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a compensatory mechanism attempting to increase T3 uptake by trophoblast cells.

  10. Adenomyosis in pregnancy mimicking morbidly adherent placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Sirikunalai, Panarat; Jatavan, Thanate

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate a false-positive diagnosis of adherent placenta due to underlying adenomyosis. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed for placenta previa totalis with adherent placenta at 33 weeks, based on the findings of loss of clear space or distinguishing outline separating the placenta and uterine wall, presence of intraplacental lacunae and densely atypical vessels in the lesion. Caesarean hysterectomy was performed at 35 weeks. Pathological findings revealed placenta previa totalis with adenomyosis beneath the placenta at the lower segment, with no adherent placenta. In conclusion, this report underlines the importance of possible false-positive test of prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of adherent placenta caused by underlying adenomyosis which could obliterate the outline distinguishing the placenta and myometrium and atypical vessels secondary to decidualisation and hypervascularity from pregnancy. This case may probably encourage physician to beware of false-positive test of adherent placenta due to adenomyosis. PMID:24722709

  11. Optimal transport and the placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Simon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xia, Qinglan [NON LANL; Salafia, Carolym [NON LANL

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  12. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-09

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

  13. Ki-67 proliferation index in patients with placenta previa percreta in the third trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, Nese; Kocarslan, Sezen; Vural, Mehmet; Incebiyik, Adnan; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate proliferative capacity of placenta previa percreta in the third trimester via evaluating Ki-67 proliferating index. The paraffin blocks of placental tissues, which were obtained from the patients who underwent hysterectomy for placenta previa percreta (n = 12, gestational age > 28 weeks), from legal abortions (n = 12, gestational age  38 weeks), between January 2011 and April 2013, were included into the study. The paraffin blocks of the patients were stained with Ki-67 (proliferating cell marker) immunohistochemically, and Ki-67 proliferation index levels were calculated. Ki-67 proliferation index levels were higher in patients with legal abortions than patients with placenta percreta or noncomplicated cesarean delivery group. However, any statistically significant difference was not detected between the percreta and noncomplicated groups (p > 0.05). The tissue samples of the patients with placenta previa percreta exhibited low proliferative capacity similar to the samples of normal placentation group.

  14. Comprehensive investigation of DNA methylation and gene expression in trisomy 21 placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Shin Young; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Park, So Yeon; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2016-06-01

    Trisomy 21 (T21) is the most common aneuploidy affecting humans and is caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21 (chr21). DNA methylation is an epigenetic event that plays an important role in human diseases via regulation of gene expression. However, the integrative association between DNA methylation and gene expression in T21 fetal placenta has yet to be determined. We profiled expression of 207 genes on chr21 and their DNA methylation patterns in placenta samples from normal and DS fetuses using microarray analysis and predicted the functions of differentially expressed genes using bioinformatics tools. We found 47 genes with significantly increased expression in the T21 placenta compared to the normal placenta. Hypomethylation of the 47 genes was observed in the T21 placenta. Most of hypomethylated DNA positions were intragenic regions, i.e. regions inside a gene. Moreover, gene expression and hypomethylated DNA position showed significantly positive associations. By analyzing the properties of the gene-disease network, we found that increased genes in the T21 placenta were significantly associated with T21 and T21 complications such as mental retardation, neurobehavioral manifestations, and congenital abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively survey the association between gene expression and DNA methylation in chr21 of the T21 fetal placenta. Our findings provide a broad overview of the relationships between gene expression and DNA methylation in the placentas of fetuses with T21 and could contribute to future research efforts concerning genes involvement in disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  16. Dirofilariose pulmonar humana: relato de sete casos

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALLAZZI RODRIGO SILVA; CAVALLAZZI ANTÔNIO CÉSAR; SOUZA IRENE VIEIRA; CARDOSO JOÃO JOSÉ DE DEUS

    2002-01-01

    Dirofilariose pulmonar humana é uma doença rara causada pelo parasita Dirofilaria immitis. Apresenta-se usualmente como um nódulo pulmonar solitário que mimetiza câncer de pulmão. Embora considerada uma doença clinicamente benigna, uma biópsia pulmonar excisional é quase sempre necessária para o diagnóstico. Relatam-se as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e radiológicas de sete casos de dirofilariose pulmonar humana em Florianópolis. De sete pacientes relatados, seis tiveram como acha...

  17. Reprodução Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo De Siqueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances producidos por los modernos métodos de control de la natalidad y de la fertilización humana asistida introdujeron en la reflexión ética nuevos valores como dignidad personal,autonomia y paternidad responsable. Loa antíguos preceptos de sumisión a la moralidad heterogénea de la Ley Natural fueronsustituidos por una ética de reflexión autónoma en los campos de la sexualidad y reproducción humana asistida.

  18. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius;

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  19. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  20. Gene expression profiling of placentas affected by pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, Anne Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius

    2010-01-01

    Several studies point to the placenta as the primary cause of pre-eclampsia. Our objective was to identify placental genes that may contribute to the development of pre-eclampsia. RNA was purified from tissue biopsies from eleven pre-eclamptic placentas and eighteen normal controls. Messenger RNA...... expression from pooled samples was analysed by microarrays. Verification of the expression of selected genes was performed using real-time PCR. A surprisingly low number of genes (21 out of 15,000) were identified as differentially expressed. Among these were genes not previously associated with pre-eclampsia...... as bradykinin B1 receptor and a 14-3-3 protein, but also genes that have already been connected with pre-eclampsia, for example, inhibin beta A subunit and leptin. A low number of genes were repeatedly identified as differentially expressed, because they may represent the endpoint of a cascade of events...

  1. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  2. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-04-01

    Adherent placenta is a life-threatening condition in pregnancy, and is often complicated by placenta previa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine prenatal imaging findings that predict the presence of adherent placenta in pregnancies with placenta previa. The study included 58 consecutive pregnant women with placenta previa who underwent both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging prenatally. Ultrasonographic findings of anterior placental location, grade 2 or higher placental lacunae (PL≥G2), loss of retroplacental hypoechoic clear zone (LCZ) and the presence of turbulent blood flow in the arteries were evaluated, in addition to MRI findings. Forty-three women underwent cesarean section alone; 15 women with adherent placenta underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy with pathological examination. To determine imaging findings that predict adherent placenta, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anterior placental location, PL≥G2, LCZ, and MRI were associated with the presence of adherent placenta. Multivariate analyses revealed that LCZ (pplacenta in women with placenta previa. This prospective study demonstrated for the first time that US findings, especially LCZ, might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for adherent placenta among pregnant women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas; Nikolajsen, Sys

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  4. Reoccurrence of retained placenta at vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Sys; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Bergholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery.......To estimate the prevalence and validate the diagnosis of retained placenta in nulliparous women and the risk of reoccurrence at subsequent vaginal delivery....

  5. Differentially expressed miRNAs in trisomy 21 placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Iveta; Korabečná, Marie; Calda, Pavel; Břešťák, Miroslav; Pazourková, Eva; Pospíšilová, Šárka; Krkavcová, Miroslava; Novotná, Michaela; Hořínek, Aleš

    2016-08-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS) is still incompletely understood. Epigenetic mechanisms, including miRNAs gene expression regulation, belong to potential influencing factors. The aims of this study were to compare miRNAs expressions in placentas with normal and trisomic karyotype and to associate differentially expressed miRNAs with concrete biological pathways. A total of 80 CVS samples - 41 with trisomy 21 and 39 with normal karyotype - were included in our study. Results obtained in the pilot study using real-time PCR technology and TaqMan Human miRNA Array Cards were subsequently validated on different samples using individual TaqMan miRNA Assays. Seven miRNAs were verified as upregulated in DS placentas (miR-99a, miR-542-5p, miR-10b, miR-125b, miR-615, let-7c and miR-654); three of these miRNAs are located on chromosome 21 (miR-99a, miR-125b and let-7c). Many essential biological processes, transcriptional regulation or apoptosis, were identified as being potentially influenced by altered miRNA levels. Moreover, miRNAs overexpressed in DS placenta apparently regulate genes involved in placenta development (GJA1, CDH11, EGF, ERVW-1, ERVFRD-1, LEP or INHA). These findings suggest the possible participation of miRNAs in Down syndrome impaired placentation and connected pregnancy pathologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARPER, Lorie M.; ODIBO, Anthony O.; MACONES, George A.; CRANE, James P.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between placenta previa and abnormal fetal growth. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women undergoing ultrasound between 15–22 weeks. Groups were defined by the presence or absence of complete or partial placenta previa. The primary outcome was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight placenta previa on fetal growth restriction. Results Of 59,149 women, 724 (1.2%) were diagnosed with a complete or partial previa. After adjusting for significant confounding factors (black race, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and single umbilical artery,), the risk of IUGR remained similar (adjusted odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.9–1.5). The presence of bleeding did not impact the risk of growth restriction. Conclusion Placenta previa is not associated with fetal growth restriction. Serial growth ultrasounds are not indicated in patients with placenta previa. PMID:20599185

  7. Placenta percreta: methotrexate treatment and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Kröger, Jaana; Kainulainen, Sakari; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Our patient was a 24-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman. After delivery, placenta percreta was noticed. There was no postpartum hemorrhage, and the patient desired future pregnancies. Although placenta percreta is rare, its sequelae include potentially lethal hemorrhage and loss of reproduction function. Placenta percreta was confirmed histologically and with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Placenta percreta was treated conservatively with methotrexate. On follow-up, MRI showed a small calcified transmural extension of the placenta throughout the uterus in the right fundal area. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed no blood flow in the corresponding area, and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was undetectable. Use of MRI is a new method to detect abnormal placentation, and it could be used on follow-up in selective cases with other follow-up modalities. However, it seems likely that conservative management to preserve future fertility remains a secured and reasonable alternative when a patient has no active bleeding.

  8. DEPENDIENTES Y RACIONALES: LA FAMILIA HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Marcos Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los conceptos que condicionan la bioética, que pueden hacer que prospere o naufrague. Nos centramos aquí en dos de ellos, a saber, el concepto de dependencia, que funciona como necesario complemento del de autonomía, y el concepto de familia humana, que tal vez debería funcionar como sustituto en contextos morales del de especie humana. Ambos remiten en el fondo a otro concepto, de larga tradición filosófica, el de naturaleza humana, que ha vuelto al centro del debate en los últimos años. La modernidad puede ser caracterizada como una búsqueda de la autonomía. La autonomía en muchos sentidos es un objetivo justo y deseable. Sin embargo, el énfasis unilateral en la autonomía ha generado una antropología parcial. De ahí la importancia de pensar también una antropología de la dependencia que vincule a los miembros de la familia humana.

  9. Concepto integral de la persona humana

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Angel, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    EI concepto de la persona humana es de fundamental interés práctico. Se trata no del hombre en general o sea, considerado bajo el aspecto genérico-específico, sino de «este» hombre-individuo, concreto y singular. Por este aspecto, el hombre es una unidad individual psicosomática.

  10. Selenoprotein P expression in liver, uterus and placenta during late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, J W; Rice, E J

    1995-01-01

    To identify genes that exhibit increased expression in the placenta during late pregnancy, the technique of differential cDNA library screening was used to isolate a clone subsequently identified as the 3' untranslated region of the mouse selenoprotein p gene. Random primed radiolabelled cDNA probes were constructed from this clone and these probes were used to conduct Northern hybridizations against total RNA purified from mouse placenta, liver (maternal and fetal) and uterus collected sequentially during the latter third of pregnancy. Signal is present in the placenta and beginning 4 days before birth, the level of message increases, reaching maximal levels at term. The level of expression in the placenta at maximum is approximately 25 per cent of that observed in adult liver. In liver obtained from pregnant females, the level of message is increased compared to nonpregnant adults, but returns to normal shortly after birth. Message is also found in the fetal liver beginning at 4 days before birth and exhibits a pattern of expression similar to the placenta. The similarity of expression observed in fetal liver and placenta suggests a coordinated regulation of expression of this gene in these tissues. There is a minimal amount of signal present in the uterus and the expression does not appear to vary. We speculate that selenoprotein p may play a role in the transplacental transport of selenium to the fetus during late pregnancy.

  11. Optimal management strategies for placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A G; Porter, T F; Soisson, P; Silver, R M

    2009-04-01

    To determine which interventions for managing placenta accreta were associated with reduced maternal morbidity. Retrospective cohort study. Two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Utah. All identified cases of placenta accreta from 1996 to 2008. Cases of placenta accreta were identified using standard ICD-9 codes for placenta accreta, placenta praevia, and caesarean hysterectomy. Medical records were then abstracted for maternal medical history, hospital course, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal and neonatal complications were compared according to antenatal suspicion of accreta, indications for delivery, preoperative preparation, attempts at placental removal before hysterectomy, and hypogastric artery ligation. Early morbidity (prolonged maternal intensive care unit admission, large volume of blood transfusion, coagulopathy, ureteral injury, or early re-operation) and late morbidity (intra-abdominal infection, hospital re-admission, or need for delayed re-operation). Results Seventy-six cases of placenta accreta were identified. When accreta was suspected, scheduled caesarean hysterectomy without attempting placental removal was associated with a significantly reduced rate of early morbidity compared with cases in which placental removal was attempted (67 versus 36%, P=0.038). Women with preoperative bilateral ureteric stents had a lower incidence of early morbidity compared with women without stents (18 versus 55%, P=0.018). Hypogastric artery ligation did not reduce maternal morbidity. Scheduled caesarean hysterectomy with preoperative ureteric stent placement and avoiding attempted placental removal are associated with reduced maternal morbidity in women with suspected placenta accreta.

  12. SUCCENTURIATE PLACENTA: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING DURING CESAREAN SECTION

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    Unmesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigation were found to be normal her pulse was 100 beats/min, tachycardia present, BP -100/70mmHg. On obstetric examination, uterus was 30 weeks size, 1-2 contraction lasting for 15- 20 seconds, Breech presentation, FHR was 124 per minute, regular, decreased liquor clinically. On vulvovaginal examination- Frank leaking per vagina present. Ultrasound showed single live intrauterine pregnancy of 29 weeks 3 days with breech presentation with oligohydramnios, Placenta was at fundal region, Biophysical profile was 6/8, FHR 124 bpm. After taking high risk consent in view of fetal prematurity, patient was posted for Emergency LSCS. And extracted a single live preterm female baby of weight of 1.45 kg by breech. During the cesarean section, on opening abdomen lower segment was found to be congested with torturous vessels. So we suspected missed diagnosis of placenta previa. After delivery of the baby, we found succenturiate lobe of the placenta occupying lower uterine segment with vessels running across the membrane.

  13. Iron transportation across the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the classification of placental types among animals, the transfer of iron through the placenta can occur via: absorption connected to transferin through the outer surface of the trophoblast in direct contact with circulating maternal blood; absorption of the erythrocytes by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with accumulation of blood extravased from haemotophagous areas; absorption by the chorionic epithelium in direct contact with iron enriched secretions from the endometrial glands and absorption by extravasations of the blood in the maternal-fetal surface and the subsequent phagocytosis of the erythrocytes by trophoblast cells described in bovine, small ruminants, canine and feline. The function of erythrophagocytosis observed after the extravasation of blood in the maternal-fetal interface is undefined in several species. Possibly, the iron is transferred to the fetus through the trophoblastic erythrophagocytosis in the hemophogous area of the placenta and also in the endometrial glands. In this literature survey, new methods of studies regarding placental transfer involving iron and other nutrients necessary for survival and maintenance of embryonic fetus to birth are proposed.De acordo com a classificação dos tipos de placenta existentes entre os animais e em relação com a passagem de substâncias pela barreira inter-hemática, a transferência de ferro pode ser realizada através da: absorção de ferro ligado a transferrina através da superfície externa do trofoblasto em contato direto com o sangue materno circulante; absorção de eritrócitos pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com acúmulos de sangue materno extravasado em áreas hematófagas, absorção de ferro pelo epitélio coriônico em contato direto com secreções ricas em ferro provenientes de glândulas endometriais e fagocitose dos eritrócitos pelas células trofoblásticas, a qual foi descrita em bovinos, pequenos ruminantes, caninos e

  14. Placenta previa percreta with bladder invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Šijanović

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 43- year old woman, with ten previous deliveries and history of two cesarean sections was admitted to our Department at 32 weeks of gestation with massive vaginal hemorrhage from an ultrasound diagnosed placenta previa. An emergency cesarean section with vertical abdominal incision was performed. A healthy 2300 g female infant was delivered. Attempts to manually remove the placenta caused massive hemorrhage. The lower uterine segment was widened due to placenta previa with suspicious placental invasion of the posterior wall of the bladder. Persistent hemorrhage demanded bilateral anterior internal iliac artery ligation and suture ligation of the bleeding vessels with supracervical hysterectomy done.

  15. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sa...

  16. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  17. Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord is ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in the ...

  18. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P M; Stieger, B; Verrey, F; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S-Y

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR n = 22). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that all the mRNAs encoding TH transporters are expressed in human placenta from 6 weeks gestation and throughout pregnancy. MCT8, MCT10, OATP1A2 and LAT1 mRNA expression increased with gestation. OATP4A1 and CD98 (LATs obligatory associated protein) mRNA expression reached a nadir in mid-gestation before increasing towards term. LAT2 mRNA expression did not alter throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry localised MCT10 and OATP1A2 to villous cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, and extravillous trophoblasts while OATP4A1 was preferentially expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblasts. Whilst MCT8 protein expression was increased, MCT10 mRNA expression was decreased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies delivered in the early 3rd trimester compared to age matched appropriately grown for gestational age controls. No significant change was found in the mRNA expression of the other transporters with IUGR. In conclusion, several TH transporters are present in the human placenta from early 1st trimester with varying patterns of expression throughout gestation. Their coordinated effects may regulate both transplacental TH passage and TH supply to trophoblasts, which are critical for the normal development of the fetus and placenta. Increased MCT8 and decreased MCT10 expression within placentae of pregnancies complicated by IUGR may contribute to aberrant development of the fetoplacental unit.

  19. Cervical varicosities may predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Shinnmoto, Hiroshi; Murakami, Wakana; Soyama, Hiroaki; Nakatsuka, Masaya; Natsuyama, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Takano, Masashi; Furuya, Kenichi

    2017-07-14

    The aim of this study was to prenatally predict placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of our hospital. We identified 81 patients with singleton pregnancy who had undergone cesarean section due to posterior placenta previa at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2016. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of several well-known findings, and of cervical varicosities quantified using magnetic resonance imaging, in predicting placenta accreta in posterior placenta previa. To quantify cervical varicosities, we calculated the A/B ratio, where "A" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the deciduous placenta, and "B" was the minimum distance from the most dorsal cervical varicosity to the amniotic placenta. The appropriate cut-off value of the A/B ratio was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Three patients (3.7%) were diagnosed as having placenta accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of the well-known findings were 0 and 97.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the A/B ratio ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the combined placenta accreta and A/B ratio curve was 0.96. When the cutoff value of the A/B ratio was set 0.18, the sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 91%, respectively. It was difficult to diagnose placenta accreta in the posterior placenta previa using the well-known findings. The quantification of cervical varicosities could effectively predict placenta accreta.

  20. Global DNA hypermethylation in down syndrome placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, commonly caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (chr21, occurs in approximately one out of 700 live births. Precisely how an extra chr21 causes over 80 clinically defined phenotypes is not yet clear. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS analysis at single base resolution revealed DNA hypermethylation in all autosomes in DS samples. We hypothesize that such global hypermethylation may be mediated by down-regulation of TET family genes involved in DNA demethylation, and down-regulation of REST/NRSF involved in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Genes located on chr21 were up-regulated by an average of 53% in DS compared to normal villi, while genes with promoter hypermethylation were modestly down-regulated. DNA methylation perturbation was conserved in DS placenta villi and in adult DS peripheral blood leukocytes, and enriched for genes known to be causally associated with DS phenotypes. Our data suggest that global epigenetic changes may occur early in development and contribute to DS phenotypes.

  1. Aggregatory behaviour of platelets incubated with subcellular fractions of normal and chagasic human syncytiotrophoblast Comportamento agregatório das plaquetas incubadas com frações subcelulares de sinciciotrofoblasto humano normal e chagásico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Eynard

    1993-06-01

    trofoblasto, as plaquetas poderiam desempenhar algum papel no desenvolvimento da placentitis induzida pelo T. cruzi. Neste trabalho estudou-se o comportamento agregatório das plaquetas humanas normais expostas a frações subcelulares do sinciciotrofoblasto isolado de placentas de mulheres normais e chagásticas. As frações Nuclear, Mitocondrial, Microsomal e Sobrenadante isoladas do sincicitrofoblasto normal ou chagásico não induziram per se reação agregatória de plaquetas. Quando amostras de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP foram pré-incubadas com fração nuclear de placentas normais ou chagásicas e pós-estimuladas com doses limiares de colágeno (DLC-PRP observou-se uma inibiçâo da resposta agregatória. O tratamento de DLC-PRP com fração Mitocondrial de trofoblasto normal e chagásico também induziu inibição da agregação plaquetária porém somente a fração chagásica diminuiu o tempo de latência. A fração Microsomal das placentas normais não provocou diferenças significativas na agregação plaquetária. Conclui-se que as frações subcelulares do sinciciotrofoblasto humano normal não tem ação significativa na agregação plaquetária, enquanto que a incubação com frações subcelulares de placentas chagásicas, enriquecidas em componentes membranosos intracelulares, induziu a inibiçâo da agregação plaquetária.

  2. Raiva humana no Brasil, 1992 - 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Anilton Alves Araujo

    2002-01-01

    O estudo caracteriza os aspectos epidemiológicos da raiva humana no Brasil, no período de 1992 a 2001 e visa avaliar tendências da enfermidade no país e contribuir para a proposição de medidas de controle. Para análise dos casos, foi utilizado o banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância da Raiva Humana (VE6), e realizado estudo descritivo de 313 casos ocorridos no período de 1992 a 2001. Os resultados revelam a tendência de redução do número de casos ao longo do período estudado. O coeficiente ...

  3. Vida humana y luz de la palabra

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ortiz, Fernando María

    2016-01-01

    La paraula de l´home, signe per excel·lència de la comunicació humana, ha estat considerada pels filòsofs des de l´anomenat “gir llingüístic” com allò que o és l´única realitat o bé constitueix un obstacle per accedir a l´èsser de les coses i manifestar la veritat. Pel contrari, en aquesta investigació es pretén estudiar sota la guia del pensament de Tomàs d´Aquino que la llum de la paraula és el fonament del perfeccionament de la vida humana en totes les seves dimensions i que el llenguatge ...

  4. GESTIÓN HUMANA: TENDENCIAS Y PERSPECTIVAS

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    JUAN GUILLERMO SALDARRIAGA RÍOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace referencia a las tendencias y las perspectivas de gestión humana que se imponen en el mundo en la actualidad y que, a su manera, pretenden optimizar la administración del personal de la organización y contribuir al desarrollo e incremento de la productividad y la competitividad. Mediante la realización de un Estado del Arte se logran determinar algunas de las tendencias más relevantes en la actualidad y se concluye que, cada vez con mayor fuerza, dichas tendencias se sustentan en discursos que pretenden "rescatar" al ser humano dentro de la organización, lo que no necesariamente se traduce en los procesos de gestión humana que se realizan en las organizaciones nacionales e internacionales.

  5. Myiasis gastrointestinal humana por Eristalis tenax

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    Kun Marcelo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Son caracterizadas las myiasis registradas en Bariloche y establecidas las condiciones probables bajo las cuales se produjeron las infestaciones. Las larvas obtenidas a partir de heces de 2 pacientes fueron identificadas como Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae de acuerdo a las claves de Hartley (1961 y Organización Panamericana de la Salud (1962. Estos 2 casos de myiasis gastrointestinal humana constituyen los primeros registrados en Bariloche (Patagonia, Argentina y sus características responden a las registradas para esta especie de Díptera en otras partes del mundo. La falta de control específico en el sistema domiciliario de suministro de agua ha sido la causa más probable de la infestación. Este registro extiende la distribución de E. tenax y de las myiasis gastrointestinales humanas en América del Sur hasta los 41º 03' S.

  6. Ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica humana

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    José Rafael Rojas-Solano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Las ehrliquiosis humanas son zoonosis emergentes transmitidas por varias especies de garrapatas e infectan gran cantidad de animales silvestres y domésticos. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con un cuadro clínico y hallazgos de laboratorio compatibles con una probable ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica severa. El paciente se trató con doxicilina y respondió adecuadamente. Fue egresado en buena condición.

  7. Obstetric complications of placenta previa percreta

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    Sparić Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Placenta previa is related to severe maternal and fetal morbidity. The increasing incidence of cesarean delivery rate causes a marked increase in abnormally invasive placenta over the past decades. The abnormally invasive placenta is becoming the foremost cause of obstetric hemorrhage and postpartum hysterectomy, causing a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and even mortality. Maternal morbidity in such cases also comprise politransfusion, development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, uterine rupture, cystostomy, fistula formation, ureteral stricture, intensive care unit admission, infection, and prolonged hospitalization, adult respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, septicemia and even death. Case report. A 38-year-old gravida 3, para 2, was admitted to our hospital at 27 weeks of gestation as an emergency due to vaginal bleeding, previously diagnosed with an anterior placenta previa. Following tocolytic therapy, bleeding stopped. The patient was informed on the diagnosis and the possibility of lifethreatening hemorrhage necessitating preterm delivery. She was given corticosteroids to enhance fetal lung maturity. At 28 weeks of gestation, she experienced massive vaginal bleeding, and a decision was made to perform emergency cesarean section. We made a corporeal transverse uterine incision well above the uterovesical fold and tortuous vessels, at the same time avoiding the superior edge of the placenta. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the lower uterine segment, penetrating through it and infiltrating the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. An attempt to remove the placenta resulted in injury to the bladder wall and the uterine rupture at a previous cesarean scar. The decision was made to perform total abdominal hysterectomy with placenta left in situ. At present, both mother and the baby are well. Conclusion. Anticipation and the surgeon's judgment are leading factors for surgery, from the

  8. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

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    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.Spontaneous uterine rupture, without a history of trauma or associated infection by placenta percreta is an extremely rare pathology and it's responsible for high maternal morbidity and mortality. The prenatal diagnosis of placenta precreta is important to avoid catastrophic results after the obstetrical disorder and different procedures are used to get to this goal. We present here a case of placenta percreta and a revision of cases with this diagnosis from 1994 to 1999 at the Monseñor Sanabria Hospital, and a review of the literature.

  9. Relationship between placenta location and resolution of second trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; Li, Xue-Yin; Xiao, Juan; Li, Wei; Liu, Jing; Zeng, Xue; Chen, Xi; Chen, Kai-Yue; Fan, Lei; Chen, Su-Hua

    2017-06-01

    This prospective study was conducted to assess the rate of resolution of second trimester placenta previa in women with anterior placenta and posterior placenta, and that in women with and without previous cesarean section. In this study, placenta previa was defined as a placenta lying within 20 mm of the internal cervical os or overlapping it. We recruited 183 women diagnosed with previa between 20(+0) weeks and 25(+6) weeks. They were grouped according to their placenta location (anterior or posterior) and history of cesarean section. Comparative analysis was performed on demographic data, resolution rate of previa and pregnancy outcomes between anterior group and posterior group, and on those between cesarean section group and non-cesarean section group. Women with an anterior placenta tended to be advanced in parity (P=0.040) and have increased number of dilatation and curettage (P=0.044). The women in cesarean section group were significantly older (P=0.000) and had more parity (P=0.000), gravidity (P=0.000), and dilatation and curettage (P=0.048) than in non-cesarean section group. Resolution of previa at delivery occurred in 87.43% women in this study. Women with a posterior placenta had a higher rate of resolution (P=0.030), while history of cesarean section made no difference. Gestational age at resolution was earlier in posterior group (P=0.002) and non-cesarean section group (P=0.008) than in anterior group and cesarean section group correspondingly. Placenta location and prior cesarean section did not influence obstetric outcomes and neonatal outcomes. This study indicates that it is more likely to have subsequent resolution of the previa when the placenta is posteriorly located for women who are diagnosed with placenta previa in the second trimester.

  10. Role of mouse Wdr13 in placental growth; a genetic evidence for lifetime body weight determination by placenta during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Alex, Jomini Liza; Lakshmi, B Jyothi; Sailasree, S Purnima; Raj, T Avinash; Kumar, Satish

    2015-08-26

    Placental development is essential for implantation and growth of foetus in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Numerous growth factors are responsible for placental development and cell lineage differentiation. Gene knockout mice have shown role of various genes in the placenta. Here using Wdr13 knockout mice, we show that this gene is important for proper placental development. Wdr13, a X-linked gene, expresses in multiple trophoblast cell types of placenta and the mutant placenta had reduced size after 17.5 dpc due to reduction of junctional zone (JZ) and labyrinth zone (LZ). We observed reduction in levels of angiopoietin-2 and cd44 mRNA in Wdr13 mutant placenta as compared to that in the wild type. Our findings show that Wdr13 is required for normal placental development and cell differentiation. Wdr13 heterozygous female placenta when the mutant allele was of maternal origin showed similar defects as those in case of Wdr13 null placenta. Using two types of heterozygous females carrying either maternally and paternally derived mutant Wdr13 allele we provide genetic evidence that development of placenta determines body weight of mice for the entire life.

  11. Stereological Changes of Human Placenta in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Compared with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can cause changes in the placenta. In this study, quantitative changes of placenta were investigated using stereological methods.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 10 placentas from systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancy (antinuclear antibody>10, and 10 placentas from normal uncomplicated pregnancy were obtained from Imam Ali Hospital. Volume of placentas was estimated using Cavalieri's principle. 3 full-thickness columns of each placenta were taken using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS. After fixation in modified Lillie's solution, they were cut into 5 mm slices. 5-7 sections selected from each slice using SURS and stained by Masson’s trichrome. Then stereological analyses were done on 8-10 SURS fields of each section. Placental volume, absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. The Mann Whitney-U test was employed to determine statistically significant differences between the means. Significant level was set at p<0.05.Results: Total volume and volume density of fibrin and total volume and volume density of blood vessels significantly increased in SLE group in comparison with control group (p<0.01. Volume density of syncytiotrophoblast increased 50% in SLE group in comparison with control group, this increase was statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: Results showed that systemic lupus erythematosus disease can cause significant changes in the structure of placenta that may be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus.

  12. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV : Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, ves

  13. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, JW; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n = 50

  14. Factors related to the etiology of retained placenta in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, I.; Eldik, P. van; Elving, L.; Mey, G.J.W. van der

    1987-01-01

    Birth records of 369 288 calvings of 160 188 Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cows were analysed to assess the influence of factors associated with retained placenta. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of a subset containing data on births involving a single live calf and an easy or normal calving process

  15. A rare case of cervical fibroid presenting as retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Chowdhury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibroids during pregnancy are often asymptomatic but sometimes may lead to various complications and unusual presentations. We are reporting an unusual case of cervical fibroid during pregnancy that presented as retained placenta with postpartum hemorrhage following a full term normal vaginal delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 505-507

  16. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E.; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P. M.; Stieger, B.; Verrey, F.; McCabe, C. J.; Franklyn, J.A.; Kilby, M. D.; Chan, S-Y

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine ...

  17. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  18. [Management of placenta previa and accreta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayem, G; Keita, H

    2014-12-01

    Produce recommendations for the management of placenta previa and placenta accrete. A literature search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library over a period from 1950 to 31/12/2013. Recommendations of the latest scientific societies have also been consulted. In cases of placenta previa, if bleeding episode before 34weeks gestation occurs, a short hospitalization and tocolysis may help stop bleeding (grade C). Vaginal delivery is preferable when the distance between the internal cervical os and the placental edge is greater than 20mm. When this distance is less than 20mm, vaginal delivery is possible (professional consensus). Caesarean section is recommended in cases of placenta overlapping the internal os (professional consensus). Antenatal screening placenta accreta could improve care (EL3). Upon discovery of a placenta accreta during childbirth, it is better to avoid a forced removal of the placenta (grade C). Conservative treatment or cesarean hysterectomy are possible (grade C). The management of placental abnormalities should be planned and managed with a multidisciplinary team (professional consensus). The use of blood-saving techniques such as "cell saver" is possible in situations where early intraoperative bleeding would be>1500mL (grade C). There are no studies that have sufficient methodological value to recommend an anesthetic technique [general anaesthesia (GA) or neuraxial anaesthesia] over another in the context of placental abnormalities (grade B). When a major bleeding risk is identified, GA can be chosen in order to avoid emergency conversions in difficult conditions (professional consensus). Placental insertion abnormalities require anesthetic and obstetric coordination. Delivery must be planned in a suitable structure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  20. Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta by Uterine Artery Doppler Velocimetry in Patients With Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Young; Hwang, Han Sung; Jung, Inkyung; Park, Yong Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young Han

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the potential value of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in diagnosing placenta accreta. Clinical records of all deliveries between April 1991 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases of intrauterine growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, multiple pregnancies, fetal anomalies, chromosomal abnormalities, and maternal medical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were excluded. A total of 11,210 cases were evaluated, including 403 cases of placenta previa without accreta (placenta previa) and 39 cases of placenta previa with accreta (placenta accreta). All patients underwent uterine artery Doppler velocimetry to measure the mean resistive index and pulsatility index (PI) in the third trimester. The analysis included participant characteristics such as age, parity, abortion history, previous cesarean delivery, gestational age at delivery, neonatal sex, and birth weight. The mean uterine artery PI was significantly lower in the placenta accreta group compared to previa alone (0.51 versus 0.57; P = .002). The odds ratios for placenta accreta were 2.4 for 2 or more previous abortions (P = .011) and 5.3 and 7.0 for 1 and 2 or more previous cesarean deliveries (P = .001 and .005). With an increase in the mean PI by 0.01, the odds ratio for placenta accreta decreased by 0.94 (P placenta accreta compared to those without accreta. The diagnostic accuracy of placenta accreta can be potentially improved if uterine artery Doppler values and the history of cesarean delivery are combined. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Functional full-term placentas formed from parthenogenetic embryos using serial nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikichi, Takafusa; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Mammalian parthenogenetic embryos invariably die in mid-gestation from imprinted gene defects and placental hypoplasia. Based on chimera experiments, trophoblastic proliferation is supposed to be inhibited in the absence of a male genome. Here, we show that parthenogenetic mouse embryonic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed by serial rounds of nuclear transfer without using any genetic modification. The durations of survival in uteri of cloned foetuses derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled parthenogenetic cell nuclei were extended with repeated nuclear transfers. After five repeats, live cloned foetuses were obtained up to day 14.5 of gestation; however, they did not survive longer even when we repeated nuclear transfer up to nine times. All foetuses showed intestinal herniation and possessed well-expanded large placentas. When embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from fertilised embryos were aggregated with the cloned embryos, full-term offspring with large placentas were obtained from the chimeric embryos. Those placentas were derived from parthenogenetic cell nuclei, judging from GFP expression. The patterns of imprinted gene expression and methylation status were similar to their parthenogenetic origin, except for Peg10, which showed the same level as in the normal placenta. These results suggest that there is a limitation for foetal development in the ability to reprogramme imprinted genes by repeated rounds of nuclear transfer. However, the placentas of parthenogenetic embryos can escape epigenetic regulation when developed using nuclear transfer techniques and can support foetal development to full gestation.

  2. A case-control review of placentas from patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani; Pinheiro, Meaghan; Felix, Juan C; Opper, Neisha; Ouzounian, Joseph G; Lee, Richard H

    2014-08-01

    To compare the incidence of histopathological features in placentas from women with cholestasis of pregnancy to healthy individuals without ICP. Placentas from mothers with and without cholestasis of pregnancy were reviewed by a pathologist masked to the study group. Subjects were excluded if they had medical problems already associated with placental histopathology. Twenty-four cases and 30 controls placentas were reviewed. Seventeen placental histopathological features were found. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Amongst patients with cholestasis, there was a decrease in villitis of unknown etiology in those treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. There is no difference in the placental histopathology in cholestasis of pregnancy compared to normal pregnancies, but treatment of patients with cholestasis of pregnancy with ursodeoxycholic acid may decrease findings of villitis of unknown etiology.

  3. Megalin Is Predominantly Observed in Vesicular Structures in First and Third Trimester Cytotrophoblasts of the Human Placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Christensen, Erik I; Christensen, Julie Nelly

    2016-01-01

    The membrane receptor megalin is crucial for normal fetal development. Besides its expression in the developing fetus, megalin is also expressed in the human placenta. Similar to its established function in the kidney proximal tubules, placental megalin has been proposed to mediate uptake of vital...... nutrients. However, details of megalin expression, subcellular localization, and function in the human placenta remain to be established. By immunohistochemical analyses of first trimester and term human placenta, we showed that megalin is predominantly expressed in cytotrophoblasts, the highly...... clearly place placental megalin in the context of endocytosis and trafficking of ligands. However, due to the limited expression of megalin in syncytiotrophoblasts, especially in term placenta, it appears that the main role for placental megalin is not to mediate uptake of nutrients from the maternal...

  4. Gadd45α expression in preeclampsia placenta and the effect of Gadd45α on trophoblast HTR8/Svneo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of Gadd45α in preeclampsia placenta and the regulating effect of Gadd45 knockdown on trophoblast HTR8/Svneo.Methods:Preeclampsia placenta tissue and normal placenta tissue were collected, and mRNA contents and protein contents of Gadd45α were detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blotting respectively; trophoblast cells HTR8/Svneo were cultured and after transfection of Gadd45αsiRNA, cell invasion ability and expression of invasion-assiotiated molecules were detected. Results:mRNA content and protein content of Gadd45α in preeclampsia placenta tissue were higher than those in normal placenta tissue; after transfection of Gadd45α siRNA, mRNA content and protein content of Gadd45α in HTR8/Svneo cells significantly decreased, and the number of invasive cells as well as expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 significantly increased. Conclusion: The expression of Gadd45α in preeclampsia placenta abnormally increases; inhibting the expression of Gadd45α in trophoblasts HTR8/Svneo can promote invasion and increase the expression of MMPs molecules.

  5. Placenta percreta in primigravida, an unsuspected situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvaneshwari Rajkumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta, the most severe form of placenta accreta, is a rare pregnancy disorder in which the placenta penetrates the uterine myometrium and serosa and can invade the surrounding organs. It is a potentially life-threatening condition with risk of severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Although recognized obstetric risk factors allow the identification of most cases during the prenatal period, diagnosis is occasionally made at the time of delivery. Both sonography and MRI have fairly good sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. Prenatal diagnosis allows management of these patients in specialized tertiary centers, where a multidisciplinary approach will improve the outcome. Even in undiagnosed cases discovered at the time of delivery involving a team of anesthesiologist, obstetrician, urologist, neonatologist, and blood bank officer is needed for successful management of these patients. In this report we present the case of a primigravida with no known risk factors who was diagnosed to have placenta percreta at the time of caesarean delivery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 239-241

  6. Suspected invasive placenta: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Laurence; Place, Vinciane; Bendavid, Sandra; Fargeaudou, Yann [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Portal, Jean-Jacques [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Ricbourg, Aude [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paris cedex 10 (France); Sebbag, Delphine; Dohan, Anthony; Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France); Vicaut, Eric [Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Research, Paris cedex 10 (France); Diderot-Paris 7 University-Sorbonne Paris-Cite, Paris (France)

    2014-12-15

    To determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing invasive placenta (IP). MRI findings in 32 women with suspected IP were evaluated independently by four readers. Interobserver agreement was calculated with kappa (κ) statistics. Associations between MRI findings and IP were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were estimated. Sixteen women (16/32; 50 %) had confirmed IP. Interobserver correlation for the diagnosis of IP was fair (κ = 0.40). Univariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface (P < 0.0001) was the most discriminating MRI variable in the differentiation between normal and IP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were 84 % [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % [95 % CI: 66-93 %], respectively. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the most accurate finding (88 %) in the diagnosis of IP. Multivariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the single independent predictor of IP (P = 0.0006; OR = 64.99). MR imaging has 84 % sensitivity [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % specificity [95 % CI: 66-93 %] for the diagnosis of IP. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface is the most discriminating independent MR variable in differentiating between normal placenta and IP. (orig.)

  7. Identificação imuno-histoquímica de Listeria monocytogenes em placentas fixadas em formol e embebidas em parafina Immunohistochemical identification of Listeria monocytogenes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Pires Schwab

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar Listeria monocytogenes (Lm em placentas humanas pela técnica de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ e relacionar sua presença com as alterações histológicas encontradas com as alterações histológicas encontradas no exame convencional, com o trimestre gestacional, a idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e parto prematuro e a ocorrência de aborto habitual. MÉTODOS: um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado no setor de patologia de um hospital-escola de Porto Alegre no ano 2000. O material dos blocos de parafina de 254 placentas (exames anatomopatológicos, provenientes de aborto, de parto prematuro e de nascimento a termo, foi analisado pela técnica histológica convencional com a coloração de hematoxilina e eosina (HE. A técnica de IHQ foi realizada no material de 148 exames anatomopatológicos, que apresentaram alterações inflamatórias, hemorragia, necrose e trombose, utilizando anticorpo policlonal Rabbit A "Listeria monocytogenes" B65420R (Biodesign® na diluição 1:1000 e complexo avidina-biotina-estreptavidina. O teste c² foi aplicado para a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: a presença de Lm foi identificada em 33,7% das placentas analisadas pela técnica IHQ. Corioamnionite e vilite foram as alterações inflamatórias que estiverem associadas a diferença significativa nas placentas positivas. Lm esteve presente nas placentas de 1º, 2º e 3º trimestre gestacional. Não houve associação entre idade das gestantes, casos de aborto e/ou parto prematuro e a presença ou ausência de Lm nas placentas. Abortos habituais ocorreram em pacientes com ou sem Lm no tecido placentário. CONCLUSÃO: a técnica de IHQ pode ser utilizada para confirmar o diagnóstico histopatológico de listeriose em todos os trimestres gestacionais.PURPOSE: to identify Listeria monocytogenes (Lm in human placentas by immunohistochemistry (IHC and relate its presence to the histological alterations found on conventional examination, to the

  8. La conciencia humana y el emergentismo

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Ricardo; Universidad de Lima (Perú)

    2011-01-01

    En este ensayo se exploran los conceptos de conciencia y emergentismo, además de otros conceptos asociados al problema del origen y estatus metafísico y epistemológico de la conciencia humana. Se defiende la idea de que de ser viable la tesis del emergentismo como explicación del origen y características de la conciencia, esta tendría que ser un emergentismo fuerte a diferencia de otras alternativas. La teoría emergentista de D. Chalmers es analizada por ser una posición bastante discutida en...

  9. Periodismo de Frontera y Dignidad Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Cetina Presuel, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez Atala, Fernando (ed.); Corredoira y Alfonso, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    El presente libro explora cuál es el papel del Derecho y la Ética de la información en la protección de la dignidad humana, particularmente en relación con las actividades informativas que se dan en ámbitos transfronterizos, ya sea entre países colindantes o entre países y organizaciones que tienen influencia regional y en los asuntos internos de otros terceros países. Entre otros temas, el libro también mira hacia procesos de paz como el vivido en Colombia y por extensión analiza temas a...

  10. Metodologias multidimensionais em Ciências Humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Esther León Díaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cuestionamientos contemporáneos hechos a las ciencias humanas tienen como punto de partida la excesiva división disciplinar, aunada a la construcción de visiones deterministas y absolutas de la naturaleza, del ser humano, del espíritu, de las cosas, de las teorías y de los valores. El trabajo presentado por las docentes de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP apuntala sobre esos cuestionamientos desde la teoría de la complejidad del pensador judeo-francés Edgar Morin.

  11. Hidatidosis humana en el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Guerra Montero; María Ramírez Breña

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido conocer el estado de la hidatidosis humana, por la gran incidencia que presenta en nuestro país, principalmente en la región central andina. La recopilación de datos fue a partir de la revisión de fuentes primarias sobre epidemiología, el ciclo vital del parásito y del manejo del paciente afecto de Hidatidosis. Algunos hallazgos permiten afirmar que la hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el estado larval del cestodo Echinococcus del género Granulosu...

  12. Proteomic analysis of the alteration of protein expression in the placenta of Down syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-juan; YAN Li-yu; WANG Wei; YU Song; WANG Xin; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of human aneuploidy,and there is no effective therapy for the chromosomal abnormalities.We aimed to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying DS and to provide clues to prenatal screening.Methods A series of proteomics-based experiments was conducted using 19 patients with DS fetuses and 17 normal pregnancies.The proteome of placenta was investigated as displayed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE),and comparisons were made between placentas that developed under DS and normal pregnancy conditions.Multivariate analysis of the resulting protein patterns revealed DS-specific protein expression.Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometer (MS)-based identification was successful for 12 out of 17 selected protein spots.Results Among those,three proteins involved in the resist of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurogenesis were more abundant in the DS placenta (superoxide dismutase 1,endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 and heat shock protein beta-1),while peroxiredoxin-6 involved in cell defense mechanism against ROS was expressed at a higher level in the normal pregnancies.Conclusion Knowledge of the DS placenta proteome emphasizes the role of proteins involved in anti-oxidation during DS,and may form the basis of a potential approach to minimize the incidence of DS in the clinical setting.

  13. Abdomen agudo y embarazo: placenta percreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Massotto Chaves

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available La ruptura uterina espontánea por placenta percreta, sin historia de trauma o infección, es una patología extremadamente rara y responsable de una alta morbimortalidad materna. El diagnóstico prenatal de placenta percreta es importante para evitar resultados catastróficos debido a este desorden obstétrico, y diversos procedimientos son utilizados para lograr esta meta. Se presenta un caso de placenta percreta, con búsqueda de expedientes clínicos por esta patología, en el Hospital Monseñor Sanabria, desde 1994 hasta 1999, y con revisión de la bibliografía.

  14. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sheetal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at −20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220. Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition and 12 h after parturition. Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control. Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

  15. Dirofilariose pulmonar humana: relato de sete casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALLAZZI RODRIGO SILVA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariose pulmonar humana é uma doença rara causada pelo parasita Dirofilaria immitis. Apresenta-se usualmente como um nódulo pulmonar solitário que mimetiza câncer de pulmão. Embora considerada uma doença clinicamente benigna, uma biópsia pulmonar excisional é quase sempre necessária para o diagnóstico. Relatam-se as características epidemiológicas, clínicas e radiológicas de sete casos de dirofilariose pulmonar humana em Florianópolis. De sete pacientes relatados, seis tiveram como achado radiológico um nódulo pulmonar e foram submetidos à biópsia pulmonar excisional para o diagnóstico. Em um paciente, a imagem radiológica não estava disponível para revisão e, portanto, não foi descrita no trabalho; o diagnóstico foi estabelecido pela biópsia transbrônquica.

  16. RUPTURA UTERINA ESPONTANEA POR PLACENTA PERCRETA

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La rotura uterina en un útero sin cicatriz previa, y temprano en el tercer trimestre, es un evento raro. Se expone el caso clínico de una paciente que se presenta con abdomen agudo, cursando embarazo de aproximadamente 25 semanas, se realiza laparotomía exploradora encontrando hemoperitoneo, feto y placenta libres en la cavidad peritoneal y útero roto en el fondo invadido por la placenta, que compromete epiplón mayor. Se realiza histerectomía y se confirma el diagnóstico con biopsia

  17. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa and/or placenta accreta: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Luo

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion is a relatively safe method for treating placenta previa and/or placenta accreta during scheduled and emergency CS and might be helpful to prevent hysterectomy and embolization in women wishing to preserve fertility.

  18. Nitroglycerin for management of retained placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Abdel-Aleem, Mahmoud A; Shaaban, Omar M

    2015-11-12

    Retained placenta affects 0.5% to 3% of women following delivery, with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Use of nitroglycerin (NTG), either alone or in combination with uterotonics, may be of value to minimise the need for manual removal of the placenta in theatre under anaesthesia. To evaluate the benefits and harms of NTG as a tocolytic, either alone or in addition to uterotonics, in the management of retained placenta. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted experts in the field. Any adequately randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the use of NTG, either alone or in combination with uterotonics, with no intervention or with other interventions in the management of retained placenta. All women having a vaginal delivery with a retained placenta, regardless of the management of the third stage of labour (expectant or active). We included all trials with haemodynamically stable women in whom the placenta was not delivered at least within 15 minutes after delivery of the baby. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 175 women. The three published RCTs compared NTG alone versus placebo. The detachment status of retained placenta was unknown in all three RCTs. Collectively, among the three included trials, two were judged to be at low risk of bias and the third trial was judged to be at high risk of bias for two domains: incomplete outcome data and selective reporting. The three trials reported seven out of 23 of the review's pre-specified outcomes.The primary outcome "manual removal of the placenta" was reported in all three studies. No differences were seen between NTG and placebo for manual removal of the placenta (average risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.46; women = 175; I

  19. /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor specific binding to placentas and fetal membranes from varoius pregnancy states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.E.; Siddiqi, T.A.; Rao, Ch. V.; Carman, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Specific binding of /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) to homogenates of term human placentas and fetal membranes from normal and appropriate for gestational age (N = 20), intrauterine growth retarded (N = 9), twin (N = 11), White class AB diabetic (N = 12), and large for gestational age (N = 13) pregnancies was measured. In all pregnancy states, placentas bound approximately four times more /sup 125/I-hEGF than did fetal membranes (P<0.0001). There was no significant differnce in /sup 125/I-hEGF binding to fetal membranes from the various pregnancy states (P<0.05). /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding to placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies was significantly greater compared with placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies (P<0.05). The binding to placentas from pregnancies complicated by White class AB diabetes or large for gestational age infants, on the other hand, was not significantly different from that to placentas from normal and appropriate for gestational age pregnancies. /sup 125/I-hEGF specific binding did not differ between placentas from intrauterine growth retarded or twin pregnancies (P<0.05). Placental and fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding did not vary with fetal sex, maternal race, placental weight, or gestational age between 37 to 42 weeks (P<0.05). Placental but not fetal membrane /sup 125/I-hEGF binding increased with increasing infant weight when appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age infants were included (P<0.05, r = 0.38, N = 32) but not for intrauterine growth retarded, appropriate for gestational age, or large for gestational age infants alone.

  20. Review: The placenta and developmental programming: balancing fetal nutrient demands with maternal resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G J; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    The placenta evolved to support development of the fetus, and so potentially plays a key role in the aetiology of developmental programming through its impact on nutrient transfer. Placental transport efficiency depends on a variety of parameters, including surface area for exchange, thickness of the interhaemal membrane and density of transporter proteins inserted into the trophoblast membranes. Here, we review recent studies that tested whether adaptations of placental efficiency are induced in the mouse placenta when maternal nutrient supply and fetal demand are manipulated experimentally. Naturally small placentas, and those exposed to maternal undernutrition, displayed structural changes indicative of accelerated maturation at E16, with enlargement of the labyrinth exchange zone at the expense of the endocrine junctional zone. These changes were associated with increased transport of a non-metabolisable amino acid analogue per gram of placenta, and expression of genes encoding specific System A transporters. Up-regulation of transporters was also observed when a mismatch between placental size and fetal demand was generated through genetic manipulation of the Igf2/H19 axis. Conversely, overgrowth of the placenta induced by deletion of H19 resulted in reduced transport capacity and expression of transporter genes. We conclude that under conditions when the maternal nutrient supply or placental size may be limiting for normal fetal growth, the placenta adapts so as to increase its transport capacity. Hence, it ameliorates the effects of environmental cues that would otherwise lead to more extensive developmental programming. The P0 transcript of Igf2 appears to be a strong candidate as a mediator of these adaptations in the mouse.

  1. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  2. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Matsuzaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM. Study Design - Case report and review of the literature. Results - A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion - Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  3. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more {sup 14}C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose and (6-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro.

  4. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  5. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  6. Review: Placenta, evolution and lifelong health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R M; Cleal, J K; Hanson, M A

    2012-02-01

    The intrauterine environment has an important influence on lifelong health, and babies who grew poorly in the womb are more likely to develop chronic diseases in later life. Placental function is a major determinant of fetal growth and is therefore also a key influence on lifelong health. The capacity of the placenta to transport nutrients to the fetus and regulate fetal growth is determined by both maternal and fetal signals. The way in which the placenta responds to these signals will have been subject to evolutionary selective pressures. The responses selected are those which increase Darwinian fitness, i.e. reproductive success. This review asks whether in addition to responding to short-term signals, such as a rise in maternal nutrient levels, the placenta also responds to longer-term signals representing the mother's phenotype as a measure of environmental influences across her life course. Understanding how the placenta responds to maternal signals is therefore not only important for promoting optimal fetal growth but can also give insights into how human evolution affected developmental history with long-term effects on health and disease.

  7. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  8. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  9. PLACENTA PREVIA PERCRETA CON INVASION VESICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Perucca,Ernesto; Cazenave,Henry; Barra,Alejandro; Ochoa,Nelson; Villagrán,Gabriel; Espinoza,Rosemary; Estay,Ricardo; Bustamante,Rodrigo; Siebert,Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    Se presentan 3 nuevos casos de placenta percreta con invasión a vejiga ocurridos en nuestro Servicio. Uno de ellos fue diagnosticado durante el embarazo, los otros dos casos fueron hallazgos intraoperatorios. La evolución clínica de las tres pacientes fue satisfactoria

  10. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  11. Reactivity of blood vessels in response to prostaglandin E2 in placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Barnea, Ofer; Golan, Abraham; Kovo, Michal

    2012-05-01

    The authors aimed to study the contractility responses of normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) placentas to prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) and to correlate the results to subsequent placental histological analysis. A dual-perfused single cotyledon model was used. Placentas from pregnancies complicated by FGR and from normal pregnancies were obtained. Selected cotyledons were cannulated and dually perfused. Following stabilization, three concentrations of PGE(2) (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mg/mL) were administered to the fetal arterial side causing contraction/relaxation response. Fetal perfusion pressure was measured continuously during these contraction and relaxation phases. Following the perfusion experiments, the placentas were analyzed for fetal or maternal origin vascular lesions. A total of 21 complete experiments were performed (16 normal, 5 FGR). In response to PGE(2) , FGR placentas exhibited lower change in the perfusion pressure and lower relaxation time constant. Basal perfusion pressure did not differ significantly between the two groups. Placental histopathology lesions, fetal or maternal origin, were more common in the FGR compared with the controls placentas, 80% versus 25%, respectively, P=  0.047. The lower vascular reactivity in response to PGE(2) and the presence of fetal and maternal vascular placental lesions suggest a mechanism explaining the altered vascular supply in FGR. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Central placenta previa with placenta percreta partially invading bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Banu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Placenta previa, placenta accreta, increta and percreta are increasing day by day due to increased number of cesarean sections now days, but central placenta previa with placenta percreta invading bladder is a very rare obstetrical complication. A case of central placenta previa with placenta percreta partially invading bladder in woman who was G2P1L1 with 32+6 weeks of gestation and with history of previous cesarean section is presented in this manuscript. The patient was managed with intrapartum cesarean hysterectomy with bilateral ureter J stents and bladder repair following cesarean delivery of a preterm baby. Total estimated blood loss was 6000 mL. The patient was discharged on 28th December 2014 that is 29th day of admission with a healthy baby. The aim of this study is to bring awareness of such case and to discuss the risk factor, presentation, diagnosis, management and choice of anesthesia for the same. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 859-862

  13. Metafísica del alma humana

    OpenAIRE

    Guiu Andreu, Ignacio

    1991-01-01

    Con esta tesis me propongo una comprensión radical del alma humana en términos de ser. Un estudio del alma ut ens, ut habens esse. La composición real de esencia y ser es la clave que nos permite definir metafísicamente a todo ente finito y desentrañar así su estructura última y más profunda. Ahora bien, como la verdad se funda en el ser más que en la esencia, veritas fundatur in esse magis quam in quidditate (In I Sent., d. 19, q. 5, a. 1), la verdad del alma y, en consecuencia, la del hombr...

  14. Ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Rojas-Solano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Las ehrliquiosis humanas son zoonosis emergentes transmitidas por varias especies de garrapatas e infectan gran cantidad de animales silvestres y domésticos. Reportamos el caso de un paciente con un cuadro clínico y hallazgos de laboratorio compatibles con una probable ehrliquiosis granulocitotrópica severa. El paciente se trató con doxicilina y respondió adecuadamente. Fue egresado en buena condición.Human ehrlichiosis are emergent tick-borne zoonoses, affecting many wild and domestic mammals. We report the case of a patient with a clinical picture and laboratory findings compatible with severe granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The patient was treated with doxyciclin and did fine.

  15. Micro- and Nano-vesicles from First Trimester Human Placentae Carry Flt-1 and Levels Are Increased in Severe Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mancy; Chen, Qi; James, Joanna L; Stone, Peter R; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a life-threatening hypertensive disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. While the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear, it is known that placenta-derived factors trigger the disease by activating maternal endothelial cells prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) of different sizes extruded by the placenta may be one factor. The truncated/secreted form of Flt-1 (sFlt-1) has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. We investigated whether placental EV production is altered in preeclampsia such that they induce endothelial cell activation, and whether (s)Flt-1 is involved. Macro-, micro-, and nano-vesicles were collected from normal and preeclamptic (PE) placental explants, and separated by differential centrifugation. The number and size of micro- and nano-vesicles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis and their ability to activate endothelial cells was quantified by endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and monocyte adhesion. The levels of Flt-1 were measured by western blots and ELISA. PE placentae extruded significantly more micro- and nano-vesicles than control placentae and the extruded micro-vesicles were larger than those from control placentae. Micro- and nano-vesicles from both first trimester and term human placentae carried Flt-1 and levels were significantly increased in EVs from severe, but not mild, PE compared to normotensive placentae. All fractions of EVs from PE placentae activated endothelial cells, and for micro- and nano-vesicles, activation was reduced in the presence of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a Flt-1 neutralizing antibody, or by pre-treatment with VEGF. While EV-bound VEGF constituted over 20% of the total detected VEGF secreted by PE and normotensive placentae, EV-bound Flt-1 did not significantly contribute to the total level of sFlt-1/Flt-1 released by human third trimester placentae. Micro- and nano

  16. Libertad humana y presciencia divina en Boecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Correia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, me propongo mostrar que la discusión de Boecio sobre la compatibilidad de la libertad humana y la praescientia divina (De consolatione philosophiae, Libro V es una elaborada doctrina que une elementos neoplatónicos y lógica aristotélica. Según argumento, la discusión está conectada a la preocupación anterior sobre este tema mantenida por los estoicos, y sus principales líneas de desarrollo van a influir en pensadores como Santo Tomás de Aquino, L. Valla y G.W. Leibniz. En lo esencial, la doctrina de Boecio dice que no es la sola razón humana lo que hace al hombre libre, sino su fin, que es Dios como ser eternamente presente a los procesos necesarios y contingentes del universo. Esto está supuesto en sus palabras finales sobre el poder de la oraciónIn this article, I attempt to show that Boethius' discussion on the compatibility between human freedom and praescientia divina (De consolatione philosophiae, Book V is a refined piece of doctrine combining Neoplatonic elements and Aristotelian logic. The discussion, I argue, is connected to the Stoic early concern on the topic and its main lines of development are to be influential in later thinkers as St. Th. Aquinas, L. Valla and G.W. Leibniz. Basically, Boethius' doctrine means that it is not only the human reason by itself what makes the man free, but also the end of reason, i.e., God, who is eternally present to necessary and contingent processes in the universe. This is suggested by his final words on the power of prayer

  17. Epidemiologia da raiva humana na Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo R. Matta B. da Silva

    1971-08-01

    Full Text Available A raiva humana se mantém como problema de Saúde Pública, especialmente nas áreas urbanas, onde o cão atua como principal reservatório e fonte imediata de infecção. A deficiência de programas de controle de cães vadios, de imunização sistemática e de educação sanitária, contribui para a perpetuação da cadeia epidemiológioa. O presente estudo analisa todos os casos de raiva humana, observados em habitantes do Estado da Guanabara, no período 1965-1969, segundo as variáveis: idade, sexo, côr, variação estacional, período de incubação e de duração da fase clínica, fonte de infecção, local de mordedura e uso de vacina posterior à exposição. Os principais resultados foram: 1. A ravia na Guanabara, parece ser mais comum nos grupos etários mais jovens e nos homens. 2. Não se observou variação estacional. 3. O período de incubação mediano foi de 45 dias e de duração da fase clínica de 3 dias. 4. Ocorreu uma associação entre período de incubação menor e vacinação incompleta.

  18. Expression of Nestin in Embryonic Tissues and its Effects on Clinicopathological Characteristics of Patients with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan-Yan; Chu, Ping

    2017-08-18

    In this study, we examined expression of nestin in the spinal cord, lung, kidney, stomach, colon and intestine tissues at different stages of embryos in patients with placenta previa. Fetuses of 75 patients with placenta previa were assigned to case group and 80 fetuses from healthy pregnant women with normal placenta who voluntarily terminated pregnancy to control group. Clinical data of pregnant women were collected at the time of admission. Blood from elbow vein was collected to determine expression of serum nestin. Tissues from spinal cord, lung, kidney, stomach, colon and intestine in 3-7 months fetuses of the two groups were extracted. Expression of nestin in tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-qPCR. The mRNA expression of nestin in the case group was increased. Nestin expression was correlated with the gestational age, age of foetus and type of placenta previa in patients with placenta previa. Positive nestin expression was detected in the spinal cord, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine and colon tissues in normal and placenta previa embryo at Stage I. The positive cell density and nestin expression decreased at Stage II, and further decreased at Stage III. The case group had higher nestin mRNA and protein levels throughout human fetal development. Findings of this study suggested that, nestin, as a specific marker of neural precursor cells, was expressed in various tissues of the embryo in patients with placenta previa and nestin expression was lower with increased maturation of the embryo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvraa, Steen; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to"DNA binding" and "transcription factor binding" coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments.

  20. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, R., E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ghazavi, E. [Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hinton, T. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology), The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, K.A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Hennessy, A. [School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, NSW 2751 (Australia); Heart Research Institute, 7 Eliza St Newtown, NSW 2042 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  1. Regenerative efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells from human placenta in sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Kicheol; Choi, Mi Young; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Park, Kyoung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Hearing loss is a common chronic disorder characterized by decline of auditory function. The global population have suffered from deafness and the transplantation of stem cells is regarded as a therapeutic strategy for this disease. We collected placenta from a total of 13 samples of full term pregnant women and isolated MSCs derived from human placenta and transplanted MSCs on deaf animal model. The normal group and the sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) group and the experimental (transplanted MSCs) group were compared and estimated hearing level using auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings and the otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. ABR threshold value and DPOAE level showed that MSCs transplantation groups was improved than the SNHL group. And the number of spiral ganglion neurons were increased in all turn of the cochlea. And there was no evidence of acute immunological rejection and inflammation response was not observed. This study is to evaluate regenerative efficacy of hearing loss by transplanting mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from human placenta (amnion and chorion) in deaf animal model. We identified that MSCs transplantation restored auditory impairment and promoted cell regeneration. We hope to overcome sensorineural hearing loss by transplanting stem cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from easily accessible adult stem cell source in placenta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of autophagy in the placenta as a regulator of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jin-Sung; Kim, Gi Jin

    2014-09-01

    The placenta is a temporary fetomaternal organ capable of supporting fetal growth and development during pregnancy. In particular, abnormal development and dysfunction of the placenta due to cha nges in the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and invasion of trophoblasts induce several gynecological diseases as well as abnormal fetal development. Autophagy is a catalytic process that maintains cellular structures by recycling building blocks derived from damaged microorganelles or proteins resulting from digestion in lysosomes. Additionally, autophagy is necessary to maintain homeostasis during cellular growth, development, and differentiation, and to protect cells from nutritional deficiencies or factors related to metabolism inhibition. Induced autophagy by various environmental factors has a dual role: it facilitates cellular survival in normal conditions, but the cascade of cellular death is accelerated by over-activated autophagy. Therefore, cellular death by autophagy has been known as programmed cell death type II. Autophagy causes or inhibits cellular death via the other mechanism, apoptosis, which is programmed cell death type I. Recently, it has been reported that autophagy increases in placenta-related obstetrical diseases such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation, although the mechanisms are still unclear. In particular, abnormal autophagic mechanisms prevent trophoblast invasion and inhibit trophoblast functions. Therefore, the objectives of this review are to examine the characteristics and functions of autophagy and to investigate the role of autophagy in the placenta and the trophoblast as a regulator of cell death.

  3. Coagulation and Placenta-Mediated Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Aharon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a physiological hypercoagulable state, preparing the mother for the hemostatic challenge of delivery. However, this is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis and placenta-mediated complications, which present major challenges for mother and fetus. Although these conditions are heterogeneous in their pathophysiology, hereditary and acquired thrombophilia has been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss and gestational vascular complications, such as early-onset pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Prevention of such placenta-mediated complications, which collectively complicate up to 15% of pregnancies, is a major issue for women’s health. Prospective interventional studies stratified by current knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms related to placental and systemic hemostatic alterations will impact on the management of pregnancies at risk of these complications.

  4. Placenta Percreta Presenting with Delayed Haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaskar, Vinayak Gorakhanath; Daga, Sudarshan Omprakash; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran

    2015-12-01

    Placenta percreta presents as life threatening complications with bladder invasion. A condition of placenta invading urinary bladder presented with differential diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on imaging and responded to chemotherapy. A 35-year-old primi-gravida presented at term with per vaginal bleeding. During caesarian section placental mass totally invading uterine myometrium was found. She was given single dose of Methotrexate. After 2 months she presented with gross haematuria with clot retention two times. Her MRI was suggestive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia of size 19 X 10 X 13cm. Her beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin levels were 691.23 mIU/ml. She was given total four doses of methotrexate. At present size of mass was 1.6 X1.3X 1.1cm. Her beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin level dropped down to 2mIU/ml. Patient was not willing for further intervention or for follow up.

  5. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Siwetz; Astrid Blaschitz; Julia Kremshofer; Jelena Bilic; Gernot Desoye; Berthold Huppertz; Martin Gauster

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in pla...

  6. Impact of placenta praevia on obstetric outcome

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    Neelam Meena

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that increased maternal age and parity, history of previous caesarean section are identified risk factors which are same as reported in western literature. Sonographic determination of the placental position where its location be-Neath the uterine incision is very important to predict maternal outcomes in placenta praevia patients, and such cases, close attention should be paid for massive haemorrhage. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 76-80

  7. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, H.J. van; Joosten, I.; Lotgering, F.K.; Bulten, J.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to expl

  8. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  9. Fibulin-5 expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauster, Martin; Berghold, Veronika M; Moser, Gerit; Orendi, Kristina; Siwetz, Monika; Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-02-01

    Fibulin-5 is a secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein and displays a diverse panel of biological functions, which can be segregated into elastogenic as well as extra-elastogenic functions. While elastogenic functions of fibulin-5 include essential roles in early steps of elastic fibre assembly, extra-elastogenic functions are widespread. Depending on the cell type used, fibulin-5 mediates cell adherence via a subset of integrins, antagonizes angiogenesis and inhibits migration as well as proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this study, we focused on the spatiotemporal expression of fibulin-5 in the human placenta. With progressing gestation, placental fibulin-5 expression increased from first trimester towards term. At term, placental fibulin-5 mRNA expression is lower when compared with other well-vascularized organs such as lung, kidney, heart, uterus and testis. In first trimester, placenta immunohistochemistry localized fibulin-5 in villous cytotrophoblasts and extravillous cytotrophoblasts of the proximal cell column. In term placenta, fibulin-5 was detected in the endothelial basement membrane and adventitia-like regions of vessels in the chorionic plate and stem villi. Cell culture experiments with the villous trophoblast-derived cell line BeWo showed that fibulin-5 expression was downregulated during functional differentiation and intercellular fusion. Moreover, cultivation of BeWo cells under low oxygen conditions impaired intercellular fusion and upregulated fibulin-5 expression. The spatiotemporal shift from the trophoblast compartment in first trimester to the villous vasculature at term suggests a dual role of fibulin-5 in human placental development.

  10. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain.

  11. Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-25

    The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.

  12. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P; Best, Diana; Read, David; Ollinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1(-/-) mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1(-/-) placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease.

  13. LncRNAs expression in preeclampsia placenta reveals the potential role of LncRNAs contributing to preeclampsia pathogenesis.

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    Xiaoju He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia has been observed in patients with molar pregnancy where a fetus is absent, which demonstrate that the placenta is sufficient to cause this condition. Thus, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia placentas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we described the lncRNA profiles in six preeclampsia placentas (T and five normal pregnancy placentas (N using microarray. With abundant and varied probes accounting for 33,045 LncRNAs in our microarray, 28,443 lncRNAs that were expressed at a specific level were detected. From the data, we found 738 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 1.5-fold-change among preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks (CNC network were constructed based on the correlation analysis between the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. According to the CNC network and GO analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs, we selected three lncRNAs to analyze the relationship between lncRNAs and preeclampsia. LOC391533, LOC284100, and CEACAMP8 were evaluated using qPCR in 40 preeclampsia placentas and 40 controls. These results revealed that three lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first study to determine the genome-wide lncRNAs expression patterns in preeclampsia placenta using microarray. These results revealed that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placenta compared with controls, which indicated that lncRNAs differentially expressed in preeclampsia placenta might play a partial or key role in preeclampsia development. Misregulation of LOC391533, LOC

  14. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta : the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J.A.; Pemberton, H. N.; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T.J.; McCabe, C. J.; Kilby, M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for T3 in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hyp...

  15. Adiaspiromicose pulmonar humana Human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis

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    Lina Gomes dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A adiaspiromicose é uma doença fúngica sistêmica que acomete usualmente roedores e raramente atinge o homem. É causada pelo fungo Emmonsia crescens e ocorre após a inalação da forma contagiante (conídios. Embora estas formas não se multipliquem nem se disseminem no organismo humano, induzem uma reação inflamatória crônica granulomatosa de padrão miliar que pode levar a falência respiratória e morte. Apresentamos aqui um caso de adiaspiromicose pulmonar humana em paciente imunocompetente que exibia infiltrado intersticial pulmonar difuso ao exame de imagem e fora diagnosticado mediante biópsia pulmonar.Adiaspiromycosis is a systemic fungal disease that usually affects rodents and rarely infects humans. It is caused by the fungus Emmonsia crescens and occurs after inhalation of its contagious form (conidia. Although these forms neither multiply nor spread in the human body, they cause a chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction of miliary pattern, which may lead to respiratory failure and death. In this study we present a case of human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in an immunocompetent patient that showed a diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrate diagnosed by pulmonary biopsy.

  16. DE NUEVO SOBRE LA DIGNIDAD HUMANA

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    Antonio-Carlos Pereira-Menaut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available De la Segunda Guerra Mundial en adelante, la dignidad humana es recogida en muchas constituciones, declaraciones de derechos y tratados internacionales. Esto no significa que sea un concepto nuevo, pues su significado puede rastrearse sin dificultad en la tradición judeo-cristiana y, mucho más tarde, en la influyente comprensión kantiana; y tampoco significa que no haya tenido relación con el Derecho antes de 1945. Por otro lado, las nuevas tendencias filosóficas y antropológicas así como la politización del hombre, junto con los avances de la técnica, explican su presencia cada vez mayor en el Derecho. Sin embargo, la inclusión de la dignidad en los textos jurídicos no es capaz de agotar su significado —ni aunque los textos sean los constitucionales—, y el hecho de que los jueces la aleguen no significa que la empleen realmente como criterio para su decisión, como puede verse al estudiar algunas sentencias relevantes.

  17. Risk Factors of Neonatal Anemia in Placenta Previa

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    Dong Gyu Jang, Yun Sung Jo, Sung Jong Lee, Gui Se Ra Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa.Methods: The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors.Results: Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11 was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders.Conclusion: To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location.

  18. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B;

    2004-01-01

    early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...... genes were expressed in placenta and microsomal extracts from human placenta contained triglyceride transfer activity, indicating expression of bioactive MTP. To detect lipoprotein secretion, biopsies from term placentas were placed in medium with [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine for 3-24 h. Upon...... lipoproteins secreted from placental tissue showed spherical particles with a diameter of 47 +/- 10 nm. These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Placental lipoprotein formation constitutes a novel pathway...

  19. Risk Factors of Neonatal Anemia in Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Jo, Yun Sung; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Gui Se Ra

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa. Methods: The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors. Results: Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11) was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion: To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location. PMID:21960747

  20. Risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Jo, Yun Sung; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Gui Se Ra

    2011-01-01

    Placenta previa is a major cause of neonatal anemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the risk factors of neonatal anemia in placenta previa. The study was conducted on 158 placenta previa patients at 3 hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from May 1999 through December 2009. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups: 47 placenta previa patients with neonatal anemia, and 113 placenta previa patients without neonatal anemia. The subjects' characteristics were compared. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors. Anterior placental location (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.20-5.11) was an independent risk factor of neonatal anemia after controlling for potential confounders. To manage neonatal anemia in placenta previa patients, obstetricians should do their best to detect placental location. Pediatricians should consider the high possibility of neonatal anemia in cases involving anterior placental location.

  1. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Steffensen, Karina Dahl;

    2012-01-01

    Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic conditions...

  2. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Dahl Steffensen, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic ...

  3. Maternal plasma levels of cell-free β-HCG mRNA as a prenatal diagnostic indicator of placenta accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Li, J; Yan, P; Ye, Y H; Peng, W; Wang, S; Wang, X Tong

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers, including maternal serum creatinine kinase and α-fetoprotein, have been described as potential tools for the diagnosis of placental abnormalities. This study aimed to determine whether maternal plasma mRNA levels of the β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) could predict placenta accreta prenatally. Sixty-eight singleton pregnant women with prior cesarean deliveries (CDs) were classified into three groups: normal placentation (35 women, control group); placenta previa alone (21 women, placenta previa group); and both placenta previa and placenta accreta (12 women, placenta previa/accreta group). Maternal plasma concentrations of cell-free β-HCG mRNA were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). Cell-free β-HCG mRNA concentrations (MoM, range) were significantly higher in women with placenta accreta (3.65, 2.78-7.19) than in women with placenta previa (0.94, 0.00-2.97) or normal placentation (1.00, 0.00-2.69) (Steel-Dwass test, P placenta previa/accreta group, the concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA was significantly higher among women who underwent CDs with hysterectomy (4.41, 3.49-7.19) than among women whose CDs did not result in hysterectomy (3.20, 2.78-3.70) (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.012). An increased level of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in the maternal plasma of women with placenta accreta may arise from direct uteroplacental transfer of cell-free placental mRNA molecules. The concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in maternal plasma may be applicable to the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, especially to identify women with placenta accreta likely to require hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retained placenta of dairy cows associated with managemental factors in Rajshahi, Bangladesh

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    K. M. Mozaffor Hossain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The incidence of retained placenta of dairy cows in relation to individual animal level and farm management factors such as farm type, farm size, housing system, floor type, feed quality, time of parturition, farming experience of farmer and delivery pattern of cows was determined. Materials and Methods: A total 1205 parturated dairy cows conducted in nine upazilas and four Metro Thana of Rajshahi district during July 2010 to June 2011for attainment of the result. Individual animal and farm management factors associated with retained placenta were recorded in a structured questionnaire through face-to-face farmer's interview and reviewing farm records. The raw data were compiled and statistical SPSS program to analyze to obtained result. Results: The overall incidence of retained placenta was 13.4%. The incidence was significantly higher in Local × Sahiwal genotype (4.6% and late delivery (longer gestation period (80% than their counter groups (p<0.05. The large farm (6.0% had higher incidence and had no significant effect than medium and individual household. Similarly animals housed in Tin shed building with poor ventilation facilities (6.6%, animal housed in unscientific concrete floor (6.8%, animals mostly grassed along with small amount of straw supplied (5.4% and a farmer had less than one year farming experience (5.3% had not significant statistically show higher incidence of retained placenta. Conclusion: The local genotype; mini farm; supplied better feed quality; vast farming experience of farmer and normal delivery with eutocia had less chance of retained placenta of dairy cows. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 180-184

  5. Placenta previa and pre-eclampsia: analyses of 1645 cases at Medani Maternity Hospital, Sudan

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    Ishag eAdam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case- control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pre-eclampsia -including the protective effect of placenta previa -at Medani Maternity Hospital, Sudan. Medical files of the patients during the period 2003 to 2010 were reviewed for age, parity, education level, prenatal care, placenta previa and hemoglobin level. Women with pre-eclampsia were the cases, and women with normal pregnancy were the controls. There were 54339 singleton deliveries and 1765 women with pre-eclampsia in the hospital, giving the incidence of pre-eclampsia of 3.2%. The risk factors for pre-eclampsia were; women with age > 35 year (OR= 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8, primiparity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.7–4.0, para > 5 (OR= 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4–4.0 and anemia (OR= 3.3, 95% CI: 2.8–3.9. The risk of pre-eclampsia was inversely increased with education level and prenatal care attendance. The prevalence of placenta previa was 0(0% and 55 (3.3%, P< 0.001 in pre-eclamptic and control women, respectively. Placenta previa was a significant protective factor of pre-eclampsia (OR= 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.7. Although, the socio-demographic risk factors for pre-eclampsia observed among women at Medani hospital were similar to those found in other settings; placenta previa was associated with decreased incidence of pre-eclampsia.

  6. Differential methylation of genes associated with cell adhesion in preeclamptic placentas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Anton

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is hypothesized to be associated with, if not mechanistically related to abnormal placental function. However, the exact mechanisms regulating the pathogenesis of PE remain unclear. While many studies have investigated changes in gene expression in the PE placenta, the role of epigenetics in PE associated placental dysfunction remains unclear. Using the genome-wide Illumina Infinium Methylation 450 BeadChip array, we analyzed gene-specific alterations in DNA methylation in placental biopsies collected from normal pregnant women delivering at term (n = 14, with term PE (≥37 weeks; n = 19 or with preterm PE (5% methylation difference. Functional annotation of the differentially methylated genes in preterm PE placentas revealed a 32 gene cluster in the cadherin and cell adhesion functional groups (Benjamini p<0.00001. Hypermethylation of CDH11 (p = 0.0143, COL5A1 (p = 0.0127 and TNF (p = 0.0098 and hypomethylation of NCAM1 (p = 0.0158 was associated with altered mRNA expression in preterm PE placentas. Demethylation of first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells resulted in altered CDH11 (p = 0.0087, COL5A1 (p = 0.0043, NCAM1 (p = 0.0260 and TNF (p = 0.0022 mRNA expression. These studies demonstrate aberrant methylation, correlating with disease severity, in PE placentas. Furthermore, we provide evidence that disruption of gene-specific methylation in preterm PE placentas and first trimester trophoblasts is significantly associated with altered gene expression demonstrating that epigenetic modifications early in pregnancy can have effects on trophoblast function contributing to PE.

  7. Placenta Previa and Pre-Eclampsia: Analyses of 1645 Cases at Medani Maternity Hospital, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ishag; Haggaz, AbdElrahium D.; Mirghani, Omer A.; Elhassan, Elhassan M.

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pre-eclampsia – including the protective effect of placenta previa – at Medani Maternity Hospital, Sudan. Medical files of the patients during the period 2003–2010 were reviewed for age, parity, education level, prenatal care, placenta previa, and hemoglobin level. Women with pre-eclampsia were the cases, and women with normal pregnancy were the controls. There were 54,339 singleton deliveries and 1765 women with pre-eclampsia in the hospital, giving the incidence of pre-eclampsia of 3.2%. The risk factors for pre-eclampsia were; women with age >35 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.8), primiparity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.7–4.0), para >5 (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4–4.0), and anemia (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.8–3.9). The risk of pre-eclampsia was inversely increased with education level and prenatal care attendance. The prevalence of placenta previa was 0 (0%) and 55 (3.3%), P Placenta previa was a significant protective factor of pre-eclampsia (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.7). Although, the socio-demographic risk factors for pre-eclampsia observed among women at Medani hospital were similar to those found in other settings; placenta previa was associated with decreased incidence of pre-eclampsia. PMID:23450096

  8. In vivo quantification of {sup 18}F-Fdg uptake in human placenta during early pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Jan, S.; Trebossen, R.; Maroy, R. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, F-91401 Orsay (France); Champion, C. [Univ Paul Verlaine Metz, Lab Phys Mol et Collis, Inst Phys, Metz (France); Hindie, E. [Hop St Antoine, AP-HP, F-75571 Paris (France); Hindie, E. [Univ Paris 07, IMDCT, IUH, Ecole Doctorale B2T, F-75221 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    {sup 18}F-FDG is the most widely used PET radiopharmaceutical. Nevertheless, no data for {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the human placenta have been reported. We recently reported on embryo dosimetry in a woman who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan during early pregnancy. In the present work we attempt an in vivo quantification of the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by the placenta. The 27-y-old woman received 320 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG for a follow-up study for Hodgkin's lymphoma and was later discovered to be pregnant (embryo age 8 wk). Imaging started 1 h after injection. The maximum placental tissue uptake (SUVmax) was 2.5. This value was conservatively attributed to the entire placental volume, i.e., 45 mL, a value representative of the average dimensions of a normal placenta at 8 wk. On the basis of these measurements, placenta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in our patient was 0.19% of the injected activity. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to derive the photon dose to the embryo from the placenta (0.022 * 10{sup -2} mGy per MBq of injected {sup 18}F-FDG) and from the surrounding amniotic fluid (0.017 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}). This increases our previously calculated dose (3.3 * 10{sup -2} mGy MBq{sup -1}) by only a small fraction (1.18%), which does not justify modifying the previous estimate given the overall uncertainties. (authors)

  9. Abnormal placentation: evidence-based diagnosis and management of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria; Yankowitz, Jerome; Spinnato, Joseph A

    2012-08-01

    Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa cause significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of both cesarean delivery and pregnancies using assisted reproductive technology, these 3 conditions are becoming more common. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans to achieve the best outcomes for mother and baby. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on abnormal placentation including an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management.

  10. Screening and cloning of differentially expressed genes in placentas from patients of pregnancy-induced hypertension by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹国武; 姜锋; 李东红; 姚元庆

    2003-01-01

    Suppresssion subtractive hybridization (SSH) was preformed to compare gene expression profiles of PIH patients and normal pregnancy placentas. The subtractive cDNA library of PIH placenta was set up and screedned. Differential cDNAs were cloned, and sequenced by T 7 primer methodology. One hundred and three differential cDNAs were isolated by SSH. Sequencing and BLAST analysis showed 90 inserts shared more than 95% homolog with sequences in the GenBank/EMBL database. We identified 36 putative genes including pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene (BC005924), serine protease inhibitor gene(BC012868), VEGFR-1 gene(AF063657, etc.

  11. Pathological And Clinical Evaluation of Hypertensive Pregnants and Their Placentas

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    Havva Erdem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of hypertension on the placenta and fetus in pregnancy. Method: 25 hypertensive pregnants, 114 control women, and their infants were included in the study. Results: There was significant correlation between to the body mass index, weight before pregnancy, gestational week, hematocrit, birth weight, placenta size and weight between two groups (p=.002, .003, .003, .004, .000, .050, .032, respectively. The age, gravida, parity, abortus, living child, height, weight gain in pregnancy, hemoglobin, placenta diameter and thickness, volume of clot were similar between groups. Conclusion: As a result, hypertension in pregnancy affects the development of the fetus and placenta as well.

  12. Effect of placenta previa on fetal growth restriction and stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeniel, A Ozgur; Ergenoglu, A Mete; Itil, Ismail Mete; Askar, Niyazi; Meseri, Reci

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). This retrospective cohort study includes 12,034 delivered pregnant women who were recruited for the study between 2004 and 2010 in Ege University Hospital. Data were collected by browsing the clinic's archives. The association between placenta previa and adverse perinatal outcomes was determined via Chi-square tests and Student's t test. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors in evaluating the association between placenta previa and the adverse perinatal outcomes. There was no significant relationship between placenta previa and FGR or stillbirth. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly higher in the placenta previa group. According to logistic regression analysis, low birth weight was associated with an OR of 3.01 (95 % CI 2.05-4.52) and preterm delivery was associated with an OR of 8.14 (95 % CI 5.60-11.83); while, placenta previa did not affect FGR and stillbirth significantly. Although there is no consensus on the association between placenta previa and FGR in previous studies, we suggest that placenta previa is not a reason for placental insufficiency. Management of placenta previa especially depends on maternal hemodynamic parameters such as heavy hemorrhage and hypotensive shock rather than fetal well-being protocols based on serial growth ultrasound and fetal Doppler investigation.

  13. Conservative management of placenta previa complicated by abnormal placentation.

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    Bręborowicz, Grzegorz H; Markwitz, Wiesław; Gaca, Michał; Koziołek, Agnieszka; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Dera, Anna; Brych, Mariusz; Szymankiewicz-Bręborowicz, Marta; Kruszyński, Grzegorz; Gruca-Stryjak, Karolina; Madejczyk, Mateusz; Szpera-Goździewicz, Agata; Krzyścin, Mariola

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal implantation of placenta previa is life-threatening condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the conservative management of pregnancies with such complication on maternal morbidity rate and the chance for uterine preservation (fertility). Eleven patients with abnormal implantation of placenta previa were analyzed prospectively. This complication was diagnosed antenatally by two-dimensional ultrasound and color flow Doppler. The following outcomes were analyzed: need for blood transfusion, admission and duration of stay in intensive care unit, infections, coagulopathies, time between cesarean section and delivery of placenta, hysterectomy and preservation of uterus. Among the 20 085 women who had a singleton gestation, 11 (0.054%) were identified with placenta previa with abnormal placentation. In five patients (group A), hysterectomy was performed because of hemorrhage or placenta ablation. In six patients (group B), conservative management succeeded and placenta were preserved. In group A, placenta were delivered earlier (2 d-8 weeks) in comparison with group B (6-15 weeks). Estimated blood loss during the delayed delivery of placenta was higher in the group with hysterectomy (respectively, 450-1600 and 300-500 ml). Conservative management of placenta previa with abnormal implantation decreases the risk of severe hemorrhage at the time of delivery and can preserve fertility.

  14. IGF-IR signal transduction protein content and its activation by IGF-I in human placentas: relationship with gestational age and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction.

  15. IGF-IR signal transduction protein content and its activation by IGF-I in human placentas: relationship with gestational age and birth weight.

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    Germán Iñiguez

    Full Text Available The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR. The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA, 26 term small (T-SGA, 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA, and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes.The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150% and PT-SGA (300% compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively.The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction.

  16. Placental Pathology of Zika Virus: Viral Infection of the Placenta Induces Villous Stromal Macrophage (Hofbauer Cell) Proliferation and Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Avi Z; Yu, Weiying; Hill, D Ashley; Reyes, Christine A; Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -The placenta is an important component in understanding the fetal response to intrauterine Zika virus infection, but the pathologic changes in this organ remain largely unknown. Hofbauer cells are fetal-derived macrophages normally present in the chorionic villous stroma. They have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathologic processes, in particular involving infectious agents. -To characterize the fetal and maternal responses and viral localization in the placenta following Zika virus transmission to an 11 weeks' gestation fetus. The clinical course was notable for prolonged viremia in the mother and extensive neuronal necrosis in the fetus. The fetus was delivered at 21 weeks' gestation after pregnancy termination. -The placenta was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells (macrophages/monocytes [Hofbauer cells], B and T lymphocytes) and proliferating cells, and an RNA probe to Zika virus. The fetal brain and the placenta were previously found to be positive for Zika virus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. -The placenta demonstrated prominently enlarged, hydropic chorionic villi with hyperplasia and focal proliferation of Hofbauer cells. The degree of Hofbauer cell hyperplasia gave an exaggerated immature appearance to the villi. No acute or chronic villitis, villous necrosis, remote necroinflammatory abnormalities, chorioamnionitis, funisitis, or hemorrhages were present. An RNA probe to Zika virus was positive in villous stromal cells, presumably Hofbauer cells. -Zika virus placental infection induces proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells in the chorionic villi but does not elicit villous necrosis or a maternal or fetal lymphoplasmacellular or acute inflammatory cell reaction.

  17. Altered protein expression in gestational diabetes mellitus placentas provides insight into insulin resistance and coagulation/fibrinolysis pathways.

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    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the placental proteome differences between pregnant women complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODS: We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE to separate and compare placental protein levels from GDM and NGT groups. Differentially expressed proteins between the two groups were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and further confirmed by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of related proteins were measured by realtime RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to examine the cellular location of the proteins expressed in placenta villi. RESULTS: Twenty-one protein spots were differentially expressed between GDM and NGT placenta villi in the tested samples, fifteen of which were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. The molecular functions of these differentially expressed proteins include blood coagulation, signal transduction, anti-apoptosis, ATP binding, phospholipid binding, calcium ion binding, platelet activation, and tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity. Both protein and mRNA levels of Annexin A2, Annexin A5 and 14-3-3 protein ζ/δ were up-regulated, while the expression of the Ras-related protein Rap1A was down-regulated in the GDM placenta group. CONCLUSION: Placenta villi derived from GDM pregnant women exhibit significant proteome differences compared to those of NGT mothers. The identified differentially expressed proteins are mainly associated with the development of insulin resistance, transplacental transportation of glucose, hyperglucose-mediated coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders in the GDM placenta villi.

  18. A 3800 gene microarray for cattle functional genomics: comparison of gene expression in spleen, placenta, and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Mark R; Olmstead, Colleen; Everts, Robin E; Liu, Zonglin L; Lewin, Harris A

    2002-05-01

    A cDNA microarray representing approximately 3800 cattle genes was created for functional genomic studies. The array elements were selected from > 7000 cDNA clones identified in a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) project that utilized spleen and normalized and subtracted placenta cDNA libraries. Sequence similarity searches of the 3820 ESTs represented on the array using BLASTN identified 3290 (86.1%) as putative human orthologs, with the remainder consisting of "novel" genes or highly divergent orthologs. Experiments were conducted with a prototype 768 gene microarray created from spleen cDNAs and with the 3800 gene array that included genes from spleen and placenta. The 768 gene array was used to profile RNA transcripts expressed by adult and fetal spleen. The 3800 gene array was used to profile transcripts expressed by adult brain and placenta. Microarray analysis of RNA extracted from fetal and adult spleen identified 29 genes that were differentially expressed two-fold or more. Transcriptional differences of two of these genes, IGJ and CTSS, were confirmed using TaqMan technology. The comparison of brain and placenta revealed 400 genes expressed at higher levels in brain and 72 genes expressed at higher levels in placenta. These results demonstrate the potential power of microarrays for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cattle development, disease resistance, nutrition, fertility and production traits.

  19. Corticotropin releasing hormone- and adreno-corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in human placenta, peripheral and uterine vein plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, H M; Healy, D L

    1987-01-01

    The presence of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-like immunoreactivity (IR) in human placenta and maternal peripheral blood has been reported by many investigators. However, its physiological role has not yet been defined. We investigated plasma and placental tissue from women at different times of pregnancy and performed peripheral and uterine vein sampling during caesarean section before and after removal of the placenta. Beside IR-CRH, IR-GRF and -GnRH as well as -ACTH and cortisol were measured. The highest content of CRH was found in placental extracts from end term (40 weeks) pregnancies and lower levels at an earlier stage (10 weeks). Plasma CRH from peripheral blood could be detected in some samples and was higher as pregnancy advanced. Thirty minutes after removal of the placenta CRH levels dropped in peripheral plasma and could not be detected in uterine vein samples. IR-ACTH plasma levels were within the range of normals, cortisol was elevated. Gel- and HPLC-chromatographie revealed that placental extracts coeluted with synthetic human CRH. The material from endterm placenta showed full bioactivity in the rat pituitary bio-assay. IR-GRF could only be detected in 10 weeks placental tissue and no IR-GnRH was measured. We conclude that CRH from the placenta is biologically active, however, cannot stimulate the maternal pituitary-adrenal-axis.

  20. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors in Human Placenta and Its Possible Implication in Gestational Diabetes

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    Naglaa F. Al Husseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Similar to obese patients and type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectin levels are reduced in former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM patients and are lower in GDM women during late pregnancy compared with pregnant control subjects matched for BMI. Diabetic insult at later stages in gestation, such as may occur in gestational diabetes, will foremost lead to short-term changes in a variety of molecules for key functions including gene expression in the placenta. Approach: In this study we assessed the expression of adiponectin receptors in human placenta to identify the site (s of expression and to clarify the effect of gestational diabetes in this expression. This study was carried on 10 normoglycemic pregnant women and 20 GDM women. The placental tissue was collected immediately after delivery and tissue biopsies were taken from both fetal and maternal sides of each placenta. One step-RT-PCR for ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 was done by Real Time PCR using Syber Green technique. Relative quantification of mRNA of the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes was measured using ABI7900 Real Time machine. Results: Both types of Adiponectin Receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are expressed in human placenta. ADIPOR1 is more highly expressed than ADIPOR2 in both fetal and maternal sides of GDM cases and normal pregnant women. ADIPOR1 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in GDM women compared to normal pregnant women, whereas no significant difference in the expression of ADIPOR2 was detected between the two groups. There was no evidence of maternal-fetal side difference in the expression of adiponectin receptors in GDM cases but in normal pregnant women there is a statistically significant difference between both sides in the expression of both ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. Conclusion: We concluded that adiponectin plays an important role in mediation the glucose metabolism in fetal tissues through its receptors, mainly Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1.

  1. Downregulated miR-195 detected in preeclamptic placenta affects trophoblast cell invasion via modulating ActRIIA expression.

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    Yang Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-specific syndrome manifested by on-set of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Abnormal placenta development has been generally accepted as initial cause of the disorder. Recently, miR-195 was found to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal pregnant ones, indicating possible association of this small molecule with placental pathology of preeclampsia. By far the function of miR-195 in the development of placenta remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bioinformatic assay predicted ActRIIA as one of the targets for miR-195. By using Real-time PCR, Western blotting and Dual Luciferase Assay, we validated that ActRIIA was the direct target of miR-195 in human trophoblast cells. Transwell insert invasion assay showed that miR-195 could promote cell invasion in trophoblast cell line, HTR8/SVneo cells, and the effect could be abrogated by overexpressed ActRIIA. In preeclamptic placenta tissues, pri-miR-195 and mature miR-195 expressions were down-regulated, whereas ActRIIA level appeared to be increased when compared with that in gestational-week-matched normal placentas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the function of miR-195 in human placental trophoblast cells which reveals an invasion-promoting effect of the small RNA via repressing ActRIIA. Aberrant expression of miR-195 may contribute to the occurrence of preeclampsia through interfering with Activin/Nodal signaling mediated by ActRIIA in human placenta.

  2. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors.

  3. Placenta-on-a-chip: a novel platform to study the biology of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Soo; Romero, Roberto; Han, Yu Mi; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Chong Jai; Hong, Joon-Seok; Huh, Dongeun

    2016-01-01

    Studying the biology of the human placenta represents a major experimental challenge. Although conventional cell culture techniques have been used to study different types of placenta-derived cells, current in vitro models have limitations in recapitulating organ-specific structure and key physiological functions of the placenta. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to leverage microfluidic and microfabrication technologies to develop a microengineered biomimetic model that replicates the architecture and function of the placenta. A "Placenta-on-a-Chip" microdevice was created by using a set of soft elastomer-based microfabrication techniques known as soft lithography. This microsystem consisted of two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels separated by a thin extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. To reproduce the placental barrier in this model, human trophoblasts (JEG-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded onto the opposite sides of the ECM membrane and cultured under dynamic flow conditions to form confluent epithelial and endothelial layers in close apposition. We tested the physiological function of the microengineered placental barrier by measuring glucose transport across the trophoblast-endothelial interface over time. The permeability of the barrier study was analyzed and compared to that obtained from acellular devices and additional control groups that contained epithelial or endothelial layers alone. Our microfluidic cell culture system provided a tightly controlled fluidic environment conducive to the proliferation and maintenance of JEG-3 trophoblasts and HUVECs on the ECM scaffold. Prolonged culture in this model produced confluent cellular monolayers on the intervening membrane that together formed the placental barrier. This in vivo-like microarchitecture was also critical for creating a physiologically relevant effective barrier to glucose transport. Quantitative investigation of barrier function was

  4. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

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    Silvia Canonico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture and internal (Bakri balloon uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage.

  5. Circadian Kisspeptin expression in human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro, M A; Morán, J; Díaz, I; Murias, L; Fernández-Plaza, C; González, C; Díaz, E

    2015-11-01

    Kisspeptin is an essential gatekeeper of reproductive function. During pregnancy high circulating levels of kisspeptin have been described, however the clear role of this neuropeptide in pregnancy remains unknown. We tested the existence of rhythmic kisspeptin expression in human full-term placenta from healthy pregnant women at six different time points during the day. The data obtained by Western blotting were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), demonstrating, for the first time, the existence of a circadian rhythm in placental kisspeptin expression.

  6. Oxytocinase-immunohistochemical demonstration in the immature and term human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, C W; Watkins, W B

    1975-10-27

    Oxytocinase (cystine aminopeptidase) was purified from human retroplacental serum by a combination of fractional precipitation, hydroxylapatite chromatography and gel exlusion chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme possessed a specific activity of 980 mIU/mg using L-cystine-di-p-nitroanilide as substrate. This represented a 3200 fold concentration from the starting material in an overall yield of 12%. Antibodies against oxytocinase were raised in rabbits and the gamma-globulins fraction labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate prior to its use in the immunofluorescence histochemical localization of the enzyme in human placental tissue. Oxytocinase was confined to the syncytiotrophoblastic cells of normal term, and immature placentas as well as in placentas from patients suffering from severe toxaemia. Specific immunofluorescence was also present in the outer margins of the chorion and to a lesser extent in the amnion.

  7. Saline obtaining and time standardization of prothrombin using thromboplastin of human placenta.

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    María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining prothombine ‘s time is an important lab test in the study of coagulation disorders. To develop this essay the main reactive was thromboplastin , a substance that is presented in tissue and that has been obtained habitually from the human brain or certain animals but its extraction in labs or its commercial acquisition is difficult at present. Objective: To obtain Thromboplastin throughout the extraction of human placenta and to standardise the determination of pro-time into the obtained reactive Method: Placenta from normal delivery was used from which thromboplastin was obtained using a saline extraction. The reactive was compared with thromboplastin from human brain from ¨Dr. Hermanos Ameijeiras¨ Hospital in Havana City in a group of patients with and without anticoagulant treatment . With the extracted thromplastin similar or compatible results were obtained than with the habitual reactives by using easier and cheaper process.

  8. Teoria organizacional para la gerencia humana como factor de desarrollo a escala humana

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    Gregoria Polo de Lobatón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy, se debate en los países subdesarrollados y hasta en desarrollo caso América Latina el estancamiento económico rodeado de un mar de pobreza y exclusión social, en contrario, los paísesdesarrollados a partir de la crisis de 1929 muestran su crecimiento a partir de modelos de desarrollo económico como sustento teórico del pensamiento administrativo captado para las prácticas gerenciales; resultó útil identificar los aportes de la teoría del desarrollo como fundamentación de las teorías organizacionales y su incidencia en las prácticas gerenciales como factor de desarrollo. Metodológicamente la investigación se orientó en el enfoque cualitativo para el análisis fenomenológico de los datos encontrados en revisiones documentales. Los resultados determinaron que las prácticas gerenciales se fundamentan en teorías organizacionales clásicas y contemporáneas centradas en principios de eficiencia y productividad. A partir de las teorías contemporáneas un dinamismo con enfoques sociales y ambientales, su fundamento la escuela humana con los pensadores: Weber, Elton Mayo, reformistas y otros pensadores, que tenidas en cuenta para las prácticas gerenciales centradas en la suficiencia manifiestan interés por el acercamiento al desarrollo a escala humana.Palabras clave: Teorías organizacionales; paradigma de Gerencia Humana; Desarrollo a escala humana.Organizational theory for human management as a development factor to human scale AbstractToday, there are discussions in underdeveloped countries and even in developing ones, Latin American case, the economic halt surrounded by a sea of poverty and social exclusion, in contrast, developed countries starting from the crisis of 1929 show their growth from economic development models as a theoretical backup of the management thinking captured for management practices; proved useful to identify the contributions of development theory as the foundation of organizational theories and

  9. TRANSEXUALIDADE E DIGNIDADE DA PESSOA HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwirges Elaine Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resume-se a uma investigação sobre a transsexualidade ou disforia de gênero, em que o indivíduo não se identifica com o sexo que lhe foi imposto, mas sim, com o  gênero oposto ao seu. Os indivíduos transexuais enfrentam inúmeros preconceitos e dificuldades ao longo de suas vidas, podendo-se afirmar que para alcançar sua completude, o transexual necessita reconhecer-se como titular do sexo oposto em todos os sentidos, médico (adequação do sexo biológico ao sexo psicológico, social (inclusão social deste indivíduo, para que seja aceito pela sociedade e jurídico (perante a lei. No Brasil, não existe legislação específica a respeito da transsexualidade, assim, a regulamentação da cirurgia de transgenitalização é responsabilidade do Conselho Federal de Medicina, e após o árduo procedimento de transgenitalização, o transexual poderá obter a retificação do seu nome e sexo no registro civil, através de requerimento judicial. De maneira inovadora, alguns Tribunais, de acordo com o princípio da dignidade humana, têm concedido tais modificações antes mesmo da cirurgia de redesignação sexual, entretanto, este entendimento não está pacificado, o que acarreta grande injustiça e sofrimento a estas pessoas. Assim, busca-se demonstrar de maneira cristalina, a necessidade de legislação específica,  a fim de facilitar o acesso dos transexuais, tanto à cirurgia de transgenitalização, quanto às retificações de nome e sexo no assento civil. 

  10. Hidatidosis humana en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guerra Montero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido conocer el estado de la hidatidosis humana, por la gran incidencia que presenta en nuestro país, principalmente en la región central andina. La recopilación de datos fue a partir de la revisión de fuentes primarias sobre epidemiología, el ciclo vital del parásito y del manejo del paciente afecto de Hidatidosis. Algunos hallazgos permiten afirmar que la hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el estado larval del cestodo Echinococcus del género Granulosus, de alta prevalencia en nuestro país y más en la región central andina, esto se debe principalmente a la costumbre de convivir con perros y ganado ovino así como también a la falta de educación y concientización de la población. Los estudios serológicos como Elisa IgG y Wester Blot por su mayor sensibilidad y especificidad son las pruebas de primera línea para confirmar el diagnóstico. Dependiendo del tamaño, las características del quiste hidatídico y su localización se decide el tratamiento. La hidatidosis es una enfermedad producida por el cestodo Echinococcus Granulosus de alta prevalencia en el Perú y más aún en la región central andina (Cerro de Pasco, Junín, Huancavelica, tiene un lento crecimiento dentro de los órganos humanos pudiendo ser asintomáticos hasta la edad adulta, los órganos más afectados son el hígado y el pulmón donde son diagnosticados por sus antecedentes epidemiológicos, clínica sugestiva (dolor abdominal, vómica estudios de imagen principalmente ecografía abdominal, radiografía de tórax y exámenes de laboratorio como el Elisa IgG y Wester Blot.

  11. Kinetics of silica nanoparticles in the human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Sønnegaard; Mose, Tina; Maroun, Lisa Leth;

    2015-01-01

    choriocarcinoma cell line and the ex vivo perfused human placenta. Nanotoxicity in BeWo cells was examined by the MTT assay which demonstrated decreased cell viability at concentrations >100 µg/mL. In the placental perfusion experiments, antipyrine crossed the placenta rapidly, with a foetal:maternal ratio of 0...

  12. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  13. Predictors for Emergency Cesarean Delivery in Women with Placenta Previa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; Pampus, Mariëlle G van; Goes, Birgit Y van der; Mol, Ben W J; Graaf, Irene M de; Pajkrt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable

  14. Characterization and partial purification of phospholipase D from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    We report the existence in the human placenta of a phosphatidylcholine- hydrolyzing phospholipase D (PLD) activity, which has been characterized and partially purified. Triton X-100 effectively solubilized PLD from the particulate fraction of human placenta in a dose-dependent manner. However....... The present results form the basis for further purification of a PLD from human tissue....

  15. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  16. Adenyl cyclase in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Ryan, K J

    1971-09-21

    This study demonstrated that the human placenta possesses an adenyl cyclase system responsive to catecholamines and sodium flouride (NaF). 2.5 gm human term placentas were homogenized, centrifuged, washed, resuspended, and used as the enzyme system when placed with various agents. Incubations and the determination of adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formed were performed. Samples stimulated by .0001 M catecholamines (L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine) or .01 M NaF had higher levels of cyclic AMP than the controls (p. 005 for catecholamine-treated samples and p. 001 for NaF-treated samples). A concentration of .0001 M L-epinephrine or L-norepinephrine appeared to be a maximum effective dose and .0000001 M a minimum. L=epinephrine was 10 times as effective in the stimulation as L-norepinephrine. With .0001 M, 499 and 439 pmoles/10 minutes per 25 mg of tissue was formed, whereas in the control (no added hormones) 256 pmoles/10 minutes were formed. 3.2% ethanol activated the system by a small amount (p.02). Propranolol alone did not appear to have any effect; however, the effect of .0001 M L-epinephrine was reduced by 95% in the presence of .00001 M propranolol. Propranolol had no effect on NaF-stimulated activity.

  17. The programming power of the placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimise substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring.

  18. The Programming Power of the Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Camm, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring.

  19. Vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, M E; DeKoninck, P; Friedman, R M

    2005-07-01

    Several recent publications have focused on the association between the occurrence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in diamniotic-monochorionic twins and the presence of a number of selected anatomic placental characteristics (distribution of vascular territory, cord insertion, type and number of inter-twin anastomoses). In contrast, the potential importance of the vascular distribution patterns of the individual twins remains to be elucidated. Based on its gross architectural distribution pattern, chorionic vasculature is traditionally described as disperse, magistral or mixed. The aim of this study was (1) to determine the relative prevalence of these vascular distribution patterns in monochorionic twin placentas, and (2) to correlate these patterns with the presence of TTTS and known anatomic placental features linked to TTTS. The placentas of 89 consecutive diamniotic-monochorionic twins (15 with TTTS, 74 without TTTS), examined at Women and Infants Hospital, were studied. Disperse vascular patterns were seen in 53% of twins, and magistral or mixed patterns in 47%. The prevalence of magistral/mixed vascular patterns was significantly higher in TTTS gestations than in non-TTTS gestations (60% versus 44%, Ppatterns and marginal/velamentous cord insertion, low number of inter-twin anastomoses, and uneven distribution of the vascular territories. These findings suggest that the magistral/mixed vascular distribution pattern may represent an important placental architectural feature contributing to the complex pathophysiology of TTTS.

  20. DIGNIDAD HUMANA, DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL Y CALIDAD DE VIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Édgar Antonio López López

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo, se propone la calidad de vida como una expresión concreta de la dignidad humana que permite superar el relativismo en la discusión bioética sobre la diversidad cultural y los límites de una concepción universalista de los derechos humanos. Después de hacer referencia al proceso mediante el cual las nociones cristianas de dignidad humana y de derecho natural fueron secularizadas, se hace examen de la conservadora crítica culturalista de Lee Kwan yew y de la crítica comunitari...

  1. MRI diagnosis of pernicious placenta previa%凶险性前置胎盘的 MRI 诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 袁军; 黄明刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the MRI diagnostic value for pernicious placental abnormalities.Methods MRI findings of 1 5 patients with pernicious placenta previa were retrospectively analyzed after cesarean section.Results Among all cases,total placenta previa was,1 1 cases and partial placenta previa was 4 cases.The placenta located in the anterior wall in 8 cases,posterior wall in 4 cases,lateral wall in 3 cases.4 cases were diagnosed as normal placenta,6 cases as adhesion,4 cases as implanted,and 1 case as penetrating.These cases had certain special MR features.Conclusion MRI is helpful in diagnosing the location and type of the perni-cious placenta,and showing whether complicated with previa implantation and penetrating.%目的:探讨 MRI 对凶险性前置胎盘伴种植异常的诊断价值。方法15例临床诊断凶险性前置胎盘的患者行 MRI 平扫,于剖宫产术后进行回顾性分析。结果完全性前置胎盘11例,不全性前置胎盘4例,胎盘位于前壁8例,后壁4例,侧壁3例,胎盘子宫分界正常4例,粘连6例,植入4例,穿通1例,各具有一定影像学特征。结论 MR 对凶险性前置胎盘位置、种类及伴有胎盘植入、穿通具有一定的诊断价值。

  2. Trophoblast Glycoprotein (TPGB/5T4) in Human Placenta: Expression, Regulation, and Presence in Extracellular Microvesicles and Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S M K; Jasti, S; Kshirsagar, S K; Tannetta, D S; Dragovic, R A; Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Hodes, H C; Nauser, T L; Fortes, T; Filler, A M; Behan, K; Martin, D R; Fields, T A; Petroff, B K; Petroff, M G

    2017-01-01

    Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Regulation of 5T4 in cytotrophoblast cells was examined under either differentiating conditions of epidermal growth factor or under varying oxygen conditions. Microvesicles and exosomes were purified from supernatant of cultured and perfused placentas. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was prominent at the microvillus surface of syncytiotrophoblast and on the extravillous trophoblast cells, with minimal expression in undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and normal tissues. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was elevated in malignant tumors. In cytotrophoblasts, 5T4 was induced by in vitro differentiation, and its messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased under conditions of low oxygen. PE placentas expressed higher 5T4 mRNA than matched control placentas. Trophoblast glycoprotein was prominent within shed placental microvesicles and exosomes. Given the potential functional and known immunological importance of 5T4 in cancer, these studies reveal a class of proteins that may influence placental development and/or sensitize the maternal immune system. In extravillous trophoblasts, 5T4 may function in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during placentation. The role of syncytiotrophoblast 5T4 is unknown, but its abundance in shed syncytial vesicles may signify route of sensitization of the maternal immune system.

  3. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate for the second-trimester pregnancy termination in women with placenta previa and/or prior cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunqin; Lin, Feikai; Wang, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Yaping; Wu, Sufang

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the second-trimester medical abortions using mifepristone and ethacridine lactate in women with placenta previa and/or prior cesarean deliveries. The patients who underwent a second-trimester pregnancy termination from January 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The eligible patients were assigned to four groups based on placentation and cesarean history. The abortion interval (AI), blood loss, hospital stays, incidence of curettage, and transfusion were reviewed. Two women underwent cesarean sections for placenta increta. Finally, 443 patients were enrolled in this study, including 92 with placenta previa, 153 with prior cesarean deliveries, 36 with the both factors, and 236 with normal placentation and no cesarean delivery history. All the included cases had a successful vaginal delivery. There was no significant difference in AI, hospital stay, rate of hemorrhage, and transfusion among the four groups. Patients with prior cesarean section had higher blood loss than the normal group (P = 0.0017), as well as patients with both placenta previa and prior cesarean (P = 0.0018). However, there was no obvious blood loss in patients with placenta previa when compared with normal placetal patients (P = 0.23). No uterine rupture occurred in all patients. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate is safe and effective for patients with low placentation or/and prior cesarean in the second-trimester pregnancy termination.

  4. 凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入诊治探讨%The study of diagnosis and treatment about dangerous pretage placenta merging placenta implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To improve the prenatal diagnosis rate and reduce postpartum bleeding and hysterectomy risk by an-alyzing the clinical features of dangerous pretage placenta merging implants the placenta. Methods:18 cases of dangerous pla-centa previa and 296 cases of normal placenta previa were retrospectively analyzed. Results:There was no significant difference in hemorrhage volume between dangerous group and ordinary type group(P ﹥ 0. 05). There was significant difference between the type of delivery(P ﹤ 0. 05). When merges placenta implant in the event of placenta accreta postpartum hemorrhage vol-ume,there was a significant difference in mete of flooding(P ﹤ 0. 05)and hysterectomy rate(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:Danger-ous placenta previa with placenta implantation has a great threat to pregnant,prenatal diagnosis,rescue level and maternal safe-ty should be strengthened.%目的:分析凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入的临床特点,提高产前诊断率,减少产后出血和子宫切除风险。方法:对18例凶险性前置胎盘(凶险性组)与296例普通型前置胎盘(普通型组)的病例进行回顾性分析。结果:凶险性组与普通型组产前出血量比较,差异无统计学意义(P ﹥0.05),分娩方式差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。发生胎盘植入时,产后出血量比较,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。子宫切除发生率比较,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05)。结论:凶险性前置胎盘伴胎盘植入对孕产妇造成极大威胁,应努力做好产前诊断,提高危重症抢救水平,保障孕产妇安全。

  5. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  6. Placenta previa and immediate outcome of the term offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Immediate neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa is largely dependent on gestational age. We aimed to investigate whether placenta previa increases the risk for perinatal mortality and immediate morbidity of the offspring born at term. A population-based cohort study included all singleton pregnancies, with and without placenta previa, delivered at term. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics as well as immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality were compared. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. During the study period 233,123 consecutive term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2 % of the babies were born to mothers diagnosed with placenta previa. Women with placenta previa were significantly older and more likely to have had a previous cesarean section. Pregnancies were more likely to be complicated with pathological presentations and cesarean hysterectomies. Babies born at term following pregnancies with placenta previa were more likely to weigh less than 2500 g (OR 2.78 CI 1.9-3.9, p placenta previa pregnancies involve higher maternal morbidity rates, term offsprings are not at an increased risk for immediate adverse outcome.

  7. Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in placentas of pregnancy-induced hypertension patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东红; 黄飞; 郑维国; 姜锋; 高平

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To uncover new clue for the research of the etiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by testing the gene expression difference between preeclamptic placentas and normal ones. Methods: mRNA level of 4 PIH placentas were examined using 4000 feature cDNA microarray in comparison with the pooled control consisting of total RNA from 4 cases of PIH placentas after the control cDNA and experimental cDNA were labeled by cy3 and cy5 respectively. Results: Fifty-eight to 131 genes were found down or up-regulated in 4 runs of hybridization. Among the differentially expressed genes, 22 genes, including genes encoding secreted protein ADRP, CYR61, EPI and HIF2, had the concordance in at least 2 cases were up-regulated or down-regulated. Conclusion: cDNA microarray is a high throughput and time-saving method to monitor the altered gene expression and the result could provide interesting clue and strategy for the etiological research of PIH.

  8. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Fujisaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186±1438 ml versus 1656±848 ml, resp.; p=0.34. Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity.

  9. Maternal Morbidity in Women with Placenta Previa Managed with Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta by Ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohei; Oohashi, Masanao

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine maternal morbidity in women with placenta previa managed with prediction of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) by ultrasonography. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken comprising forty-one women who had placenta previa with or without risk factors for MAP. Women who had all three findings (bladder line interruption, placental lacunae, and absence of the retroplacental clear zone) were regarded as high suspicion for MAP and underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy. We attempted placental removal for women having two findings or less. Results. Among 28 women with risk, nine with high suspicion underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. Three of 19 women with two findings or less eventually underwent hysterectomy and were diagnosed with MAP. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of MAP were 64% and 100%. The pathological severity of MAP was significantly correlated with the cumulative number of findings. There were no cases of MAP among 13 women without risk. There was no difference of blood loss between women with high suspicion and those without risk (2186 ± 1438 ml versus 1656 ± 848 ml, resp.; p = 0.34). Conclusion. Management with prediction of MAP by ultrasonography is useful for obtaining permissible morbidity. PMID:28523191

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Sun, J; Gu, Y; Zhao, S; Groome, L J; Alexander, J S

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placenta, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We examined D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin was determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n = 6) and preeclamptic (n = 5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder.

  9. Illusory Liberalism in "Atlas de Geografía Humana"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    "Atlas de Geografía Humana" constitutes a critique of the much vaunted notion of a progressive Spain that has rectified the gender inequalities of the Francoist era, as one of the highly educated and successful protagonists, Fran, unwittingly adopts her mother's alignment with patriarchal norms. This novel elucidates the incompatibility…

  10. Fenomenología y esencia procesual humana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Beites, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Esta ponencia ofrece el esbozo de una posible “ontología fenomenológica de la persona”. El punto de partida es la aceptación del reto existencialista que exige contar con el carácter procesual o dinámico de la vida humana. Pero lo que se defien

  11. Capital humano y capacidad humana Human capital and human capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya Kumar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se examinan las relaciones y diferencias entre el concepto de 'capital humano' y el concepto de 'capacidad humana'. El concepto de capital humano es mas limitado puesto que solo concibe las cualidades humanas en su relación con el crecimiento económico mientras que el concepto de capacidades da énfasis a la expansión de libertad humana para vivir el tipo de vida que la gente considera valedera. Cuando se adopta esa visión mas amplia, el proceso de desarrollo no puede verse simplemente como un incremento del PIB sino como la expansión de la capacidad humana para llevar una vida mas libre y mas digna.In this article the relationships and the differences between the concept of 'human capital' and the concept of 'human capability' are examined. The concept of human capital is more limited since it only conceives human qualities in relation to economic growth, whereas the concept of capabili ties puts emphasis on the expansion of human freedom to live the kind of life that people judge valuable. Whenthis broader vision is adopted, the process of development cannot be seen as simply an increase in the GNP, but rather as the expansion of the human capability to live a more free and worthy life.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of invasive placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melissa G; Allen, Lisa; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John; Pollard, Lindsay; Pantazi, Sophia; Keating, Sarah; Carvalho, Jose C A; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l’efficacité d’une approche d’équipe multidisciplinaire visant l’atténuation de la morbidité maternelle grave chez les femmes qui présentent un placenta prævia invasif. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude prospective auprès de 33 femmes qui présentaient un placenta prævia et increta-percreta (diagnostiqué par échographie et/ou imagerie par résonance magnétique) et qui accouchaient au Mount Sinai Hospital de Toronto, à la suite du lancement (en janvier 2008) d’une approche d’équipe visant les femmes qui présentaient une telle placentation. Nous avons inclus les accouchements chez les femmes visées jusqu’en juin 2012. Nous avons analysé les dossiers prénataux (services externes et services hospitaliers) en vue d’y repérer l’utilisation par l’obstétricien titulaire de six composantes d’équipe prédéfinies : (1) consultation prénatale en médecine fœto-maternelle; (2) consultation en chirurgie gynécologique; (3) IRM prénatale; (4) consultation en radiologie interventionnelle et mise en place préopératoire de sondes à ballonnet dans les divisions antérieures des artères iliaques internes; (5) planification à l’avance de la date de chirurgie; et (6) chirurgie menée par des membres de l’équipe chirurgicale vouée aux cas de placenta invasif. Les détails de l’évolution prénatale, de l’accouchement et de la période postpartum ont été consignés afin d’établir un score composite de morbidité maternelle grave en cinq points fondé sur la présence ou l’absence de ce qui suit : (1) admission à l’USI à la suite de l’accouchement; (2) transfusion de plus de deux unités de sang; (3) anesthésie générale (administration ou conversion); (4) temps opératoire se situant dans le quartile le plus élevé (> 125 minutes); et (5) complications postopératoires significatives (réhospitalisation, hospitalisation postpartum prolongée et/ou embolie pulmonaire). R

  13. Superovulation alters the expression of imprinted genes in the midgestation mouse placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Amanda L; Lopes, Flavia L; Darricarrère, Nicole; Martel, Josée; Trasler, Jacquetta M

    2008-06-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in embryonic growth and development as well as in placental function. Many imprinted genes acquire their epigenetic marks during oocyte growth, and this period may be susceptible to epigenetic disruption following hormonal stimulation. Superovulation has been shown to affect growth and development of the embryo, but an effect on imprinted genes has not been shown in postimplantation embryos. In the present study, we examined the effect of superovulation/in vivo development or superovulation/3.5dpc (days post-coitum) embryo transfer on the allelic expression of Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1 and H19 in embryos and placentas at 9.5 days of gestation. Superovulation followed by in vivo development resulted in biallelic expression of Snrpn and H19 in 9.5dpc placentas while Kcnq1ot1 was not affected; in the embryos, there was normal monoallelic expression of the three imprinted genes. We did not observe significant DNA methylation perturbations in the differentially methylated regions of Snrpn or H19. Superovulation followed by embryo transfer at 3.5dpc resulted in biallelic expression of H19 in the placenta. The expression of an important growth factor closely linked to H19, Insulin-like growth factor-II, was increased in the placenta following superovulation with or without embryo transfer. These results show that both maternally and paternally methylated imprinted genes were affected, suggesting that superovulation compromises oocyte quality and interferes with the maintenance of imprinting during preimplantation development. Our findings contribute to the evidence that mechanisms for maintaining imprinting are less robust in trophectoderm-derived tissues, and have clinical implications for the screening of patients following assisted reproduction.

  14. Accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Riteau

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. RESULTS: Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03. Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6. The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%. At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85% and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs.

  15. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. Material and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. Results Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03). Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6). The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%). At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85%) and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. Conclusion Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs. PMID:24733409

  16. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 exerts its effects on placenta and regulates vitamin D metabolism in pregnancy of Hyp mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Tsugawa, Naoko; Tachikawa, Kanako; Koinuma, Tomoko; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kimoto, Akihito; Nakayama, Masahiro; Namba, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Okano, Toshio; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) functions in an endocrine fashion and requires α-Klotho to exert its effects on the target organs. We have recently demonstrated that the human placenta also expresses α-Klotho, which led us to hypothesize that FGF23 may exert effects on the placenta. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the expression of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) as well as that of α-Klotho in the feto-maternal interface of both mouse and human normal-term placentas, which suggested that these areas might be receptive to FGF23. Therefore, we next investigated whether FGF23 has some roles in the placenta using Hyp mice with high levels of circulating FGF23. Hyp and wild-type (WT) females were mated with WT males, and the mothers and their male fetuses were analyzed. FGF23 levels in Hyp mothers were elevated. FGF23 levels were about 20-fold higher in Hyp fetuses than in Hyp mothers, whereas WT fetuses from Hyp mothers exhibited low levels of FGF23, as did fetuses from WT mothers. We analyzed the placental gene expression and found that the expression of Cyp24a1 encoding 25OHD-24-hydroxylase, a target gene for FGF23 in the kidney, was increased in the placentas of fetuses from Hyp mothers compared with fetuses from WT mothers. In an organ culture of WT placentas, treatment with plasma from Hyp mothers markedly increased the expression of Cyp24a1, which was abolished by the simultaneous addition of anti-FGF23 neutralizing antibody. The direct injection of recombinant FGF23 into WT placentas induced the expression of Cyp24a1. The increase in the placental expression of Cyp24a1 in fetuses from Hyp mothers resulted in decreased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These results suggest that increased levels of circulating FGF23 in pathological conditions such as Hyp mice exerts direct effects on the placenta and affects fetal vitamin D metabolism via the regulation of Cyp24a1 expression. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  17. Placenta Percreta With Invasion into the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare condition, which can lead to significant morbidity and potentially mortality. We present a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented at 24 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding and was found to have complete placenta previa with placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder. Her hospital course was complicated by bilateral pulmonary emboli. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy, repeat Caesarean section, and total abdominal hysterectomy. Because of placental invasion into the bladder, the procedure was complicated by bladder and ureteral injuries for which urology carried out repair. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent bladder leak until postoperative day #39.

  18. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  19. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Feng

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05, and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312 (p<0.001 and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05 as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01. The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001 and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01, one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01 and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01 at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM.

  20. Condi(aÇão Humana e Liberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lúcia Vieira Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:O objeto de estudo deste artigo é a condição humana. Qual a possibilidade de existência da condição humana fundamentada na liberdade? O objetivo é relacionar esfera pública, política, liberdade e condição humana. A elaboração teórica considerou obras de Etienne de La Boétie, Hannah Arendt, Cornelius Castoriadis, entre outros. Na atualidade, ocorre a supressão da condição humana, pois a esfera pública tem a ingerência da esfera privada, predominando a razão instrumental e a lógica do mercado, e o homem é afastado da vida política. Por isso, a nossa ação política pela liberdade é fundamental para a problematização do processo de banalização do mal e da servidão voluntária. A coragem é uma virtude indispensável à ação política, é necessária para nos libertarmos da dominação e do servilismo da vida privada e conquistarmos a vida política. A centralidade da ação política do homem é a sua condição de ser atuante para a reafirmação da esfera pública, do mundo da pluralidade, humano e comum. Todavia, a condição humana fundamentada na liberdade implica a superação da atividade e do pensamento pragmáticos e fragmentários da vida cotidiana e a constituição da praxis na dimensão humano-genérica consciente.

  1. Mid-gestational gene expression profile in placenta and link to pregnancy complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Uusküla

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of placenta in mediating rapid physiological changes in pregnancy, data on temporal dynamics of placental gene expression are limited. We completed the first transcriptome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®; ~47,000 transcripts from early to mid-gestation (n = 10; gestational weeks 5-18 and report 154 genes with significant transcriptional changes (ANOVA, FDR P<0.1. TaqMan RT-qPCR analysis (n = 43; gestational weeks 5-41 confirmed a significant (ANOVA and t-test, FDR P<0.05 mid-gestational peak of placental gene expression for BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10 and STC1, followed by sharp decrease in mRNA levels at term (t-test, FDR P<0.05. We hypothesized that normal course of late pregnancy may be affected when genes characteristic to mid-gestation placenta remain highly expressed until term, and analyzed their expression in term placentas from normal and complicated pregnancies [preeclampsia (PE, n = 12; gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, n = 12; small- and large-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA, LGA, n = 12+12]. STC1 (stanniocalcin 1 exhibited increased mRNA levels in all studied complications, with the most significant effect in PE- and SGA-groups (t-test, FDR P<0.05. In post-partum maternal plasma, the highest STC1 hormone levels (ELISA, n = 129 were found in women who had developed PE and delivered a SGA newborn (median 731 vs 418 pg/ml in controls; ANCOVA, P = 0.00048. Significantly higher expression (t-test, FDR P<0.05 of CCNG2 and LYPD6 accompanied with enhanced immunostaining of the protein was detected in placental sections of PE and GDM cases (n = 15. Our study demonstrates the importance of temporal dynamics of placental transcriptional regulation across three trimesters of gestation. Interestingly, many genes with high expression in mid-gestation placenta have also been implicated in adult complex disease, promoting the discussion on

  2. MRI diagnosis and classification of placenta increta in the third trimester of pregnancy%晚孕期胎盘植入的 MRI 诊断及分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小丽; 徐坚民; 杨敏洁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨晚孕期各型胎盘植入 MRI 征象及其诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析2010年7月-2013年12月期间经手术及病理证实27例胎盘植入孕妇的临床资料。所有孕妇均行 MRI 检查。结果:粘连型3例,植入型15例,穿透型9例,均为前置胎盘。三型胎盘厚度及胎盘内流空血管数目分别为4.87 cm/5.0;5.31 cm/5.7;6.51 cm/6.8。3例粘连型2例胎盘附着面呈弧形,1例呈结节状膨出,肌层连续;15例植入型11例胎盘结节状膨出,11例肌层渐进性消失,10例肌层异常信号;9例穿透型4例胎盘结节状膨出,5例块状突出,超过肌层轮廓,2例肌层渐进性消失,7例肌层中断,肌层信号均见异常,4例膀胱肌层信号异常。结论:常规 MRI 序列对胎盘植入的诊断与分型具有较高的应用价值,部分病例存在征象重叠。%Objective:To assess the MRI manifestations and diagnostic value of different types of placenta increta in the third trimester of pregnancy.Methods:The clinical materials of 27 patients with placenta increta confirmed by surgery and pathology from Jul 2010 to Dec 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.All cases performed MR scanning before delivery. Results:Among the 27 pregnant women,3,15 and 9 cases were classified as placenta accreta,placenta increta and placenta percreta respectively All cases had placenta previa.The thickness of placenta and number of flow-void blood vessels within the placenta were 4.87cm and 5.0 in placenta accreta,5.31cm and 5.7 in placenta increta,6.51cm and 6.8 in placenta per-creta respectively.In the 3 patients with placenta accreta,the placental myometrial apposition interface was arc shape in 2 cases,and nodular protrusion with continuous myometrium in one case.Among the 15 cases of placenta increta,abnormal MR findings included nodular protrusion of placenta (n=11),progressive obliteration of normal myometrium (n=11)and abnormal signal

  3. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa and/or placenta accreta: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fangyuan; Xie, Lan; Xie, Ping; Liu, Siwei; Zhu, Yue

    2017-04-01

    To introduce the primary experience of using aortic balloon catheters during cesarean section for placenta previa and/or placenta accreta. From January 2013 to May 2015, 43 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with major placenta previa and/or placenta accreta and who underwent prophylactic aortic catheterization before caesarean section (CS) were included in the study. We analyzed the clinical data of the study population. Surgery- and catheterization-related complications were also reported. Major placenta previa or placenta accreta was surgically confirmed in 42 patients, 28 of whom had both conditions. The mean patient age was 32.3 ± 5.5 years, whereas the median gestational age at delivery was 260 (range, 153-280) days. Twenty-nine (67.4%) patients had previously undergone CS, and 13 (30%) patients had undergone emergency surgery for antenatal hemorrhage. The median estimated blood loss during surgery was 500 (range, 100-3,000) mL, and the median duration of occlusion was 20 (range, 5-32) minutes. Hysterectomy was performed in five (11.6%) patients and uterine artery embolization in two (4.6%) patients. Two patients with placenta percreta experienced surgery-related complications, and two patients required hospital readmission. No major catheterization-related complications were observed. Forty-two live births were recorded, and the Apgar score of the infants at 5 minutes was > 7. Intraoperative aortic balloon occlusion is a relatively safe method for treating placenta previa and/or placenta accreta during scheduled and emergency CS and might be helpful to prevent hysterectomy and embolization in women wishing to preserve fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Morphometric Evaluation of Preeclamptic Placenta Using Light Microscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficient trophoblast invasion and anomalies in placental development generally lead to preeclampsia (PE but the inter-relationship between placental function and morphology in PE still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric features of placental villi and capillaries in preeclamptic and normal placentae. The study included light microscopic images of placental tissue sections of 40 preeclamptic and 35 normotensive pregnant women. Preprocessing and segmentation of these images were performed to characterize the villi and capillaries. Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to identify the most significant placental (morphometric features from microscopic images. A total of 10 morphometric features were extracted, of which the villous parameters were significantly altered in PE. FLDA identified 5 highly significant morphometric features (>90% overall discrimination accuracy. Two large subclusters were clearly visible in HCA based dendrogram. PCA returned three most significant principal components cumulatively explaining 98.4% of the total variance based on these 5 significant features. Hence, quantitative microscopic evaluation revealed that placental morphometry plays an important role in characterizing PE, where the villous is the major component that is affected.

  5. mRNA related to insulin family in human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, M.A.; D' Agostino, J.B.; Frazier, M.L.; Besch, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that human term placenta contains mRNA displaying sequence homology to a rat preproinsulin I cDNA clone (p119). When placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA was analyzed for homology to p119 by RNA/DNA blot hybridization, prominent hybridization was observed which was found by densitometric analysis to be three-fold higher than control. To further characterize this insulin-like message, a cDNA library was generated (approx.7000 transformants) using normal term cesarean-sectioned tissue to prepare placental poly(A/sup +/) RNA templates. Five hundred transformants were initially screened by colony hybridization using a /sup 32/P-labeled rat preproinsulin I cDNA as probe. Of the ten initial positives obtained, three were found to be true positives based on Southern hybridization analyses of the recombinant plasmids. Using Taq I digested pBr322 as a size marker, the cDNAs were found to be approximately 300 bp in length. Preliminary DNA sequencing using the Sanger dideoxy chain termination method has revealed that one of these clones displays significant homology to the 5' region of human insulin-like growth factors I and II.

  6. Expressions of transcription factors Smad4 and NF-κB in preeclampsia placenta tissue and exploration of its relationship with expressions of apoptotic and invasive genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the expressions of transcription factors Smad4 and NF-κB in preeclampsia placenta tissue and its relationship with expressions of apoptotic and invasive genes.Methods:50 cases of preeclampsia puerperal women and 50 cases of normal puerperal women treated and gave birth in our hospital from May 2012 to May 2014 were chosen for study. Placenta tissue was collected and PCR method was used to detect mRNA contents of Smad4, NF-κB, Fas, FasL, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bax, MMP2, MMP9, IL-24 and RECK; immunohistochemical method was used to detect positive expressions of Smad4 and NF-κB.Results: Compared with normal placenta tissue, mRNA contents and immunohistochemical positive staining rates of Smad4 and NF-κB in preeclampsia placenta were all higher; contents of Fas, FasL, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Bax, IL-24 and RECK of Smad-positive group and NF-κB-positive group were higher than those of Smad-negative group and NF-κB-negative group respectively; MMP2 and MMP9 contents were lower than those of Smad-negative group and NF-κB-negative group respectively.Conclusion: Smad4 and NF-κB expressions in preeclampsia placenta abnormally increase and may regulate the expressions of apoptotic genes and invasive genes to be involved in the occurrence of the disease.

  7. Respuesta inmune innata humana al rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Angel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Normal">Localizadas en los órganos periféricos en un estado inmaduro, las células dendríticas (CD sirven como centinelas del sistema inmune, esperando la entrada de los patógenos (1,2. Al encontrarse con un patógeno, la CD «madura» y migra a los órganos linfáticos secundarios donde activa a los linfocitos T. Este proceso de diferenciación de las CD ha sido reproducido in vitro. A partir de monocitos circulantes en sangre periférica (células CD14+ cultivados con GM-CSF e IL-4, se generan inicialmente células que tienen un fenotipo de células dendríticas inmaduras (CDI de los tejidos (CD14-, CD83-, HLA DR+ y CD86+/- que tienen una alta capacidad para endocitar antígenos, pero una baja eficiencia para estimular a los LT (1. Al infectar estas CDI in vitro, con varios patógenos o estimularlas con citocinas proinflamatorias, PGE2, productos de origen bacteriano o viral y anticuerpos contra el CD40, estas CDI adquieren un fenotipo de CDM (CD14-, CD83+, HLA DR+ y CD86+, pierden su capacidad para endocitar antígenos y se convierten en las mejores células presentadoras de antígeno conocidas.

    Normal">Se han descrito múltiples formas de interacción entre un virus y CD (2. El virus de la influenza y del dengue, son capaces de infectar a las CDI e inducirlas a que se conviertan en CDM. Sin embargo, muchos virus han evolucionado para desarrollar mecanismos que directamente impidan la función de las CD: El virus de la vaccinia y el virus del herpes, inhiben la maduración de las CD (2. El virus del sarampión, aunque induce la maduración de las CD, promueve en ellas un efecto inmunosupresor. El VIH tienen una limitada capacidad para replicarse en las CDI, no induce la maduración de la misma y además inducen

  8. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  9. PLACENTA ACCRETA AND THE DEVELOPING WORLD – A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-12

    Dec 12, 2010 ... the incidence of placenta accreta might be on the increase and this might worsen the maternal .... many speculations and theories have been proposed during the ... vascular endothelial damage which occurs with aging,.

  10. A combined ultrasound and clinical scoring model for the prediction of peripartum complications in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, So-Yeon; You, Ji Yeon; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Roh, Cheong-Rae

    2014-09-01

    To generate a combined ultrasound and clinical model predictive for peripartum complications in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa. This study included 110 singleton pregnant women with placenta previa delivered by cesarean section (CS) from July 2011 to November 2013. We prospectively collected ultrasound and clinical data before CS and observed the occurrence of blood transfusion, uterine artery embolization and cesarean hysterectomy. We formulated a scoring model including type of previa (0: partials, 2: totalis), lacunae (0: none, 1: 1-3, 2: 4-6, 3: whole), uteroplacental hypervascularity (0: normal, 1: moderate, 2: severe), multiparity (0: no, 1: yes), history of CS (0: none, 1: once, 2: ≥ twice) and history of placenta previa (0: no, 1: yes) to predict the risk of peripartum complications. In our study population, the risk of perioperative transfusion, uterine artery embolization, and cesarean hysterectomy were 26.4, 1.8 and 6.4%, respectively. The type of previa, lacunae, uteroplacental hypervascularity, parity, history of CS, and history of placenta previa were associated with complications in univariable analysis. However, no factor was independently predictive for any complication in exact logistic regression analysis. Using the scoring model, we found that total score significantly correlated with perioperative transfusion, cesarean hysterectomy and composite complication (pplacenta previa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estudio morfofuncional de la marcha humana

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la marcha con dos plataformas de fuerzas (dinamométricas) en 60 sujetos, 30 varones y 30 mujeres, sin patología aparente del aparato locomotor,con edades comprendidas entre 17 y 22 años. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos y establecemos a partir de los mismos, los valores medios normales de los parámetros más significativos de la marcha. Con el fin de observar la existencia o no de una relación entre la morfología y las variables estudiadas en la marcha, se correlac...

  12. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dzierzak, Elaine; Robin, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    The placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother, the placenta has increasingly become a focus of research concerning the ontogeny of the blood system. Here, we describe recent data showing the intrinsic hematopoietic potential and appearance of hematopoietic...

  13. Prostasin and matriptase (ST14) in placenta from preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Jørgensen, Jan S; Hansen, Mie Rytz

    2016-01-01

    of preeclampsia were included. Plasma and urine was obtained before delivery, and placental biopsies were taken immediately after delivery (mean gestational age: control 39 and preeclampsia 38 weeks). RESULTS: Patients with preeclampsia displayed lower levels of aldosterone in plasma and in spot urine normalized...... for creatinine (P = 0.0001). Prostasin, matriptase, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) and 2, and nexin-1 mRNA abundances were not different in placental tissue between groups. Prostasin mRNA in placenta correlated directly with nexin-1 and HAI-1 mRNA, but not with matriptase m...

  14. [Abdominal pregnancy: hormon concentrations during the postpartal period with placenta remaining intra-abdominal (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, U; Mönkemeier, D

    1977-07-01

    It is reported of an abdominal pregnancy at term. The placenta was left in situ because of the high risk of intraabdominal bleedings. Thereby it was possible to measure hormon concentrations of the fetoplacental unit without the fetal compartment. Within 10 days after delivery we determined the plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta, estriol, progesterone, HCS, alpha1fetoprotein, and the excretion of the total estrogens in the urines. There was near the same decrease of hormon concentrations in the post partal time comparable with that of a normal pregnancy. Only the HCS concentrations didn't change in the first 9 days after delivery.

  15. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  16. [The role of placenta in hepatitis B virus intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Xu, D; Wang, W

    1999-07-01

    To determine the role of placenta in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission, and to trace the route of transplacental transmission and the timing of HBV infection in uterus. We collected 101 term placentas and newborn infants, 24 aborted first-trimester placentas, and 6 induced aborted fetuses and placentas from 131 HBsAg carrying pregnant women. Serologic HBV markers (HBsAg and HBV DNA) of pregnant women and newborns were detected by ELISA and PCR. The HBsAg, HBxAg, HBcAg and HBV DNA in placentas were determined by ABC immunohistochemical staining and in-situ hybridization. The HBV infection rates of placentas from first-trimester, second-trimester to term periods were 4.2%(1/24), 1/6, and 44.6%(45/101), respectively. In one induced aborted fetal liver tissue (19-week of pregnancy), the proteins and DNA of HBV were detected, and its placental villous capillary endothelial cells were also infected. The OR of HBV infection of villous capillary endothelial cells in intrauterine transmission was 18.46(95% CI = 2.83-152.78). HBV infection of placental capillary endothelial cell is a major risk factor of intrauterine transmission. HBV transplacental transmission route may be placental cell to cell transfer. The intrauterine infection may occur as early as on the 19th week of pregnancy, but the main timing is possibly in the third-trimester of pregnancy.

  17. Molecular characterization of the Neuronatin gene in the porcine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gu

    Full Text Available Imprinted genes play important roles in placental and embryonic development. Neuronatin (NNAT, first identified as an imprinted gene in human and mouse brains, played important roles in neuronal differentiation in the brain and in glucose-mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. In the pig, NNAT was reported to be imprinted in eleven tissues. Our previous microarray hybridization study showed that NNAT was differentially expressed in Yorkshire and Meishan pig placentas, but the imprinting status and function of NNAT in the placenta have not been investigated. We demonstrated for the first time that NNAT was monoallelically expressed in the placenta. Immunochemistry analysis showed that NNAT was located in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium in placentas. We also confirmed the differential expression of NNAT in Meishan and Yorkshire pig placentas by qPCR. Using IPA software and the published literature, we created a model network of the possible relationships between NNAT and glucose transporter genes. A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the crucial promoter region of NNAT contained a CANNTG sequence in the +210 to +215 positions, which corresponded to the E-box. Our findings demonstrated important roles of NNAT in placenta function.

  18. Case with pyoderma gangrenosum abruptly emerging around the wound of cesarean section for placenta previa with placenta accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Taro; Yoshida, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Aizawa, Atsuko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Takakuwa, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    A 39-year-old woman underwent emergency cesarean section (CS) due to placenta previa totalis with massive bleeding. Two major problems emerged in this patient after CS was carried out. One was partial retention of the placenta due to placenta accreta. Another major and more serious problem was pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) widely appearing at the skin of the abdomen around the CS wound. Conservative treatment was performed for the retained placenta, and it had completely disappeared by 76 days after the CS. The diagnosis of PG was promptly made in consultation with a plastic surgeon and a dermatologist when a wide ulcer emerged around the CS wound, and high-dose prednisolone was administered as treatment. At 90 days following the CS, near-complete epithelialization was achieved. This extremely rare case reflects the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of PG.

  19. Fibrocyte-like cells from intrauterine growth restriction placentas have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Meghan R; Winkler-Lowen, Bonnie; Jiang, Yanyan; Guilbert, Larry J; Davidge, Sandra T

    2013-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a common complication of pregnancy whereby the fetus fails to achieve its genetic growth potential. Malformation of the placental vasculature is observed in IUGR and may be due to the development of the placenta in a chronically hypoxic environment. Recently, we identified that the predominant stromal cells in the angiogenic zones of the placenta are fibrocyte-like cells. The conditioned medium from fibrocyte-like cells (FcCM) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro. Thus, we hypothesized that FcCM from IUGR cells would have a reduced ability to stimulate angiogenesis and that chronic hypoxia would decrease the ability of both normal and IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis. IUGR FcCM had a reduced ability to stimulate endothelial tubule-like structure formation and an increased ability to stimulate endothelial migration compared with normal FcCM. However, normal and IUGR FcCM produced in chronic hypoxia did not alter endothelial proliferation, migration, or tubule-like structure formation. IUGR FcCM was found to have reduced levels of the pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-8 and increased levels of the anti-angiogenic factors activin-A and pigment epithelium-derived growth factor. Thus, alterations in the ability of IUGR fibrocyte-like cells to stimulate angiogenesis may contribute to the development of vascular malformation in IUGR, but in vitro these changes cannot be attributed to a chronically hypoxic environment.

  20. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Mortensen, Gerda K; Hedegaard, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    Fetal exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse reproductive effects, including cryptorchidism and decreased semen quality. Information about human placental transfer is needed to qualify the hypotheses. A dual recirculating placenta perfusion system to monitor concentrations of eight...... phthalate monoesters in fetal and maternal perfusates was established. In addition to perfusate background measures of phthalate monoesters, the concentrations in umbilical cord plasma and placenta tissue were measured. Monomethyl phthalate (mMP), monoethyl phthalate (mEP), monobutyl phthalate (m...

  1. vida humana: cuestiones de método

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pardo Caballos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio ético de las intervenciones sobre el comienzo de la vida humana es decisivo conocer cuándo comienza ésta exactamente. Para conseguir este resultado, es necesario combinar conocimientos fi losófi cos sobre la vida y observaciones empíricas de los primeros momentos del desarrollo. A partir de ellos, se puederealizar un razonamiento que permite mostrar que la fecundación establece el momento de aparición de una nueva vida humana. Las refl exiones estrictamente científi cas, y las que basan su razonamiento solamente en aspectos genéticos del comienzo de la vida, son reduccionistas y no pueden determinar propiamente el comienzo de la vida.

  2. Voz humana sem amarras: abordagem a partir de Wolfsohn

    OpenAIRE

    Marambio, Denisse Elena Iturra

    2013-01-01

    Alfred Wolfsohn (1896-1962), alemão, pesquisador da expressão humana por meio da voz. Participou, como soldado, da primeira guerra mundial, o que lhe causou uma neurose de guerra: ponto de partida da formulação de suas ideias sobre a voz humana, principalmente em relação às condições orgânico-funcionais em associação às dimensões emocionais e afetivas da produção e preparação vocal. Wolfsohn desenvolveu uma detalhada proposta de preparação vocal de cantores e atores, embora ...

  3. Gestión humana: tendencias y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Saldarriaga Ríos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace referencia a las tendencias y las perspectivas de gestión humana que se imponen en el mundo en la actualidad y que, a su manera, pretenden optimizar la administración del personal de la organización y contribuir al desarrollo e incremento de la productividad y la competitividad. Mediante la realización de un Estado del Arte se logran determinar algunas de las tendencias más relevantes en la actualidad y se concluye que, cada vez con mayor fuerza, dichas tendencias se sustentan en discursos que pretenden “rescatar” al ser humano dentro de la organización, lo que no necesariamente se traduce en los procesos de gestión humana que se realizan en las organizaciones nacionales e internacionales.

  4. Naturaleza humana y política en Denis Diderot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Scotto Benito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone relacionar la concepción que Diderot tiene del ser humano con sus ideas políticas. A pesar de que no se pueda hallar en la obra del “filósofo” un tratado sistemático en el que el estudio de la naturaleza humana sirva como fundamentación de un determinado sistema político, la epistemología empirista y el monismo materialista diderotianos, con la consecuente revalorización de las pasiones corporales, conducen a una moral y una política universalistas, acordes con la naturaleza humana y centradas en la felicidad de los individuos.

  5. Mitos y tabúes en la sexualidad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan consideraciones muy generales sobre el origen de los géneros y cómo esta formación favorece la presencia de mitos y tabúes en la expresión de la sexualidad de la pareja humana.Very general considerations are presented on the origin of genders and how this formation has favored myths and taboos in the expression of the human couple's sexuality.

  6. Relaciones Públicas y Relaciones Humanas: Conceptos y Zonas de Contacto

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Portales, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Como primer antecedente podemos seiialar que Relaciones Humanas considera al hombre como ser-personal y Relaciones Publicas estudia al hombre en su caracter de ser social. En esencia, ambas disciplinas analizan y procuran explicar la conducta del hombre en su naturaleza individual y social, y como unidad comun, ambas utilizan fuentes, mensajes, medios, puhlicos y efcctos. Pero sigamos examinando la autonomia y dependencia de cada una de estas areas.

  7. A busca da transdisciplinaridade nas ciências humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Krohling

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca elaborar uma retrospectiva histórica das raízes epistemológicas do pensamento moderno, passando pelo Iluminismo e todas as correntes teóricas, seguidoras da mesma fonte metodológica e epistemológica do SABER INSTRUMENTAL, o que se refletiu nas várias áreas do saber do campo das Ciências Humanas, com o objetivo de mostrar a importância da busca da transdisciplinaridade e da interdisciplinaridade nas Ciências Humanas, com o resgate do paradigma do Múltiplo. A busca da transdisciplinaridade será o fio da meada no sentido de voltar ao MÚLTIPLO heraclitiano e resgatar o “Pantha Rei” das mudanças e contradições da História e da cultura ocidentais. Questiona o atomismo e a fragmentação disciplinar da maioria dos cursos de graduação na área de Ciências Humanas, mormente na Educação, e de modo exacerbado no curso de Direito, com as suas dezenas de disciplinas atomizadas e fragmentadas e sem um fio condutor. É proposta a busca da transdisciplinaridade para o resgate da Metodologia Dialética e da Filosofia da Educação e Filosofia do Direito como as duas grandes alavancas para uma visão e prática holísticas nos Cursos de Educação e Direito bem como na área das Ciências Humanas.

  8. En torno a la realidad humana en Xavier Zubiri

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    Espinoza Lolas, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article inquires into the nature of human reality and its connection to the concept of person in the philosophy of Xavier Zubiri(1898-1983. The methodology of the analysis consists in reviewing the nature of human reality through the prism of noology, i.e., the final period of this author’s work, in order to introduce man from its always incarnate, prominently physical, dimension of human reality. This allows individual development and the historical and social display of the human being from a physical perspective to be represented.Este artículo indaga acerca del carácter de la realidad humana y su relación al concepto de persona en el pensamiento de Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983. La metodología de análisis consiste en revisar el carácter de la realidad humana desde la noología, esto es, la última etapa de la obra del autor, a fin de presentar al hombre desde su dimensión eminentemente física y siempre encarnada de la realidad humana, permitiendo repensar desde una perspectiva física el desarrollo individual, así como también, el despliegue social e histórico del ser humano.

  9. GEOGRAFÍA HUMANA Y GEOMÁTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Levi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La geografía humana y la geomática son disciplinas quehan recorrido un camino paralelo en la que a partir de ladécada de 1990, sus especialistas han tratado de acercarsecon miras a la resolución de problemas de índoleespacial. En este trabajo se plantea la relación históricade la geomática con la geografía humana, se le enmarcateóricamente en los estudios de análisis espacial, paradespués ahondar en el diálogo que se ha establecido entreambas disciplinas, y con ello responder a los cuestionamientosde ¿qué se ha hecho por establecer puentesentre ambas? y ¿cómo pueden beneficiarse la una dela otra? Para responder a estas preguntas se analiza eldebate que se dio en la década de los noventa entre losespecialistas en sistemas de información geográfica ycartografía digital para posteriormente, a partir de finalesde los 1990s, las propuestas que se hicieron desde lageografía, que con un enfoque teórico y en un intento pordiscutir el papel del espacio-tiempo en la geografía físicay la humana, y que tocó de manera relevante la relaciónde la geografía con la geomática.

  10. La tarea hermenéutica de las ciencias humanas

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    Rafael Ávila Penagos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo el autor sustenta la importancia y pertinencia de la tradición hermenéutica para todos los investigadores de las ciencias humanas. Dos casos paradigmáticos sirven para abrir y cerrar el texto. En ellos se muestra, de manera contundente, el impacto de las actividades hermenéuticas sobre la configuración de nuevos sentidos, el cambio en las maneras de mirar y el acceso a nuevas formas de vida en el universo social. En el intermedio, el autor describe el progresivo distanciamiento de las ciencias humanas respecto al paradigma positivista. Se detiene en la conceptualización de cuatro categorías fundamentales de la actividad hermenéutica: la comprensión, la explicación, la interpretación y la traducción. Sostiene que la traducción del comprender es la tarea complementaria de la comprensión del comprender, e incorpora la propuesta de Paul Ricoeur para una nueva comprensión de la explicación en este ámbito. Finalmente, argumenta que la autocomprensión y la autovaloración de las ciencias humanas dependen de su capacidad reflexiva para considerar sus teorías y sus prácticas como textos susceptibles de autoexamen.

  11. DIGNIDAD HUMANA, DIVERSIDAD CULTURAL Y CALIDAD DE VIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Antonio López López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se propone la calidad de vida como una expresión concreta de la dignidad humana que permite superar el relativismo en la discusión bioética sobre la diversidad cultural y los límites de una concepción universalista de los derechos humanos. Después de hacer referencia al proceso mediante el cual las nociones cristianas de dignidad humana y de derecho natural fueron secularizadas, se hace examen de la conservadora crítica culturalista de Lee Kwan yew y de la crítica comunitarista de Charles Taylor a la concepción universal de los derechos humanos. A partir de las respuestas de Thomas Pogge y de Amartya Sen a dichas críticas, fi nalmente se establece la relación que hay entre libertad, calidad de vida y capacidades humanas en la teoría de Sen.

  12. A formação humana em debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soares Della Fonte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a questão da formação humana a partir do conflito entre formulações educacionais pós-críticas e críticas. De modo mais preciso, problematiza a perspectiva de formação humana das teorizações educacionais pós-críticas, ao mesmo tempo em que sinaliza um possível caminho a ser explorado e desenvolvido pela pedagogia histórico-crítica no enfrentamento das limitações que lhe são impostas. Conclui que a compreensão de omnilateralidade em Marx pode contribuir para inspirar formulações pedagógicas críticas na consolidação de uma concepção humana que supere, de um lado, tendências racionalistas ou cognitivistas e, de outro, perspectivas estetizantes.

  13. Gene expression and epigenetic aberrations in F1-placentas fathered by obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Dittrich, Ralf; McPherson, Nicole O; Lane, Michelle; Pliushch, Galyna; Potabattula, Ramya; Haaf, Thomas; El Hajj, Nady

    2017-02-10

    Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing. Our aim was to determine if paternal obesity deregulated placental gene expression and DNA methylation when compared to normal-weight males. Gene methylation of sperm DNA was analyzed and compared to placentas to address epigenetic transmission. Of the 10 paternally expressed genes (Pegs), 11 genes important for development and transport of nutrients, and the long-terminal repeat Intracisternal A particle (IAP) elements, derived from a member of the class II endogenous retroviral gene family, we observed a significant effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on deregulated expression of Peg3, Peg9, Peg10, and the nutrient transporter gene Slc38a2, and aberrant DNA methylation of the Peg9 promoter in F1 placental tissue. Epigenetic changes in Peg9 were also found in sperm from obese fathers. We therefore propose that paternal obesity renders changes in gene expression and/or methylation throughout the placental genome, which could contribute to the reproductive problems related to fertility and to the metabolic, long-term health impact on offspring.

  14. Expression of hypoxia-regulated genes and glycometabolic genes in placenta from patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Hu, Y Y

    2014-09-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disorder unique to pregnancy that is associated with increased rates of fetal distress and demise. While acute hypoxia is believed to cause the pathophysiology of ICP, direct molecular evidence for this is lacking. Here, we analyzed expression of three hypoxia-regulated genes and several of their downstream target genes involved in glucose metabolism in placenta. Placental tissue was collected from 20 women with normal pregnancies and 20 women with ICP. RNA and protein levels of hypoxia inducible transcription factors -1α (HIF-1α), development and DNA protein damage response 1 (REDD1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1), phosphoglycerate kinase1 (PGK1) and lacticdehydrogenase (LDHA) in placental tissue were measured by reverse transcriptase real time PCR and Western Blot. Proteins were also located by immunohistochemistry. Transcript levels were similar for all genes between the two types of placental tissue. In contrast, all protein levels except that of mTOR were significantly higher in placentas from ICP patients than the controls (P < 0.05). All proteins localized to the cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. The placenta from ICP patients is more vulnerable to acute hypoxia and ischemia reperfusion injury. In response to hypoxia stress and oxidative damage in ICP, the placenta activates HIF-1α and REDD1, which in turn may up-regulates glucose transport and anaerobic glycolysis. HIF-1α, REDD1 and mTOR may play a significant role in the reaction to hypoxia and oxidative stress and regulate glucose metabolism in the placenta of ICP patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peripartal leukogram in cows with and without retained placenta

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    Lužajić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether prepartal leukogram in cows with retained placenta could indicate the presence of subclinical systemic inflammatory response before the onset of disease. After calving, sixteen highly pregnant Holstein cows, aged 3 to 9 years, without clinical signs of the disease prior to calving were divided into two groups: the first group (n=9 were animals without retained placenta, or any visible inflammation after birth; the second group (n=7 were cows with retained placenta. Blood was sampled three times before parturition, at intervals of one week, and once 24 hours after birth. The number of total leukocytes, segmented and non segmented neutrophilic granulocytes (NG, lymphocytes and monocytes were determined by standard laboratory techniques. The results have shown that in the group of cows with retained placenta the number of mature neutrophils was slightly elevated in the third, second and last week before calving, and equal number of non segmented neutrophils in regard to the group with no retention. The results have also shown that, in both groups of cows, 24 hours after calving, the number of total leukocytes and the number of segmented neutrophils decreased, but the number of the non segmented neutrophils increased. Based on this, we can conclude that cows with retained placenta had no systemic inflammatory response during three weeks prepartal period, but 24 hours after calving, systemic inflammatory response was documented in all the cows. Moreover, the intensity of inflammatory response in cows with retained placenta was not more pronounced in comparison to cows without retained placenta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175061

  16. The cervix as a natural tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gelany, Saad A A; Abdelraheim, Ahmed R; Mohammed, Mo'men M; Gad El-Rab, Mohammed T; Yousef, Ayman M; Ibrahim, Emad M; Khalifa, Eissa M

    2015-11-11

    Placenta previa and placenta accreta carry significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Several techniques have been described in the literature for controlling massive bleeding associated with placenta previa cesarean sections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of the cervix as a natural tamponade in controlling postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta. This prospective study was conducted on 40 pregnant women admitted to our hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. All participating women had one or more previous cesarean deliveries and were diagnosed with placenta previa and/or placenta previa accreta. Significant bleeding from the placental bed during cesarean section was managed by inverting the cervix into the uterine cavity and suturing the anterior and/or the posterior cervical lips into the anterior and/or posterior walls of the lower uterine segment. The technique of cervical inversion described above was successful in stopping the bleeding in 38 out of 40 patients; yielding a success rate of 95%. We resorted to hysterectomy in only two cases (5%). The mean intra-operative blood loss was 1572.5 mL, and the mean number of blood units transfused was 3.1. The mean time needed to perform the technique was 5.4 ± 0.6 min. The complications encountered were as follows: bladder injury in the two patients who underwent hysterectomy and wound infection in one patient. Postoperative fever that responded to antibiotics occurred in 1 patient. The mean duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 days This technique of using the cervix as a natural tamponade appears to be safe, simple, time-saving and potentially effective method for controlling the severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by placenta previa/placenta previa accreta. This technique deserves to be one of the tools in the hands of obstetricians who face the life-threatening hemorrhage of placenta

  17. Ansiedade experimental humana Human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Graeff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A ansiedade experimental no ser humano constitui-se em ponte entre os modelos animais e os ensaios clínicos. OBJETIVO: Este artigo focaliza métodos químicos e psicológicos utilizados para provocar ansiedade experimental em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão seletiva da literatura. RESULTADOS: Os desafios farmacológicos têm sido usados principalmente para induzir ataques de pânico em pacientes com transtorno de pânico, os quais são mais sensíveis a eles que indivíduos normais ou pacientes portadores de outros transtornos psiquiátricos. Uma das mais importantes contribuições deste método é a de ter mostrado que os agentes panicogênicos mais seletivos, como o lactato ou a inalação de CO2, não ativam o eixo hormonal do estresse. Entre os métodos psicológicos, destacam-se o condicionamento de respostas elétricas da condutância da pele, cujo perfil farmacológico se aproxima daquele do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada, e o teste da simulação do falar em público, cuja farmacologia é semelhante à do transtorno de pânico. CONCLUSÕES: Tais resultados salientam a diferença entre a neurobiologia da ansiedade e a do pânico.BACKGROUND: Human experimental anxiety methods bridge the gap between animal models and clinical assays. OBJECTIVE: This article is focused on chemical and psychological procedures used to generate experimental anxiety in human beings. METHODS: A selective review of the literature has been carried out. RESULTS: Pharmacological challenges have been mainly used to induce panic attacks in panic disorder patients, who are more susceptible than normal individuals or patients with other psychiatric disorders. One of the most important contributions of this method is to have shown that the most selective panicogenic agents, such as lactate or CO2 inhalation, do not activate the hormonal stress axis. Among the psychological methods stand the conditioning of the electrical skin conductance

  18. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  19. RISK FACTORS OF PLACENTA PREVIA AMONG RURAL INDIAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was to find out risk factors of placenta previa among rural Indian women. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted over two years. 220 women with placenta previa were taken as cases and 440 women without placenta previa were taken as control. RESULTS: Advanced maternal age (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.84-3.97, increased parity (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.13-2.22, previous abortions (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.5-3.35, previous uterine surgery (OR 5.91; 95% CI: 3.56-9.87, uterine anomalies (OR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.41-15.27 and tobacco chewing (OR 3.58; 95% CI: 1.04-12.37 are the potential risk factors. No significant associations have been found with socio economic status, religion, previous history of placenta previa, infertility treatment and sex of the newborn. CONCLUSION: Placenta previa have some identifiable risk factors. Tobacco chewing is a novel potential risk factor

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T; Tanaka, H; Noguchi, J; Hata, K

    2011-02-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of the placenta during pregnancy. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes the morphology, anatomy, location, implantation, anomaly, size, and color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment of the placenta. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of the placenta, such as surface-rendered imaging and volume measurement. With the recent advances in 3D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound as well as quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis, quantitative and qualitative assessments of the vascularization and blood flow of the placenta have become feasible. These novel techniques may assist in the evaluation of the feto-placental function, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional 2D sonographic assessments. 3D ultrasound may be an important modality in future placental research, in the evaluation of feto-placental insufficiency in clinical practice, and in the prediction of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, although some limitations regarding the assessment of the placenta employing 3D ultrasound still remain unresolved.

  1. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saben, J; Zhong, Y; McKelvey, S; Dajani, N K; Andres, A; Badger, T M; Gomez-Acevedo, H; Shankar, K

    2014-02-01

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies using RNA-seq. To identify genes that were highly expressed and unique to the placenta we compared placental RNA-seq data to data from 7 other tissues (adipose, breast, hear, kidney, liver, lung, and smooth muscle) and identified several genes novel to placental biology (QSOX1, DLG5, and SEMA7A). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the RNA-seq results and immunohistochemistry indicated these proteins were highly expressed in the placental syncytium. Additionally, we mined our RNA-seq data to map the relative expression of key developmental gene families (Fox, Sox, Gata, Tead, and Wnt) within the placenta. We identified FOXO4, GATA3, and WNT7A to be amongst the highest expressed members of these families. Overall, these findings provide a new reference for understanding of placental transcriptome and can aid in the identification of novel pathways regulating placenta physiology that may be dysregulated in placental disease.

  2. Placenta previa after prior abortion: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy regarding the role of prior abortion on placenta previa in subsequent pregnancies. We conducted an updated, comprehensive meta-analysis of placenta previa after prior abortion. The search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases from the database inception to January 31, 2017. The heterogeneity across studies was evaluated by Q-test and I2 statistical test. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test and Egger's test. Results of odds ratio (OR estimates with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were pooled using random-effects modeling. The literature search included 872 articles up until January 2017 with 2,134,529 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, we found a significant association between prior spontaneous abortions and placenta previa (1.77; 95% CI: 1.60, 1.94 and between prior induced abortions and placenta previa (1.36; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.69. The meta-analysis study herein showed that prior abortion is a risk factor for placenta previa.

  3. Smoking and placenta previa: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-01-04

    Previous studies found a positive association between placenta previa and smoking during pregnancy. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. The aim was to perform meta-analysis of the association between smoking during pregnancy and placenta previa. Major electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched until June 2015. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I(2) statistic. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model. The literature search yielded 991 publications until October 2015 with 9,094,443 participants. Based on the random effect model, compared to nonsmoker women, the estimated OR and RR of placenta previa was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.54) and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.35), respectively. There is sufficient documents based on the observational studies that smoking during pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of placenta previa. Therefore, smoking during pregnancy can be considered as a predictor of placenta previa.

  4. FORMAS PREDOMINANTES DE HORMONA DE CRECIMIENTO HUMANA (hGH) EN SUEROS DE PACIENTES CON SECRECIÓN ELEVADA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se compararon las formas predominantes de la Hormona de Crecimiento Humana (hGH), proveniente de sueros de pacientes con hipersecreción hormonal, para determinar los cambios que presenta en ellas y que puedan servir de diagnóstico para la detección de patologías, tales como acromegalia, como también alteraciones en el metabolismo degradativo de la proteína o en la unión a sus receptores específicos. Las muestras de sueros (normal, post-estímulo con clonidina o ejercicio y de a...

  5. Effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture on the Dysmenorrhea (A Pilot study, Single blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Su-Min Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment on Dysmenorrhea of Women. Methods : 49 subjects who were suffering from dysmenorrhea volunteered to answer the MMP(Measure of Menstrual Pain and MSSL(Menstrual Symptom Severity List questionnaire. They were divided into two groups, a Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment group(Experiment al group, n=25 and a Normal Saline(N/S treatment group(Control group, n=24. The two groups were injected on the CV4, S36, Sp9 and Sp6 acupuncture point. They were treated totally five times depending on the individual menstruation cycles. The scores of MMP and MSSL were measured overall three times before and after the menstruation cycle. The collected data were analyzed as paired t-test, independent t-test using SPSS 12.0 WIN Program. Results : As a result of the evaluation by MMP and MSSL, a significant improvement on dysmenorrhea was made in the two groups(p<0.05, and both scores of Experiment group were decreased more than Control group. But there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : The Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment and the Normal Saline treatment were effective in decreasing the symptom of Dysmenorrhea.

  6. Ectopic Pregnancy after Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta: A Case Report

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    Chun-Kuang Yang

    2004-09-01

    Conclusion: There are few reports of successful pregnancy following conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment may increase the risk of secondary infertility, recurrent placenta accreta, and probably ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Trophoblast invasion and oxygenation of the placenta: measurements versus presumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Weiss, Gregor; Moser, Gerit

    2014-03-01

    Invasion of extravillous trophoblast into maternal tissues has a profound effect on the oxygenation of the placenta and hence the fetus. The main route of trophoblast invasion is interstitial invasion into the tissues of the decidua and myometrium. From this main route side branches reach the spiral arteries (endovascular trophoblast) as well as the uterine glands (endoglandular trophoblast) to open both structures toward the intervillous space. This enables histiotrophic nutrition in the first trimester and hemotrophic nutrition in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Failure of endovascular trophoblast invasion has profound effects on the oxygenation of the placenta. Interestingly, this does not lead to hypoxia as has long been presumed. Rather, all measurements available today point to increased oxygen levels within the placenta in patients with a failure of spiral artery transformation. This should lead to a rethink regarding pathological conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia.

  8. [Maternal outcomes in pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-kun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Yu-mei; Ying, Jun; Chen, Dan-qing

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the maternal outcomes of pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa (PPP). Clinical data of 470 patients with placenta previa admitted in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from August 2012 to August 2014 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into pernicious group(n=101) and non-pernicious group(n=369) according to the history of cesarean section and location of placenta attached to the uterine. The general profiles, maternal outcomes of two groups were compared. The age, gravidity and rate of recurrent cavity surgery of pernicious group [(32.5 ± 4.1) y, 3.4 ± 1.2, 28.7%] were higher than those of non-pernicious group [(30.7 ± 4.5) y, 2.1 ± 1.4,13.6%] (Pplacenta accrete was significantly associated with postpartum massive hemorrhage in pernicious group (Pplacenta previa.

  9. A Case of Placenta Increta Mimicking Submucous Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ekiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years with the increase in cesarean section rates, the frequency of placenta accreta cases rises. It causes 33–50% of all emergency peripartum hysterectomies. We present a 42-year-old case who was caught with early postpartum hemorrhage due to retained placental products. The ultrasonography showed a 65 × 84 mm mass in the uterine cavity after the delivery. Due to presence of early postpartum hemorrhage which needs transfusion, an intervention decision was made. The patient underwent curettage but the mass could not be removed so that placental retention was ruled out. Submucous leiomyoma was made as first-prediagnosis. Hysterectomy operation was performed as a curative treatment. Placenta increta diagnosis was made as a final diagnosis with pathological examination. As a result, placental attachment disorders may be overlooked if it is not a placenta previa case.

  10. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Larsen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Background. To study the risk of placenta complications following an induced abortion as a function of the interpregnancy interval. Methods. This study is based on three Danish national registries; the Medical Birth Registry, the Hospital Discharge Registry, and the Induced Abortion Registry. All...... primigravida women from 1980 to 1982 were identified in these three registries. A total of 15,727 women who terminated the pregnancy with a first trimester induced abortion were selected to the abortion cohort, and 46,026 women who did not terminate the pregnancy with an induced abortion constituted...... or the Medical Birth Registry records. Results. A slightly higher risk of placenta complications following an abortion was found. Retained placenta occurred more frequently in women with one, two or more previous abortions, compared with women without any previous abortion of similar gravidity. Adjusting...

  11. Longitudinal parallel compression suture to control postopartum hemorrhage due to placenta previa and accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Tai; Li, Xiao-Fan; Wu, Baoping; Li, Guangrui

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of longitudinal parallel compression suture to control heavy postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in patients with placenta previa/accreta. Fifteen women received a longitudinal parallel compression suture to stop life-threatening PPH due to placenta previa with or without accreta during cesarean section. The suture apposed the anterior and posterior walls of the lower uterine segment together using an absorbable thread A 70-mm round needle with a Number-1 absorbable thread was used. The point of needle entry was 1 cm above the upper margin of the cervix and 1 cm from the right lateral border of the lower segment of the anterior wall. The suture was threaded through the uterine cavity to the serosa of the posterior wall. Then, it was directed upward and threaded from the posterior to the anterior wall at ∼1-2 cm above the upper boundary of the lower uterine segment and 3-cm medial to the right margin of the uterus. Both ends of the suture were tied on the anterior aspect of uterus. The left side was sutured in the same way. The success rate of the procedure was 86.7% (13/15). Two of 15 cases were concurrently administered gauze packing and achieved satisfactory hemostasis. All patients resumed a normal menstrual flow, and no postoperative anatomical or physiological abnormalities related to the suture were observed. Three women achieved further pregnancies after the procedure. Longitudinal parallel compression suture is a safe, easy, effective, practical, and conservative surgical technique to stop intractable PPH from the lower uterine segment, particularly in women who have a cesarean scar and placenta previa/accreta. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Type and location of placenta previa affect preterm delivery risk related to antepartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Kawabata, Ikuno; Hayashi, Masako; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta previa, particularly when the placenta is located on the anterior

  13. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant ...

  14. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyman, A [Physical Dosimetry Department, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Gabriel, C [MCL-P, Newbury RG14 5PY, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Benedickter, H R; Froehlich, J, E-mail: Azadeh.peyman@hpa.org.uk [Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-07

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  15. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  16. Clinical Analysis of Placenta Previa Complicated with Previous Caesarean Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-kun Ma; Na Han; Jian-qiu Yang; Xu-ming Bian; Jun-tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and treatment of placenta previa complicated with previous caesarean section.Methods The clinical data of 29 patients with placenta previa complicated with a previous caesarean section (RCS group) admitted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during a period from 2003 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 243 patients with placenta previa without a previous caesarean section (FCS group) during the same period.Results There was no difference in the mean age (28.9±3.6 vs.28.1±4.5 years) and the average gravidity (2.35 ± 1.48 vs.2.21 ± 1.53) between RCS group and FCS group (all P>0.05).The RCS group had more preterm births (24.1% vs.13.2%),complete placenta previa (55.2% vs.4.9%),placenta accreta (34.5% vs.2.5%),more blood loss during caesarean section (1412±602 vs.648 ±265 mL),blood transfusion (51.7% vs.4.9%),disseminated intravascular coagulation (13.8% vs.2.1%),and obstetric hysterectomy ( 13.8 % vs.0.8 %) than the F C S group (all P< 0.05).The preterm infant rate ( 30.0% vs.13.0%),neonatal asphyxia rate (10.0% vs.4.9%),and perinatal mortality rate (6.7% vs.0.4%) of the RCS group were higher than those of the FCS group (all P<0.05).Conclusions More patients had complete placenta previa and placenta accreta,postpartum hemorrhage,transfusion,uterine packing,obstetric hysterectomy,and perinatal morbidity in the placenta previa patients with previous caesarean section.The patient should be informed of the risk and unnecessary first cesarean sections should be avoided.

  17. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M S; Aleksunes, L M; Boeuf, P; Chung, M K; Daoud, G; Desoye, G; Díaz, P; Golos, T G; Illsley, N P; Kikuchi, K; Komatsu, R; Lao, T; Morales-Prieto, D M; Nanovskaya, T; Nobuzane, T; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R; Tamura, I; Tamura, K; Than, N G; Tomi, M; Umbers, A; Wang, B; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, K; Yoshie, M; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta.

  18. Rabia humana en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Restrepo de Meza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de encefalitis rábica sin sospecha clínica en una mujer de 20 años de edad. El diagnóstico se comprobó con la técnica de inmunofluorescencia directa para antígeno rábico en tejido cerebral fijado en formalina. El carácter esporádico de la rabia humana en la actualidad en el Valle del Cauca exige mantener la vigilancia epidemiológica y considerar esta posibilidad en todo caso de encefalitis de causa no aclarada.

  19. Antropologia Forense e Identificação Humana

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Joana Trigo da Silva de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A identificação de vítimas mortais é uma necessidade das sociedades, por razões jurídicas, sociais e humanitárias. A Antropologia Forense é uma das subdisciplinas da Antropologia Física que se dedica à identificação humana, nomeadamente em investigações arqueológicas, criminais e de desastres de massa. A Antropologia Forense...

  20. La importancia de la escala humana para la ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Del Prado, Luis

    1988-01-01

    Generalmente cuando en arquitectura y urbanismo hablamos de escala humana nos estamos refiriendo a la utilización del hombre como patrón de medida para el establecimiento de las proporcionalidades geométricas, armónicas, justas y placenteras. "La revolución humanística había desplazado de nuevo la tención desde Dios al Hombre…El hombre encontraba de nuevo la medida de las cosas…por lo que la búsqueda de los módulos y de las proporciones, deducidas contemporáneamente de la de los intervalos...

  1. Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana em Odontopediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Hugo Miguel Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida é uma lesão infeciosa letal causada pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, que afeta principalmente linfócitos T CD4+, levando a uma imunossupressão progressiva e consequentes infeções oportunistas graves. Os doentes com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida não morrem portanto da...

  2. Formas predominantes de hormona de crecimiento humana (hgh en sueros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Pinzón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se compararon las formas predominantes de la Hormona de Crecimiento Humana (hGH, proveniente de sueros de pacientes con hipersecreción hormonal, para determinar los cambios que presenta en ellas y que puedan servir de diagnóstico para la detección de patologías, tales como acromegalia, como también alteraciones en el metabolismo degradativo de la proteína o en la unión a sus receptores específicos.

  3. BIOACCESIBILIDAD ORAL HUMANA DE METALES PESADOS EN SUELOS URBANOS CONTAMINADOS

    OpenAIRE

    QUILODRAN ROJAS, CRISTIAN ALEX

    2014-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la bioaccesibilidad oral humana de cadmio, cinc, cobre y plomo en un suelo urbano contaminado y cómo influyen los cambios físicos y químicos producidos al incorporar al suelo materia orgánica y metales. Para este fin se utilizó un suelo de la serie Mapocho, del orden Inceptisol, recolectado en el sector de La Farfana en la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. El suelo se trató con ácidos húmicos y metal para obtener suelos con diferentes niveles de materia orgánica y de ...

  4. Seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rendón González, J.; Moreno Montañez, T.; Becerra Martell, C.; Martínez Cruz, Setefilla

    1992-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio sobre seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y hemaglutinación indirecta. La muestra encuestada se compone de 443 sueros, 356 personas supuestamente sanas (estudiantes fundamentalmente) y 87, consideradas de “alto riesgo” (enfermos del Hospital “Reina Sofía”). La positividad obtenida para el total de la muestra ha sido del 43,79 % con IFI y 53,50 % para HAI. Con respecto al sexo, la prevale...

  5. CIENCIAS HUMANAS Y EMERGENCIA DE LA EDAD DIGITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Estamos pasando de la era del fuego a la era digital, o sea, de la era de la energía, que incluye el fuego, el viento, el agua, la electricidad y la energía nuclear, a la era de la información. Pasamos así del binomio energía-materia a un nuevo paradigma epistemológico e instrumental, el de una codificación binaria y de una programación algorítmica con las cuales pretendemos reinterpretar el universo e instrumentarlo con una nueva potencia humana superior a la de las leyes habituales de la na...

  6. Estudos sobre a estabilidade do desenho da figura humana (DHF)

    OpenAIRE

    Taborda, Alejandra; UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE SAN LUIS; Barbenza, Claribel M. de; UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE SAN LUIS

    2008-01-01

    Com o intuito de pesquisar a estabilidade do desenho da figura humana (DHF) e a pertinência das modificações feitas pela autora deste trabalho, comparam-se as normas de revalidação para crianças de 5 e 6 anos elaboradas por Koppitz (1968), e as desenvolvidas em Ottawa por Groves e Fried (1991) com as elaboradas por Taborda-Barbenza em San Luis, Mendoza e San Juan (Argentina, 1993). Este estudo comparativo realizou-se também em 127 crianças de 4 anos de San Luis e Villa Mercedes, considerando ...

  7. "Blade Runner" o la pregunta por la dignidad humana

    OpenAIRE

    García Manrique, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Al pensar en la relación entre el fundamento de la dignidad humana y la resolución de algunos problemas bioéticos, me vino a la cabeza Blade Runner, la película de Ridley Scott basada en un relato de Philip K. Dick que lleva el extravagante título de ¿Sueñan los androides con ovejas eléctricas? (extravagante si vemos la película pero no tanto si leemos el relato)...

  8. La importancia de la escala humana para la ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Del Prado, Luis

    1988-01-01

    Generalmente cuando en arquitectura y urbanismo hablamos de escala humana nos estamos refiriendo a la utilización del hombre como patrón de medida para el establecimiento de las proporcionalidades geométricas, armónicas, justas y placenteras. "La revolución humanística había desplazado de nuevo la tención desde Dios al Hombre…El hombre encontraba de nuevo la medida de las cosas…por lo que la búsqueda de los módulos y de las proporciones, deducidas contemporáneamente de la de los intervalos...

  9. Rnas inhibidores frente al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Luque, Francisco Jos??

    2012-01-01

    En la presente tesis se describe la generaci??n de peque??as mol??culas de RNA con funci??n inhibidora frente al Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana de Tipo 1 (VIH-1). Este virus es el agente causal del S??ndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida y perteneciente al g??nero Lentivirus de la familia Retroviridae. El virus presenta una alternancia en cuanto al tipo de material gen??tico en su ciclo de vida, siendo RNA en las part??culas virales y DNA en el provirus (durante la fase de latencia o e...

  10. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björkman, S.; Oliviero, C.; Rajala-Schultz, P.J.; Soede, N.M.; Peltoniemi, O.A.T.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis was that a prolonged parturition impairs placenta expulsion and can lead to retained placentas in sows. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of oxytocin around the time of expulsion of the first placental part improves placenta expulsion. We recorded 142 parturitions of 10

  11. The evolving placenta: Convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2012-01-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting...

  12. Aumento no material fibrinoide perivilositário nas placentas de gestações com pré-eclâmpsia Increase in perivillous fibrinoid material in placentas from pregnancies with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Agra de Souza

    2011-02-01

    perivillous fibrinoid material present in placentas from pregnancies with and without preeclampsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out at the Anatomical Pathological Service of Professor Alberto Antunes University Hospital. It was performed the histomorphometric analysis of 840 images comprising 14 placenta samples from pregnancies with preeclampsia (cases and 14 placenta samples from pregnancies without preeclampsia (controls. RESULTS: In the preeclampsia group the mean area of fibrinoid material was 168.46 pixels and in the group without preeclampsia it was 89.63 pixels. The nuclei total area was smaller in preeclampsia (89.51 pixels in comparison with the control group (113.34 pixels. CONCLUSION: In placentas from preeclampsia pregnancies the fibrinoid material area is larger (1.8x compared to normal pregnancies. Nuclei and cytoplasm areas were larger in the control group. There was no statistical difference regarding the stromal area. There was also a reduction in villous space in preeclampsia, which is consistent with villous hypotrophy.

  13. Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Traffic Inducer in the Placenta of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Wenpei; CHEN Hanping; GUO Yuzhen; SHEN Hongling

    2006-01-01

    The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase traffic inducer (NOSTRIN) in the placenta of the patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) was detected and its role in the pathogenesis of PIH was studied. The pathological changes in placental vessels were observed by HE staining. NO2-/NO3- , the stable metabolic end products of NO, was measured with nitrate reductase. The eNOS activity in placental tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry. Western blot analysis was applied to detect NOSTRIN expression. The incidence of thickening and fibronoid necrosis of placental vessels was significantly higher in women with PIH than in the normal group (P<0.01). The levels of placental NO2-/NO3- in PIH patients (27.53±7.48 μmol/mg) were significantly lower than in normal group (54.27±9.53 μmol/mg, P<0.01). The activity of eNOS was significantly decreased in PIH group (12. 826±3.61 U/mg) as compared with that in normal group (21. 72±3.83 U/mg, P<0.01). Western blot analysis revealed that both groups expressed 58 kD NOSTRIN, but the protein level was significantly higher in women with PIH than in the normal group (P<0.01). A significant negative correlation existed between the expression of NOSTRIN protein and the activity of eNOS in placental tissue of women with PIH (r=-0. 57, P<0. 01). It was concluded that the level of NOSTRIN expression in placenta of women with PIH was increased, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PIH.

  14. [Application of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S H; Zhi, Y X; Zhang, K; Zhang, L D; Shen, L N; Gao, Y N

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the value of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2016, 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta were treated with temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta(the study group)before cesarean, and 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta did not receive balloon occlusion(the control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume, the perioperative hemoglobin level, the hysterectomy rate and the related complications were compared retrospectively.Also, the hospitalization time, the blood coagulation parameters after operation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer and reperfusion injury parameters including creatine phosphokinase(CK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and serum creatinine were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The blood loss[750 ml(400- 2 000 ml)vs 2 000 ml(1 500- 2 375 ml); Z=-3.214, P=0.001]and blood transfusion volume[200 ml(0-800 ml)vs 800 ml(0-1 200 ml); Z=- 2.173, P=0.030]in the study group were lower than in the control group. The hemoglobin difference between before and after operation in the study group was lower than the control group[(12.8±13.4)g/L vs(22.9±20.1)g/L; t=-2.041, P=0.047]. In the study group, there were still bleeding in 13 cases after releasing the balloon, 5 of them received uterine artery embolization, 5 cases received uterine artery ligation, and 3 cases received uterine packing. One case had venous thrombosis in the right lower limb. Two cases(8%,2/24)in the control group had hysterectomy, while none in the study group, there was no statistical significance(P= 0.489). Conclusions: Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively reduce blood loss and blood transfusion in the treatment of

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 in sheep placenta after glucocorticoid-induced and spontaneous labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, W J; Young, I R; Rice, G E

    2000-09-01

    Enhanced prostaglandin production and release by the placenta is an essential element in the normal transition to labour in many animal species. In sheep, expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS) is the central enzyme regulating this process. In this study immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of cells expressing PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 in ovine placenta in association with spontaneous parturition (n = 6) and glucocorticoid-induced labour (n = 5). Labour was induced in ewes after the intrafetal injection of betamethasone on day 131 of gestation. Animals administered an intrafetal injection of isotonic saline (n = 5) acted as non-labour controls. In placentomes collected from all groups, immunoreactive PGHS-1 was present in the mononuclear trophoblast cells of the fetal placenta. Cells in the maternal mesenchyme and epithelial syncytium were weakly immunopositive for this enzyme. PGHS-1 immunoreactivity was also demonstrated in the endothelial cells of the chorionic vessels. The PGHS-2 isozyme was localized exclusively to the trophoblast epithelial cells. Immunoreactive PGHS-2 was not detectable in the maternal epithelial syncytium or the stroma of the cotyledons. The binucleate cells of the fetal placenta were consistently immunonegative for both PGHS isozymes. These results indicate that the cellular localization of PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 in ovine placenta does not change during the last 15 days of pregnancy. Co-localization of these isozymes indicates that the source of arachidonic acid and the site of prostanoid formation are the same. Quantitation of the percentage area of positive staining for PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 using image analysis software demonstrated a significant increase in PGHS-2 in the fetal trophoblast after glucocorticoid-induced labour and spontaneous parturition. This finding indicates that increased formation of the PGHS-2 isozyme is responsible for the large increase in prostaglandin production by the ovine placenta at term labour.

  16. Exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rivas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosos estudios han asociado las patologías observadas en distintas especies animales y en el hombre con la exposición a contaminantes medio ambientales con actividad hormonal. Se ha acuñado el término de disruptores endocrinos (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals / EDCs para definir el conjunto de compuestos químicos que interaccionan con el sistema endocrino, sobre el que inducen efectos potencialmente debidos a su capacidad para:1 mimetizar la acción de las hormonas endógenas; 2 antagonizar la acción de las hormonas; 3 alterar su patrón de síntesis y metabolismo; o bien 4 modular los niveles de los receptores correspondientes.La exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos es universal y puede provenir de numerosas fuentes. Además, los compuestos acumulados en la grasa son transmitidos a la descendencia a través de la madre durante la gestación y después de la lactancia.Los efectos sobre la salud humana de la exposicición continua a los disruptores endocrinos necesitan ser investigados en más profundidad.

  17. Estudo retrospectivo da peste humana no Nordeste oriental do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1970-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando dados do Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais, o autor faz um estudo retrospectivo da peste humana no Nordeste Oriental do Brasil no período de 1935-1967. Os aspectos epidemiológicos abordados foram os seguintes: morbidade, mortalidade, letalidade, "point" epidêmicos, tendência secular e variações mensais. Os coeficientes de morbidade e mortalidade variaram muito. A letalidade apresentou-se bastante alta. Dez anos de "point" epidêmicos foram registrados no periodo estudado. A análise estatística dos casos distribuídos por mês mostrou que a peste humana atinge o pcnto máximo na estação sêca. Ficou demonstrada urna variação cíclica da doença, em que aumentos e decréscimos ocorrem em períodos que variam de 6 a 12 anos.

  18. Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Leptospirosis Humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodríguez Alonso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un trabajo de revisión del tema de la leptospirosis humana por constituir un problema de salud en nuestro país y en gran parte del mundo. Tenemos en consideración el análisis de los pilares sustanciales para el diagnóstico de cualquier entidad: epidemiología, cuadro clínico y laboratorio; además la importancia del diagnóstico anatomopatológico en los fallecidos por leptospirosis humana, brindándose los aspectos patognómicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Así mismo se exponen los esquemas actuales del tratamiento de elección para CubaA review is made on the topic of human leptospirosis, since it is a health problem in our country and in many other parts of the world. We take into consideration the analysis of the essential milestones for the diagnosis of any entity: epidemiology, clinical picture and laboratory. The importance of the anatomopathological diagnosis in the dead due to human leptospirosis is also taken into account. The pathognomonic aspects in relation to this disease are given here. Likewise, the current schemes of the elective treatment for Cuba are dealt with

  19. [Risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa: a retrospective study of 3 840 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, B; Chen, M; Liu, X X

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa through retrospective study of 3 840 placenta previa cases. The clinical data of 3 840 patients with placenta previa who delivered in West China Second University Hospital between Jan 2005 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship of certain factors and peripartum hysterectomy was analyzed, including maternal age, residence place, parity, prior curettage, prior cesarean section, twin or multiple pregnancy, antenatal vaginal bleeding, type of placenta previa, suspected placenta accreta, antenatal level of hemoglobin and gestational age at delivery. The prevalence of placenta previa was 4.84%(3 840/79 304)in West China Second University Hospital during the study period, and the incidence of preipartum hysterectomy in patients with placenta previa was 2.76%(106/3 840). One-factor analysis demonstrated that residence place, parity, times of prior curettage, prior cesarean section, prenatal vaginal bleeding, anterior placenta, type of placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and gestational age at delivery were potential risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy(Pplacenta(OR=4.8, 95%CI:2.1-10.7), complete placenta previa(OR=5.9, 95%CI: 1.8-42.5), placenta accreta(OR=11.2, 95%CI:6.8-18.6), antenatal hemoglobinplacenta previa(Pplacenta, complete placenta previa, placenta accreta, antenatal anemia and delivery before 34 gestational weeks are high risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy in placenta previa patients. Perinatal care and risk evaluation before cesarean section are important to improve perinatal outcomes and reduce peripartum hysterectomy.

  20. Invasive placenta previa: Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Guangbin; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-08-02

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. • Placental bulge type-II demonstrated the strongest independent association with PP. • Uterine serosal hypervascularity is a useful feature for differentiating PP from PA. • MRI features associated with abnormal vessels increase the risk of massive haemorrhage.

  1. 凶险型前置胎盘与普通型前置胎盘对孕妇的危害性分析%Hazard analysis on pregnant women with pernicious placenta previa and common type of placenta previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶萍; 张铨富

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索研究凶险型前置胎盘以及普通型前置胎盘对孕产妇的危害性,寻求针对性的治疗和护理方法。方法选择我院收治的凶险型前置胎盘以及普通型前置胎盘孕产妇共计100例作为研究对象并按照疾病类型进行分组研究,凶险型患者属于研究组,普通型患者属于对照组,每组各50例。将两组患者手术情况以及胎儿情况等进行对比分析。结果研究组进行手术治疗时间以及术中出血量均显著多于对照组(P<0.05);研究组产后出血比例为90.00%,显著高于对照组的36.00%(P<0.05)。研究组胎盘植入比例、子宫切除比例以及输血比例均显著高于对照组(P<0.05)。研究组早产儿发生率、重度窒息率、气管插管率以及并发症发生率和死亡率均高于对照组,但差异不具有统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论前置胎盘具有较大的危害性,尤其是凶险型前置胎盘危险性更大,应当引起高度重视,选择正确的手术方式,有效减少术中和产后出血,可以有效降低子宫切除的风险。%Objective To explore the harmfulness of placenta previa and normal placenta previa on pregnant women , to seek treatment and nursing methods of .Methods The placenta previa in our hospital and the general type of maternal placenta previa as research object and grouping study , patients with placenta previa as the study group , patients with normal placenta previa as control group .The two groups of patients with operation and fetal condition were analyzed .Results The study group operation time was significantly longer than the control group, the amount of bleeding was significantly more than that of the control group (P0.05).Conclusions Placenta previa has great harmfulness , especially the pernicious placenta previa is more dangerous , should attach great importance to , the choice of correct operation , effectively reduce the

  2. Human placental lactogen (hPL) deficiency in a normal pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    A case of human placental lactogen (hPL) deficiency together with normal oestriol levels associated with a normal pregnancy in a woman in her second pregnancy is reported. The woman gave birth to a healthy male infant. The placenta was normal. Extremely low hPL levels may be compatible with the delivery of a healthy infant.

  3. Review: Human trophoblast fusion and differentiation: lessons from trisomy 21 placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, G; Gerbaud, P; Cocquebert, M; Segond, N; Badet, J; Fournier, T; Guibourdenche, J; Evain-Brion, D

    2012-02-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast layer plays a major role throughout pregnancy, since it is the site of numerous placental functions, including ion and nutrient exchange and the synthesis of steroid and peptide hormones required for fetal growth and development. Inadequate formation and regeneration of this tissue contributes to several pathologies of pregnancy such as intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, which may lead to iatrogenic preterm delivery in order to prevent fetal death and maternal complications. Syncytiotrophoblast formation can be reproduced in vitro using different models. For the last ten years we have routinely purified villous cytotrophoblastic cells (CT) from normal first, second and third trimester placentas and from gestational age-matched Trisomy 21 placentas. We cultured villous CT on plastic dishes to follow the molecular and biochemical aspects of their morphological and functional differentiation. Taking advantage of this unique collection of samples, we here discuss the concept that trophoblast fusion and functional differentiation may be two differentially regulated processes, which are linked but quite distinct. We highlight the major role of mesenchymal-trophoblast cross talk in regulating trophoblast cell fusion. We suggest that the oxidative status of the trophoblast may regulate glycosylation of proteins, including hCG, and thereby modulate major trophoblast cell functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GDM-Induced Macrosomia Is Reversed by Cav-1 via AMPK-Mediated Fatty Acid Transport and GLUT1-Mediated Glucose Transport in Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Yang, Ruirui; Sang, Hui; Han, Linlin; Zhu, Yuexia; Lu, Yanyan; Tan, Yeke; Shang, Zhanping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the role of Cav-1 in GDM-induced macrosomia is through regulating AMPK signaling pathway in placenta. Methods We used diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia to separate and compare placental protein and mRNA levels from GDM with macrosomia group (GDMM), GDM with normal birth weight group (GDMN) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with normal birth weight group (CON). Western blotting was performed to examine differentially expressed proteins of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway related proteins, including phosphorylated-AMPKα(Thr172), AMPKα, phosphorylated-Acetyl-CoA carboxylase(Ser79) (p-ACC(Ser79)), ACC and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in placenta between the three groups. The mRNA levels of Cav-1, AMPKα, ACC and GLUT1 in placenta were measured by real time-PCR. Results In the GDMM placenta group, both protein and mRNA levels of Cav-1 were down-regulated, while GLUT1 was up-regulated; the phosphorylation and mRNA levels of ACC and AMPKα were decreased, but total ACC protein levels were increased compared to both the GDMN (pGLUT1 protein levels. Besides, in GDMM group placental mRNA levels, NBW had a positive correlation with GLUT1 (pGLUT1 (pGLUT1. Conclusion GDM-induced macrosomias have more severe inhibition of Cav-1 expression in placenta. Cav-1 is associated with placental glucose and fatty acid transport via the induction of AMPK signaling pathway and the reduction of GLUT1 signaling pathway to reverse GDM-induced macrosomia. PMID:28125642

  5. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  6. Placenta previa: outcomes in scarred and unscarred uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Dayanand Katke

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, primary prevention in the form of reduction in the rate of primi cesearean section must be done in order to prevent likelihood of placenta previa in scarred uteri. Early diagnosis by Ultrasound and planned delivery should be the goal. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2728-2732

  7. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-07

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  8. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line;

    2007-01-01

    , and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...

  9. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  10. Oxygen diffusive conductance in placentae from control and diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayhew, T M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Klebe, J G

    1993-01-01

    Random tissue sections of placentae from control and diabetic deliveries were analysed stereologically. The aim was to test whether or not adaptations in oxygen diffusive conductances occur to help compensate for fetal hypoxic stress in utero. Organs were from 34 control and 55 diabetic deliveries...

  11. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Robert, E-mail: robert.mueller@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); Gläser, Marcus [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany); University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jena University Hospital (Germany); Hofmann, Andreas [HTS Systeme GmbH, Wallenfels (Germany); Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10{sup −8} Am{sup 2}) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100–150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  12. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  13. Kinetics of gold nanoparticles in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllynen, Päivi K; Loughran, Michael J; Howard, C Vyvyan; Sormunen, Raija; Walsh, Adrian A; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2008-10-01

    We studied the transfer of PEGylated gold nanoparticles through perfused human placenta. In 'once-through' perfusions using 15 and 30nm nanoparticles both maternal and fetal outflows were collected. Recirculating perfusions using 10 or 15nm nanoparticles lasted 6h. The gold concentration in samples was analysed on ICP-MS. The reference compound antipyrine crossed the placenta rapidly, as expected. In open perfusions nanoparticles were detected in maternal but not in fetal outflow, suggesting the lack of placental transfer. During 6h re-circulating perfusions, no particles were detected in fetal circulation. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and silver enhancement, nanoparticles could be visualized in the placental tissue mainly in the trophoblastic cell layer. In in vitro experiments, nanoparticles were taken up by BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and retained inside the cells for an extended period of 48h. In conclusion, PEGylated gold nanoparticles of the size 10-30nm did not cross the perfused human placenta in detectable amounts into the fetal circulation within 6h. Whether PEGylated gold nanoparticles eventually are able to cross placenta and whether nanoparticles affect placental functions needs to be further studied.

  14. Epidemiology, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Garmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta is a severe pregnancy complication and is currently the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. It is becoming an increasingly common complication mainly due to the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Main risk factor for placenta accreta is a previous cesarean delivery particularly when accompanied with a coexisting placenta previa. Antenatal diagnosis seems to be a key factor in optimizing maternal outcome. Diagnosis can be achieved by ultrasound in the majority of cases. Women with placenta accreta are usually delivered by a cesarean section. In order to avoid an emergency cesarean and to minimize complications of prematurity it is acceptable to schedule cesarean at 34 to 35 weeks. A multidisciplinary team approach and delivery at a center with adequate resources, including those for massive transfusion are both essential to reduce neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The optimal management after delivery of the neonate is vague since randomized controlled trials and large cohort studies are lacking. Cesarean hysterectomy is probably the preferable treatment. In carefully selected cases, when fertility is desired, conservative management may be considered with caution. The current review discusses the epidemiology, predisposing factors, pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and management options of this condition.

  15. The metallome of the human placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverso, Marco; Berté, Chiara; Di Marco, Valerio; Lapolla, Annunziata; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Visentin, Silvia; Cosmi, Erich

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining the knowledge of the "omics" and therefore of the metallomics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be a necessary task to obtain information about the molecular causes of this disease. In this study, the metallome of GDM and of other types of diabetes mellitus was first reviewed. The comparative analysis of the published data revealed that no GDM elemental markers could be identified with sufficient reliability in blood or in the other considered samples, with the partial exception of selenium. The placenta was chosen as an alternative target organ for the analysis of the GDM metallome. The full elemental average composition of 19 healthy placentas was obtained by ICP-MS. Analyses were then performed on 28 placentas from women affected by GDM. The statistical tests and the principal component analysis evidenced that cadmium was found in lower concentrations and selenium was found in higher concentrations in GDM placentas than in those of the control group. These results were interpreted in light of literature data, and they attract attention on two key elements for understanding the molecular pathways of GDM.

  16. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Robert; Gläser, Marcus; Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  17. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    of medicines under the Indian system. The percentage of pearl formation in the natural population of P. placenta is higher in Goa (about 35%) compared to other regions in India. There is considerable scope of this important resource particularly for extracting...

  18. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  19. Placenta retention in the cow: Report of three cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-06-17

    Jun 17, 2016 ... August, 2016. 73. ROP has a significant adverse impact on health, .... as well as many other metabolic or reproductive conditions ... in vitro study when placenta samples from human, equine and ... agents (Arthur & Bee, 1996). This however ... implication of eating such meat since that uterus was highly ...

  20. Purification and characterization of a soluble calnexin from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe T; Peng, Li; Træholt, Sofie D;

    2013-01-01

    Calreticulin (Crt) and calnexin (Cnx) are homologous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones involved in protein folding and quality control. Crt is a soluble ER luminal Mr 46 kDa protein and Cnx is a Mr 67kDa ER membrane protein. During purification of Crt from human placenta a soluble form of Cnx...

  1. The evolution of the mammal placenta — a computational approach to the identification and analysis of placenta-specific genes and microRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a placenta is an important synapomorphy that defines the mammal clade. From the fossil record we know that the first placental mammal lived approximately 125 million years ago, with the chorioallantoic placenta evolving not long after. In this thesis a set of 22 complete genomes from Eutherian, non-Eutherian and outgroup species are compared, the aim being to identify protein-coding and regulatory alterations that are likely to be implicated in the emergence of mammal placenta...

  2. Pathologic evaluation of normal and perfused term placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Mathiesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This study reports for the 1st time the incidence and interobserver variation of morphologic findings in a series of 34 term placentas from pregnancies with normal outcome used for perfusion studies. Histologic evaluation of placental tissue is challenging, especially when it comes to defining "n...

  3. MicroRNA-141 is upregulated in preeclamptic placentae and regulates trophoblast invasion and intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Prieto, Stephanie; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Herrmann, Jörg; Groten, Tanja; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester. We hypothesize that miR-141 is abnormally expressed in PE placentae, controls trophoblast, and immune cell functions and is involved in the intercellular communication between fetal trophoblast and maternal immune cells. Expression of miR-141 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in normal and preeclamptic placentae and in 2 different trophoblastic cell lines, JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo. Changes in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and invasion were investigated after miR-141 inhibition and overexpression by MTS-, BrdU-, and Matrigel assays. EVs from miR-141 transfected cells were isolated from supernatants and characterized by NanoSight analysis and qPCR. Proliferation of Jurkat T cells and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated after treatment with EVs containing different miR-141 levels. miR-141 expression was higher in placentae from PE patients compared with those from normal pregnancies. miR-141 inhibition in trophoblastic cells resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced invasion capability. After transfection with miR-141-mimic, trophoblastic cells secreted EVs with increased miR-141 content. These vesicles did not exert effects on trophoblastic cell invasion but reduced Jurkat T cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-141 regulates major functions of trophoblastic and immune cells. Trophoblast cells release EVs whose miRNA content can be modified by transfection of origin cells. Furthermore

  4. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; Lotgering, F K; Bulten, J; van Kempen, L C

    2010-12-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in immune response in the basal decidua between PA and control placentas (CP). We performed a descriptive analysis of immunohistochemical differences in 17 PA and 10 CP. Our results show that in PA the amount of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells is significantly reduced (0.2 uNK cell/standardised area) as compared to CP (9.8 uNK cell/standardised area, p placenta.

  5. Omentin-1 is decreased in maternal plasma, placenta and adipose tissue of women with pre-existing obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Barker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on (i the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 44 and women with GDM (n = 39 at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Placenta and adipose tissue expression and release of omentin-1 was measured from 22 NGT and 22 GDM women collected at the time of term elective Caesarean section. Omentin-1 levels were also measured in maternal plasma from 13 NGT women at 11 and 28 weeks gestation and 7 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: Maternal obesity was associated with significantly lower omentin-1 levels in maternal plasma; however, there was no effect of maternal obesity on cord omentin levels. Omentin-1 gene expression was lower in placenta and adipose tissue obtained from women with pre-existing obesity. In addition to this, adipose tissue release of omentin-1 was significantly lower from obese pregnant women. Omentin-1 levels were significantly lower in non-obese GDM compared to non-obese NGT women. However, there was no difference in omentin-1 levels between obese NGT and obese GDM women. There was no effect of GDM on cord omentin levels, and placental and adipose tissue omentin-1 expression. Maternal omentin-1 levels were negatively correlated with fetal birthweight and fetal ponderal index. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented in this study demonstrate that pre-existing maternal obesity is associated with lower omentin-1 expression in placenta, adipose tissue and maternal plasma. Alteration in omentin-1 in pregnancy may influence the development of metabolic disorders in offspring later in life.

  6. Experience in the Treatment of Pernicious Placenta Previa%凶险性前置胎盘的治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石淑颖

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore treatment methods and the clinical effect of the pernicious placenta previa patients, to improve and perfect measures of placenta previa.Methods 10 cases of placenta previa patients were selected from our hospital, the pernicious placenta previa patients were treated from Prepare the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care.Results There were 8 cases of patients with placenta implantation in 10 cases of placenta previa patients, 6 cases occurred postoperative bleeding, 2 cases treated with topical hemostatic suture hemostasis, retained the uterus, the other 4 cases were Bleeding shock, treated with performing a hysterectomy and aftercare back to normal.Conclusion The risk of dangerous placenta previa is great, should strength the medical staff awareness, rational preoperative assessment, timely effective hemostasis and postoperative effective nursing may give a timely and effective treatment for patients with pernicious placenta previa.%目的探讨凶险性前置胎盘的治疗方法及临床效果,提高并完善凶险性前置胎盘的应对措施。方法对我院接收的10例凶险性前置胎盘患者进行分析,从术前准备、术中处理和术后护理三方面对凶险性前置胎盘患者进行干预。结果10例凶险性前置胎盘患者中8例伴有胎盘植入,其中6例患者在术后发生大出血,2例通过局部缝扎止血成功止血,保留住子宫,其他4例出现大失血休克,通过子宫切除手术和后期护理恢复正常。结论凶险性前置胎盘危险性极大,要加强医务人员的重视程度,术前的整体合理评估、术中及时有效止血和术后有效护理可以对凶险性前置胎盘患者予以及时、有效救治。

  7. Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women Complement inhibitory proteins expression in placentas of thrombophilic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Krzysztof Wirstlein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry staining
    of inhibitors of the complement cascade, DAF and MCP proteins, in the placentas of thrombophilic women.
    Placentas were collected from eight women with inherited thrombophilia and ten with acquired thrombophilia.
    The levels of DAF and MCP transcripts were evaluated by qPCR, the protein level was evaluated by Western
    blot. We observed a higher transcript (p < 0.05 and protein (p < 0.001 levels of DAF and MCP in the placentas
    of thrombophilic women than in the control group. DAF and MCP were localized on villous syncytiotrophoblast
    membranes, but the assessment of staining in all groups did not differ. The observed higher expression level of
    proteins that control activation of complement control proteins is only seemingly contradictory to the changes
    observed for example in the antiphospholipid syndrome. However, given the hitherto known biochemical changes
    associated with thrombophilia, a mechanism in which increased expression of DAF and MCP in the placentas is
    an effect of proinflammatory cytokines, which accompanies thrombophilia, is probable.Factors controlling complement activation appear to exert a protective effect on pregnancy. This is
    particularly important in women with thrombophilia. The aim of this study was to determine the transcript and
    protein levels of complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF and membrane cofactor protein (MCP in the
    placentas of women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia. Also, we assessed immunohistochemistry

  8. Antioxidative Defense Enzymes in Placenta Protect Placenta and Fetus in Inherited Thrombophilia from Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Bogdanovic Pristov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the activities of antioxidative defense enzymes in the placenta, fetal blood and amnion fluid in inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilia was associated with nearly threefold increase of activity (p < 0.001 of the placental catalase (81.1 ± 20.6 U/mg of proteins in controls and 270.0 ± 69.9 U/mg in thrombophilic subjects, glutathione (GSH peroxidase (C: 20.2 ± 10.1 U/mg; T: 60.0 ± 15.5 U/mg, and GSH reductase (C: 28.9 ± 5.6 U/mg; T: 72.7 ± 23.0 U/mg. The placental activities of superoxide dismutating enzymes—MnSOD and CuZnSOD, did not differ in controls and thrombophilia. Likewise, the activities of catalase and SOD in the fetal blood, and the level of ascorbyl radical which represents a marker of oxidative status of amniotic fluid, were similar in controls and thrombophilic subjects. From this we concluded that in thrombophilia, placental tissue is exposed to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress, which could be initiated by pro-thrombic conditions in maternal blood. Increased activity of placental H2O2-removing enzymes protects fetus and mother during pregnancy, but may increase the risk of postpartum thrombosis.

  9. POTE, a highly homologous gene family located on numerous chromosomes and expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, placenta, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tapan K; Zimonjic, Drazen B; Popescu, Nicholas C; Sathyanarayana, Bangalore K; Kumar, Vasantha; Lee, Byungkook; Pastan, Ira

    2002-12-24

    We have identified a gene located on chromosomes 21 that is expressed in normal and neoplastic prostate, and in normal testis, ovary, and placenta. We name this gene POTE (expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta). The POTE gene has 11 exons and 10 introns and spans approximately equal 32 kb of chromosome 21q11.2 region. The 1.83-kb mRNA of POTE encodes a protein of 66 kDa. Ten paralogs of the gene have been found dispersed among eight different chromosomes (2, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, and 22) with preservation of ORFs and splice junctions. The synonymous:nonsynonymous ratio indicates that the genes were duplicated rather recently but are diverging at a rate faster than the average for other paralogous genes. In prostate and in testis, at least five different paralogs are expressed. In situ hybridization shows that POTE is expressed in basal and terminal cells of normal prostate epithelium. It is also expressed in some prostate cancers and in the LnCAP prostate cancer cell line. The POTE protein contains seven ankyrin repeats between amino acids 140 and 380. Expression of POTE in prostate cancer and its undetectable expression in normal essential tissues make POTE a candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. The existence of a large number of closely related but rapidly diverging members, their location on multiple chromosomes and their limited expression pattern suggest an important role for the POTE gene family in reproductive processes.

  10. A precariedade humana e a existência estilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Paiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tematiza o desamparo vivenciado pela consciência ante a ausência de bases sólidas para seus anseios de felicidade e para suas representações simbólicas. Com esse propósito, toma como objeto de reflexão um dos ensaios filosóficos de Albert Camus, O mito de Sísifo, equacionando a possibilidade de uma ética que estilize a vida, sem que se minimize a dolorosa precariedade da existência humana. Posteriormente, em diálogo com alguns textos de M. Foucault, a reflexão procura estabelecer os vínculos possíveis entre a ética camusiana e a ética como uma estética da existência, tal como pensada entre os gregos antigos.

  11. Estrategia Internacional para la seguridad humana en los desastres naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Torroja Mateu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los rasgos principales de la estrategia internacional universal de seguridad humana en casos de desastres naturales liderada por la ONU. La estrategia se basa en dos grandes funciones: la prevención y preparación ante desastres naturales y la movilización y coordinación de la asistencia humanitaria a las víctimas, incluida la de los propios órganos operacionales de la ONU. Del desarrollo de ambas funciones se encargan diversos órganos operacionales (UNISDIR, PNUD, OCHA.... Con respecto a ambas finalidades se han adoptado directrices políticas y normativas por la Asamblea General. Destaca en este sentido el interés actual de la CDI, quien trabaja en un proyecto de artículos sobre la protección de personas en casos de desastres.

  12. O problema da natureza humana em Jacques Maritain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Névio de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir o problema da natureza humana em Jacques Maritain, destacando sua crítica ao humanismo antropocêntrico e a concepção do humanismo integral. Apoia-se na obra Humanismo Integral e nos debates da História Intelectual para problematizar a origem de seus escritos (contexto de produção e a acepção de humanismo teocêntrico (História da Filosofia proposta por esse filósofo tomista. Esta discussão permite-nos afirmar que o humanismo antropocêntrico é acusado por Maritain de conformar, nos tempos modernos, a própria tragédia do homem, da cultura e de Deus, assim como sustentar que o humanismo integral foi postulado como filosofia reintegradora da unidade ocidental, cindida pela filosofia naturalista (Renascimento/Reforma/Iluminismo/Comunismo.

  13. Prácticas de histología humana

    OpenAIRE

    Hilario Rodríguez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La Histología en su quehacer diario es una disciplina eminentemente práctica. La docencia de la Histología Humana se desarrolla básicamente a través de clases magistrales, seminarios y clases prácticas. Para la realización de estas últimas el alumno dispone de un microscopio óptico y diferentes preparaciones histológicas, así como de fotografías de microscopía electrónica. El programa práctico de la asignatura se desglosa a lo largo de veinticinco temas, que comienzan con la Histología Gen...

  14. Presencia de residuos y contaminantes en leche humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Flores Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  15. Notas sobre o autotelismo discursivo em ciências humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Lopes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O Ateliê de Semiótica Discursiva, coordenado por Denis Bertrand, propôs focalizar, no ano letivo 1991-1992, a " Estética do Discurso Erudito", no quadro da temática "Estética da Ética" do Seminário de Semântica Geral, de A.J . Greimas, na Escola de Altos Estudos em Ciências Sociais de Paris (E. H. E. S. S.. Bertrand distribuiu cópias de trechos de textos célebres em ciências humanas (Lévi-Strauss, Deleuze e Guattari, Greimas, Barthes, Foucault e outros, sobre os quais os participantes deveriam realizar análises que tomassem como modelo, por exemplo, aquelas praticadas por Greimas e Landowski em lntroduction à L 'Analyse du Discours en Sciences Sociales ( 1979.

  16. PRESENCIA DE RESIDUOS Y CONTAMINANTES EN LECHE HUMANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Prado Flores

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación de la leche humana por xenobióticos es un problema generalizado a nivel mundial, que se ve afectado por las variaciones geográficas, climáticas, culturales y socioeconómicas de cada lugar. Las políticas de salud pública han enfrentado la situación mediante una vigilancia sostenida y legislaciones restrictivas con el objeto de reducir los efectos perjudiciales sobre las poblaciones y el ambiente, sin embargo se registran datos objetivables, sobre todo en los países en desarrollo. En esta revisión se destacan aspectos generales y particulares de los residuos y contaminantes organoclorados, organofosforados, antibióticos, metales pesados, bifenilos policlorados, dioxinas y furanos, valores de sus contenidos, efectos tóxicos estudiados y los límites máximos permitidos por las legislaciones internacionales.

  17. Number of NK cells and expression of its ligands HLA-G and HLA-E in preeclampsia placenta tissue as well as their relationship with cell apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Shi; Xue-Ping He

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the number of NK cells and the expression of its ligands HLA-G and HLA-E in preeclampsia placenta tissue as well as their relationship with cell apoptosis. Methods:A total of 34 patients with preeclampsia were selected as the preeclampsia group of the study and 46 normal pregnant women were selected as the normal pregnancy group of the study; peripheral blood was collected to determine the levels of T lymphocyte subsets, serum was collected to determine the levels of corresponding cytokines of T lymphocyte subsets, and placenta tissue was collected to determine the number of NK cells and the levels of HLA-G and HLA-E.Results:CD56+NK fluorescence intensity and protein content in placenta tissue of preeclampsia group were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group, the HLA-G fluorescence intensity and protein content were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group, and the HLA-E fluorescence intensity and protein content were not significantly different from those of normal pregnancy group; the number of Th1 and Th17 in peripheral blood as well as the levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 in serum of preeclampsia group were higher than those of normal pregnancy group and positively correlated with the number of NK cells; the number of Th2, Treg and Ts as well as the levels of IL-4 and TGF-β in serum were lower than those of normal pregnancy group and negatively correlated with the number of NK cells; SMG-1, Stat3 and Bcl-2 levels in placenta tissue of preeclampsia group were significantly lower than those of normal pregnancy group and negatively correlated with the number of NK cells; Bax and p53 levels were significantly higher than those of normal pregnancy group and positively correlated with the number of NK cells.Conclusion: T lymphocyte subset function change in patients with preeclampsia will lead to increased number of NK cells in placenta tissue, thus promoting the trophoblast cell apoptosis.

  18. Toxocariosis humana en pacientes con lesión ocular

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    Yrma Espinoza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de toxocariosis humana en sujetos con sintomatología ocular sospechosa. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudió personas atendidas en servicios de Oftalmología de varios hospitales de Lima, quienes luego de la evaluación especializada presentaban síntomas y lesiones compatibles con toxocariosis intraocular. Se obtuvo muestras de sangre de cada participante y se realizó serología para Toxocara mediante la técnica de ELISA, así mismo recuento de leucocitos y fórmula diferencial. También se aplicó una encuesta epidemiológica para identificar conductas que pudieran asociarse a mayor riesgo de infección. RESULTADOS: Se estudió 45 personas, 19 varones y 26 mujeres; el 55,6% fue reactivo en la prueba de ELISA. No hubo diferencias en cuanto a sexo y el resultado de serología; entre los participantes de 15 y 44 años, se encontró 63% de reactivos. No se evidenció diferencias significativas con los factores epidemiológicos estudiados. Tampoco se observó asociación entre el hallazgo de eosinofilia y el resultado de la serología. CONCLUSIÓN: La infección humana por Toxocara es frecuente en sujetos clínicamente sospechosos y afecta principalmente a población en edad productiva, por lo que debería buscarse precozmente la infección para prevenir complicaciones.

  19. Educación centrada en valores y dignidad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa YUREN CAMAREN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La imagen esperanzadora que perfilaron no pocos intelectuales, políticos, banqueros y empresarios a partir del término de la guerra fría, del supuesto «fin de las ideologías» y de la idea de la «aldea global» se desvaneció bajo los trazos que la realidad fue delineando como signos de una creciente tendencia a la barbarie que pone en peligro la vida en el plantea y que lesiona, de muchas maneras y en muchos rincones de la tierra, la dignidad humana3. Ante este panorama, se ha vuelto insistente la pregunta respecto de si los procesos educativos escolares pueden contribuir en algo para oponerse a esa tendencia. La respuesta positiva a esta interrogante se ha traducido en diversos esfuerzos para desarrollar lo que se ha llamado «educación valoral», o «educación centrada en valores, esfuerzos que si bien difieren en el signo teórico e ideológico y en el tipo de estrategia aplicada, han estimulado la interlocución, la reflexión y el estudio sobre el tema. El presente trabajo tiene la intención de contribuir a ese debate teórico al aportar algunos elementos que sustentan la tesis de que una educación escolar centrada en valores ha de ser un proceso eminentemente formativo que tenga como horizonte axiológico la dignidad humana.

  20. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-02-24

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using ultrasound (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  1. The evolving placenta: convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-05-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting of maternal endothelium, interstitial lamina, trophoblast, individual or conjoint basal laminas, and fetal endothelium. We commonly think of such placentas as having hypertrophied maternal endothelium with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and as having hemophagous regions. Considering them as a whole, the trophoblast may be syncytial or cellular, fenestrated or nonfenestrated, and there may or may not be hemophagous regions. Variations also appear in the extent of hypertrophy of the maternal endothelium and in the abundance of rER in these cells. This combination of traits and a few other features produces many morphological variants. In addition to endotheliochorial as a definitive condition, a transitory endotheliochorial condition may appear in the course of forming a hemochorial placenta. In some emballonurid bats the early endotheliochorial placenta has two layers of trophoblast, but the definitive placenta lacks an outer syncytial trophoblast layer. In mollosid bats a well developed endotheliochorial placenta is present for a short time even after a definitive hemochorial placenta has developed in a different region. It is concluded that the endotheliochorial placenta is more widespread and diversified than originally thought, with the variant with cellular trophoblast in particular appearing in several species studied recently.

  2. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin......-Sepharose affinity chromatography, the EL protein eluted as a single peak without detectable phospholipid or triglyceride (TG) lipase activity. The major portion of LPL protein eluted slightly after EL. This peak also had no lipase activity and most likely contained monomeric LPL. Fractions eluting at a higher Na......Cl concentration contained small amounts of LPL protein (most likely dimeric LPL) and had substantial TG lipase activity. In situ hybridization studies showed EL mRNA expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and endothelial cells and LPL mRNA in syncytiotrophoblasts. In contrast, immunohistochemistry showed EL and LPL...

  3. Sonographic features of placenta accreta after first-trimester abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zheng, Qichao; Xiong, Bin; Cai, Hongbing

    2013-08-01

    We assessed 5 patients with histologically/clinically confirmed placenta accreta after first-trimester abortion. In 4 patients, sonography showed an unclear endometrium, absence of an endometrium-myometrium interface, a well-vascularized hyperechoic lesion in the uterine body with a low resistive index, and myometrial thinning near the lesion. In 2 patients, contrast-enhanced sonography showed rapid irregular lesion enhancement. Chemotherapy reduced the lesions in 3 patients, and a decreased blood supply increased the resistive index in all lesions. Two patients each underwent hysterectomy and uterine curettage. The fifth patient had a cervical pregnancy; sonography showed a well-vascularized hyperechoic lesion in an enlarged cervix. Methotrexate gradually reduced this lesion. Sonography, especially contrast-enhanced sonography, can detect placenta accreta and guide treatment.

  4. Infectious lesions of placenta as cause of miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kolobov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the literature demonstratesimportant role played of infections in causes of miscarriage. The paper is based upon retrospective analysis of 12371 screening results of histological and selective immunohistochemical studies of placentas in 2009-12. Preterm births were in 706 cases (5.71%. Infection of the placenta was noted in early preterm labor in all cases (100%, and in premature labor at 28-36 weeks of gestation – in 97.35% of natural delivery cases and in 92.09% when cesarean delivery. Are described the typical structural changes that allow to suspect infections caused by Treponema pallidum, herpes viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus with following verification by immunohistochemical study. 

  5. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: A 3-year Nordic collaboration...... National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...

  6. MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY PLACENTA PREVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated with placenta previa at tertiary care centre and to evaluate the potential risk factors involved in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa at tertiary care C ent re. METHOD: We carried out 2 year retrospective observational study during period from November 2009 to October 2011 Tertiary care hospital and medical college. ANC cases with history of bleeding per vaginum after 28 weeks attending ANC clinic and emergenc y ward were included in study with appropriate age parity matched controls with other complications like pregnancy induced hypertension, abruption placentae, multiple gestation were excluded. Demographic data, medical and surgical histories, all the events regarding maternal and perinatal mortality were recorded. Data was analysed by using appropriate software . RESULTS: 136 cases of placenta previa were analysed and found prevalence of placenta previa was 1.36%. During the present study 41.80% cases were bo oked and 58.20% cases were unbooked. Maximum number of cases in present study were in the age group of 18 - 24 years. Previous caesarean (57.49% and previous abortion (42.53% found important risk factors.41.04% cases were delivered at 33 - 36 weeks of gestat ion followed by 33.58% in 28 - 32 weeks of gestation. Expectant management was given to 37.32% of cases while 62.68% cases were managed on active basis. In present study maternal morbidity were postpartum hemorrhage (56.71%, sepsis (37.31%, urinary tract i nfection (5.22%, wound infection (5.22%,wound gape (4.47%, hysterectomy (2.23%, prolonged hospital stay >10 days (17.91%. There were two (1.49% maternal mortality in present study. Maximum number of infants i.e . 58.20% had bir th eight between 1.6 to 2.4kg. O ut of this 16.41% were of 1.6 - 2kg and 41.79% comprised of 2.1 - 2.4 kg. 39.55% infant required NICU admission and 60.45% of cases were with mother. Perinatal

  7. Sir William Turner and his studies on the mammalian placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Reginald

    2003-06-01

    William Turner was appointed Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in 1867, and from 1903 until his death in 1916, he was Principal and Vice-Chancellor. He was an outstanding teacher and many of those he taught went on to occupy chairs of anatomy. He published widely on anatomical subjects and one of his interests was comparative anatomy and physiology of the placenta. This paper takes a brief look at Turner's studies on the anatomical structure of the placenta, its comparative anatomy, his thoughts about its physiology and its place in the evolutionary process. At the time, these lectures constituted an anatomical and physiological classic. At the time Turner prepared his lectures, which were delivered in 1875 and 1876, little was known about the gestatory process in marsupials or monotremes. These mammals have a very brief period of intrauterine gestation and placentation and mention is made of studies that have been done in recent times on this subject.

  8. Omentin-1 Is Decreased in Maternal Plasma, Placenta and Adipose Tissue of Women with Pre-Existing Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine (i) the effect of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on (i) the circulating levels of omentin-1 in cord and maternal plasma, and (ii) gene expression and release of omentin-1 from human placenta and adipose tissue. The effect of pregnancy on circulating omentin-1 levels was also determined. DESIGN: Omentin-1 levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma from obese and non-obese normal glucose tolerant women (NGT; n = 4...

  9. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. I...

  10. A Marked Increase in Obstetric Hysterectomy for Placenta Accreta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Pan; Yu-Ping Wang; Zheng Zheng; Yan Tian; Ying-Ying Hu; Su-Hui Han

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently.The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care.Methods:A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014.Maternal characteristics,preoperative evaluation,operative reports,and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail.Results:There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries.Comparing the study periods between 2004-2010 and 2011-2014,OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948).Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05),and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05).Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta.A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta.Conclusion:As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen,there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta.An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography,and MRI,and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.

  11. Re-aproximaciones y posibles aplicaciones del concepto de seguridad humana

    OpenAIRE

    Waldimeiry Corrêa da Silva; Roberta Silva Machado

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo describe y analiza el concepto de seguridad humana en el ámbito de Naciones Unidas y de las Relaciones Internacionales y su relación con la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger (R2P). Pretendemos responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿La utilización de la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger amplía el concepto de la seguridad humana o lo reduce a su dimensión vertical? ¿El concepto de seguridad humana contribuye a la comprensión y enfrenta...

  12. La "Dignitatis humanae" e la nuova laicità oltre la rivoluzione e la controrivoluzione

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, V.V. (V.Vittorio)

    2012-01-01

    La declaración sobre la libertad religiosa, Dignitatis humanae, representa un paso importante tanto en la presentación de la libertad humana dentro de la Iglesia como en el campo político. Al consagrar la conciencia y la libertad religiosa como un bien supremo, Dignitatis humanae completa la reflexión de Gaudium et spes sobre la Iglesia en el mundo moderno. Se establece el cristianismo como una religión del Logos, del diálogo y de la búsqueda. En la actual era de la gl...

  13. Mujeres y dignidad humana. Antecedentes en el Sistema Interamericano y en el Derecho constitucional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bohórquez Monsalve

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto analiza la aplicación del derecho a la dignidad humana en casos relacionados con los derechos humanos de las mujeres. Primero se indaga por los principales instrumentos interamericanos que protegen la dignidad humana. Posteriormente se estudian los alcances y las limitaciones de los informes de la Comisión Interamericana y la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana. En tercer lugar se presenta la postura de la Corte Constitucional de Colombia en casos de mujeres relacionados con los postulados internacionales. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones acerca del alcance y efectividad del derecho a la dignidad humana de las mujeres.

  14. Manifiesto por una reconfiguración de las ciencias humanas/sociales. una perspectiva vygotskyana

    OpenAIRE

    Bronckart, Jean Paul; Clémence, Alain; Schneuwly, Bernard; Schurmans, Marie Noëlle

    2010-01-01

    En este Manifiesto sostenemos que la metodología global de las ciencias humanas/sociales es del orden de la comprensión. Sobre el fondo del pre-conocimiento de la actividad humana de la cual participa, el investigador está siempre confrontado a la interpretación de acciones y de textos, a través de los cuales intenta leer las modalidades de organización de las representaciones humanas, y a través de las cuales intenta por consiguiente una mejor comprensión. Es entonces en este contexto global...

  15. 前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的关系研究%Relationship research of placenta previa,adherent placenta and placenta implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的相关性。方法对入我院进行分娩的3280例孕妇资料进行分析,选择其中342例发生胎盘异常孕妇进行研究,包括未经人工流产和人工流产的孕妇前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入的发生率;人工流产的次数与前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入的关系以及围产期感染相关因素的研究。结果未经人工流产孕妇胎盘总的异常率为3.7%,人工流产孕妇胎盘总的异常率为14.3%,两组胎盘异常总发生率比较显著差异(P<0.05);流产次数越多,胎盘异常发生率随着次数增高而增高;围产期感染与产前贫血、宫腔感染和产妇营养不良关系密切(P<0.05)。结论前置胎盘、胎盘粘连及胎盘植入与人工流产的关系密切,多次人工流产易导致胎盘异常情况的发生,又易由于胎盘异常导致产后出血,育龄女性应尽量避免人工流产。%Objective To study the correlation between placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation. Methods Data of 3280 pregnant women delivered in our hospital were analyzed, of which 342 pregnant women with abnormal placenta were selected for research, including the incidences of placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation of the pregnant women having gone and having not gone through induced abortion, relationship between the times of induced abortion and the placenta previa, adherent placenta and placenta implantation, and study on perinatal infection related factors. Results The total abnormal placenta rate of the pregnant women having not gone through induced abortion was 3.7%and that of those having gone through induced abortion was 14.3%, with significant difference between the total incidences of abnormal placenta(P < 0.05).The incidence of abnormal placenta went up as the times of induced abortion rose; Perinatal infection was closely related to

  16. Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternkamp, S E; Gregory, K E

    1999-01-01

    Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.

  17. Management of Amniotic Sheet with a Hammock-like Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amniotic sheet is a septation in the amniotic cavity with a perforation that allows amniotic fluid to pass through. Although the incidence of abnormal placental implantation is higher in such cases, the management recommendations remain unclear. We report a case of an amniotic sheet with a hammock-like placenta located in the center of the uterine cavity. A 25-year-old woman with a history of two dilation and curettage procedures was found to have an amniotic cavity separated by a septum that contained part of the placenta. At gestational Week 32, magnetic resonance images revealed that the placenta was attached from the anterior to posterior uterine walls and resembled a hammock hanging in the center of the uterus. Subsequently, continuous intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate were given. The pregnancy was extended to Week 36. Elective cesarean section was performed, and a 3212-g female infant was delivered. Thus, owing to the risk of umbilical cord complications and placental injury secondary to premature rupture of membranes, aggressive and careful perinatal management is required in such cases.

  18. [A retrospective analysis on the pernicious placenta previa from 2008 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Hu, K J; Yang, H X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the incidence changes, clinical characteristics and pregnant outcomes of pernicious placenta previa. A retrospective cohort analysis on 316 cases with placenta previa in the Peking University First Hospital from January 2008 to December 2014. The research group were 60 cases with the patients of placenta previa with the history of cesarean section, and the control group were placenta previa without the history of cesarean section. Compared with the incidence, intraoperative blood loss, the pregnancy outcomes and so on. (1) The average incidence rate of placenta previa during the past 7 years was 10.96 ‰ (316/28 837). And the cases of pernicious placenta previa was 60 (2.08‰, 60/28 837), the incidence of pernicious placenta previa was rising from 2008 to 2014 (0.91‰-3.08‰). (2) There were 145 cases of placenta privia had been translation from other hospitals in the past 7 years. The referral rate of pregnant women with placenta previa was 45.9% (145/316), and the referral rate of pernicious placenta previa (63.3%, 38/60) was significantly higher than that of non-pernicious placenta previa group (41.8%, 107/256; χ(2)=9.080, P=0.003). Referral the outcomes of these patients were good, and no maternal death occurred. (3) The placenta in the research group were mainly adhered in the front wall of the uterine, and the incidence was 38.5% (15/39), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa (12.1%, 21/174; χ(2)=57.636, Pplacenta increased in research group was 53.3% (32/60), higher than that in the group of non-pernicious placenta previa, compared with the control group, there was significant difference (15.6%, 40/256; χ(2)= 39.041, Pplacenta previa were respectively 4.7% (12/256), 12.9% (33/256), 1.2% (3/256), 8.6% (22/256), compared those in other two groups, there were not significant difference (Pplacenta previa increased year by year, patients with placenta previa has a history of cesarean section often combined with

  19. Influência de células tronco mesenquimais de placenta humana sobre a biologia de neurônios e astrócitos de camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Etcheverria, Camila Erlinda

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Florianópolis, 2013. O Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) isquêmico é uma das doenças que mais levam a óbito no mundo, sendo uma das doenças neurológicas que podem levar a um permanente dano neuronal. O único tratamento aprovado para o AVC agudo é a terapia trombolítica intravenosa, realizada através do ativador de plasminogênio t...

  20. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  1. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Seify, Zahra; Haghighi, Ladan; Khoshnood Shariati, Maryam; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh

    2016-11-01

     Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (Pplacenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  2. A danish national cohort study on neonatal outcome in singleton pregnancies with placenta previa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lone N; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the incidence of placenta previa and to assess neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies with placenta previa after adjustment for previous cesarean section, smoking, multiparity, maternal age and in-vitro fertilization. Design. National cohort study. Setting. Danish ...... score, being transferred to neonatal intensive care and for death.......Objective. To describe the incidence of placenta previa and to assess neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancies with placenta previa after adjustment for previous cesarean section, smoking, multiparity, maternal age and in-vitro fertilization. Design. National cohort study. Setting. Danish....... Main outcome measures. Gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score after 5min, stillbirth, neonatal mortality and admittance to neonatal intensive care unit. Results. The incidence of placenta previa in Denmark was 0.54% in 2006. Neonates born after pregnancies with placenta previa had a higher risk...

  3. [Diagnosis of placenta previa accreta by two dimensional ultrasonography and color doppler in patients with cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huafang; Pi, Pixiang; Ding, Yiling

    2012-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of two dismensional sonography and color doppler in diagnosing placenta previa accreta in patients with previous cesarean section. Forty-one patients with previous cesarean sections were confirmed to have partial or total placenta previa in the current pregnancy and were given ultrasound examinations after the 28th week of gestation. Specific ultrasound features of the placenta and its interphase with the uterus and the bladder for placenta accreta were checked by two-dimensional ultrasonography and color Doppler. All the patients were traced until delivery. The golden standard in diagnosis was the intraoperative finding and the pathologic exam. Twenty-two patients had ultrasonographic evidence of placenta previa, 20 of which were later confirmed placenta previa accreta intraoperatively. Nineteen patients had no ultrasound evidence of placenta previa, and 1 of which was later confirmed placenta previa accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa accreta were 95.24% and 94.74% respectively. The most prominent feature to suggest placenta accreta in twodismensional sonography was the presence of multiple lakes that represented dilated vessels extending from the placenta through the myometrium. The most prominent color Doppler feature was the presence of interphase hypervascularity with abnormal vessels linking the placenta to the bladder, and the rate was 95.24%. Placenta previa accreta can be diagnosed made with a thorough two dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler examination in patients with previous cesarean scar and placenta previa.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  5. Citotoxicidad y genotoxicidad en células humanas expuestas in vitro a glifosato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Milena Monroy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El glifosato es un herbicida de amplio espectro, no selectivo, utilizado para eliminar malezas indeseables en ambientes agrícolas y forestales. La acción herbicida corresponde a la inhibición de la biosíntesis de aminoácidos aromáticos en las plantas. Al no ser este mecanismo compartido por los seres humanos es considerado como de bajo riesgo para la salud de los mismos. Sin embargo, investigaciones recientes indican que puede alterar otros procesos celulares en animales lo que puede presentar un factor de riesgo a nivel ambiental y de salud en las zonas donde se emplea este herbicida. Objetivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la citotoxicidad y la genotoxicidad del glifosato en células humanas normales (GM38 y en células humanas de fibrosarcoma (HT1080. Materiales y métodos. La citotoxicidad aguda y crónica se determinó al exponer las células en cultivo a diferentes concentraciones de glifosato, y se analizó la viabilidad celular con cristal violeta y colorante de exclusión azul de tripano, respectivamente. La genotoxicidad se determinó por medio del ensayo del cometa y los datos se analizaron usando la prueba de Dunnet. Resultados. En la citotoxicidad crónica las células GM38 y las HT1080 presentaron un efecto dependiente de la dosis después del tratamiento con glifosato en concentraciones de 5,2 a 8,5 mM y 0,9 a 3,0 mM, respectivamente. En la citotoxicidad aguda, las células GM38 y las HT1080 expuestas a un rango de concentraciones de 4,0 a 7,0 mM, 4,5 a 5,75 mM y 4,0 a 7,0 mM, respectivamente, presentaron una viabilidad mayor al 80%. Se evidenció daño en el ADN después del tratamiento con glifosato en concentraciones de 4,0 a 6,5 mM para las células GM38 y de 4,75 a 5,75 mM para las células HT1080. Conclusiones. Se sugiere que el mecanismo de acción del glifosato no se limita únicamente a las plantas sino que puede alterar la estructura del ADN en otros tipos de células como son las de

  6. ClinicalAnalysisofDangerousPlacentaPreviaComplicatedwithPlacentaAccreta%凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌燕

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的发病率、诊断方法、治疗及预防措施。方法对我院65例凶险性前置胎盘进行回顾性分析,其中并发胎盘植入29例。结果本研究凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入发生率为44.62%(29/65),其产后出血量>2000mL发生率、弥漫性血管内凝血(DIC)发生率、产褥感染率及子宫切除率高于未并发胎盘植入者;早产率及新生儿预后情况两者无显著差异(P>0.05)。结论凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入者,产后出血量大,易致失血性休克、DIC、产褥感染,增加子宫切除风险;降低剖宫产率,是减少凶险性前置胎盘并发胎盘植入的关键。%Objective To discuss the incidence, diagnostic methods ,treatment methods and prevention of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta. Methods Retrospective analysis 65 cases of dangerous placenta previa admitted to our hospital in June 2007-2012, including 29 cases complicated with placenta accreta. Results In the present study the incidence rate of dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta was 44.62%(29/65). The postpartum incidence and hemorrhage, the incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), puerperal infection rate and the rate of hysterectomy of dangerous placenta praevia complicated with placenta accreta in patients was more than not complicated with placenta accreta in patients. The rate of preterm birth and neonatal prognosis has no signiifcant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion Dangerous placenta praevia complicated with placenta accreta in patients have a high incidence of postpartum hemorrhage, prone to cause hemorrhagic shock, DIC, puerperal infection, increase the risk of uterine resection. The key to reduce the dangerous placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta is reducing the rate of cesarean section.

  7. Estudio psicométrico de la prueba figura humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhilde Sánchez de Gallardo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las propiedades psicométricas de la prueba proyectiva Test de la figura humana (Machover, 1976, administrada en la exploración aptitudinal de los aspirantes a cursar estudios en la mención orientación, una de las diez menciones de la carrera Educación, en La Universidad el Zulia, Venezuela. Se utilizaron como autores principales Cohen y Swerdlik (2006, Hogan (2004, Larsen y Buss (2005 y Shaughnessy, Zechmeister y Zechmeister (2007. La metodología fue descriptiva, de campo, diseño no experimental. La prueba se aplicó a 559 personas, 484 de sexo femenino y 75 de sexo masculino, con edades entre 17 a 47 años. El coeficiente de fiabilidad obtenido con el método de la división por mitades fue de 0,77 interpretado medio alto, lo cual indica que el test es fiable, es decir existe correlación entre las mitades y los ítemes de cada una de las partes de la prueba. La confiabilidad interobservadores, efectuada por tres evaluadores independientes, resultó en un coeficiente de 0.87 la cual se interpreta como alta. Para determinar la validez de la prueba se utilizó la de constructo, con el índice de consistencia interna, encontrándose un valor de 0,51, que indica poca relación entre los diferentes aspectos medidos por la prueba, lo cual demuestra heterogeneidad de estos elementos. Se construyó un baremo local y se obtuvieron las normas de interpretación para la población mencionada. Se concluye que el test de la figura humana tiene fiabilidad y validez, sus resultados son consistentes y el instrumento mide el constructo que se pretende medir, recomendándose la utilización de las normas obtenidas para la interpretación de resultados.

  8. Assessment of total placenta previa by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography to detect placenta accreta and its variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Nuri; Turan, Volkan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ozgur; Sever, Ahmet; Kazandi, Mert; Zekioglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting placental adherence defects. Patients diagnozed with total placenta previa (n = 40) in whom hysterectomy was performed due to placental adherence defects (n = 20) or in whom the placenta detached spontaneously after a Cesarean delivery (n = 20) were included into the study between June 2008 and January 2011, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ege University (lzmir Turkey). Gray-scale US was used to check for any placental lacunae, sub-placental sonolucent spaces or a placental mass invading the vesicouterine plane and bladder Intra-placental lacunar turbulent blood flow and an increase in vascularization in the vesicouterine plane were evaluated with color Doppler mode. Subsequently all patients had MRI and the results were compared with the histopathologic examinations. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of placental adherence defects before the operation was 95%, with a specificity of 95%. In the presence of at least one diagnostic criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 87.5% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of color Doppler US was 62.5% with a specificity of 100%. Currently MRI appears to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. None of the ultrasonographic criteria is solely sufficient to diagnose placental adherence defects, however they assist in the diagnostic process.

  9. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  10. Clinical study of placenta previa and its effect on maternal health and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarojini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Advancing maternal age, multiparity, prior cesarean section, and prior abortions are independent risk factors for placenta previa. Placenta praevia remains a risk factor for adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. The detection of placenta previa should encourage a careful evaluation with timely delivery to reduce the associated maternal and perinatal complications. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3496-3499

  11. GDM-Induced Macrosomia Is Reversed by Cav-1 via AMPK-Mediated Fatty Acid Transport and GLUT1-Mediated Glucose Transport in Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guo; Zhang, Yafang; Wang, Di; Yang, Ruirui; Sang, Hui; Han, Linlin; Zhu, Yuexia; Lu, Yanyan; Tan, Yeke; Shang, Zhanping

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if the role of Cav-1 in GDM-induced macrosomia is through regulating AMPK signaling pathway in placenta. We used diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia to separate and compare placental protein and mRNA levels from GDM with macrosomia group (GDMM), GDM with normal birth weight group (GDMN) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with normal birth weight group (CON). Western blotting was performed to examine differentially expressed proteins of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway related proteins, including phosphorylated-AMPKα(Thr172), AMPKα, phosphorylated-Acetyl-CoA carboxylase(Ser79) (p-ACC(Ser79)), ACC and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in placenta between the three groups. The mRNA levels of Cav-1, AMPKα, ACC and GLUT1 in placenta were measured by real time-PCR. In the GDMM placenta group, both protein and mRNA levels of Cav-1 were down-regulated, while GLUT1 was up-regulated; the phosphorylation and mRNA levels of ACC and AMPKα were decreased, but total ACC protein levels were increased compared to both the GDMN (p<0.05) and CON groups (p<0.05). In GDMM placenta group, there was a significant negative correlation observed between neonatal birth weight (NBW) and protein expression levels of Cav-1, p-ACC(Ser79) and p-AMPKα(Thr172) (p<0.05), while positive relationship with ACC and GLUT1 protein levels. Besides, in GDMM group placental mRNA levels, NBW had a positive correlation with GLUT1 (p<0.05), while negative with Cav-1, AMPKα and ACC expression (p<0.05). Cav-1 protein expression was positively associated with p-AMPK and p-ACC (p<0.05), and negatively associated with GLUT1 (p<0.05). Interestingly, p-AMPK protein expression was closely related to p-ACC (p<0.05), but not with GLUT1. GDM-induced macrosomias have more severe inhibition of Cav-1 expression in placenta. Cav-1 is associated with placental glucose and fatty acid transport via the induction

  12. Patologia cardiovascular en pacientes con infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Rodriguez, German

    2012-01-01

    La infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) estuvo asociada a un incremento de la morbimortalidad, dado que inducia un estado de inmunosupresion severa, la cual facilitaba la aparicion de infecciones oportunistas...

  13. El concepto de dignidad humana y la utopia realista de los derechos humanos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Habermas, Jurgen

    2010-01-01

    En este articulo Habermas defiende la tesis que sostiene que siempre ha existido una conexion interna entre la nocion moral de dignidad humana y la concepcion juridica de los derechos humanos, aunque...

  14. Alternative management in a case of placenta accreta with previous caesarean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani M. Parikh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of caesarean is increasing day by day, and with it the chance of repeat caesarean. This has led to a rise in the chance of occurrence of placenta accreta. Control of bleeding is the main goal in such cases, which usually necessitates hysterectomy. But alternative methods are useful when retaining fertility is important. We present this case of a 30 yr old female who was admitted as a case of central placenta previa with previous caesarean. Per operatively, placenta was attached along the incision and baby was delivered by separating the placenta attached above the upper margin of incision. On attempting to remove the placenta attached to lower part of incision, it was found to be adherent along the previous scar. So placenta was removed piece meal, some part was left behind. Box sutures were taken over that part and uterine packing was done to control the bleeding. Post operatively the patient was fine and given injection Methotrexate on 8th day following the regime of 1, 3, 5, 7 days. She failed to expulse the placenta by 6wks, so D&E was done and retained products were removed. Leaving the placenta in situ followed by Methotrexate and interval removal of placenta can thus be helpful in conserving the uterus and hence, the fertility. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2012; 1(1.000: 58-60

  15. Antioxidants activities and concentration of selenium, zinc and copper in preterm and IUGR human placentas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozna, Monika; Gawlik, Małgorzata; Nowak, Barbara; Marcinek, Antoni; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in activities of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) levels and copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) concentrations, and to assess the possible differences between preterm placentas, placentas from term pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and full-term control placentas. The enzyme activities and the level of GSH decreased in IUGR and preterm placentas in comparison with the control group. CCO activity and GSH level in preterm placentas were markedly lower compared with the IUGR (P<0.01; P<0.05) and control (P<0.01; P<0.05) placentas, respectively. In IUGR placentas the level of Cu was reduced by 23% (P<0.05) and Zn by 37%. In preterm placentas the level of Cu was reduced by 19% and Zn by 42%. Se level in IUGR and preterm placentas was higher (P<0.05) by 28% and 32% than in control group, respectively. The strong relation was observed between birth weight and CCO activity, birth weight and Cu-Zn SOD activity, and a low level of Zn and Cu influenced the birth weight especially in IUGR cases. Moreover, the strong inverse correlation between Se level and birth weight, Se level and placental weight and Se level and CCO activity are new findings.

  16. La persona humana como relación en el orden del Origen

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del artículo es mostrar que la noción de persona humana significa relación en orden al Origen, es decir, a Dios. Tal relación no es una operación o actividad (accidente) propia de la esencia humana, sino constitutiva del acto de ser personal humano. ‘El hombre es persona’ equivale a ‘el hombre nace de Dios’.

  17. 前置胎盘与胎盘植入相关因素分析%Study on related factors for placenta praevia and placenta accreta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭冬梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结前置胎盘与胎盘植入的相关因素及对母婴的影响.方法 对2007年10月至2010年4月间收治的96例前置胎盘和12例前置胎盘合并胎盘植入患者的孕周、胎盘位置、产妇年龄、妊娠次数、产后出血量及新生儿Apgar 评分等指标进行回顾性分析.结果 7 968产妇中,前置胎盘者发生率为1.20%(96/7 968).前置胎盘合并胎盘植入者12例,占前置胎盘的12.5%(12/96).胎盘植入的发生率与产妇孕产次、胎盘位置明显相关,而与其年龄、孕周关系无明显相关性.中央型胎盘胎盘植入的发生率明显高于边缘性胎盘,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).合并胎盘植入组产后出血、新生儿窒息和早产发生率均明显高于前置胎盘组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 胎盘植入与前置胎盘有相关关系,中央型前置胎盘及3次以上妊娠为胎盘植入的高危因素.胎盘植入严重危害母婴生命,针对胎盘植入的危险因素加以预防,对提高母婴生活质量有重要意义.%Objective To explore the related factors for placenta praevia and placenta aeereta and the impact on mother and child.Meth-ods The clinical data of ninety six patients with placenta praevia and 12 of them combined with placenta aeereta admitted in this hospital during JanumT 2007 to April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed for gestational age,placental location,maternal age,number of pregnancy,postpartum hemorrhage and Apgar scores of newborns.Results Among 7 968 pregnant wonlen,the incidence rate of placenta praevia was 1.20%(96/7 968).Twelve cases of placenta praevia combined with placenta aeereta accounted for 12.5%of patients with placenta praevia(12/96).The oc-currence of placenta accreta was related to tinms of gravid and delivery and location of placenta,and there was no significant relationship with their age and gestational age.The incidence of placenta accreta in central placenta was significantly higher than that oeeun'ed at

  18. Dignidad humana y situaciones terminales Human dignity and terminal situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Masiá

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available No hay que confundir la dignidad con las condiciones indignas en que puede encontrarse una persona por circunstancias exteriores o por la enfermedad. La persona paciente en situación terminal tiene dignidad humana, que exige ser respetada, no por ser paciente terminal, sino simplemente por ser persona. Pero es cierto que en situaciones terminales puede verse particularmente amenazada la dignidad. Sin embargo, no se debe deducir del criterio de respetar la dignidad la conclusión de prolongar la vida biológica a toda costa, sino la de garantizar la mejor calidad del vivir durante el proceso de morir y de acompañar dignamente a la persona que se aproxima a la muerte ayudándole a asumirla.Dignity should not be confused with the unbecoming conditions that a person can find himself in due to external situations or disease. The person/patient in a terminal situation has human dignity, which must be respected not because he/she is a terminal patient but simply because he/she is a person. But it is true that in terminal situations dignity can be particularly threatened. Nonetheless, one must not deduce from the criterion of respecting dignity the conclusion of prolonging biological life at all costs, but instead that of guaranteeing the best quality of living during the process of dying and of worthily accompanying the person who is approaching death by helping him to accept this.

  19. El significado del éxito reproductivo en poblaciones humanas

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    Crognier, Emile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la sociobióloga, el éxito reproductivo a sido desde el principio, la medida universal del valor adaptivo. La noción es muy discutible, considerando que se trata de una estimación individual, inapropiada a evaluar el valor selectivo de un (supuesto genotipo, pero a pesar de su inadecuación y de la simplificación de su evaluación en la mayoridad de los estudios, el éxito reproductivo permanezco una medida muy popular. En el caso de las poblaciones humanas, su medida tuvo que ser aun más simplificada para tomar en cuenta la larga extinción de las generaciones, hasta ser el número de descendientes sobreviviendo hasta madurez sexual. Sin embargo, su definición aun no logro de ser ni precisa ni satisfactoria y los últimos trabajos parecen indicar que así como el coeficiente de consanguinidad, su significado se revela en la profundidad de la sucesión de las generaciones. Se discuta este tema, apoyándose en datos de grupos Beraber de Marueccos y Aymara de Bolivia

  20. El zinc, micronutriente importante en la salud humana

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La importancia biológica del zinc fue admitida por primera vez hace más de un siglo y en la actualidad continúan los estudios que avalan su valor en la nutrición humana. Se ha comprobado que la falta de zinc es bastante frecuente en la población de los países en vías de desarrollo, sobre todo en edades pediátricas, y se asocia en general a malnutrición y deficiencias de otros micronutrientes. El diagnóstico de la deficiencia leve de zinc en el hombre es difícil, ya que produce muchos síntomas clínicos inespecíficos. Por todo ello se realizó una revisión bibliográfica, para contribuir a incrementar los conocimientos del personal médico sobre su importancia, alimentos donde se puede encontrar, patologías en las que más está indicado su uso en pediatría y la forma de administración

  1. Toxocariosis humana: ¿problema de salud pública?

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    Pedro Huapaya H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar y sistematizar la información existente sobre la infección humana por el género Toxocara. Se describe los mecanismos de transmisión, epidemiología, formas clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, esquemas de tratamiento. Además, se resalta su importancia como causa infecciosa de ceguera, en población joven, que resulta potencialmente prevenible y curable mediante el diagnóstico precoz. Por lo cual, se plantea propuestas para implementar la vigilancia epidemiológica. Asimismo, algunas sugerencias para mejorar la legislación existente que permita disminuir el riesgo de la transmisión a la población en general e incrementar el conocimiento que existe sobre esta infección en nuestro país.

  2. Conectividade: limitações humanas no uso de emails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoje vivenciamos o que costumo denominar de era da conectividade. Trata-se de um momento da história humana onde a comunicação tem sido muito exercitada por uma quantidade cada vez mais crescente de usuários da Internet. A conectividade propiciada pela Internet tem servido e muito ao que denomino de propulsor dos três C’s que compreendem comunicação, colaboração e compartilhamento como discutido em outros artigos [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] e [6]. Embora os usuários tenham usado cada vez mais a Internet para os três C’s, comunicação é uma arte vez e esta requer atenção e habilidade por parte dos usuários da Internet. Nesse sentido este artigo discute aspectos da comunicação influenciados pelo uso da Internet.

  3. Nuestra esencia: la condición humana

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    Bertilio Neri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo paradigma del conocimiento está asociado a la intersubjetividad, la trans disciplina y la complejidad. La comprensión e interpretación de los procesos y fenómenos de la realidad, es posible si se atiende a la trama discursiva en la que se genera la contextualidad que da forma y contenido a las formas cognitivas de la razón, a partir de la diversidad, incertidumbre y las contradicciones. Se está en presencia de una reforma radical del pensamiento y de las instituciones, en todos sus órdenes y saberes. La universidad, debe responder a este reto creando las condiciones históricas para reformar el pensamiento, apren diendo de otro modo a saber pensar desde la crítica liberadora y el diálogo con las otras disciplinas y culturas. Los estudios de doctorado deben recoger en sus pensa y programas de investigación el nuevo rol de la epis te me en la construcción de un científico social más comprometido con su condición humana y ciudadana.

  4. Altas tecnologías, conflictos armados y seguridad humana

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    Elena del Mar García Rico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El examen de las amenazas para la seguridad y el bienestar de las personas inherentes al concepto de seguridad humana exige ocuparse también de las consecuencias que la utilización de las altas tecnologías puedan ocasionar en relación con los conflictos armados actuales. De ahí que en este trabajo abordemos los cambios relevantes en la naturaleza y características de los nuevos conflictos armados provocados por la celeridad y amplitud en el empleo de altas tecnologías y su desigual distribución entre los beligerantes, tal y como muestran las llamadas guerras de coste cero, de cuarta generación o asimétricas, e incluso las híbridas. Asimismo, el desarrollo reciente de las capacidades militares cibernéticas, de los sistemas de armas autónomos y de los vehículos aéreos no tripulados plantea nuevos retos al Derecho Internacional Humanitario, aspectos contemplados en este estudio.

  5. CIENCIAS HUMANAS Y EMERGENCIA DE LA EDAD DIGITAL

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    Fischer, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estamos pasando de la era del fuego a la era digital, o sea, de la era de la energía, que incluye el fuego, el viento, el agua, la electricidad y la energía nuclear, a la era de la información. Pasamos así del binomio energía-materia a un nuevo paradigma epistemológico e instrumental, el de una codificación binaria y de una programación algorítmica con las cuales pretendemos reinterpretar el universo e instrumentarlo con una nueva potencia humana superior a la de las leyes habituales de la naturaleza. El hombre ha escogido marcar con su sello nuestra evolución y hablamos aquí de lo antropoceno. McLuhan fue el último gran pensador de la era del fuego, de los medios de difusión eléctricos; pero no podría ser el nuevo gurú de la era digital. La energía destruye le información. Lo digital la crea y la difunde.

  6. 三维彩色多普勒超声在胎盘植入中的诊断分析%Diagnosis analysis of three dimensional color Doppler ultrasound in placenta implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦瑞宁

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨三维彩色多普勒超声对胎盘植入的诊断价值.方法 随机选取本院2013年8月至2015年4月期间收治的胎盘植入产妇35例作为观察组,所有患者均经由产后病理检查得到确诊;另选取同期我院妇产科收治的正常产妇50例作为对照组,两组孕产妇均接受三维彩色多普勒超声检查,对胎盘后间隙、胎盘内部回声、胎盘位置等进行观察,并对子宫肌层厚度进行测量,同时对两组产妇的宫壁肌层血流情况进行检查.结果 超声检查对于产前胎盘植入的诊断准确率为77.27%,对产后胎盘植入的诊断准确率为69.23%,总诊断准确率为74.29%;产前胎盘植入者在超声声像图中均可见胎盘前置,其中产前植入产妇其植入面积< 1/2比例明显低于产后植入者,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 三维彩色多普勒超声是一种有效的胎盘植入诊断方法,通过结合宫壁肌层血流参数与声像图中胎盘特征,可有效对胎盘植入进行早期筛查,有助于临床治疗的及早开展.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of three-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound in placenta implantation.Methods 35 patients with placenta implantation in our hospital from August 2013 to April 2015 were selected as observation group,all patients were confirmed by pathological examination.50 normal pregnant women in department of gynaecology and obstetrics of our hospital during the same period were selected as control group.Both two groups underwent three-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound examination,observed posterior placenta space,placenta intemal echo,location of placenta,measured the thickness of uterine muscle layer,inspected blood flow of uterine wall muscle layer.Results The accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of prenatal placenta implantation was 77.27%,the accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of postpartum placenta implantation was 69.23%,the total diagnostic

  7. Re-aproximaciones y posibles aplicaciones del concepto de seguridad humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldimeiry Corrêa da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y analiza el concepto de seguridad humana en el ámbito de Naciones Unidas y de las Relaciones Internacionales y su relación con la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger (R2P. Pretendemos responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿La utilización de la doctrina de la Responsabilidad de proteger amplía el concepto de la seguridad humana o lo reduce a su dimensión vertical? ¿El concepto de seguridad humana contribuye a la comprensión y enfrentamiento a la Trata de Personas (la Trata? Con miras a contestar estas preguntas, el artículo está estructurado en tres partes: en la primera parte, presentamos el marco teórico- conceptual de la seguridad humana con base en los documentos de Naciones Unidas y la teoría de las relaciones internacionales; en la segunda, desde la noción de la R2P, su contenido y práctica internacional, observamos su contribución para el concepto de seguridad humana; en la tercera, utilizamos el enfoque de la seguridad humana para una comprensión global de la Trata.

  8. Diagnosis of Placenta Previa and Placenta Implantation With MRI%前置胎盘及胎盘植入的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 罗莎

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the application value of MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of front disc and implantation of placenta previa. Methods Retrospective analysis of our hospital 16 cases of placental MRI examination conifrmed byoperation and pathology after cesarean section. Results8 cases of central placenta previa, 5 cases of partialplacenta previa, 2 cases of marginal placenta previa, low-lying placenta 1 cases, 2 cases of Placenta Adhesion, 2 cases of placenta implantation, including 1 cases of transmural implantation, placenta in the posterior inferior wall in 11 cases, 4 cases of anterior inferior wall, 2 cases of lateral wall.Conclusion MRI on placenta previa placenta implantation in the clinical diagnosis and timely and reasonable treatment plan have some certain signiifcance.%目的:探讨MRI在诊断产前前置前盘及植入性前置胎盘的应用价值。方法剖宫产后回顾性分析我院经手术及病理证实的16例胎盘MRI检查。结果中央性前置胎盘8例,部分性前置胎盘5例,边缘性前置胎盘2例,低置胎盘1例,胎盘粘连2例,胎盘植入2例,其中1例透壁植入,胎盘位于后下壁11例,前下壁4例,侧壁2例。结论 MRI对前置胎盘及胎盘植入诊断对临床及时合理制定治疗方案有一定意义。

  9. Can 3-dimensional power Doppler indices improve the prenatal diagnosis of a potentially morbidly adherent placenta in patients with placenta previa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ziad A; Papanna, Ramesha; Sibai, Baha M; Tatevian, Nina; Viteri, Oscar A; Vowels, Patricia C; Blackwell, Sean C; Moise, Kenneth J

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, 2-dimensional ultrasound parameters have been used for the diagnosis of a suspected morbidly adherent placenta previa. More objective techniques have not been well studied yet. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of prenatal 3-dimensional power Doppler analysis of flow and vascular indices to predict the morbidly adherent placenta objectively. A prospective cohort study was performed in women between 28 and 32 gestational weeks with known placenta previa. Patients underwent a two-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound that determined management decisions. 3-Dimensional power Doppler volumes were obtained during the same examination and vascular, flow, and vascular flow indices were calculated after manual tracing of the viewed placenta in the sweep; data were blinded to obstetricians. Morbidly adherent placenta was confirmed by histology. Severe morbidly adherent placenta was defined as increta/percreta on histology, blood loss >2000 mL, and >2 units of PRBC transfused. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Student t and χ(2) tests, logistic regression, receiver-operating characteristic curves, and intra- and interrater agreements using Kappa statistics were performed. The following results were found: (1) 50 women were studied: 23 had morbidly adherent placenta, of which 12 (52.2%) were severe morbidly adherent placenta; (2) 2-dimensional parameters diagnosed morbidly adherent placenta with a sensitivity of 82.6% (95% confidence interval, 60.4-94.2), a specificity of 88.9% (95% confidence interval, 69.7-97.1), a positive predictive value of 86.3% (95% confidence interval, 64.0-96.4), a negative predictive value of 85.7% (95% confidence interval, 66.4-95.3), a positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.5-21.9), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.48); (3) mean values of the vascular index (32.8 ± 7.4) and the vascular flow index

  10. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study.

  11. STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF 50 PLACENTAE WITH UMBILICAL CORDS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asra Anjum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The word “Placenta” is a Latin word and the Greek equivalent word is “Plakons” which means “Flat cake on a plate”. The placenta is a complex multifunctional organ. It provides nutrition, gas exchange, waste removal, endocrine function and immune support. Placenta is a special circulating system to the developing foetus. Being an organ of vital importance for continuation of pregnancy and foetal nutrition it has evolved great interest among the anatomists, embryologists, pathologists and obstetricians. Materials and Methods: The study was done in 50 placentae which were collected from the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in collaboration with the department of Anatomy, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Nalgonda, Telangana, during the period of 2 years. The morphological variations of placenta, the size, shape, weight and attachment of umbilical cord with its blood vessels were observed, recorded and photographed. The prime objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the morphological alterations of placenta and umbilical cord in pregnancy. Results and Conclusion: In the current study, the majority of the placentae showed round shape, few placentae with oval and irregular and with an accessory lobe in single placenta. The current study also includes variations in insertion of umbilical cords was eccentric in majority, central, marginal and velamentous in a few. Pregnancy induced hypertension significantly affects the placenta by reducing weight and it does not have any significant effect on the shape of placenta, umbilical cord insertion and number of cotyledons on maternal surface. The placenta is the most accurate record of the infants prenatal experience.

  12. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

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    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  14. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  15. Influence of placental position on obstetric morbidity in placenta previa

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    Shripad S. Hebbar

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: It is difficult to assign a maternal or perinatal morbidity risk to a particular type of placental location. The need for specialized surgical intervention such as uterine / internal iliac artery ligation, peripartum hysterectomy can arise irrespective of placental location, whether underneath the surgical incision (anterior, proximity to main uterine trunks (lateral or encountered after the delivery of the baby (posterior. Pregnancies complicated by placenta previa must be delivered in the hospitals having expertise of senior and skilled surgeons and well equipped blood bank and good neonatal intensive care unit. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 585-591

  16. Anatomy and physiology of the embryo, fetus and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V. (Diagnostic Technology Consultants, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Davis, J.M. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States). Medical Center)

    1992-01-01

    Complexities of fetal and placental development introduce unique problems in quantitating a fetal radiation dose from internal radionuclide contamination. The paper briefly describes the many transitory stages in the development of the fetal organs and placenta from the time of the union of the egg and sperm. Descriptions of migration, differentiation and functional changes of cell lines will illustrate the difficulties in establishing a radiation history. The development of the cells responsible for hematopoiesis are reviewed, along with the thyroid gland and blood brain barrier, because of the importance of these tissues in radiation protection. (author).

  17. [Procedure for purifying RNA polymerase II from human placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandyba, L V; Matsanova, V R; Shamovskiĭ, I V; Raĭt, V K

    1994-12-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IIB having a specific activity of 320 u./mg has been isolated from the term placenta homogenate using extraction performed at 4-6 degrees C in the presence of 75 mM ammonium sulfate and 1.5% nonidet P40, fractionation on DEAE-cellulose DE 23, desalting and heparin-agarose chromatography, resulting in 330-fold purification and a 18% yield. Technical details have been determined which are of crucial importance for reproducibility of affinity chromatography. The possibility of proteolysis of the IIc subunit during enzyme purification has been demonstrated.

  18. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  19. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  20. 穿透型胎盘植入行腹主动脉球囊置入的围术期管理1例%Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients compli-cated with placenta percteta:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鸿; 王妍; 王阳; 郭向阳

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta pre-via and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery ( 9 F sheath ) , subarachnoid anesthesia had been estab-lished. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Imme-diately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaes-thesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disap-peared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta

  1. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia in placenta with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and its clinically pathological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Pan, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia in the placenta with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) was observed, and mechanisms of ICP fetal distress were discussed. Different culturing times were established in hypoxia incubator, and protein expressions of VEGF in placental tissue were observed using immunohistochemical S-P method. After 4 h hypoxic culture, VEGF protein expression in ICP group was higher than the normal group with significant difference (P < 0.05). With the extension of hypoxic exposure, VEGF protein expression in both groups was suppressed, but no distinction in-between. Regression analyses indicated a noticeable effect of CG on VEGF expression, the higher the CG was, the lower the VEGF protein expression was (P < 0.05). Short term hypoxia induces up-regulation of VEGF expression in ICP placenta, and this adaptive change is probably a protective mechanism of fetus in ICP.

  2. Progreso en el conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Robles-Alonso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de nuevas técnicas de secuenciación así como el desarrollo de herramientas bioinformáticas han permitido no sólo describir la composición de la comunidad bacteriana que habita el tracto gastrointestinal, sino también las funciones metabólicas de las que proveen al huésped. La mayoría de los miembros de esta amplia comunidad bacteriana pertenecen a Dominio Bacteria, aunque encontramos también Archaea y formas eucariotas y virus. Únicamente entre 7 y 9 de las 55 Phyla del Dominio Bacteria conocidos están presentes en flora fecal humana. Su mayoría pertenecen además a las Divisiones Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, encontrando también Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria y Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium y Bifidobacterium son los Géneros más abundantes aunque su abundancia relativa es muy variable entre individuos. El análisis metagenómico de la flora intestinal ha permitido describir una colección de 5 millones de genes microbianos que codifican para aproximadamente 20.000 funciones biológicas relacionadas con la vida de las bacterias. El ecosistema intestinal humano puede clasificarse en torno a tres grupos de acuerdo a la abundancia relativa de tres Géneros: Bacteroides (enterotipo 1, Prevotella (enterotipo 2 y Ruminococcus (enterotype 3. Estos grupos han sido denominados "enterotipos" y su descripción sugiere que las variaciones entre individuos están estratificadas. Una vez descrita la composición bacteriana sería interesante establecer la relación entre la alteración de equilibrios ecológicos con estados de enfermedad que puedan desembocar en una novedosa vía terapéutica.

  3. Alojamiento conjunto madre-hijo y lactancia humana exclusiva

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    FLORES-HUERTA SAMUEL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer la influencia del alojamiento conjunto (AC madre-hijo, en la frecuencia de lactancia humana exclusiva (LHE, desde el nacimiento hasta los cuatro meses de vida. Material y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no aleatorizado realizado en la clínica de lactancia del Hospital "Luis Castelazo Ayala", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de enero de 1993 a octubre de 1994, en el que participaron 178 binomios madre-hijo (BMH sanos con gestación de término. El grupo con alojamiento conjunto (AC se integró con 90 BMH, y la madre recibió asesoría para lactar; 88 se atendieron en forma separada, sin asesoría para lactar. Se realizó análisis estadístico de los datos para apreciar frecuencia y asociaciones de las variables. Resultados. La alimentación se registró como LHE, fórmula o ambas. Los grupos con y sin AC se estratificaron por la forma de nacimiento, parto o cesárea. Con X² de Mantel-Haenszel y de rango logarítmico se aceptaron diferencias con p< 0.05. Durante el estudio la lactancia global fue semejante entre los grupos. En el primer mes la LHE fue mayor en el grupo con AC, 61 vs 42%, independientemente de la forma de nacimiento (p< 0.05. El AC fue la única variable que influyó para que se diera LHE. Conclusiones. El AC madre-hijo favorece la LHE en el primer mes posnacimiento.

  4. Indicadores de Criatividade no Desenho da Figura Humana

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    Karina da Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar evidências de precisão e de validade para um protocolo de análise de características criativas presentes no Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH. Para isso, realizaram-se dois estudos. A amostra foi composta por cinco juízes e 208 crianças de escolas públicas e particulares, com idades entre nove anos e 11 anos e 11 meses. O primeiro estudo referiu-se à precisão do protocolo, e o instrumento foi considerado adequado segundo os critérios de 75% de concordância e análise de Correlação de Pearson. Para o segundo estudo foram utilizados dois instrumentos, sendo um o protocolo de triagem criativa para o DFH e o Teste de Criatividade Figural Infantil. Os instrumentos foram comparados por meio de Correlação de Pearson e Análise Fatorial. Os resultados apontaram que indicadores tais como Elaboração, Expressão de Emoção e Movimento estão relacionados à características criativas no DFH. Foram observadas influências das variáveis tipo de escola e sexo para os itens de criatividade como movimento, perspectiva incomum e uso de contextos. Conclui-se que o protocolo de triagem criativa do DFH pode apresentar indicadores válidos de criatividade.

  5. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  6. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  7. Reconocimiento alogénico: su papel protector durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo1 (VIH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Rugeles López

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Normal">Varios estudios han señalado la importancia de la respuesta alogénica en la protección a la infección por el VIH-1; inclusive, se ha propuesto la aloinmunización como una vacuna profiláctica (1. Sin embargo, la evidencia más fuerte de que el aloreconocimiento contribuye a la protección contra la infección con el VIH-1 es aportada por un estudio de transmisión perinatal realizado en Nairobi. En este estudio la transmisión vertical se correlacionó con el grado de concordancia entre los alelos del CMH clase I entre la madre y el bebé: el máximo grado de concordancia se asoció con un 31% de incidencia de transmisión, mientras que la infección ocurrió solo en un 3% de niños que tenían el máximo grado de disparidad con su madre (2. La incidencia de la transmisión vertical del VIH-1 es del 25-30% en ausencia de terapia antirretroviral (3. El hecho de que el 70-75% de recién nacidos no nazca infectado, a pesar de haber estado expuesto en forma continua al virus, sugiere la existencia de barreras protectoras que previenen la transmisión vertical durante la gestación y el parto. Aunque existen reportes de inmunidad celular neonatal específica anti VIH-(4, otros mecanismos deben contribuir a la protección del feto y a prevenir la transmisión vertical. Recientemente, se reportó que factores solubles que se encuentran en la placenta, importantes para la implantación y el desarrollo del embrión, inhiben la replicación del VIH-1 in vitro.

    Normal">Entre estos factores se destacan: el factor inhibidor de leucemias (LIF (5, la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG (6 y el factor derivado de células estromales tipo 1 (SDF-1 (7. Adicionalmente, en 1996 se describió la producción in vitro de un factor soluble que se genera en cultivos mixtos de linfocitos (CML conocido como ASF (8

  8. Heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta in Meuse-Rhine-Yssel cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, L.; Koets, A.P.; Kuijpers, F.H.J.; Joosten, I.; Eldik, van P.; Heuven, H.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Failure of the timely expulsion of the fetal membranes, called retained placenta, leads to reduced fertility, increased veterinary costs and reduced milk yields. The objectives of this study were to concurrently look at the heritable and non-heritable genetic effects on retained placenta and test th

  9. Gray scale and Doppler ultrasound in placenta accreta: Optimization of ultrasound signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shawky

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound and Doppler examinations of placenta have signs highly suggestive of placenta accreta due to high sensitivity and specificity with placental lacunae of turbulent flow and retro-placental myometrial thickness ⩽1 mm are of the highest specificity.

  10. Placenta accreta and maternal morbidity in the Republic of Ireland, 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upson, K.; Silver, R.M.; Greene, R.; Lutomski, J.E.; Holt, V.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the nationwide prevalence of placenta accreta and to quantify its impact on maternal morbidity. Methods: Using discharge data for public hospitals in Ireland, years 2005-2010, deliveries with placenta accreta were identified using ICD-10-AM code for morbidly adherent

  11. Comparative study of transperineal and transvaginal sonography for localization of placenta in antepartum haermorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Dahiya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: So, to conclude transperineal sonography is easy to perform, well tolerated accurate diagnostic tool with high sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values for localisation of placenta cases of APH. TVS can be replaced by TPS in cases of APH for localisation of placenta. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 48-52

  12. Placenta accreta and maternal morbidity in the Republic of Ireland, 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upson, K.; Silver, R.M.; Greene, R.; Lutomski, J.E.; Holt, V.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the nationwide prevalence of placenta accreta and to quantify its impact on maternal morbidity. Methods: Using discharge data for public hospitals in Ireland, years 2005-2010, deliveries with placenta accreta were identified using ICD-10-AM code for morbidly adherent

  13. Persistence of placenta previa in twin gestations based on gestational age at sonographic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohari, Katherine S; Roman, Ashley S; Fox, Nathan S; Feinberg, Jessica; Saltzman, Daniel H; Klauser, Chad K; Rebarber, Andrei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gestational age at sonographic detection of placenta previa as a predictor of previa persistence until delivery in twin gestations. A retrospective cohort of twin pregnancies with placenta previa in a single ultrasound unit was analyzed from 2005 to 2010. Pregnancies were ascertained from a database. Diagnoses were confirmed by transvaginal imaging. Previa was categorized as complete if the placenta completely covered the internal os or marginal if the inferior placental edge reached within 2 cm. Gestational ages were grouped into intervals from 15 to 35 weeks. The study outcome was placenta previa at delivery. Only twin pregnancies at 25 weeks' gestation and later were analyzed using nonparametric statistics as appropriate, with P Placenta previa was detected in 120 twin pregnancies in the second trimester: 32 complete and 88 marginal. Of those with placenta previa at 15 to 19, 20 to 23, 24 to 27, 28 to 31, and 32 to 35 weeks, previa persisted until delivery in 8.3%, 19.2%, 50%, 75%, and 92.5%, respectively. Only at 15- to 19- and 20- to 23-week intervals was complete previa more likely to persist than marginal previa (P placenta previa persistence in twins is dependent on the gestational age at sonographic detection. Only at earlier gestations does the type of previa affect its persistence. As gestational age advances, the likelihood of resolution of placenta previa diminishes regardless of the type noted.

  14. Histopathological examination of the placenta : key issues for pathologists and obstetricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, S. J.; Dahlstrom, J. E.; Khong, T. Y.; Ellwood, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    The placenta is often not submitted for histopathological examination and obstetricians may be sceptical of the value of the examination. This article looks at the reasons for histopathological assessment of the placenta, examines what clinical information should be provided to pathologists and

  15. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding its role in health and disease The Human Placenta Project is a long-term research ...

  16. More than clinical waste? Placenta rituals among Australian home-birthing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the "afterbirth." In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a "special" and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked.

  17. The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jane J; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.

  18. Nuclear factor-κB mediates placental growth factor induced pro-labour mediators in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandins, pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are involved in the mechanisms of term and preterm parturition. Recent studies have reported an increase in angiogenesis-related genes during term and preterm labour, including placental growth factor (PLGF). In non-gestational tissues, PLGF induces inflammation via NF-κB. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLGF on the gene expression and release of pro-labour mediators in human placenta. Samples were obtained from normal pregnancies at the time of Caesarean section. Human placenta was incubated in the absence (basal control) or presence of a 10 ng/ml PLGF for 24 h. Inflammatory gene expression was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins was quantified by ELISA, and secretory matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity by zymography. NF-κB DNA-binding activity and IκB-α (inhibitor of NF-κB) protein degradation were analysed by ELISA and Western blotting, respectively. PLGF significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 gene expression and secretion, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and resultant prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2α) release, and MMP-9 gene expression and enzyme production. PLGF induced the degradation of IκB-α whilst increasing NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity. The PLGF-induced pro-labour responses were abrogated by co-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. In summary, the pro-inflammatory and pro-labour effects of PLGF in human placenta are mediated by NF-κB.

  19. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonkeren, Dorrith; Swings, Godelieve; Roberts, Drucilla; Claas, Frans; de Heer, Emile; Scherjon, Sicco

    2012-01-01

    In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED) tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5%) placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2) marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.

  20. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrith Schonkeren

    Full Text Available In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5% placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2 marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.