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Sample records for placebo-controlled prospective phase

  1. Efficacy of Wobe-Mugos registered E for reduction of oral mucositis after radiotherapy. Results of a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Herrmann, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of Wobe-Mugos registered E (proteolytic enzymes) for amelioration of early side effects of radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors, particularly oral mucositis. Patients and Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, triple-blind phase III study with parallel groups. 69 patients with carcinomas of the oropharynx or the oral cavity were enrolled between 1996 and 2000 in five centers; 54 of these were recruited in Dresden. Of the 69 patients, 61 (Dresden: 46) were available for analysis. The proteolytic enzymes tested (Wobe-Mugos registered E) comprised papain 100 mg, trypsin 40 mg, and chymotrypsin 40 mg. Results: Wobe-Mugos registered E was well tolerated. For the maximum mucositis scores, no statistically significant differences were found between the placebo and the verum group. The average mucositis score over weeks 1-6 revealed a significant difference in favor of the placebo arm, based on an earlier onset of mucositis in the Wobe-Mugos registered E group. Conclusion: The present study failed to demonstrate any effect of treatment with Wobe-Mugos registered E on radiotherapy side effects in patients treated for head-and-neck tumors. In particular, there was no beneficial effect on radiation-induced early oral mucositis. (orig.)

  2. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib: an international, multicentre, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (GRID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetri, George D; Reichardt, Peter; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Blay, Jean-Yves; Rutkowski, Piotr; Gelderblom, Hans; Hohenberger, Peter; Leahy, Michael; von Mehren, Margaret; Joensuu, Heikki; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Blackstein, Martin; Cesne, Axel Le; Schöffski, Patrick; Maki, Robert G; Bauer, Sebastian; Nguyen, Binh Bui; Xu, Jianming; Nishida, Toshirou; Chung, John; Kappeler, Christian; Kuss, Iris; Laurent, Dirk; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background To date, only two agents, imatinib and sunitinib, have shown clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), but almost all metastatic GISTs eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. This phase 3 trial assessed efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic and/or unresectable GIST progressing after failure of at least imatinib and sunitinib. Methods Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive either regorafenib 160 mg orally daily or placebo, plus best supportive care in both arms, for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Upon disease progression, patients on placebo could cross over to regorafenib. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate, disease control rate (DCR: rate of durable stable disease lasting for ≥12 weeks plus complete or partial responses), and safety. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01271712). Results From January to August 2011, 240 patients were screened at 57 centres in 17 countries, and 199 patients were randomised to receive regorafenib (n=133) or matching placebo (n=66). Median PFS per independent blinded central review was 4·8 months and 0·9 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0·27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·19–0·39; pregorafenib, resulting in no significant difference in OS between study arms (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·42–1·41; p=0·199). A best response of partial response or stable disease was observed in 101/133 patients (75·9%) on regorafenib and 23/66 patients (34·8%) on placebo. DCR was 52·6% (70/133 patients) and 9·1% (6/66 patients), respectively. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 130 (98·5%) of 132 regorafenib patients and 45 (68·2%) of 66 placebo patients. The most common grade ≥3 regorafenib-related adverse events were hypertension (31/132, 23·5%), hand–foot skin reaction (26

  3. Prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versyck, B.; Geffen, G.J. van; Houwe, P. Van

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. SETTING:

  4. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Janice K.; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Scarantino, Charles W.; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Pollock, JonDavid; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 μg/m 2 or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer

  5. Phenobarbital for acute alcohol withdrawal: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Jonathan; Clements, Carter; Simon, Barry; Vieaux, Jules; Graffman, Sarah; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Cisse, Bitou; Lam, Joseph; Alter, Harrison

    2013-03-01

    Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AAWS) is encountered in patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) and often requires pharmacologic management. We investigated whether a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital combined with a standardized lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol decreases intensive care unit (ICU) admission in ED patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of i.v. phenobarbital (10 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline) or placebo (100 mL normal saline). All patients were placed on the institutional symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol. The primary outcome was initial level of hospital admission (ICU vs. telemetry vs. floor ward). There were 198 patients enrolled in the study, and 102 met inclusion criteria for analysis. Fifty-one patients received phenobarbital and 51 received placebo. Baseline characteristics and severity were similar in both groups. Patients that received phenobarbital had fewer ICU admissions (8% vs. 25%, 95% confidence interval 4-32). There were no differences in adverse events. A single dose of i.v. phenobarbital combined with a symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol resulted in decreased ICU admission and did not cause increased adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment for premenstrual syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: A prospective, randomized, multi-center placebo controlled study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhong; Chen, Rong; Zhou, Yingfang; Geng, Li; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chen, Shuling; Yao, Yanjun; Lu, Junli; Lin, Shouqing

    2009-05-20

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of VAC BNO 1095 extract in Chinese women suffering from moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group, multi-center clinical trial design was employed. After screening and preparation phase lasting three cycles, Eligible patients were randomly assigned into treatment or placebo groups and had treatment with VAC extract or placebo for up to three cycles. Efficacy was assessed using the Chinese version PMS-diary (PMSD) and PMTS. Two hundred and seventeen women were eligible to enter the treatment phase (TP) and were randomly assigned into the treatment group (108) or the placebo group (109), 208 provided the efficacy data (treatment 104, placebo 104), and 202 completed the treatment phase (treatment 101, placebo 101). The mean total PMSD score decreased from 29.23 at baseline (0 cycle) to 6.41 at the termination (3rd cycle) for the treatment group and from 28.14 at baseline (0 cycle) to 12.64 at the termination (3rd cycle) for the placebo group. The total PMSD score of 3rd cycle was significantly lower than the baseline in both groups (pVitex agnus castus (VAC BNO 1095 corresponding to 40mg herbal drug) is a safe, well tolerated and effective drug of the treatment for Chinese women with the moderate to severe PMS.

  7. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa clinical trial on the effects of an estrogen-progestin combination as add-on to inpatient psychotherapy in adult female patients suffering from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, Georgios; Maas, Stefanie; Gebhardt, Bernd; Mayr, Andreas; Rauh, Manfred; Erim, Yesim

    2018-04-10

    There is a need for novel treatment approaches in anorexia nervosa (AN). While there is broad knowledge with regard to altered appetite regulation and neuropsychological deficits in AN patients on the one hand, and the effects of estrogen replacement upon neuropsychological performance in healthy subjects on the other, up to now, no study has implemented estrogen replacement in AN patients, in order to examine its effects upon AN-associated and general psychopathology, neuropsychological performance and concentrations of peptide components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and within appetite-regulating circuits. This is a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of a 10-week oral estrogen replacement (combination of ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg and dienogest 2 mg) in adult female AN patients. The primary target is the assessment of the impact of sex hormone replacement upon neuropsychological performance by means of a neuropsychological test battery consisting of a test for verbal intelligence, the Trail making test A and B, a Go/No-go paradigm with food cues and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Secondary targets include a) the examination of safety and tolerability (as mirrored by the number of adverse events), b) assessments of the impact upon eating disorder-specific psychopathology by means of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), c) the influence upon anxiety using the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI), d) assessments of plasma cortisol levels during a dexamethasone-suppression test and appetite-regulating plasma peptides (ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucose) during an oral glucose tolerance test and, e) a possible impact upon the prescription of antidepressants. This is the first study of its kind. There are no evidence-based psychopharmacological options for the treatment of AN. Thus, the results of this clinical trial may have a relevant impact on future

  8. A randomized placebo-controlled phase III trial of oral laquinimod for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, T L; Sorensen, P S; Selmaj, K

    2014-01-01

    The phase III placebo-controlled BRAVO study assessed laquinimod effects in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and descriptively compared laquinimod with interferon beta (IFNβ)-1a (Avonex(®) reference arm). RRMS patients age 18-55 years with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores...... months. The primary endpoint was annualized relapse rate (ARR); secondary endpoints included percent brain volume change (PBVC) and 3-month confirmed disability worsening. In all, 1,331 patients were randomized: laquinimod (n = 434), placebo (n = 450), and IFNβ-1a (n = 447). ARR was not significantly...... reduced with laquinimod [-18 %, risk ratio (RR) = 0.82, 95 % CI 0.66-1.02; p = 0.075] vs. placebo. Laquinimod significantly reduced PBVC (28 %, p change in confirmed disability worsening with laquinimod measured...

  9. Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Trial of Two Vaccines to Prevent Ebola in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephen B; Bolay, Fatorma; Kieh, Mark; Grandits, Greg; Badio, Moses; Ballou, Ripley; Eckes, Risa; Feinberg, Mark; Follmann, Dean; Grund, Birgit; Gupta, Swati; Hensley, Lisa; Higgs, Elizabeth; Janosko, Krisztina; Johnson, Melvin; Kateh, Francis; Logue, James; Marchand, Jonathan; Monath, Thomas; Nason, Martha; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Roman, François; Stavale, Eric; Wolfson, Julian; Neaton, James D; Lane, H Clifford

    2017-10-12

    The safety and efficacy of vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease (EVD) were unknown when the incidence of EVD was peaking in Liberia. We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) in Liberia. A phase 2 subtrial was embedded to evaluate safety and immunogenicity. Because the incidence of EVD declined in Liberia, the phase 2 component was expanded and the phase 3 component was eliminated. A total of 1500 adults underwent randomization and were followed for 12 months. The median age of the participants was 30 years; 36.6% of the participants were women. During the week after the administration of vaccine or placebo, adverse events occurred significantly more often with the active vaccines than with placebo; these events included injection-site reactions (in 28.5% of the patients in the ChAd3-EBO-Z group and 30.9% of those in the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP group, as compared with 6.8% of those in the placebo group), headache (in 25.1% and 31.9%, vs. 16.9%), muscle pain (in 22.3% and 26.9%, vs. 13.3%), feverishness (in 23.9% and 30.5%, vs. 9.0%), and fatigue (in 14.0% and 15.4%, vs. 8.8%) (PLiberia showed the capability of conducting rigorous research during an outbreak. By 1 month after vaccination, the vaccines had elicited immune responses that were largely maintained through 12 months. (Funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Liberian Ministry of Health; PREVAIL I ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02344407 .).

  10. Ciprofloxacin DPI: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase IIb efficacy and safety study on cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkin, Henry L; Staab, Doris; Operschall, Elisabeth; Alder, Jeff; Criollo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of infective bronchitis involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cornerstone of care in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This phase IIb, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (DPI) in this population. Patients with CF, ≥12 years of age (N=286), were randomised to ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg (n=93) or 48.75 mg (n=93)), or corresponding placebo (32.5 mg, n=65; 48.75 mg, n=35) twice daily for 28 days. The primary objective was the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) from baseline (day 0) to end of treatment (day 29) in the intent-to-treat population for ciprofloxacin DPI compared with the corresponding placebo group. The primary effectiveness objective was not met; there were no significant differences in change in FEV1 between ciprofloxacin DPI and the corresponding placebo group for either dose (p=0.154). However, in pooled analyses, FEV1 decline from baseline to treatment end was significantly lower with ciprofloxacin DPI than with placebo (pooled data; p=0.02). Ciprofloxacin DPI showed positive effects on sputum bacterial load and quality of life, but these effects were not maintained at the 4-week follow-up. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated and there were no significant differences in type/incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events by treatment group (p=0.115). Further investigations are needed to determine the full scope of the beneficial effects of ciprofloxacin DPI for patients with CF. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00645788; EudraCT 2008-008314-40.

  11. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, R

    2001-01-20

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of agnus castus fruit (Vitex agnus castus L extract Ze 440) with placebo for women with the premenstrual syndrome. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group comparison over three menstrual cycles. General medicine community clinics. 178 women were screened and 170 were evaluated (active 86; placebo 84). Mean age was 36 years, mean cycle length was 28 days, mean duration of menses was 4.5 days. Agnus castus (dry extract tablets) one tablet daily or matching placebo, given for three consecutive cycles. Main efficacy variable: change from baseline to end point (end of third cycle) in women's self assessment of irritability, mood alteration, anger, headache, breast fullness, and other menstrual symptoms including bloating. Secondary efficacy variables: changes in clinical global impression (severity of condition, global improvement, and risk or benefit) and responder rate (50% reduction in symptoms). Improvement in the main variable was greater in the active group compared with placebo group (Pagnus castus fruit is an effective and well tolerated treatment for the relief of symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome.

  12. Randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Llufriu

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled studies of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in multiple sclerosis suggested some beneficial effect. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover phase II study we investigated their safety and efficacy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (GEL on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 6 months and at the end of the study.Patients unresponsive to conventional therapy, defined by at least 1 relapse and/or GEL on MRI scan in past 12 months, disease duration 2 to 10 years and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS 3.0-6.5 were randomized to receive IV 1-2×10(6 bone-marrow-derived-MSCs/Kg or placebo. After 6 months, the treatment was reversed and patients were followed-up for another 6 months. Secondary endpoints were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability by EDSS and MS Functional Composite, and several brain MRI and optical coherence tomography measures. Immunological tests were explored to assess the immunomodulatory effects.At baseline 9 patients were randomized to receive MSCs (n = 5 or placebo (n = 4. One patient on placebo withdrew after having 3 relapses in the first 5 months. We did not identify any serious adverse events. At 6 months, patients treated with MSCs had a trend to lower mean cumulative number of GEL (3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8 vs 12.3, 95% CI = 4.4-34.5, p = 0.064, and at the end of study to reduced mean GEL (-2.8±5.9 vs 3±5.4, p = 0.075. No significant treatment differences were detected in the secondary endpoints. We observed a non-significant decrease of the frequency of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells in blood of MSCs treated patients.Bone-marrow-MSCs are safe and may reduce inflammatory MRI parameters supporting their immunomodulatory properties. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01228266.

  13. The analgesic effect of dexketoprofen when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Kargi, E; Erdoğan, G; Köksal, B G; Gül, Ş; Okyay, R D; Ayoğlu, H; Turan, I Ö

    2011-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of dexketoprofen as an adjunct to lidocaine in intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) or as a supplemental intravenous (i.v.) analgesic. Patients scheduled for elective hand or forearm soft-tissue surgery were randomly divided into three groups. All 45 patients received 0.5% lidocaine as IVRA. Dexketoprofen was given either i.v. or added into the IVRA solution and the control group received an equal volume of saline both i.v. and as part of the IVRA. The times of sensory and motor block onset, recovery time and postoperative analgesic consumption were recorded. Compared with controls, the addition of dexketoprofen to the IVRA solution resulted in more rapid onset of sensory and motor block, longer recovery time, decreased intra- and postoperative pain scores and decreased paracetamol use. It is concluded that coadministration of dexketoprofen with lidocaine in IVRA improves anaesthetic block and decreases postoperative analgesic requirements.

  14. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche: Protocol for a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-11-01

    Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1*10 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  15. Effectiveness of Topical Sucralfate in the Management of Pressure Ulcer in Hospitalized Patients: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Shahram; Saeedi, Majid; Gholipour, Afshin; Ahmadi, Motahareh; Asoodeh, Ali; Shiva, Afshin

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of topical sucralfate in the management of pressure ulcer (PU) in hospitalized patients. Forty hospitalized patients with stage II PU were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial and were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving either sucralfate gel or placebo, on a daily basis. The patients were visited every day for 14 days, the ulcer was evaluated using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) and changes to the measured scores over time were used as an indicator of wound healing. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the demographic characteristics between both groups. Both of the interventions reduced the average PUSH score, and at the end of the trial, all but 2 patients were healed. One in each group discontinued the trial because of exacerbation of the ulcer. No significant between-group difference in the average PUSH score reduction was observed (6.36 ± 2.11 vs. 5.89 ± 1.41, P = 0.42). Although the average healing time was less in the sucralfate group (6.05 ± 2.17 vs. 7.78 ± 3.42), the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Sucralfate gel does not improve healing of PU compared with placebo.

  16. Clinical effect of intratympanic dexamethasone injection in acute unilateral tinnitus: A prospective, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Min-Beom; Yoo, Shin-Young; Park, Shi Nae; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) in acute tinnitus of presumed cochlear origin. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter study. Between August 2013 and December 2015, 54 patients with unilateral tinnitus were enrolled at four different centers. Patients were assigned either to an ITDI (n = 27) or an intratympanic normal saline injection (ITNI; n = 27) group through block randomization. Intratympanic injections were administered four times over 2 weeks. At 4 weeks after initial injection, we analyzed the improvement rates of tinnitus using the tinnitus handicap Inventory (THI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for loudness, awareness, and annoyance. We defined improvement as the reduction of more than 7 points or of more than 20% in the final THI score compared to the initial THI score. The initial mean hearing thresholds and VAS and THI scores of the two groups did not differ significantly. At 4 weeks after initial injection, the mean VAS and THI scores of both groups had significantly reduced. However, the improvement rate did not differ significantly between the groups (ITDI, 51.9%; ITNI, 59.3%). The results indicate that ITDI might not be more effective than ITNI for the treatment of acute unilateral tinnitus. Therefore, ITDI should not be considered as the main treatment for patients presenting with acute tinnitus as the primary symptom. 1b. Laryngoscope, 128:184-188, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  19. Prospective double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versyck, Barbara; van Geffen, Geert-Jan; Van Houwe, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to test the hypothesis whether adding the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block type II to the anesthetic procedure reduces opioid consumption during and after breast surgery. A prospective randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. A secondary hospital. 140 breast cancer stage 1-3 patients undergoing mastectomy or tumorectomy with sentinel node or axillary node dissection. Patients were randomized to receive either a Pecs block with levobupivacaine 0.25% (n=70) or placebo block with saline (n=70). The pain levels were evaluated by Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores at 15-minute intervals during the post anesthesia care unit stay time (PACU), at 2-hour intervals for the first 24h on the ward and at 4-hour intervals for the next 24h. Intraoperative and postoperative opioid consumption were recorded during the full stay. Patient satisfaction was evaluated upon discharge using a 10-point scale. Intraoperative sufentanil requirements were comparable for the Pecs and placebo group (8.0±3.5μg and 7.8±3.0μg, P=0.730). Patients in the Pecs group experienced significantly less pain than patients in the control group (P=0.048) during their PACU stay. Furthermore, patients in the Pecs group required significant less postoperative opioids (9.16±10.15mg and 14.97±14.38mg morphine equivalent, P=0.037) and required significant fewer postsurgical opioid administration interventions than patients in the control group (P=0.045). Both patient-groups were very satisfied about their management (9.6±0.6 and 9.1±1.8 on a 10-point scale, P=0.211). The Pecs block reduces postsurgical opioid consumption during the PACU stay time for patients undergoing breast surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of a Novel Adherence Monitoring Strategy in a Phase III, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnik, Marla J; Brown, Elizabeth R; Marzinke, Mark; Livant, Edward; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Hendrix, Craig W; Matovu Kiweewa, Flavia; Nair, Gonasagrie; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Schwartz, Katie; Hillier, Sharon L; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-11-01

    Placebo-controlled HIV-1 prevention trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not generally used concurrent measurement of adherence because of the potential risk of unblinding. However, several pre-exposure prophylaxis trials for HIV-1 prevention among women failed to show effectiveness because of low product adherence. Evaluation of product adherence objectively during a study provides the opportunity for strengthening adherence activities at sites having low adherence. During MTN-020/ASPIRE, a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine intravaginal ring, we implemented an adherence monitoring system. Monitoring began in quarter 1 (Q1) 2013 and continued through the conclusion of the trial. Blood plasma was collected quarterly and tested for dapivirine concentrations while maintaining blinding among study team members involved in participant management. Dapivirine concentrations >95 pg/mL, reflecting >8 hours of continuous use, were assessed as signaling product use. Study leadership monitored results on a monthly basis and provided feedback to site investigators. Experiences were shared across sites to motivate staff and counsel participants to strive toward higher adherence levels. An upward trend in adherence was observed (P dapivirine >95 pg/mL increased from 63% in Q1 2013 to 84% by Q1 2015. Ongoing drug level testing as a marker of adherence in MTN-020/ASPIRE demonstrates the feasibility of real-time adherence monitoring while maintaining study blinding at the level of participants, sites, and study leadership. This approach is novel for large-scale effectiveness studies for HIV-1 prevention.

  1. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724

  2. A randomized placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of an antisense oligonucleotide, drisapersen, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Nathalie; Mercuri, Eugenio; Belousova, Elena; Komaki, Hirofumi; Dubrovsky, Alberto; McDonald, Craig M; Kraus, John E; Lourbakos, Afrodite; Lin, Zhengning; Campion, Giles; Wang, Susanne X; Campbell, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This 48-week, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 study (DMD114044; NCT01254019) evaluated efficacy and safety of subcutaneous drisapersen 6 mg/kg/week in 186 ambulant boys aged ≥5 years, with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) resulting from an exon 51 skipping amenable mutation. Drisapersen was generally well tolerated, with injection-site reactions and renal events as most commonly reported adverse events. A nonsignificant treatment difference (P = 0.415) in the change from baseline in six-minute walk distance (6MWD; primary efficacy endpoint) of 10.3 meters in favor of drisapersen was observed at week 48. Key secondary efficacy endpoints (North Star Ambulatory Assessment, 4-stair climb ascent velocity, and 10-meter walk/run velocity) gave consistent findings. Lack of statistical significance was thought to be largely due to greater data variability and subgroup heterogeneity. The increased standard deviation alone, due to less stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria, reduced the statistical power from pre-specified 90% to actual 53%. Therefore, a post-hoc analysis was performed in 80 subjects with a baseline 6MWD 300-400 meters and ability to rise from floor. A statistically significant improvement in 6MWD of 35.4 meters (P = 0.039) in favor of drisapersen was observed in this subpopulation. Results suggest that drisapersen could have benefit in a less impaired population of DMD subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  4. Itopride in functional dyspepsia: results of two phase III multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, N J; Tack, J; Ptak, T; Gupta, R; Giguère, M

    2008-06-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder but there is currently little efficacious drug therapy. Itopride, a prokinetic approved in several countries, showed promising efficacy in FD in a phase IIb trial. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of this drug in FD. Two similar placebo-controlled clinical trials were conducted (International and North America). Males and females, 18-65 years old, with a diagnosis of FD (Rome II) and the absence (by upper endoscopy) of any relevant structural disease were recruited. All were negative for Helicobacter pylori and, if present, heartburn could not exceed one episode per week. Following screening, patients were randomised to itopride 100 mg three times daily or identical placebo. The co-primary end points were: (1) global patient assessment (GPA) of efficacy; and (2) Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ). Symptoms were evaluated at weeks 2, 4 and 8. Secondary measures of efficacy included Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) quality of life. The GPA responder rates at week 8 on itopride versus placebo were similar in both trials (45.2% vs 45.6% and 37.8 vs 35.4%, respectively; p = NS). A significant benefit of itopride over placebo was observed for the LDQ responders in the International (62% vs 52.7%, p = 0.04) but not the North American trial (46.9% vs 44.8%). The safety and tolerability profile were comparable with placebo, with the exception of prolactin elevations, which occurred more frequently on itopride (18/579) than placebo (1/591). In this population with FD, itopride did not show a difference in symptom response from placebo.

  5. Tofacitinib for induction and maintenance therapy of Crohn's disease: results of two phase IIb randomised placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panés, Julian; Sandborn, William J; Schreiber, Stefan; Sands, Bruce E; Vermeire, Séverine; D'Haens, Geert; Panaccione, Remo; Higgins, Peter D R; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Feagan, Brian G; Chan, Gary; Moscariello, Michele; Wang, Wenjin; Niezychowski, Wojciech; Marren, Amy; Healey, Paul; Maller, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor that is being investigated for IBD. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib for induction and maintenance treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease (CD). We conducted two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase IIb studies. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe CD were randomised to receive induction treatment with placebo, tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. Those achieving clinical response-100 or remission were re-randomised to maintenance treatment with placebo, tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints were clinical remission at the end of the induction study, and clinical response-100 or remission at the end of the maintenance study. 180/280 patients randomised in the induction study were enrolled in the maintenance study. At week 8 of induction, the proportion of patients with clinical remission was 43.5% and 43.0% with 5 and 10 mg twice daily, respectively, compared with 36.7% in the placebo group (p=0.325 and 0.392 for 5 and 10 mg twice daily vs placebo). At week 26 of maintenance, the proportion of patients with clinical response-100 or remission was 55.8% with tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily compared with 39.5% with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily and 38.1% with placebo (p=0.130 for 10 mg twice daily vs placebo). Compared with placebo, the change in C-reactive protein from baseline was statistically significant (ptofacitinib. NCT01393626 and NCT01393899. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Are postoperative intravenous antibiotics necessary after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S K; Lo, J; Zwahlen, R A

    2011-12-01

    Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is often administered intravenously, despite an increased morbidity rate compared with oral application. This study investigates whether a postoperative oral antibiotic regimen is as effective as incorporation of intravenous antibiotics after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. 42 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between December 2008 and May 2010 were randomly allocated to 2 placebo-controlled postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis groups. Group 1 received oral amoxicillin 500mg three times daily; group 2 received intravenous ampicillin 1g four times daily, during the first two postoperative days. Both groups subsequently took oral amoxicillin for three more days. Clinically, the infection rate was assessed in both study groups for a period of 6 weeks after the surgery. 9 patients (21.4%) developed infection. No adverse drug event was detected. No significant difference (p=0.45) was detected in the infection rate between group 1 (3/21) and group 2 (6/21). Age, type of surgical procedures, duration of the operative procedure, surgical procedure-related events, blood loss, and blood transfusion were all found not related to infection (p>0.05). Administration of more cost-effective oral antibiotic prophylaxis, which causes less comorbidity, can be considered to be safe in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with segmentalizations. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective trial to evaluate the effect of vildagliptin in new-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörl Walter H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT, a frequent and serious complication after transplantation, is associated with decreased graft and patient survival. Currently, it is diagnosed and treated primarily according to existing guidelines for type II diabetes. To date, only a few trials have studied antidiabetic drugs in patients with NODAT. Vildagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor that improves pancreatic islet function by enhancing both α- and β-cell responsiveness to increased blood glucose. Experimental data show potential protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on islet function after exogenous stress stimuli including immunosuppressants. Therefore, the therapy of NODAT with this class of compounds seems attractive. At present, vildagliptin is used to treat type II diabetes as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs, since that it efficiently decreases glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c values. Additionally, vildagliptin has been shown to be safe in patients with moderately impaired kidney function. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin monotherapy in renal transplant recipients with recently diagnosed NODAT. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective phase II trial. Using the results of routinely performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT in stable renal transplant patients at our center, we will recruit patients without a history of diabetes and a 2 h glucose value surpassing 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l. They are randomized to receive either 50 mg vildagliptin or placebo once daily. A total of 32 patients with newly diagnosed NODAT will be included. The primary endpoint is the difference in the 2 h glucose value between baseline and the repeated OGTT performed 3 months after treatment start, compared between the vildagliptin- and the placebo-group. Secondary endpoints include changes in HbA1c and

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Tribulus terrestris in male sexual dysfunction-A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Zdravko; Fileva, Svetlana; Kalinov, Krassimir; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2017-05-01

    The primary objectives were to compare the efficacy of extracts of the plant Tribulus terrestris (TT; marketed as Tribestan), in comparison with placebo, for the treatment of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and with or without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), as well as to monitor the safety profile of the drug. The secondary objective was to evaluate the level of lipids in blood during treatment. Phase IV, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in parallel groups. This study included 180 males aged between 18 and 65 years with mild or moderate ED and with or without HSDD: 90 were randomized to TT and 90 to placebo. Patients with ED and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome were included in the study. In the trial, an herbal medicine intervention of Bulgarian origin was used (Tribestan ® , Sopharma AD). Each Tribestan film-coated tablet contains the active substance Tribulus terrestris, herba extractum siccum (35-45:1) 250mg which is standardized to furostanol saponins (not less than 112.5mg). Each patient received orally 3×2 film-coated tablets daily after meals, during the 12-week treatment period. At the end of each month, participants' sexual function, including ED, was assessed by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Questionnaire and Global Efficacy Question (GEQ). Several biochemical parameters were also determined. The primary outcome measure was the change in IIEF score after 12 weeks of treatment. Complete randomization (random sorting using maximum allowable% deviation) with an equal number of patients in each sequence was used. This randomization algorithm has the restriction that unequal treatment allocation is not allowed; that is, all groups must have the same target sample size. Patients, investigational staff, and data collectors were blinded to treatment. All outcome assessors were also blinded to group allocation. 86 patients in each group completed the study. The IIEF

  9. The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Pilz-Burstein, Ruty; Adler-Portal, Dana; Meckel, Yoav; Cooper, Dan M; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2011-09-01

    The use of ergogenic nutritional supplements is becoming inseparable from competitive sports. β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric acid (HMB) has recently been suggested to promote fat-free mass (FFM) and strength gains during resistance training in adults. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we studied the effect of HMB (3 g/day) supplementation on body composition, muscle strength, anaerobic and aerobic capacity, anabolic/catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators in elite, national team level adolescent volleyball players (13.5-18 years, 14 males, 14 females, Tanner stage 4-5) during the first 7 weeks of the training season. HMB led to a significant greater increase in FFM by skinfold thickness (56.4 ± 10.2 to 56.3 ± 8.6 vs. 59.3 ± 11.3 to 61.6 ± 11.3 kg in the control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB led to a significant greater increase in both dominant and non-dominant knee flexion isokinetic force/FFM, measured at fast (180°/sec) and slow (60°/sec) angle speeds, but had no significant effect on knee extension and elbow flexion and extension. HMB led to a significant greater increase in peak and mean anaerobic power determined by the Wingate anaerobic test (peak power: 15.5 ± 1.6 to 16.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.4 ± 1.6 to 17.2 ± 1.2 watts/FFM, mean power: 10.6 ± 0.9 to 10.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 to 11.8 ± 1.0 watts/FFM in control and HMB group, respectively, p HMB had no significant effect on aerobic fitness or on anabolic (growth hormone, IGF-I, testosterone), catabolic (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist). HMB supplementation was associated with greater increases in muscle mass, muscle strength and anaerobic properties with no effect on aerobic capacity suggesting some advantage for its use in elite adolescent volleyball players during the initial phases of the training season. These effects were not accompanied by hormonal and inflammatory mediator changes.

  10. The RESPIRE trials: Two phase III, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamit, Timothy; Bandel, Tiemo-Joerg; Criollo, Margarita; De Soyza, Anthony; Elborn, J Stuart; Operschall, Elisabeth; Polverino, Eva; Roth, Katrin; Winthrop, Kevin L; Wilson, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The primary goals of long-term disease management in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) are to reduce the number of exacerbations, and improve quality of life. However, currently no therapies are licensed for this. Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) has potential to be the first long-term intermittent therapy approved to reduce exacerbations in NCFB patients. The RESPIRE programme consists of two international phase III prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of the same design. Adult patients with idiopathic or post-infectious NCFB, a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous 12months, and positive sputum culture for one of seven pre-specified pathogens, undergo stratified randomization 2:1 to receive twice-daily Ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5mg or placebo using a pocket-sized inhaler in one of two regimens: 28days on/off treatment or 14days on/off treatment. The treatment period is 48weeks plus an 8-week follow-up after the last dose. The primary efficacy endpoints are time to first exacerbation after treatment initiation and frequency of exacerbations using a stringent definition of exacerbation. Secondary endpoints, including frequency of events using different exacerbation definitions, microbiology, quality of life and lung function will also be evaluated. The RESPIRE trials will determine the efficacy and safety of Ciprofloxacin DPI. The strict entry criteria and stratified randomization, the inclusion of two treatment regimens and a stringent definition of exacerbation should clarify the patient population best positioned to benefit from long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy. Additionally RESPIRE will increase understanding of NCFB treatment and could lead to an important new therapy for sufferers. The RESPIRE trials are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, ID number NCT01764841 (RESPIRE 1; date of registration January 8, 2013) and NCT02106832 (RESPIRE 2; date of registration

  11. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Study of Oral ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol) in Young Adults with Down Syndrome without Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S.; Skotko, Brian G.; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T.

    2018-01-01

    Background ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase 2 study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2:1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. Results There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Conclusion Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy. PMID:28453471

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II Study of Oral ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol) in Young Adults with Down Syndrome without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Michael S; Skotko, Brian G; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Pulsifer, Margaret; Evans, Casey; Doran, Eric; Muranevici, Gabriela; Kesslak, Patrick; Abushakra, Susan; Lott, Ira T

    2017-01-01

    ELND005 (scyllo-Inositol; cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol) has been evaluated as a potential disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have an increased risk for developing AD dementia. To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ELND005 and to determine its pharmacokinetics (PK) and relationship between PK parameters, safety outcome measures, and exploratory efficacy outcome measures in young adults with DS without dementia. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, three-arm, multicenter Phase II study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of ELND005 administered orally for 4 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791725). Participants who met study eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in a 2 : 1:1 ratio to receive ELND005 at either 250 mg twice daily (BID) or 250 mg once daily (QD) or matching placebo for 4 weeks. There were no apparent treatment group-related trends on cognitive or behavioral measures and there were no SAEs and no deaths in the study. Overall, mean changes from baseline in clinical laboratory parameters, vital sign measurements, electrocardiogram results, and other physical findings were unremarkable. ELND005 accumulation averaged approximately 2-fold with QD dosing, and 3- to 4-fold with BID dosing. Overall, treatment of adults with DS with ELND005 at both doses was well tolerated, achieved measurable blood levels and demonstrated no safety findings. Further studies will be needed to test efficacy.

  13. Effect of intravenous metoclopramide on intraocular pressure: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheera K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of rise in intraocular pressure (IOP is essential in patients undergoing surgery for perforated eye injuries. Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent, is commonly used to hasten gastric emptying in emergency surgeries. Aim: To study the change in IOP after intravenous metoclopramide and to study the influence of metoclopramide on change in IOP after succinylcholine and tracheal intubation. Settings and Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 patients undergoing non-ophthalmic elective surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I adult patients were randomly assigned to receive normal saline (Group C or metoclopramide 10 mg (Group M 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Thiopentone was used for induction and succinylcholine for tracheal intubation. Intraocular pressure was measured in both the eyes pre and post drug treatment and succinylcholine and tracheal intubation using Perkins applanation tonometer. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used. A P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Intraocular pressure was consistently lower in Group M than in Group C after the test drug, though the difference was not statistically significant. Intraocular pressure decreased significantly after administration of thiopentone and increased significantly in Groups C and M after tracheal intubation ( P < 0.01. Intraocular pressure was comparable between the groups at all the times. Conclusions: Metoclopramide does not cause a clinically significant change in IOP nor does it influence the changes in IOP during anesthesia and tracheal intubation. Metoclopramide shows a trend towards decrease in IOP, though clinically insignificant. Therefore metoclopramide can be used to promote gastric emptying in patients with perforated eye injury.

  14. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P Urtica dioica have beneficial effects in the treatment of symptomatic BPH. Further clinical trials should be conducted to confirm these results before concluding that Urtica dioica is effective.

  15. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale GJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Dale,1 Stephanie Phillips,2 Gregory L Falk3 1Westmead Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 3Concord Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286 or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487. Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients. Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. Keywords: analgesia, local anesthetics, intravenous infusions, pharmacokinetics

  16. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2b Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin, ART-123, in Patients With Sepsis and Suspected Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Ramesh, Mayakonda K.; Ernest, David; Larosa, Steven P.; Pachl, Jan; Aikawa, Naoki; Hoste, Eric; Levy, Howard; Hirman, Joe; Levi, Marcel; Daga, Mradul; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J.; Crowther, Mark; Bernard, Gordon R.; Devriendt, Jacques; Puigserver, Joan Vidal; Blanzaco, Daniel U.; Esmon, Charles T.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Guzzi, Louis; Henderson, Seton J.; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Mehta, Parthiv; Fareed, Jawed; Talwar, Deepak; Tsuruta, Kazuhisa; Gorelick, Kenneth J.; Osawa, Yutaka; Kaul, Inder

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin (ART-123) in patients with suspected sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. Design: Phase 2b, international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, screening trial.

  17. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cetuximab inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and papulopustular eruptions is a frequent side effect. Vitamin K3 (menadione) has preclinically shown to be a potential activator of the EGFR by phosphorylating the receptor (pEGFR). The present randomised study investigated...... the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m2 every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream...... stained for EGFR and pEGFR. RESULTS: Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed...

  18. Intravenous paracetamol for relief of pain during transrectal-ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Kilic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal-ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx is the standard procedure for diagnosing prostate cancer. The procedure does cause some pain and discomfort; therefore, an adequate analgesia is necessary to ensure patient comfort, which can also facilitate good-quality results. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study aimed to determine if intravenous (IV paracetamol can reduce the severity of pain associated with TRUS-PBx. The study included 104 patients, scheduled to undergo TRUS-PBx with a suspicion of prostate cancer, that were prospectively randomized to receive either IV paracetamol (paracetamol group or placebo (placebo group 30 minutes prior to TRUS-PBx. All patients had 12 standardized biopsy samples taken. Pain was measured using a 10-point visual analog pain scale during probe insertion, during the biopsy procedure, and 1 hour postbiopsy. All biopsies were performed by the same urologist, whereas a different urologist administered the visual analog pain scale. There were not any significant differences in age, prostate-specific antigen level, or prostate volume between the two groups. The pain scores were significantly lower during probe insertion, biopsy procedure, and 1 hour postbiopsy in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, the IV administration of paracetamol significantly reduced the severity of pain associated with TRUS-PBx.

  19. Safety and efficacy of MIM D3 ophthalmic solutions in a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerovitch K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Meerovitch,1 Gail Torkildsen,2 John Lonsdale,3 Heidi Goldfarb,4 Teresa Lama,1 Garth Cumberlidge,1 George W Ousler III5 1Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 3Central Maine Eye Care, Lewiston, ME, USA; 4SDC, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic MIM-D3, a tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor agonist, in patients with dry eye. Design: A prospective, two-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study. Methods: A total of 150 dry eye patients were randomized 1:1:1 to study medication (1% MIM-D3, 5% MIM-D3, or placebo and dosed twice daily (BID for 28 days. Key eligibility criteria included exacerbation in corneal staining and ocular discomfort in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM on two visits, separated by 1 week of BID dosing with artificial tears. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at baseline, throughout treatment, and for 2 weeks post-treatment. The pre-specified primary outcome measures were fluorescein corneal staining post-CAE at day 28 and diary worst symptom scores over 28 days. Secondary outcomes included the pre-, post-, and the change from pre- to post-CAE fluorescein and lissamine green staining in both corneal and conjunctival regions, as well as individual diary symptoms. Results: The prespecified primary endpoints were not met. Compared with placebo, fluorescein corneal staining at day 28 was significantly improved (P < 0.05 in the 1% MIM-D3 group for the assessment of change from pre-CAE to post-CAE. In addition, following CAE exposure, patients in the 1% MIM-D3 group showed significant improvements versus placebo (P < 0.05 in inferior fluorescein and lissamine green staining after 14 and 28 days. Compared with placebo, patients in the 5% MIM-D3 group reported significantly lower daily diary scores for ocular dryness (P < 0.05. In a subgroup defined by higher symptom scores during

  20. A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Multi-Site Trial of the alpha-2-adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine, for Opioid Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elmer; Miotto, Karen; Akerele, Evaristo; Montgomery, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed; Walsh, Robert; Montoya, Ivan; Fischman, Marian W.; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Boardman, Kathy; Davies, David K.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Ling, Walter; Kleber, Herbert; Herman, Barbara H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lofexidine is an alpha-2-A noradrenergic receptor agonist that is approved in the United Kingdom for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has been reported to have more significant effects on decreasing opioid withdrawal symptoms with less hypotension than clonidine. Objective To demonstrate that lofexidine is well tolerated and effective in the alleviation of observationally-defined opioid withdrawal symptoms in opioid dependent individuals undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification as compared to placebo. Design An inpatient, Phase 3, placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized multi-site trial with three phases: (1) Opioid Agonist Stabilization Phase (days 1–3), (2) Detoxification/Medication or Placebo Phase (days 4–8), and (3) Post Detoxification/Medication Phase (days 9–11). Subjects Sixty-eight opioid dependent subjects were enrolled at three sites with 35 randomized to lofexidine and 33 to placebo. Main Outcome Measure Modified Himmelsbach Opiate Withdrawal Scale (MHOWS) on study day 5 (2nd opioid detoxification treatment day). Results Due to significant findings, the study was terminated early. On the study day 5 MHOWS, subjects treated with lofexidine had significantly lower scores (equating to fewer/less severe withdrawal symptoms) than placebo subjects (Least squares means 19.5 ± 2.1 versus 30.9 ± 2.7; p=0.0019). Lofexidine subjects had significantly better retention in treatment than placebo subjects (38.2% versus 15.2%; Log rank test p=0.01). Conclusions Lofexidine is well tolerated and more efficacious than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in inpatients undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification. Trial Registration trial registry name A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Multi-Site Trial of Lofexidine for Opiate Withdrawal, registration number NCT00032942, URL for the registry http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00032942?order=4. PMID:18508207

  1. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole; Overgaard, Jens; Pfeiffer, Per

    2017-07-01

    Cetuximab inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and papulopustular eruptions is a frequent side effect. Vitamin K3 (menadione) has preclinically shown to be a potential activator of the EGFR by phosphorylating the receptor (pEGFR). The present randomised study investigated the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m 2 every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream and placebo were applied twice daily on two separate areas of the skin of minimum 10 × 10 cm for up to 2 months. Papulopustular eruptions were evaluated clinically and monitored by clinical photos. Skin biopsies, from ten patients taken before and after 1 month of treatment from each treatment area, were stained for EGFR and pEGFR. Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed in the skin of the vitamin K3-treated area compared to the placebo area. The present data do not support any clinical or immunohistochemical benefit of using vitamin K3 cream for cetuximab-induced rash.

  2. Drug treatment of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms after ureteric JJ-stent insertion: A contemporary, comparative, prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study, single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekal, Ihab A

    2016-12-01

    To provide a guide for medication to alleviate bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients after JJ ureteric stenting. Between June 2011 and June 2015, a prospective randomised placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 consecutive cases of ureteric stones that required JJ stents. All patients had signed informed consent and JJ-stent placement confirmed by X-ray. The patients were randomised into five groups: A, solifenacin 5 mg; B, trospium chloride 20 mg; C, antispasmodic; and E, α-blocker; and a placebo group (D). A standard model was created to lessen patient selection bias. Eligible patients were enrolled and assessed for side-effects and bothersome LUTS using the validated Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out. In all, 150 male patients in the five groups were compared. LUTS were less in groups A and B ( P  JJ-stent insertion, anti-muscarinic medication, namely solifenacin 5 mg or trospium chloride 20 mg, was the best. The advantage of trospium over solifenacin is in the control of frequency rather than the other symptoms. Addition of an α-blocker (alfuzosin 10 mg) is valuable when nocturia is the predominant symptom.

  3. Single dose systemic acetaminophen to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory segmental mastectomy: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Rodes, Meghan E; Bialek, Jane; Kendall, Mark C; McCarthy, Robert J

    2017-11-15

    Few systemic drug interventions are efficacious to improve patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory surgery. We aimed to evaluate whether a single dose systemic acetaminophen improve quality of recovery in female patients undergoing ambulatory breast surgery. We hypothesized that patients receiving a single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgical procedure would have a better global quality of postsurgical recovery compared to the ones receiving saline. The study was a prospective randomized double blinded, placebo controlled, clinical trial. Healthy female subjects were randomized to receive 1 g single dose systemic acetaminophen at the end of the surgery or the same volume of saline. The primary outcome was the Quality of Recovery 40 (QOR-40) questionnaire at 24 hours after surgery. Other data collected included opioid consumption and pain scores. Data were analyzed using group t tests and the Wilcoxon exact test. The association between opioid consumption and quality of recovery was evaluated using Spearman rho. P quality of recovery, P = .007. A single dose of systemic acetaminophen improves patient reported quality of recovery after ambulatory breast surgery. The use of systemic acetaminophen is an efficacious strategy to improve patient perceived quality of postsurgical recovery and analgesic outcomes after hospital discharge for ambulatory breast surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  5. Validation of orthopedic postoperative pain assessment methods for dogs: a prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Rialland

    Full Text Available In the context of translational research, there is growing interest in studying surgical orthopedic pain management approaches that are common to humans and dogs. The validity of postoperative pain assessment methods is uncertain with regards to responsiveness and the potential interference of analgesia. The hypothesis was that video analysis (as a reference, electrodermal activity, and two subjective pain scales (VAS and 4A-VET would detect different levels of pain intensity in dogs after a standardized trochleoplasty procedure. In this prospective, blinded, randomized study, postoperative pain was assessed in 25 healthy dogs during a 48-hour time frame (T. Pain was managed with placebo (Group 1, n = 10, preemptive and multimodal analgesia (Group 2, n = 5, or preemptive analgesia consisting in oral tramadol (Group 3, n = 10. Changes over time among groups were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate regression tested the significance of relationships between pain scales and video analysis. Video analysis identified that one orthopedic behavior, namely 'Walking with full weight bearing' of the operated leg, decreased more in Group 1 at T24 (indicative of pain, whereas three behaviors indicative of sedation decreased in Group 2 at T24 (all p<0.004. Electrodermal activity was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3 until T1 (p<0.0003. The VAS was not responsive. 4A-VET showed divergent results as its orthopedic component (4A-VETleg detected lower pain in Group 2 until T12 (p<0.0009, but its interactive component (4A-VETbeh was increased in Group 2 from T12 to T48 (p<0.001. Concurrent validity established that 4A-VETleg scores the painful orthopedic condition accurately and that pain assessment through 4A-VETbeh and VAS was severely biased by the sedative side-effect of the analgesics. Finally, the video analysis offered a concise template for assessment in dogs with acute orthopedic pain. However, subjective pain

  6. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLINDED PLACEBO CONTROLLED STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON SPINAL BUPIVACAINE ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Babu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS There is a dearth of studies on the effect of intravenously administered Dexmedetomidine in Sub Arachnoid Block hence, this study was conducted to compare the effects of intravenously administered Dexmedetomidine prior to the administration of subarachnoid block with bupivacaine 0.5% heavy, on hemodynamic variables and the level and onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade. MATERIAL AND METHODS After obtaining ethical Committee approval, a double-blind, randomized prospective clinical study was conducted on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II patients in the age group of 18-55 years, divided randomly into two groups: Group D received 50 ml solution containing Inj. Dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.5 mcg/kg for 10 minutes, and Group P received 50 ml of solution 0.9% Normal Saline as infusion at 10 minutes time. Subsequently Spinal Anaesthesia is carried out with Bupivacaine heavy 0.5%, and carried out recordings as per protocol. Besides Hemodynamic parameters other parameters observed were effectiveness, Sedation score; highest level of sensory block achieved; Motor and Sensory block; Time for first rescue analgesic requirement were recorded. RESULTS Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD Sedation Score 3.42±0.621 and Group P (n=45 (Mean±SD Sedation Score 1.80±0.405. Better sedation was seen in Group – D with a p value of less than 0.0001.The highest level of sensory blockade achieved was significantly higher in Group D when compared to the control group, and mean duration (in minutes to achieve the highest sensory blockade in both the groups: Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD 7.91±2.42 and Group P (n=45 (Mean±SD 9.82±3.973 p Value< 0.0001. The highest level of sensory blockade achieved was significantly higher in Group D when compared to the control group, and mean duration (in minutes to achieve the highest sensory blockade in both the groups. Group D (n=45 (Mean±SD 7.91±2.42 and Group P(n=45 (Mean±SD 9.82±3.973 p

  7. Adjunctive Taurine in First-Episode Psychosis: A Phase 2, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colin P; Allott, Kelly A; Murphy, Brendan P; Yuen, Hok Pan; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Papas, Alicia; Moral, Jennifer; Pham, Tee; O'Regan, Michaela K; Phassouliotis, Christina; Simpson, Raelene; McGorry, Patrick D

    2016-12-01

    Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009. Patients taking low-dose antipsychotic medication were randomly assigned to receive once-daily taurine 4 g or placebo for 12 weeks. The coprimary outcomes were change in symptomatology (measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] total score) and change in cognition (measured by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia [MATRICS] Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included tolerability and safety and additional clinical and functioning measures. 86 participants (n = 47 taurine; n = 39 placebo) were included in the final analysis. Taurine significantly improved symptomatology measured by the BPRS total score (95% CI, 1.8-8.5; P = .004) and psychotic subscale (95% CI, 0.1-1.5; P = .026) compared to placebo. Additionally, improvements were observed in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (95% CI, 0.1-3.0; P = .047) and Global Assessment of Functioning (95% CI, 0.3-8.8; P = .04) scores. There was no group difference in composite cognitive score (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.0; P = .582). A significant group difference was found on one safety and tolerability item (psychic item 2, asthenia/lassitude/increased fatigability) of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser, with the taurine group showing a

  8. Prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) designed trials yield the same results as double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with respect to ABPM measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David H; Neutel, Joel M; Lacourcière, Yves; Kempthorne-Rawson, Joan

    2003-07-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) results from double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) and prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) hypertension trials are statistically comparable. Two DBPC and three PROBE parallel-group studies were selected from an angiotensin II receptor blocker clinical programme. These were fixed-dose studies involving similar mild to moderate hypertensive patient populations. All used SpaceLabs 90207 ABPM devices, and each comprised a 4-week placebo period and a 4-8-week treatment period. Data from patients receiving telmisartan 80 mg were used to compare the results of DBPC (126 patients) and PROBE (734 patients) trials. The analysis had approximately 87% power to show equivalence between the two design types in terms of ruling out differences of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. Office blood pressure was also compared. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory SBP was -12.2 mmHg in DBPC trials and -12.3 mmHg in PROBE trials, a rounded difference of 0.2 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.8, 2.1]. The change from baseline in mean 24-h ambulatory DBP was -7.7 mmHg in DBPC trials versus -7.9 mmHg in PROBE trials, a difference of 0.2 mmHg (95% CI: -1.1, 1.5). Ambulatory pulse pressure results were identical. Thus, changes in mean 24-h ambulatory blood pressure from the DBPC and PROBE trials in this meta-analysis are statistically equivalent in terms of ruling out a difference of >or= 3 mmHg in SBP and >or= 2 mmHg in DBP. This supports the validity of the PROBE design in assessing antihypertensive efficacy based on blinded ABPM measurements.

  9. Intraoperative Nerve Blocks Fail to Improve Quality of Recovery after Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T; Lewis, Kevin C; Kendall, Mark C; Vieira, Brittany L; De Oliveira, Gildasio; Nader, Anthony; Kim, John Y S; Alghoul, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    The authors' study represents the first level I evidence to assess whether intraoperative nerve blocks improve the quality of recovery from immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which patients undergoing immediate tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction were randomized to either (1) intraoperative intercostal and pectoral nerve blocks with 0.25% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 4 mg of dexamethasone or (2) sham nerve blocks with normal saline. The 40-item Quality of Recovery score, pain score, and opioid use in the postoperative period were compared statistically between groups. Power analysis ensured 80 percent power to detect a 10-point (clinically significant) difference in the 40-item Quality of Recovery score. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. Age, body mass index, laterality, mastectomy type, and lymph node dissection were similar between groups. There were no statistical differences in quality of recovery, pain burden as measured by visual analogue scale, opioid consumption, antiemetic use, or length of hospital stay between groups at 24 hours after surgery. Mean global 40-item Quality of Recovery scores were 169 (range, 155 to 182) for the treatment arm and 165 (range, 143 to 179) for the placebo arm (p = 0.36), indicating a high quality of recovery in both groups. Although intraoperative nerve blocks can be a safe adjunct to a comprehensive postsurgical recovery regimen, the authors' results indicate no effect on overall quality of recovery from tissue expander/implant breast reconstruction. Therapeutic, I.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  11. Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone on cold pulpal testing in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone or placebo. Cold testing with Endo-Ice (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygenic Corp, Akron, OH) was performed at baseline and every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Pain to cold testing was recorded by the patient using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Patients' reaction to the cold application was also rated. Cold testing at baseline and at 10 minutes resulted in severe pain for both the acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups. Although pain ratings decreased from 20-60 minutes, the ratings still resulted in moderate pain. Patient reaction to cold testing showed that 56%-62% had a severe reaction. Although the reactions decreased in severity over the 60 minutes, 20%-34% still had severe reactions at 60 minutes. Regarding pain and patients' reactions to cold testing, there were no significant differences between the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups at any time period. A combination dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen/10 mg of hydrocodone did not statistically affect cold pulpal testing in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Patients experienced moderate to severe pain and reactions to cold testing. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20-60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446).

  13. Quetiapine monotherapy in acute phase for major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton Narong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia and bipolar depression trials suggest that quetiapine may have an antidepressant effect. Objectives This meta-analysis aimed to determine the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of quetiapine treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD. Only the randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparison between quetiapine and placebo were included. The authors searched such clinical trials carried out between 1991 and February 2012. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in February 2012. Study populations comprised adults with MDD or major depression. Study eligible criteria, participants and interventions Eligible studies were randomized, placebo-controlled trials of quetiapine monotherapy carried out in adults with MDD and presenting endpoint outcomes relevant to: i depression severity, ii response rate, iii overall discontinuation rate, or iv discontinuation rate due to adverse events. No language restriction was applied. Study appraisal and synthesis methods All abstracts identified by the electronic searches were examined. The full reports of relevant studies were assessed, and the data of interest were extracted. Based on the Cochrane methods of bias assessment, risks of bias were determined. The studies with two risks or less were included. The efficacy outcomes were the mean change scores of depression rating scales, the overall response rate, and the overall remission rates. The overall discontinuation rate was considered as a measure of acceptability. The discontinuation rate due to adverse events was a measure of tolerability. Relative risks (RRs and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were computed by using a random effect model. Results A total of 1,497 participants in three RCTs were included. All trials examined the quetiapine extended-release (XR. The pooled mean change scores of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression

  14. Treatment of Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I With Mannitol: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, R.S.G.M.; Pragt, E.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Patijn, J.; van Kleef, M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of intravenous administration of the free radical scavenger mannitol 10% on complaints associated with complex regional pain syndrome Type I (CRPS I), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial was performed. Forty-one CRPS I patients according to the Bruehl et al

  15. Tetrahydrocannabinol Does Not Reduce Pain in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Pain in a Phase 2 Placebo-controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Rijckevorsel, D.C.M. van; Vissers, K.C.P.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Goor, H. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most abundant cannabinoid from the plant Cannabis sativa. There is only equivocal evidence that THC has analgesic effects. We performed a phase 2 controlled trial to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety, and

  16. [Epidural anaesthesia: Simulated intravascular test dose with S(+) ketamine, lidocaine and adrenaline. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, R; Errando, C L; Soriano-Bru, J L

    2015-02-01

    The use of a test dose in epidural anaesthesia is a safety recommendation. However specificity and sensitivity of the drugs used with this indication have been not conclusive. The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the adverse effects of a simulated intravascular test dose of adrenaline, lidocaine and S(+)-ketamine. A prospective, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study was designed. ASA I patients scheduled for elective surgery were included. These were randomized to the following study groups: S(+)-ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (S+K group), 5% lidocaine 1.5 mg.kg-1 (L5% group), adrenaline 15μg (ADR group), and physiological saline 3 ml (SF group; control group). An evaluation was made during the first 15 minutes after the study drug was administered. Variables including heart rate (HR) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (sBP and dBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and SpO2 were recorded at 0 min (baseline) and at 2, 5, 8, 10 and 15 minutes after drug injection. An increase of at least 20 beats per minute (bpm) in relation to the baseline measurement was considered a positive result, as was an increase sBP >15 mmHg. The clinical effects described as related to iv injection of the study drugs recorded were: sedation-hypnosis, dizziness, nystagmus, metallic taste perception, perioral or facial paresthesias, tinnitus, as well as any other effect the patients mentioned. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as was the percent increase in the parameters in order to see if these were clinically useful. A total of 80 patients, 20 per group, were included. The sBP, dBP, and MAP were significantly raised at the 2, 5, 8 and 10 minutes measurements in the S(+)K group compared to the rest of the groups (Padrenaline at the scheduled doses showed low sensitivity and specificity as a simulated iv epidural test dose. S(+)-ketamine could be a feasible marker after accidental iv injection during epidural anaesthesia or analgesia

  17. Once daily controlled-release pregabalin in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: a phase III, double-blind, randomized withdrawal, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lesley M; Arsenault, Pierre; Huffman, Cynthia; Patrick, Jeffrey L; Messig, Michael; Chew, Marci L; Sanin, Luis; Scavone, Joseph M; Pauer, Lynne; Clair, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    Safety and efficacy of a once daily controlled-released (CR) formulation of pregabalin was evaluated in patients with fibromyalgia using a placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal design. This multicenter study included 6 week single-blind pregabalin CR treatment followed by 13 week double-blind treatment with placebo or pregabalin CR. The starting dose of 165 mg/day was escalated during the first 3 weeks, up to 495 mg/day based on efficacy and tolerability. Patients with ≥50% reduction in average daily pain score at the end of the single-blind phase were randomized to continue pregabalin CR at the optimized dose (330-495 mg/day) or to placebo. The primary endpoint was time to loss of therapeutic response (LTR), defined as treatment' (Benefit, Satisfaction, and Willingness to Continue Scale) in the pregabalin CR group; no other secondary endpoints were statistically significant. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity (most frequent: dizziness, somnolence). The percentage of pregabalin CR patients discontinuing because of AEs was 12.2% and 4.8% in the single-blind and double-blind phases, respectively (placebo, 0%). Time to LTR was significantly longer with pregabalin CR versus placebo in fibromyalgia patients who initially showed improvement with pregabalin CR, indicating maintenance of response. Pregabalin CR was well tolerated in most patients. Generalizability may be limited by study duration and selective population.

  18. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm−2) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ∽28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Results Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm−2, respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS;P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS;P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. Conclusions ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. What's already known about this topic? Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is considered aesthetically unappealing. Liposuction and face-lift are effective treatments for SMF reduction but are

  19. Regorafenib for the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer (INTEGRATE): A Multinational Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Nick; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Martin, Andrew J; Tsobanis, Eric; Yip, Sonia; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Bang, Yung-Jue; Alcindor, Thierry; O'Callaghan, Christopher J; Burnell, Margot J; Tebbutt, Niall C; Rha, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Cho, Jae-Yong; Lipton, Lara R; Wong, Mark; Strickland, Andrew; Kim, Jin Won; Zalcberg, John R; Simes, John; Goldstein, David

    2016-08-10

    We evaluated the activity of regorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. We conducted an international (Australia and New Zealand, South Korea, and Canada) randomized phase II trial in which patients were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio and stratified by lines of prior chemotherapy for advanced disease (one v two) and region. Eligible patients received best supportive care plus regorafenib 160 mg or matching placebo orally on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or prohibitive adverse events occurred. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Final analysis included data to December 31, 2014. A total of 152 patients were randomly assigned from November 7, 2012, to February 25, 2014, yielding 147 evaluable patients (regorafenib, n = 97; placebo, n = 50). Baseline characteristics were balanced. Median PFS significantly differed between groups (regorafenib, 2.6 months; 95% CI, 1.8 to 3.1 and placebo, 0.9 months; 95% CI, 0.9 to 0.9; hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.59; P regorafenib was seen (median, 5.8 months; 95% CI, 4.4 to 6.8 v 4.5 months; 95% CI, 3.4 to 5.2; HR, 0.74; P = .147). Twenty-nine patients assigned to placebo received open-label regorafenib after disease progression. Regorafenib toxicity was similar to that previously reported. In this phase II trial, regorafenib was effective in prolonging PFS in refractory advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Regional differences were found, but regorafenib was effective in both regional groups. A phase III trial is planned. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  1. A phase 3, placebo controlled study of the safety and efficacy of avanafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after nerve sparing radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, John P; Burnett, Arthur L; Wang, Run; McVary, Kevin T; Moul, Judd W; Bowden, Charles H; DiDonato, Karen; Shih, Winnie; Day, Wesley W

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of 100 and 200 mg avanafil for the treatment of adult males with erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. This was a double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study in males age 18 to 70 years with a history of erectile dysfunction of 6 months or more after bilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. Patients were randomized to 100 or 200 mg avanafil or placebo (taken 30 minutes before sexual activity) for 12 weeks. Primary end points included successful vaginal insertion (Sexual Encounter Profile [SEP] question 2), successful intercourse (SEP3) and change in score on the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) questionnaire. A total of 298 patients were randomized and 84.6% completed the study. At baseline 16.1% were age 65 years or older and 71.5% had severe erectile dysfunction (mean overall IIEF-EF domain score 9.2). After 12 weeks there were significantly greater increases in SEP2 and SEP3 and change in mean IIEF-EF domain score with 100 and 200 mg avanafil vs placebo (p erectile function after prostatectomy. Results suggest a rapid onset of action and sustained duration of effect, with all 3 primary end points being achieved at both dose levels. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid - a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over phase IIIB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisthoff, Urban W; Seyfert, Ulrich T; Kübler, Marcus; Bieg, Birgitt; Plinkert, Peter K; König, Jochem

    2014-09-01

    Epistaxis is the most frequent manifestation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, in which no optimal treatment exists. It can lead to severe anemia and reduced quality of life. Positive effects of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic drug, have been reported on epistaxis related to this disorder. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of treating nosebleeds in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with tranexamic acid. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over phase IIIB study, 1 gram of tranexamic acid or placebo was given orally 3 times daily for 3 months for a total of 6 months. 22 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels, the primary outcome measure, did not change significantly (p=0.33). The secondary outcome measure was epistaxis score and patients reported a statistically significant reduction in nosebleeds, equaling a clinically relevant 54% diminution (p=0.0031), as compared to the placebo period. No severe side effects were observed. Tranexamic acid reduces epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. (Clinical trial registration numbers: BfArM 141 CHC 9008-001 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01031992). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tofacitinib in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a phase II, 16-week, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Deodhar, Atul; Wei, James C; Drescher, Edit; Fleishaker, Dona; Hendrikx, Thijs; Li, David; Menon, Sujatha; Kanik, Keith S

    2017-08-01

    To compare efficacy and safety of various doses of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, with placebo in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS, radiographic axial spondyloarthritis). In this 16-week (12-week treatment, 4-week washout), phase II, multicentre, dose-ranging trial, adult patients with active AS were randomised (N=51, 52, 52, 52, respectively) to placebo or tofacitinib 2, 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society 20% improvement (ASAS20) response rate at week 12. Secondary endpoints included objective measures of disease activity, patient-reported outcomes and MRI of sacroiliac joints and spine. Safety was monitored. Emax model analysis of the primary endpoint predicted a tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate of 67.4%, 27.3% higher than placebo. Supportive normal approximation analysis demonstrated tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily ASAS20 response rate significantly higher than placebo (80.8% vs 41.2%; ptofacitinib 2 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater response rate than placebo (51.9% and 55.8%, respectively; not significant). Secondary endpoints generally demonstrated greater improvements with tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily than placebo. Objective (including MRI) endpoints demonstrated clear dose response. Adverse events were similar across treatment groups with no unexpected safety findings. Dose-dependent laboratory outcome changes returned close to baseline by week 16. Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily demonstrated greater clinical efficacy versus placebo in reducing signs, symptoms and objective endpoints of active AS in adult patients with a similar 12-week safety profile as reported in other indications. NCT01786668. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Re: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Dose-Ranging Study of OnabotulinumtoxinA in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Bozkurt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin inhibiting the release of acetylcholine and is used in various fields of medicine. Recently, it has been proposed as an alternative minimally invasive treatment modality for patients unresponsive to oral therapies. The present study is the largest prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study investigating the efficacy and safety of different onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A doses in men with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. 100 U, 200 U and 300 U BTX-A doses via transperineal or transrectal route were injected within the transition zone of each lateral lobe. 69.7% of patients (115 of 380 completed the 72-week study. The authors reported significant improvement for all treatment arms including placebo from weeks 2 through 72 including the primary time point of week 12. There were no statistically significant differences between BTX-A groups and placebo in terms of treatment efficacy described as International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS reduction, improvement of peak urinary flow rate (Qmax and post-void residual volume (PVR and prostate volume reduction at any time point throughout the study. Only in a subgroup of patients, including previous alpha-blocker users, 200 U BTX-A worked better than placebo in terms of IPSS reduction. Adverse event rates were similar between all treatment arms. The unexpected pronounced placebo response in the present study raises question marks in minds regarding the use of BTX-A as an alternative treatment option. These conflicting results suggest that intraprostatic BTX-A injection is still experimental and further trials are required.

  5. RESPIRE 1: a phase III placebo-controlled randomised trial of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Soyza, Anthony; Aksamit, Timothy; Bandel, Tiemo-Joerg; Criollo, Margarita; Elborn, J Stuart; Operschall, Elisabeth; Polverino, Eva; Roth, Katrin; Winthrop, Kevin L; Wilson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (DPI) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, two or more exacerbations in the previous year and pre-defined bacteria in sputum.In this phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomised 2:1 to twice-daily ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo in two treatment regimens consisting of on/off treatment cycles of 14 or 28 days for 48 weeks. The primary end-points were time to first exacerbation and frequency of exacerbations.A total of 416 patients were randomised to the 14-day on/off regimen (ciprofloxacin DPI (n=137) and placebo (n=68)) or the 28-day on/off regimen (ciprofloxacin DPI (n=141) and placebo (n=70)). Ciprofloxacin DPI 14 days on/off significantly prolonged time to first exacerbation versus pooled placebo (median time >336 versus 186 days; hazard ratio 0.53, 97.5% CI 0.36-0.80; p=0.0005) and reduced the frequency of exacerbations compared with matching placebo by 39% (mean number of exacerbations 0.6 versus 1.0; incidence rate ratio 0.61, 97.5% CI 0.40-0.91; p=0.0061). Outcomes for ciprofloxacin DPI 28 days on/off were not statistically significantly different from placebo. The safety profile of ciprofloxacin DPI was favourable.Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated and has the potential to be an effective treatment option in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  6. An analysis of leukapheresis and central venous catheter use in the randomized, placebo controlled, phase 3 IMPACT trial of Sipuleucel-T for metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Robert C; Polcari, Anthony J; Shore, Neil D; Price, Thomas H; Sims, Robert B; Maher, Johnathan C; Whitmore, James B; Corman, John M

    2013-02-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy. We review the safety of the leukapheresis procedure required for sipuleucel-T preparation and complications related to venous catheter use in the randomized, placebo controlled phase 3 IMPACT (IMmunotherapy for ProstAte Cancer Trial) study (NCT 00065442). A total of 512 patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients were scheduled to undergo 3 standard 1.5 to 2.0 blood volume leukapheresis procedures at 2-week intervals. Leukapheresis related adverse events and those related to venous catheter use were reviewed. Immune cell counts were examined throughout the treatment course. Of 512 enrolled patients 506 underwent 1 or more leukapheresis procedures and were included in this analysis. Adverse events were comparable between the sipuleucel-T and control arms. Leukapheresis related adverse events were primarily associated with transient hypocalcemia (39.3%). Most leukapheresis related adverse events (97%) were of mild/moderate intensity. Median white blood cell count and absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were stable and within normal ranges throughout the treatment course. Of all patients 23.3% had a central venous catheter placed primarily for leukapheresis. Patients with vs without a central venous catheter had a higher risk of infection potentially related to catheter use (11.9% vs 1.3%, p nervous system (5.9% vs 2.1%, p = 0.06). Adverse events related to leukapheresis are manageable and quickly reversible. The majority of patients can undergo leukapheresis without a central venous catheter. Central venous catheters are associated with an increased risk of infections and venous vascular events. Peripheral intravenous access should be used when feasible. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  8. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  9. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Probiotic Given Intravaginally for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Ann E.; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M.; Fredricks, David N.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Czaja, Christopher A.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E.

    2011-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (LACTIN-VÜ, Osel, Inc.) for prevention of recurrent UTI (rUTI) in pre-menopausal women, LACTIN-V was safe, well tolerated, and associated with a reduction in rUTI.

  10. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the novel antituberculous vaccine RUTI: randomized, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial in patients with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Andre S; D'lom, Eva; Bouic, Patrick; Sabaté, Montserrat; Bosser, Ramon; Picas, Jordi; Amat, Mercè; Churchyard, Gavin; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of three different doses (5, 25 and 50 µg) of the novel antituberculous vaccine RUTI compared to placebo in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II Clinical Trial (95 patients randomized). Three different RUTI doses and placebo were tested, randomized both in HIV-positive (n = 47) and HIV-negative subjects (n = 48), after completion of one month isoniazid (INH) pre-vaccination. Each subject received two vaccine administrations, 28 Days apart. Five patients withdrew and 90 patients completed the study. Assessment of safety showed no deaths during study. Two subjects had serious adverse events one had a retinal detachment while taking INH and was not randomized and the other had a severe local injection site abscess on each arm and was hospitalized; causality was assessed as very likely and by the end of the study the outcome had resolved. All the patients except 5 (21%) patients of the placebo group (3 HIV+ and 2 HIV-) reported at least one adverse event (AE) during the study. The most frequently occurring AEs among RUTI recipients were (% in HIV+/-): injection site reactions [erythema (91/92), induration (94/92), local nodules (46/25), local pain (66/75), sterile abscess (6/6), swelling (74/83), ulcer (20/11), headache (17/22) and nasopharyngitis (20/5)]. These events were mostly mild and well tolerated. Overall, a polyantigenic response was observed, which differed by HIV- status. The best polyantigenic response was obtained when administrating 25 µg RUTI, especially in HIV-positive subjects which was not increased after the second inoculation. This Phase II clinical trial demonstrates reasonable tolerability of RUTI. The immunogenicity profile of RUTI vaccine in LTBI subjects, even being variable among groups, allows us considering one single injection of one of the highest doses in future trials, preceded by an extended safety clinical

  11. Effects of policosanol on borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol levels: a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Castaño, PhD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d. Objective: This study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol 5 mg/d in patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum TC levels. Methods: This 14-week, single-center, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, comparative study was conducted in men and women aged 25 to 75 years with a serum TC level ≥4.8 to <6.0 mmol/L. After a 6-week run-in period in which patients were placed on therapeutic lifestyle changes, in particular a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomly assigned to receive policosanol 5-mg tablets or placebo tablets once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks, and the diet was continued throughout the study. Lipid profile variables, safety indicators, adverse events (AEs, and compliance with study medications were assessed. Results: One hundred patients (71 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 52 [10] years entered the study after the dietary run-in period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean (SD serum LDL-C level decreased significantly in the policosanol group (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo from 3.57 (0.30 mmol/L to 2.86 (0.41 mmol/L (change, −19.9%. Significantly more patients in the policosanol group (42 patients [84%] achieved a ≥15% decrease in serum LDL-C than in the placebo group (2 patients [4%] (P<0.001. Also in the policosanol group, the mean (SD serum TC level decreased significantly, from 5.20 (0.22 mmol/L to 4.56 (0.44 mmol/L (P<0.001 vs baseline and placebo (change, −12.3%; the mean (SD triglyceride (TG

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children aged 2-11 years in Malaysia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Koh, Mia-Tuang; Tan, Kah Kee; Chan, Lee Gaik; Zhou, Lynn; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Crevat, Denis; Hutagalung, Yanee

    2013-12-02

    Dengue disease is a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region for which there is no licensed vaccine or treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of Phase III lots of a candidate vaccine (CYD-TDV) in children in Malaysia. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study, children aged 2-11 years were randomized (4:1) to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months. Primary endpoints included assessment of reactogenicity following each dose, adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) reported throughout the study, and immunogenicity expressed as geometric mean titres (GMTs) and distribution of dengue virus (DENV) neutralizing antibody titres. 250 participants enrolled in the study (CYD-TDV: n=199; placebo: n=51). There was a trend for reactogenicity to be higher with CYD-TDV than with placebo post-dose 1 (75.4% versus 68.6%) and post-dose 2 (71.6% versus 62.0%) and slightly lower post-dose 3 (57.9% versus 64.0%). Unsolicited AEs declined in frequency with each subsequent dose and were similar overall between groups (CYD-TDV: 53.8%; placebo: 49.0%). Most AEs were of Grade 1 intensity and were transient. SAEs were reported by 5.5% and 11.8% of participants in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups, respectively. No deaths were reported. Baseline seropositivity against each of the four DENV serotypes was similar between groups, ranging from 24.0% (DENV-4) to 36.7% (DENV-3). In the CYD-TDV group, GMTs increased post-dose 2 for all serotypes compared with baseline, ranging from 4.8 (DENV-1) to 8.1-fold (DENV-3). GMTs further increased post-dose 3 for DENV-1 and DENV-2. Compared with baseline, individual titre increases ranged from 6.1-fold (DENV-1) to 7.96-fold (DENV-3). This study demonstrated a satisfactory safety profile and a balanced humoral immune response against all four DENV serotypes for CYD-TDV administered via a three-dose regimen to children in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  13. First phase 1 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized rectal microbicide trial using UC781 gel with a novel index of ex vivo efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Anton

    Full Text Available Successful control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires reduction of HIV-1 transmission at sexually-exposed mucosae. No prevention studies of the higher-risk rectal compartment exist. We report the first-in-field Phase 1 trial of a rectally-applied, vaginally-formulated microbicide gel with the RT-inhibitor UC781 measuring clinical and mucosal safety, acceptability and plasma drug levels. A first-in-Phase 1 assessment of preliminary pharmacodynamics was included by measuring changes in ex vivo HIV-1 suppression in rectal biopsy tissue after exposure to product in vivo.HIV-1 seronegative, sexually-abstinent men and women (N = 36 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing UC781 gel at two concentrations (0.1%, 0.25% with placebo gel (1∶1∶1. Baseline, single-dose exposure and a separate, 7-day at-home dosing were assessed. Safety and acceptability were primary endpoints. Changes in colorectal mucosal markers and UC781 plasma drug levels were secondary endpoints; ex vivo biopsy infectibility was an ancillary endpoint.All 36 subjects enrolled completed the 7-14 week trial (100% retention including 3 flexible sigmoidoscopies, each with 28 biopsies (14 at 10 cm; 14 at 30 cm. There were 81 Grade 1 adverse events (AEs and 8 Grade 2; no Grade 3, 4 or procedure-related AEs were reported. Acceptability was high, including likelihood of future use. No changes in mucosal immunoinflammatory markers were identified. Plasma levels of UC781 were not detected. Ex vivo infection of biopsies using two titers of HIV-1(BaL showed marked suppression of p24 in tissues exposed in vivo to 0.25% UC781; strong trends of suppression were seen with the lower 0.1% UC781 concentration.Single and 7-day topical rectal exposure to both concentrations of UC781 were safe with no significant AEs, high acceptability, no detected plasma drug levels and no significant mucosal changes. Ex vivo biopsy infections demonstrated marked suppression of HIV

  14. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Armstrong, David K; Ashby, Deborah; Bayfield, Katie J; Bilton, Diana; Bloomfield, Emily V; Boyd, A Christopher; Brand, June; Buchan, Ruaridh; Calcedo, Roberto; Carvelli, Paula; Chan, Mario; Cheng, Seng H; Collie, D David S; Cunningham, Steve; Davidson, Heather E; Davies, Gwyneth; Davies, Jane C; Davies, Lee A; Dewar, Maria H; Doherty, Ann; Donovan, Jackie; Dwyer, Natalie S; Elgmati, Hala I; Featherstone, Rosanna F; Gavino, Jemyr; Gea-Sorli, Sabrina; Geddes, Duncan M; Gibson, James S R; Gill, Deborah R; Greening, Andrew P; Griesenbach, Uta; Hansell, David M; Harman, Katharine; Higgins, Tracy E; Hodges, Samantha L; Hyde, Stephen C; Hyndman, Laura; Innes, J Alastair; Jacob, Joseph; Jones, Nancy; Keogh, Brian F; Limberis, Maria P; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Maclean, Alan W; Manvell, Michelle C; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Meng, Cuixiang; Montero, M Angeles; Milligan, Hazel; Moyce, Laura J; Murray, Gordon D; Nicholson, Andrew G; Osadolor, Tina; Parra-Leiton, Javier; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian A; Punch, Emma K; Pytel, Kamila M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Rivellini, Gina; Saunders, Clare J; Scheule, Ronald K; Sheard, Sarah; Simmonds, Nicholas J; Smith, Keith; Smith, Stephen N; Soussi, Najwa; Soussi, Samia; Spearing, Emma J; Stevenson, Barbara J; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Turkkila, Minna; Ureta, Rosa P; Waller, Michael D; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Wilson, James M; Wolstenholme-Hogg, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50-90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene-liposome complex or 0.9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs ≥70%), age (<18 vs ≥18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3.7%, 95% CI 0.1-7.3; p=0.046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of lung function in the treatment group. Further improvements in

  15. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Lee M; Kindler, Hedy L; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A; Lubiniecki, Gregory M; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat given as a second-line or third-line therapy improved patients' overall survival. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was done in 90 international centres. Patients with measurable advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma and disease progression after one or two previous systemic regimens were eligible. After stratification for Karnofsky performance status, histology, and number of previous chemotherapy regimens, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive voice response system with a block size of four to either treatment with vorinostat or placebo. Patients received oral vorinostat 300 mg (or matching placebo) twice daily on days 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17 of a 21-day cycle. The primary endpoints were overall survival and safety and tolerability of vorinostat. The primary efficacy comparison was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety and tolerability was assessed in the treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00128102. From July 12, 2005, to Feb 14, 2011, 661 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either vorinostat (n=329) or placebo (n=332) and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Median overall survival for vorinostat was 30·7 weeks (95% CI 26·7-36·1) versus 27·1 weeks (23·1-31·9) for placebo (hazard ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·83-1·17, p=0·86). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events for patients treated with vorinostat were fatigue or malaise (51 [16%] patients in the vorinostat group vs 25 [8%] in the placebo group]) and dyspnoea (35 [11%] vs 45 [14%]). In this randomised trial, vorinostat given as a second-line or third

  16. A phase I double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of a multigenic HIV-1 adenovirus subtype 35 vector vaccine in healthy uninfected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Keefer

    Full Text Available We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35 vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN and env (Ad35-ENV, both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults.Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×10(9 (A, 2×10(10 (B, 2×10(11 (C, or Ad35-GRIN 1×10(10 (D viral particles.No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A-D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC per 10(6 PBMC to any antigen was 78-139 across Groups A-C and 158-174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A-C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination.Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second vaccination. T-cell responses were broad and polyfunctional

  17. Bromocriptine Mesylate Attenuates Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Phase 2a, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Research in Japanese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Nagata

    Full Text Available Bromocriptine mesylate (BRC, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist has been shown to confer neuroprotection, sustained motor function and slowed disease progression in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS Here we report a first in human trial in ALS.A multicenter, Riluzole add-on, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 102-week extension BRC clinical trial.The trial was conducted between January 2009 and March 2012 on 36 Japanese ALS patients. A 12-week treatment with Riluzole observational period was followed by combined treatment (Riluzole + BRC; n = 29 or Riluzole + placebo; n = 7. The dosing commenced at 1.25 mg/day increasing in steps at two weeks intervals to a maximum of 15 mg/day. The efficacy of BRC was evaluated by comparing BRC and placebo groups upon completion of stepwise dosing at 14 weeks 2 points (1st endpoint and upon completion or discontinuation of the study (2nd endpoint of the dosing.Statistics analyses revealed a marginal BRC treatment efficacy with P≦20%to placebo by 1st and 2nd endpoint analysis. In the 1st endpoint analysis, BRC group was significantly effective on the scores of ALSAQ40-communicaton (P = 1.2%, eating and drinking (P = 2.2%, ALSFRS-R total (P = 17.6%, grip strength (P = 19.8% compared to the placebo group. In the 2nd endpoint analysis, differences between the scores of Limb Norris Scale (P = 18.3%, ALSAQ40-communication (P = 11.9%, eating and drinking (P = 13.6%, and neck forward-bent test (P = 15.4% of BRC group were detected between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for adverse events or serious drug reactions incidence.BRC sustains motoneuronal function at least in part through BRC treatment. Further analysis involving a Phase 2b or 3 clinical trial is required but BRC currently shows promise for ALS treatment.UMIN Clinical Trials UMIN000008527.

  18. Safety of Russian-backbone seasonal trivalent, live-attenuated influenza vaccine in a phase II randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial among children in urban Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Goswami, Doli; Lewis, Kristen D C; Sharmeen, Amina Tahia; Ahmed, Moshtaq; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammed Z; Feser, Jodi; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Brooks, W Abdullah

    2015-06-26

    Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have the potential to be affordable, effective, and logistically feasible for immunization of children in low-resource settings. We conducted a phase II, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial on the safety of the Russian-backbone, seasonal trivalent LAIV among children aged 24 through 59 months in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2012. After vaccination, we monitored participants for six months with weekly home visits and study clinic surveillance for solicited and unsolicited adverse events, protocol-defined wheezing illness (PDWI), and serious adverse events (SAEs), including all cause hospitalizations. Three hundred children were randomized and administered LAIV (n=150) or placebo (n=150). No immediate post-vaccination reactions occurred in either group. Solicited reactions were similar between vaccine and placebo groups during the first 7 days post-vaccination and throughout the entire trial. There were no statistically significant differences in participants experiencing PDWI between LAIV and placebo groups throughout the trial (n=13 vs. n=16, p=0.697). Of 131 children with a history of medical treatment or hospitalization for asthma or wheezing at study entry, 65 received LAIV and 66 received placebo. Among this subset, there was no statistical difference in PDWI occurring throughout the trial between the LAIV or placebo groups (7.7% vs. 19.7%, p=0.074). While there were no related SAEs, LAIV recipients had six unrelated SAEs and placebo recipients had none. These SAEs included three due to traumatic injury and bone fracture, and one each due to accidental overdose of paracetamol, abdominal pain, and acute gastroenteritis. None of the participants with SAEs had laboratory-confirmed influenza, wheezing illness, or other signs of acute respiratory illness at the time of their events. In this randomized, controlled trial among 300 children aged 24 through 59 months in urban Bangladesh, Russian

  19. Reduction of unwanted submental fat with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an adipocytolytic injectable treatment: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzany, B; Griffiths, T; Walker, P; Lippert, S; McDiarmid, J; Havlickova, B

    2014-02-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) is aesthetically unappealing, but methods of reduction are either invasive or lack evidence for their use. An injectable approach with ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid) is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the reduction of unwanted SMF. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, 363 patients with moderate/severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 (1 or 2 mg cm(-2) ) or placebo injections into their SMF at up to four treatment sessions ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders [patients with ≥ 1-point improvement in SMF on the 5-point Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS)] and patients satisfied with their face and chin appearance on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). Secondary endpoints included skin laxity, calliper measurements and patient-reported outcomes. Adverse events were monitored. Significantly more ATX-101 recipients met the primary endpoint criteria vs. placebo: on the clinician scale, 59·2% and 65·3% of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg cm(-2) , respectively, were treatment responders vs. 23·0% for placebo (CR-SMFRS; P < 0·001); on the patient scale, 53·3% and 66·1%, respectively, vs. 28·7%, were satisfied with their face/chin appearance (SSRS; P < 0·001). Calliper measurements showed a significant reduction in SMF (P < 0·001), skin laxity was not worsened and patients reported improvements in the severity and psychological impact of SMF with ATX-101 vs. placebo. Most adverse events were transient and associated with the treatment area. ATX-101 was effective and well tolerated for nonsurgical SMF reduction. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H

    2015-10-31

    Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non

  1. Isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin improve quality of life, sexual function, body composition and metabolic parameters in menopausal women: result from a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Caruso, Salvatore; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Cianci, Stefano; Cianci, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Menopause results in metabolic changes that contribute to increase risk of cardiovascular diseases: increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL), weight gain are associated with a correspondent increase in incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of isoflavones, calcium vitamin D and inulin in menopausal women. We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 50 patients were randomized to receive either oral preparations of isoflavones (40 mg), calcium (500 mg) vitamin D (300 UI) and inulin (3 g) or placebo (control group). Pre- and post-treatment assessment of quality of life and sexual function were performed through Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); evaluations of anthropometric indicators, body composition through bioelectrical impedance analyser, lumbar spine and proximal femur T-score and lipid profile were performed. After 12 months, a significant reduction in MENQOL vasomotor, physical and sexual domain scores ( p 0.05) were found in the same group. According to our data analysis, isoflavones, calcium, vitamin D and inulin may exert favourable effects on menopausal symptoms and signs.

  2. Safety and efficacy of AMG 334 for prevention of episodic migraine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Dodick, David W; Silberstein, Stephen; Goadsby, Peter J; Reuter, Uwe; Ashina, Messoud; Saper, Joel; Cady, Roger; Chon, Yun; Dietrich, Julie; Lenz, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is a promising target for preventive therapies in patients with migraine. We assessed the safety and efficacy of AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, for migraine prevention. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-60 years with 4 to 14 migraine days per month were enrolled at 59 headache and clinical research centres in North America and Europe, and randomly assigned in a 3:2:2:2 ratio to monthly subcutaneous placebo, AMG 334 7 mg, AMG 334 21 mg, or AMG 334 70 mg using a sponsor-generated randomisation sequence centrally executed by an interactive voice response or interactive web response system. Study site personnel, patients, and the sponsor study personnel were masked to the treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in monthly migraine days from baseline to the last 4 weeks of the 12-week double-blind treatment phase. The primary endpoint was calculated using the least squares mean at each timepoint from a generalised linear mixed-effect model for repeated measures. Safety endpoints were adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, and anti-AMG 334 antibodies. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01952574. An open-label extension phase of up to 256 weeks is ongoing and will assess the long-term safety of AMG 334. From Aug 6, 2013, to June 30, 2014, 483 patients were randomly assigned to placebo (n=160), AMG 334 7 mg (n=108), AMG 334 21 mg (n=108), or AMG 334 70 mg (n=107). The mean change in monthly migraine days at week 12 was -3·4 (SE 0·4) days with AMG 334 70 mg versus -2·3 (0·3) days with placebo (difference -1·1 days [95% CI -2·1 to -0·2], p=0·021). The mean reductions in monthly migraine days with the 7 mg (-2·2 [SE 0·4]) and the 21 mg (-2·4 [0·4]) doses were not significantly different from that with placebo. Adverse events were recorded in 82 (54

  3. Safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jonathan; Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Griffiths, Scott K; Antonelli, Patrick J; Lynch, Eric D; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-09-02

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of occupational and recreational injury and disease, and a major determinant of age-related hearing loss. No therapeutic agent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of this disorder. In animal models, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity is reduced after acute noise exposure. Ebselen, a novel GPx1 mimic, has been shown to reduce both temporary and permanent noise-induced hearing loss in preclinical studies. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults in a phase 2 clinical trial. In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, healthy adults aged 18-31 years were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at the University of Florida (Gainsville, FL, USA) to receive ebselen 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg, or placebo orally twice daily for 4 days, beginning 2 days before a calibrated sound challenge (4 h of pre-recorded music delivered by insert earphones). Randomisation was done with an allocation sequence generated by an independent third party. The primary outcome was mean temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4 kHz measured 15 min after the calibrated sound challenge by pure tone audiometry; a reduction of 50% in an ebselen dose group compared with the placebo group was judged to be clinically relevant. All participants who received the calibrated sound challenge and at least one dose of study drug were included in the efficacy analysis. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01444846. Between Jan 11, 2013, and March 24, 2014, 83 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ebselen 200 mg (n=22), 400 mg (n=20), or 600 mg (n=21), or placebo (n=20). Two participants in the 200 mg ebselen group were discontinued from the study before the calibrated sound challenge because they no longer met the inclusion criteria; these

  4. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment and two new mouth rinses on gingival health: A prospective cohort followed by a single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Heydari, Mohaddeseh; Keikavusi, Shohreh; Dadgar, Sepideh; Shariati, Mahsa

    2018-03-01

    Routine brushing protocols might not suffice to reduce the increased plaque accumulation in orthodontic patients. Antimicrobial mouth rinses are favorable in this regard. This two-phase study evaluated the effects of orthodontic treatment and the application of two mouthwashes not studied before on oral health indices. In this two-phase study (a prospective cohort followed by a parallel randomized controlled trial), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), and pocket probing depth (PPD) were measured in 54 orthodontic patients before orthodontic treatment and 4 months later. Then patients were randomized into three groups of mouthrinses: Persica (herbal), Ortho-Kin (containing diluted chlorhexidine), and Placebo (n=18×3). The effects of orthodontic treatment and mouthrinses were analyzed statistically (α=0.05). All the 4 indices increased between the baseline and 4th month of treatment (P values<0.01, paired t-test). They decreased back to baseline levels or below them, after one month of mouthwash application (P values<0.002). Both mouthwashes showed therapeutic effects compared to placebo in terms of PI and GBI. In the case of GI, only Persica showed significantly better results compared to placebo. Regarding PPD, only Ortho-Kin acted better than placebo (P values≤0.05, Tukey). Lack of positive control (regular chlorhexidine mouth rinse) and negative control (a group with no mouthwashes, even without the placebo). Lack of sample size predetermination based on a priori power calculations. The difference between the regime of Persica with that of Ortho-Kin and placebo (which had similar application protocols) disallowed perfectly effective blinding of the patients (hence, single-blind). Fixed orthodontic treatment might disrupt gingival health. Antimicrobial mouthwashes might reverse this. Both evaluated mouthwashes might have therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2018 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral prenylation inhibition with lonafarnib in chronic hepatitis D infection: a proof-of-concept randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2A trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Christopher; Canini, Laetitia; Dahari, Harel; Zhao, Xiongce; Uprichard, Susan L; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Winters, Mark A; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Cooper, Stewart L; Pinto, Peter; Wolff, Erin F; Bishop, Rachel; Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Cotler, Scott J; Kleiner, David E; Keskin, Onur; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Heller, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Therapies for chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection are unsatisfactory. Prenylation is essential for HDV and inhibition abrogates HDV production in experimental models. In a proof-of-concept study, we aimed to assess the effect on HDV RNA levels, safety, and tolerability of the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. Methods In this phase 2A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, patients aged 18 years or older with chronic HDV infection were randomly assigned (3:1 in group 1 and 2:1 in group 2) to receive lonafarnib 100 mg (group 1) or lonafarnib 200 mg (group 2) twice daily for 28 days with 6 months’ follow-up. Participants were randomised by random-number tables blocked in groups of four without stratification. Both groups enrolled six treatment participants and two placebo participants. Group 1 placebo patients received open-label lonafarnib as group 2 participants. The primary therapeutic endpoint was a decrease in HDV RNA viral titre in serum and the primary safety endpoint was the ability to tolerate the drug at the prescribed dose for the full 4-week duration, defined as drug discontinuation due to intolerance or grade 3/4 adverse events. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01495585. Findings Between Jan 19, 2012, and April 28, 2014, 14 patients were enrolled, of whom eight were assigned to group 1 and six were assigned to group 2. At day 28, compared with placebo, mean log HDV RNA declines from baseline were −0.73 log IU/mL in group 1 (95% CI 0.17–1.31; p=0.03) and −1.54 log IU/mL in group 2 (1.21–1.93; p<0.0001). Lonafarnib serum concentrations correlated with HDV RNA change (r2=0.78, p<0.0001). Model fits show that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) remained stable after a short pharmacological delay (0.75 days [SE 0.24]), lonafarnib effectiveness in blocking HDV production was greater in group 2 than in group 1 (0.952 [SE 0.06] vs 0.739 [0

  6. Serum biomarkers as predictors of long-term outcome in severe traumatic brain injury: analysis from a randomized placebo-controlled Phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheja, Amol; Sinha, Sumit; Samson, Neha; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Sharma, Pushpa; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE There has been increased interest in the potential importance of biochemical parameters as predictors of outcome in severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS Of 107 patients with sTBI (age 18-65 years with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4-8 presenting within 8 hours after injury) who were randomized for a placebo-controlled Phase II trial of progesterone with or without hypothermia, the authors serially analyzed serum biomarkers (S100-B, glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], neuron-specific enolase [NSE], tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 [IL-6], estrogen [Eg], and progesterone [Pg]). This analysis was performed using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique at admission and 7 days later for 86 patients, irrespective of assigned group. The long-term predictive values of serum biomarkers for dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score, functional independence measure, and survival status at 6 and 12 months were analyzed using an adjusted binary logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS A favorable GOS score (4-5) at 1 year was predicted by higher admission IL-6 (above 108.36 pg/ml; area under the curve [AUC] 0.69, sensitivity 52%, and specificity 78.6%) and Day 7 Pg levels (above 3.15 ng/ml; AUC 0.79, sensitivity 70%, and specificity 92.9%). An unfavorable GOS score (1-3) at 1 year was predicted by higher Day 7 GFAP levels (above 9.50 ng/ml; AUC 0.82, sensitivity 78.6%, and specificity 82.4%). Survivors at 1 year had significantly higher Day 7 Pg levels (above 3.15 ng/ml; AUC 0.78, sensitivity 66.7%, and specificity 90.9%). Nonsurvivors at 1 year had significantly higher Day 7 GFAP serum levels (above 11.14 ng/ml; AUC 0.81, sensitivity 81.8%, and specificity 88.9%) and Day 7 IL-6 serum levels (above 71.26 pg/ml; AUC 0.87, sensitivity 81.8%, and specificity 87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of outcome at 1 year were serum levels of Day 7 Pg (favorable

  7. Preoperative intravenous ibuprofen does not influence postoperative narcotic use in patients undergoing elective hernia repair: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled prospective trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparber LS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lauren S Sparber,1 Christine SM Lau,1,2 Tanya S Vialet,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA; 4Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA Introduction: Inguinal and umbilical hernia repairs are among the most common surgical procedures performed in the US. Optimal perioperative pain control regimens remain challenging and opioid analgesics are commonly used. Preoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID administration has been shown to reduce postoperative narcotic requirements. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intravenous (IV ibuprofen on postoperative pain level and narcotic use in patients undergoing open or laparoscopic inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair.Methods: A single center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving patients ≥18 years undergoing inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair was performed. Patients were randomized to receive 800 mg of IV ibuprofen or placebo preoperatively. Outcomes assessed included postoperative pain medication required and visual analog scale (VAS pain scores.Results: Forty-eight adult male patients underwent inguinal and/or umbilical hernia repair. Patients receiving IV ibuprofen used more oxycodone/acetaminophen (32% vs 13% and IV hydromorphone (12% vs 8.7%, and fewer combinations of pain medications (44% vs 65.2% in the first two postoperative hours compared to placebo (p=0.556. The IV ibuprofen group had more patients pain free (28% vs 8.7%, p=0.087 and lower VAS scores (3.08±2.14 vs 3.95±1.54, p=0.134 at 2 hours postoperatively, compared to the placebo group, however, this was not statistically significant. Similar pain levels at 1, 3, and 7 days, postoperative and similar use of rescue

  8. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of empirical teicoplanin in febrile neutropenia with persistent fever after imipenem monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erjavec, Z; de Vries-Hospers, HG; Halie, RM; Daenen, S

    Glycopeptide antibiotics are used extensively in the empirical treatment of febrile patients with neutropenia. To come to a more rational and restricted application of these expensive drugs and to reduce the risk of emergence of resistance, we carried out a prospective, double-blinded,

  9. The effect of dose on the safety and immunogenicity of the VSV Ebola candidate vaccine: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttner, Angela; Dayer, Julie-Anne; Yerly, Sabine; Combescure, Christophe; Auderset, Floriane; Desmeules, Jules; Eickmann, Markus; Finckh, Axel; Goncalves, Ana Rita; Hooper, Jay W; Kaya, Gürkan; Krähling, Verena; Kwilas, Steve; Lemaître, Barbara; Matthey, Alain; Silvera, Peter; Becker, Stephan; Fast, Patricia E; Moorthy, Vasee; Kieny, Marie Paule; Kaiser, Laurent; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Safe and effective vaccines against Ebola could prevent or control outbreaks. The safe use of replication-competent vaccines requires a careful dose-selection process. We report the first safety and immunogenicity results in volunteers receiving 3 × 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu) of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV; low-dose vaccinees) compared with 59 volunteers who had received 1 ×10(7) pfu (n=35) or 5 × 10(7) pfu (n=16) of rVSV-ZEBOV (high-dose vaccinees) or placebo (n=8) before a safety-driven study hold. The Geneva rVSV-ZEBOV study, an investigator-initiated phase 1/2, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent, and otherwise healthy adults aged 18-65 years. Participants from the low-dose group with no plans to deploy to Ebola-aff5cted regions (non-deployable) were randomised 9:1 in a double-blind fashion using randomly permuted blocks of varying sizes to a single injection of 3 × 10(5) pfu or placebo, whereas deployable participants received single-injection 3 × 10(5) pfu open-label. Primary safety and immunogenicity outcomes were the incidence of adverse events within 14 days of vaccination and day-28 antibody titres, respectively, analysed by intention to treat. After viral oligoarthritis was observed in 11 of the first 51 vaccinees (22%) receiving 10(7) or 5 × 10(7) pfu, 56 participants were given a lower dose (3 × 10(5) pfu, n=51) or placebo (n=5) to assess the effect of dose reduction on safety and immunogenicity. This trial is ongoing with a follow-up period of 12 months; all reported results are from interim databases. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02287480. Between Jan 5 and Jan 26, 2015, 43 non-deployable participants received low-dose rVSV-ZEBOV (3 × 10(5) pfu) or placebo in a

  10. The safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of inactivated influenza vaccine delivered by microneedle patch (TIV-MNP 2015): a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Nadine G; Paine, Michele; Mosley, Regina; Henry, Sebastien; McAllister, Devin V; Kalluri, Haripriya; Pewin, Winston; Frew, Paula M; Yu, Tianwei; Thornburg, Natalie J; Kabbani, Sarah; Lai, Lilin; Vassilieva, Elena V; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard W; Mulligan, Mark J; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-08-12

    Microneedle patches provide an alternative to conventional needle-and-syringe immunisation, and potentially offer improved immunogenicity, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, acceptability, and safety. We describe safety, immunogenicity, and acceptability of the first-in-man study on single, dissolvable microneedle patch vaccination against influenza. The TIV-MNP 2015 study was a randomised, partly blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 1, clinical trial at Emory University that enrolled non-pregnant, immunocompetent adults from Atlanta, GA, USA, who were aged 18-49 years, naive to the 2014-15 influenza vaccine, and did not have any significant dermatological disorders. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to four groups and received a single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine (fluvirin: 18 μg of haemagglutinin per H1N1 vaccine strain, 17 μg of haemagglutinin per H3N2 vaccine strain, and 15 μg of haemagglutinin per B vaccine strain) (1) by microneedle patch or (2) by intramuscular injection, or received (3) placebo by microneedle patch, all administered by an unmasked health-care worker; or received a single dose of (4) inactivated influenza vaccine by microneedle patch self-administered by study participants. A research pharmacist prepared the randomisation code using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with a block size of 4. Because of the nature of the study, participants were not masked to the type of vaccination method (ie, microneedle patch vs intramuscular injection). Primary safety outcome measures are the incidence of study product-related serious adverse events within 180 days, grade 3 solicited or unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, and solicited injection site and systemic reactogenicity on the day of study product administration through 7 days after administration, and secondary safety outcomes are new-onset chronic illnesses within 180 days and unsolicited adverse events within 28 days, all analysed by intention to treat

  11. Time course of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in adults with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James I; Gasior, Maria; Herman, Barry K; Radewonuk, Jana; Wilfley, Denise; Busner, Joan

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the time course of efficacy-related endpoints for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) versus placebo in adults with protocol-defined moderate to severe binge-eating disorder (BED). In two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, adults meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo or dose-optimized LDX (50 or 70 mg). Analyses across visits used mixed-effects models for repeated measures (binge eating days/week, binge eating episodes/week, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE] scores, percentage body weight change) and chi-square tests (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement [CGI-I; from the perspective of BED symptoms] scale dichotomized as improved or not improved). These analyses were not part of the prespecified testing strategy, so reported p values are nominal (unadjusted and descriptive only). Least squares mean treatment differences for change from baseline in both studies favored LDX over placebo (all nominal p values binge eating days/week, binge-eating episodes/week, and percentage weight change and at the first posttreatment assessment (Week 4) for Y-BOCS-BE total and domain scores. On the CGI-I, more participants on LDX than placebo were categorized as improved starting at Week 1 in both studies (both nominal p values Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dietary nitrate provides sustained blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients: a randomized, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Vikas; Khambata, Rayomand S; Robertson, Amy; Caulfield, Mark J; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2015-02-01

    Single dose administration of dietary inorganic nitrate acutely reduces blood pressure (BP) in normotensive healthy volunteers, via bioconversion to the vasodilator nitric oxide. We assessed whether dietary nitrate might provide sustained BP lowering in patients with hypertension. We randomly assigned 68 patients with hypertension in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive daily dietary supplementation for 4 weeks with either dietary nitrate (250 mL daily, as beetroot juice) or a placebo (250 mL daily, as nitrate-free beetroot juice) after a 2-week run-in period and followed by a 2-week washout. We performed stratified randomization of drug-naive (n=34) and treated (n=34) patients with hypertension aged 18 to 85 years. The primary end point was change in clinic, ambulatory, and home BP compared with placebo. Daily supplementation with dietary nitrate was associated with reduction in BP measured by 3 different methods. Mean (95% confidence interval) reduction in clinic BP was 7.7/2.4 mm Hg (3.6-11.8/0.0-4.9, Pnitrate consumption with no change after placebo. The intervention was well tolerated. This is the first evidence of durable BP reduction with dietary nitrate supplementation in a relevant patient group. These findings suggest a role for dietary nitrate as an affordable, readily-available, adjunctive treatment in the management of patients with hypertension (funded by The British Heart Foundation). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01405898. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M; Fredricks, David N; Roberts, Pacita L; Czaja, Christopher A; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E

    2011-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among women and frequently recur. Depletion of vaginal lactobacilli is associated with UTI risk, which suggests that repletion may be beneficial. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (Lactin-V; Osel) for prevention of recurrent UTI in premenopausal women. One hundred young women with a history of recurrent UTI received antimicrobials for acute UTI and then were randomized to receive either Lactin-V or placebo daily for 5 d, then once weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were followed up at 1 week and 10 weeks after intervention and for UTIs; urine samples for culture and vaginal swabs for real-time quantitative 16S ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction for L. crispatus were collected. Recurrent UTI occurred in 7/48 15% of women receiving Lactin-V compared with 13/48 27% of women receiving placebo (relative risk [RR], .5; 95% confidence interval, .2-1.2). High-level vaginal colonization with L. crispatus (≥10(6) 16S RNA gene copies per swab) throughout follow-up was associated with a significant reduction in recurrent UTI only for Lactin-V (RR for Lactin-V, .07; RR for placebo, 1.1; P < .01). Lactin-V after treatment for cystitis is associated with a reduction in recurrent UTI. Larger efficacy trials of this novel preventive method for recurrent UTI are warranted. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION. NCT00305227.

  14. The effect of secukinumab on moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis: Results of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3b study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagel, Jerry; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Moore, Angela; Ferris, Laura K; Siu, Kimberly; Steadman, Jennifer; Kianifard, Farid; Nyirady, Judit; Lebwohl, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis has not been evaluated in prospective trials of patients without moderate-to-severe body psoriasis. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in moderate-to-severe scalp psoriasis. In this 24-week, double-blind, phase 3b study, 102 patients were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous secukinumab 300 mg or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, and 3, and then every 4 weeks from week 4 to 20. The primary efficacy variable was 90% improvement of Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI 90) score from baseline to week 12. At week 12, PSSI 90 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 52.9% vs 2.0%) and Investigator's Global Assessment modified 2011 scalp responses of 0 or 1 (secukinumab 300 mg vs placebo, 56.9% vs 5.9%) were significantly greater with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (P psoriasis at week 12 with secukinumab 300 mg than placebo (35.3% vs 0%; P psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of selected magnetic fields on the therapeutic effect in patients with lumbar discopathy: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradaj, Jakub; Ozon, Marcin; Dymarek, Robert; Bolach, Bartosz; Walewicz, Karolina; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Interdisciplinary physical therapy together with pharmacological treatment constitute conservative treatment strategies related to low back pain (LBP). There is still a lack of high quality studies aimed at an objective evaluation of physiotherapeutic procedures according to their effectiveness in LBP. The aim of this study is to carry out a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebocontrolled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic fields in discopathy-related LBP. A group of 177 patients was assessed for eligibility based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the end, 106 patients were randomly assigned into 5 comparative groups: A (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 10 mT, 50 Hz); B (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 5 mT, 50 Hz); C (n = 20; placebo magnetic therapy); D (n = 20; magnetic stimulation: 49.2 μT, 195 Hz); and E (n = 20; placebo magnetic stimulation). All patients were assessed using tests for pain intensity, degree of disability and range of motion. Also, postural stability was assessed using a stabilographic platform. In this study, positive changes in all clinical outcomes were demonstrated in group A (p 0.05). It was determined that the application of magnetic therapy (10 mT, 50 Hz, 20 min) significantly reduces pain symptoms and leads to an improvement of functional ability in patients with LBP.

  16. Efficacy of 10% sucralfate ointment in the reduction of acute postoperative pain after open hemorrhoidectomy: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala, Shahram; Saeedi, Majid; Eshghi, Fariborz; Rafati, Mohamadreza; Hejazi, Vahid; Hadianamrei, Roja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 10 % sucralfate ointment in the reduction of acute postoperative pain after open hemorrhoidectomy. A total of 48 patients (24 men and 24 women) between 20 and 70 years of age who underwent open hemorrhoidectomy were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial and were randomly divided into two groups (24 in each group), receiving either sucralfate ointment or placebo immediately after surgery and then every 12 h for 14 days. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity measured by a visual analogue scale at different time points after hemorrhoidectomy. The sucralfate group had significantly less pain than the placebo group at 24th h and the 48th h after hemorrhoidectomy (4 ± 1.14 vs 5.08 ± 0.97; P = 0.001 and 3 ± 0.72 vs 4.41 ± 0.8; P < 0.001, respectively), and they consumed lower amounts of analgesics at the same time intervals (12.50 ± 16.48 vs 21.87 ± 15.30 mg of pethidine; P = 0.047 and 152 ± 23 vs 172 ± 29 mg of diclofenac; P = 0.009, respectively). The same trend continued until the end of the trial. Sucralfate ointment reduced the acute postoperative pain after hemorrhoidectomy.

  17. A Herbal Medicine, Gongjindan, in Subjects with Chronic Dizziness (GOODNESS Study: Study Protocol for a Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Clinical Trial for Effectiveness, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study protocol aims to explore the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of a herbal medication, Gongjindan (GJD, in patients with chronic dizziness. This will be a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Seventy-eight patients diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, psychogenic dizziness, or dizziness of unknown cause will be randomized and allocated to either a GJD or a placebo group in a 1 : 1 ratio. Participants will be orally given 3.75 g GJD or placebo in pill form once a day for 56 days. The primary outcome measure will be the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score. Secondary outcome measures will be as follows: severity (mean vertigo scale and visual analogue scale and frequency of dizziness, balance function (Berg Balance Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale and deficiency pattern/syndrome (qi blood yin yang-deficiency questionnaire levels, and depression (Korean version of Beck’s Depression Inventory and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory levels. To assess safety, adverse events, including laboratory test results, will be monitored. Further, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio will be calculated based on quality-adjusted life years (from the EuroQoL five dimensions’ questionnaire and medical expenses. Data will be statistically analyzed at a significance level of 0.05 (two-sided. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03219515, in July 2017.

  18. Effect of preoperative acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the efficacy of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of the administration of the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone on the anesthetic success of mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone or placebo 60 minutes before the administration of a conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after completion of the block, and all patients used for data analysis had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analog scale recordings) on pulpal access or instrumentation. The success rate for the IAN block was 32% for the combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone and 28% for the placebo dose, with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .662). A combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone given 60 minutes before the administration of the IAN block did not result in a statistically significant increase in anesthetic success for mandibular posterior teeth in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (Ppain (n=128), after an average 4 days (Prelief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01785862. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose phase III study of vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (-1.80 [-3.26, -0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. © 2015 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A phase III, randomized, multi-center, double blind, placebo controlled study of safety and efficacy of lofexidine for relief of symptoms in individuals undergoing inpatient opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetzky, Charles W; Walsh, Sharon L; Martin, Peter R; Saxon, Andrew J; Gullo, Kristen L; Biswas, Kousick

    2017-07-01

    Lofexidine is an alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist approved in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has demonstrated better efficacy than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal with less reported hypotension than clonidine. Designed as an FDA registration trial, this 8-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 264 patients dependent on short-acting opioids evaluated the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal. The primary efficacy measures were SOWS-Gossop on Day 3 and time-to-dropout. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of participants who were completers; area under the 5-day SOWS-Gossop - time curve (i.e., AUC 1-5 ), and daily mean SOWS-Gossop, OOWS-Handelsman, MCGI (subject and rater), and VAS-E scores. Participants received lofexidine HCl 3.2mg daily in four divided doses or matching placebo on Days 1-5, followed by 2days of placebo. Lofexidine significantly decreased mean Day 3 SOWS scores compared to placebo, 6.32 versus 8.67, respectively, p=0.0212. Fewer lofexidine patients were early terminators compared to placebo (59 versus 80, respectively); and non-completers in the lofexidine group remained in the study longer than those assigned to placebo (p=0.0034). Secondary endpoints consistently favored lofexidine. Lofexidine was well tolerated in this trial. Lofexidine significantly decreased SOWS scores compared to placebo and demonstrated better retention rates in participants undergoing opioid withdrawal. Lofexidine potentially offers a useful non-opioid alternative to treat opioid withdrawal symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrail, Nashat; Sandler, Eric; Charu, Veena; Anas, Nick; Lim, Eduardo; Blaney, Martha; Ashby, Mark; Gillespie, Barbara S; Begelman, Susan M

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the thrombolytic tenecteplase, a fibrin-specific recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, for restoring function to dysfunctional central venous catheters (CVCs). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, eligible patients with dysfunctional nonhemodialysis CVCs were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. In the first arm (TNK-TNK-PBO), patients received an initial dose of intraluminal tenecteplase (TNK) (up to 2 mg), a second dose of tenecteplase if indicated, and a third placebo (PBO) dose. In the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, placebo was instilled first followed by up to two doses of tenecteplase, if needed, for restoration of catheter function. After administration of each dose, CVC function was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes. There were 97 patients who received either TNK-TNK-PBO (n = 50) or PBO-TNK-TNK (n = 47). Within 120 minutes of initial study drug instillation, catheter function was restored to 30 patients (60%) in the TNK-TNK-PBO arm and 11 patients (23%) in the PBO-TNK-TNK arm, for a treatment difference of 37 percentage points (95% confidence interval 18-55; P = .0002). Cumulative restoration rates for CVC function increased to 87% after the second dose of tenecteplase in both study arms combined. Two patients developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after exposure to tenecteplase; one DVT was considered to be drug related. No cases of intracranial hemorrhage, major bleeding, embolic events, catheter-related bloodstream infections, or catheter-related complications were reported. Tenecteplase was efficacious for restoration of catheter function in these study patients with dysfunctional CVCs. Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Secondary Prevention of Chronic PTSD by Early and Short-Term Administration of Escitalopram: A Prospective Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah; Juven-Wetzler, Alzabeta; Kaplan, Zeev; Shalev, Hadar; Schreiber, Gavriel; Miroshnik, Natalie; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Suliman, Sharain; Klein, Ehud

    Prospective studies have not identified a viable pharmacologic strategy for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors examined whether preventive intervention via early and short-term administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), within 1 month of exposure to a traumatic event (before diagnosis of PTSD could be made), may reduce the severity of PTSD symptoms according to DSM-IV at 13 months' follow-up. Over 25,000 screening calls to patients referred to an emergency department for a traumatic event performed between June 2006 and December 2008 yielded 353 participants who were recruited within the month following a traumatic event . Participants were randomly assigned in a double-blind design to escitalopram (n = 176) or placebo (n = 177). The per-protocol analysis comprised 198 participants (escitalopram, n = 102; placebo, n = 96) who received treatment for 12 to 24 weeks and were available for follow-up at week 56. The primary outcome measure, the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), revealed no prevention effect. However, a secondary outcome, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), showed better results for the SSRI group than for the placebo group. For a subset of participants who experienced intentional trauma (missile attacks, rape, or physical assault; n = 50), the prevention effect was found on both primary and secondary measures (CAPS, PSQI and measures of depression and global illness severity). Early and short-term administration of escitalopram was not shown to prevent PTSD, although it did improve sleep quality. In a subgroup of participants who experienced intentional trauma, however, this early-treatment approach may be effective as secondary prevention. This large study is the first to investigate the preventive effect of early administration of escitalopram on PTSD. It highlights the relevance of the type of trauma (intentional vs unintentional) to the outcome. Clinical

  4. Efficacy of idebenone on respiratory function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy not using glucocorticoids (DELOS): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyse, Gunnar M; Voit, Thomas; Schara, Ulrike; Straathof, Chiara S M; D'Angelo, M Grazia; Bernert, Günther; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Richard S; Goemans, Nathalie; McDonald, Craig M; Rummey, Christian; Meier, Thomas

    2015-05-02

    Cardiorespiratory failure is the leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Based on preclinical and phase 2 evidence, we assessed the efficacy and safety of idebenone in young patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were not taking concomitant glucocorticoids. In a multicentre phase 3 trial in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Austria, Italy, Spain, and the USA, patients (age 10-18 years old) with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio with a central interactive web response system with a permuted block design with four patients per block to receive idebenone (300 mg three times a day) or matching placebo orally for 52 weeks. Study personnel and patients were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was change in peak expiratory flow (PEF) as percentage predicted (PEF%p) from baseline to week 52, measured with spirometry. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT) and a modified ITT (mITT), which was prospectively defined to exclude patients with at least 20% difference in the yearly change in PEF%p, measured with hospital-based and weekly home-based spirometry. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027884. 31 patients in the idebenone group and 33 in the placebo group comprised the ITT population, and 30 and 27 comprised the mITT population. Idebenone significantly attenuated the fall in PEF%p from baseline to week 52 in the mITT (-3·05%p [95% CI -7·08 to 0·97], p=0·134, vs placebo -9·01%p [-13·18 to -4·84], p=0·0001; difference 5·96%p [0·16 to 11·76], p=0·044) and ITT populations (-2·57%p [-6·68 to 1·54], p=0·215, vs -8·84%p [-12·73 to -4·95], pmuscular dystrophy. Santhera Pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A randomized placebo-controlled phase Ia malaria vaccine trial of two virosome-formulated synthetic peptides in healthy adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Genton

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virosomes represent an innovative human-compatible antigen delivery system that has already proven its suitability for subunit vaccine design. The aim of the study was to proof the concept that virosomes can also be used to elicit high titers of antibodies against synthetic peptides. The specific objective was to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of two virosome-formulated P. falciparum protein derived synthetic peptide antigens given in two different doses alone or in combination.The design was a single blind, randomized, placebo controlled, dose-escalating study involving 46 healthy Caucasian volunteers aged 18-45 years. Five groups of 8 subjects received virosomal formulations containing 10 microg or 50 microg of AMA 49-CPE, an apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 derived synthetic phospatidylethanolamine (PE-peptide conjugate or 10 ug or 50 ug of UK39, a circumsporozoite protein (CSP derived synthetic PE-peptide conjugate or 50 ug of both antigens each. A control group of 6 subjects received unmodified virosomes. Virosomal formulations of the antigens (designated PEV301 and PEV302 for the AMA-1 and the CSP virosomal vaccine, respectively or unmodified virosomes were injected i. m. on days 0, 60 and 180. In terms of safety, no serious or severe adverse events (AEs related to the vaccine were observed. 11/46 study participants reported 16 vaccine related local AEs. Of these 16 events, all being pain, 4 occurred after the 1(st, 7 after the 2(nd and 5 after the 3(rd vaccination. 6 systemic AEs probably related to the study vaccine were reported after the 1(st injection, 10 after the 2(nd and 6 after the 3(rd. Generally, no difference in the distribution of the systemic AEs between either the doses applied (10 respectively 50 microg or the synthetic antigen vaccines (PEV301 and PEV302 used for immunization was found. In terms of immunogenicity, both PEV301 and PEV302 elicited already after two injections a synthetic peptide

  6. Tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary IntraCerebral Haemorrhage (TICH-2): an international randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, Nikola; Flaherty, Katie; Appleton, Jason P; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Bereczki, Daniel; Beridze, Maia; Christensen, Hanne; Ciccone, Alfonso; Collins, Ronan; Czlonkowska, Anna; Dineen, Robert A; Duley, Lelia; Egea-Guerrero, Juan Jose; England, Timothy J; Krishnan, Kailash; Laska, Ann Charlotte; Law, Zhe Kang; Ozturk, Serefnur; Pocock, Stuart J; Roberts, Ian; Robinson, Thompson G; Roffe, Christine; Seiffge, David; Scutt, Polly; Thanabalan, Jegan; Werring, David; Whynes, David; Bath, Philip M

    2018-05-26

    Tranexamic acid can prevent death due to bleeding after trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether tranexamic acid reduces haematoma expansion and improves outcome in adults with stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage. We did an international, randomised placebo-controlled trial in adults with intracerebral haemorrhage from acute stroke units at 124 hospital sites in 12 countries. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid bolus followed by an 8 h infusion of 1 g tranexamic acid or a matching placebo, within 8 h of symptom onset. Randomisation was done centrally in real time via a secure website, with stratification by country and minimisation on key prognostic factors. Treatment allocation was concealed from patients, outcome assessors, and all other health-care workers involved in the trial. The primary outcome was functional status at day 90, measured by shift in the modified Rankin Scale, using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for stratification and minimisation criteria. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN93732214. We recruited 2325 participants between March 1, 2013, and Sept 30, 2017. 1161 patients received tranexamic acid and 1164 received placebo; the treatment groups were well balanced at baseline. The primary outcome was assessed for 2307 (99%) participants. The primary outcome, functional status at day 90, did not differ significantly between the groups (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·76-1·03, p=0·11). Although there were fewer deaths by day 7 in the tranexamic acid group (101 [9%] deaths in the tranexamic acid group vs 123 [11%] deaths in the placebo group; aOR 0·73, 0·53-0·99, p=0·0406), there was no difference in case fatality at 90 days (250 [22%] vs 249 [21%]; adjusted hazard ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·77-1·10, p=0·37). Fewer patients had serious adverse events after tranexamic

  7. Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Marsh, Eric D; French, Jacqueline A; Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, Maria; Benbadis, Selim R; Joshi, Charuta; Lyons, Paul D; Taylor, Adam; Roberts, Claire; Sommerville, Kenneth

    2018-03-17

    Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications. No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 24 clinical sites in the USA, the Netherlands, and Poland, we investigated the efficacy of cannabidiol as add-on therapy for drop seizures in patients with treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients (aged 2-55 years) had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, including a history of slow (caregivers, investigators, and individuals assessing data were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in monthly frequency of drop seizures during the treatment period, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had post-baseline efficacy data. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02224690. Between April 28, 2015, and Oct 15, 2015, we randomly assigned 171 patients to receive cannabidiol (n=86) or placebo (n=85). 14 patients in the cannabidiol group and one in the placebo group discontinued study treatment; all randomly assigned patients received at least one dose of study treatment and had post-baseline efficacy data. The median percentage reduction in monthly drop seizure frequency from baseline was 43·9% (IQR -69·6 to -1·9) in the cannibidiol group and 21·8% (IQR -45·7 to 1·7) in the placebo group. The estimated median difference between the treatment groups was -17·21 (95% CI -30·32 to -4·09; p=0·0135) during the 14-week treatment period. Adverse events occurred in 74 (86%) of 86 patients in the cannabidiol group and 59 (69%) of

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis: a placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Kruis, W.; AYDEMIR, U.; WIEBECKE, B.; HELDWEIN, W.; WEINZIERL, M.; Pape, G. R.; Sauerbruch, T.; Paumgartner, G.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fourteen patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis documented by cholestatic serum enzyme pattern, liver

  9. Safety, immunogenicity, and tolerability of meningococcal serogroup B bivalent recombinant lipoprotein 2086 vaccine in healthy adolescents: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen S; Nissen, Michael D; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Beeslaar, Johannes; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Perez, John L

    2012-08-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease, but a broadly protective vaccine is not currently licensed. A bivalent recombinant factor H-binding protein vaccine (recombinant lipoprotein 2086) has been developed to provide broad coverage against diverse invasive meningococcus serogroup B strains. Our aim was to test the immune response of this vaccine. This randomised, placebo-controlled trial enrolled healthy adolescents from 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. Exclusion criteria were previous invasive meningococcal disease or serogroup B vaccination, previous adverse reaction or known hypersensitivity to the vaccine, any significant comorbidities, and immunosuppressive therapy or receipt of blood products in the past 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned with a computerised block randomisation scheme to receive ascending doses of vaccine (60, 120, or 200 μg) or placebo at 0, 2, and 6 months. Principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel were masked to the allocation; dispensing staff were not. Immunogenicity was measured by serum bactericidal assays using human complement (hSBA) against eight diverse meningococcus serogroup B strains. The co-primary endpoints were seroconversion for the two indicator strains (PMB1745 and PMB17) analysed by the Clopper-Pearson method. Local and systemic reactions and adverse events were recorded. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00808028. 539 participants were enrolled and 511 received all three study vaccinations--116 in the placebo group, 21 in the 60 μg group, 191 in the 120 μg group, and 183 in the 200 μg group. The proportion of participants responding with an hSBA titre equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantitation of the hSBA assays (reciprcocal titres of 7 to 18, depending on test strain) was similar for the two largest doses and ranged from 75·6 to 100·0% for the 120 μg dose and 67·9 to

  10. Vorinostat in patients with advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma who have progressed on previous chemotherapy (VANTAGE-014): a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Lee M.; Kindler, Hedy L.; Calvert, Hilary; Manegold, Christian; Tsao, Anne S.; Fennell, Dean; Öhman, Ronny; Plummer, Ruth; Eberhardt, Wilfried E. E.; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Gaafar, Rabab M.; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Chu, Quincy; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Lubiniecki, Gregory M.; Sun, Xing; Smith, Margaret; Baas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that changes gene expression and protein activity. On the basis of the clinical benefit reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in a phase 1 study of vorinostat, we designed this phase 3 trial to investigate whether vorinostat

  11. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  12. Secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis (FUTURE 2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInnes, Iain B.; Mease, Philip J.; Kirkham, Bruce; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Rahman, Proton; van der Heijde, Désirée; Landewé, Robert; Conaghan, Philip G.; Gottlieb, Alice B.; Richards, Hanno; Pricop, Luminita; Ligozio, Gregory; Patekar, Manmath; Mpofu, Shephard; Bird, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Nash, Peter; Zochling, Jane; de Vlam, Kurt; Langenaken, Christine; Geusens, Piet; Beaulieu, Andre; Tremblay, Jean-Luc; McCarthy, Tim; Papp, Kim; Poulin, Yves; Cohen, Martin; Galatikova, Dagmar; Dokoupilova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek; Mann, Herman; Sieper, Joachim; Spieler, Wolfgang; Kurthen, Reiner; Braun, Juergen; Wollenhaupt, Juergen; Tony, Hans-Peter; Schuch, Florian; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Rech, Juergen; Leszczynski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt; Szepietowski, Jacek; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Szymanska, Malgorzata; Stanislav, Marina; Nesmeyanova, Olga; Vezikova, Natalia; Ershova, Olga; Izmozherova, Nadezda; Zotkin, Eugeny; Petrova, Marianna; Kastanayan, Alexander; Yakupova, Svetlana; Agafina, Alina; Asavatanabodee, Paijit; Suwannalai, Parawee; Kerrane, Jerome; Tahir, Hasan; McInnes, Iain; Edwards, Christopher; Chinoy, Hector; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Kaul, Arvind; Sheeran, Thomas; Clunie, Gavin; Schechtman, Joy; Gaylis, Norman; Kaine, Jeffrey; Lawson, Jeffrey; El-Kadi, Hisham; Flint, Kathleen; Kivitz, Alan; Churchhill, Melvin; Sikes, David; Lowenstein, Mitchell; Halpert, Elias; Abdulky, Mary; Palmer, William; Codding, Christine; Legerton, Clarence; Singhal, Atul; Sunkureddi, Prashanth; Gough, William; Forman, Seth; Box, Jane; Khan, Mohamed; Barranco, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin 17A is a proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Methods In this phase 3,

  13. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  14. In patients undergoing fast track total knee arthroplasty, addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block has no clinical advantage A prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Rienk; Zonneveldt, Harry J.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Steens, Jeroen; Lirk, Phillip; Hollmann, Marcus W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several adjuvants have been proposed to prolong the effect of peripheral nerve blocks, one of which is buprenorphine. In this randomized double blinded placebo controlled trial we studied whether the addition of buprenorphine to a femoral nerve block prolongs analgesia in patients

  15. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  16. Can treatment with Cocculine improve the control of chemotherapy-induced emesis in early breast cancer patients? A randomized, multi-centered, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérol David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV remains a major problem that seriously impairs the quality of life (QoL in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy regimens. Complementary medicines, including homeopathy, are used by many patients with cancer, usually alongside with conventional treatment. A randomized, placebo-controlled Phase III study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a complex homeopathic medicine, Cocculine, in the control of CINV in non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated by standard chemotherapy regimens. Methods Chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-metastatic breast cancer scheduled to receive 6 cycles of chemotherapy including at least three initial cycles of FAC 50, FEC 100 or TAC were randomized to receive standard anti-emetic treatment plus either a complex homeopathic remedy (Cocculine, registered in France for treatment of nausea and travel sickness or the matching placebo (NCT00409071 clinicaltrials.gov. The primary endpoint was nausea score measured after the 1st chemotherapy course using the FLIE questionnaire (Functional Living Index for Emesis with 5-day recall. Secondary endpoints were: vomiting measured by the FLIE score, nausea and vomiting measured by patient self-evaluation (EVA and investigator recording (NCI-CTC AE V3.0 and treatment compliance. Results From September 2005 to January 2008, 431 patients were randomized: 214 to Cocculine (C and 217 to placebo (P. Patient characteristics were well-balanced between the 2 arms. Overall, compliance to study treatments was excellent and similar between the 2 arms. A total of 205 patients (50.9%; 103 patients in the placebo and 102 in the homeopathy arms had nausea FLIE scores > 6 indicative of no impact of nausea on quality of life during the 1st chemotherapy course. There was no difference between the 2 arms when primary endpoint analysis was performed by chemotherapy stratum; or in the subgroup of patients with susceptibility

  17. A Multi-centric, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Prospective Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica papaya Leaf Extract, as Empirical Therapy for Thrombocytopenia associated with Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Prabhu Nagnathappa; Nagabhushan, K H; Kumar, Arun

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a rapidly expanding global health problem. Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. The management of dengue virus infection is essentially supportive and symptomatic and no specific treatment is available for increasing the fallen platelets, which have a significant role in causing the mortality of dengue patient.This study was conducted to evaluate the platelet increasing efficacy of Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) in patients with dengue fever (DF). The administration of Carica papaya leaf extract should significantly increase the platelet count in cases of thrombocytopenia associated with dengue, preventing the patient to go in DHF or DSS conditions. A Multi-centric, Double blind, Placebo controlled, Randomized, prospective study was conducted in 300 patients across 5 centres', to evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Carica Papaya Leaf Extract, as empirical therapy for thrombocytopenia associated with dengue fever. The subjects were randomized into two groups, as control and intervention group. Both the groups were managed by the standard management guidelines for dengue except steroid administration. In addition to this, the intervention group received CPLE tablet three times daily for five days. All of them were followed daily with platelet monitoring. This study has been registered in the clinical trial registry-India (CTRI Registration number: CTRI/2015/05/005806). The results indicate that CPLE had significant increase(p< 0.01) in the platelet count over the therapy duration, in dengue fever patients, confirming CPLE accelerates the increase in platelet count compared to the control group. There were few adverse events related to GI disturbance like nausea and vomiting which were similar in both groups. Thus this study

  18. Metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery from peritonsillar abscess when compared with penicillin alone: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstén, Johanna E; Pitkäranta, Anne; Blomgren, Karin

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing the recurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) and to learn whether metronidazole enhances the recovery from PTA when compared with penicillin alone. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 200 adult outpatients with PTA at our ear, nose and throat emergency department received either penicillin (1 000 000IU) × 3 and metronidazole (400 mg) × 3 for 10 and 7 days orally (combination group, N = 100) or penicillin and placebo (penicillin group, N = 100) after incision and drainage of the PTA. Afterwards they received a symptom questionnaire via e-mail daily for 2 weeks, then weekly for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was efficacy of metronidazole in conjunction with penicillin in preventing PTA recurrence in 56 days; the secondary outcome was ability of metronidazole plus penicillin to enhance recovery from PTA in 28 days. All healthcare contacts were registered during follow-up. Registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identifier NCT01255670. Of the 200 patients, 20 returned to hospital with recurrent symptoms, 10 in each group (P = 1.00). In the combination group, the mean (SD) duration of throat-related symptoms was 5.6 (5.0) days and in the penicillin group it was 5.3 (2.7) days, values for fever were 1.5 (0.9) and 1.6 (1.0) days, respectively, and those for poor overall physical condition were 4.0 (3.9) and 4.5 (4.9) days; there were no significant differences between groups. The adverse effects nausea and diarrhoea lasted longer in the combination group (P = 0.01). For healthy adult PTA patients treated with incision and drainage, metronidazole neither prevents recurrence nor enhances recovery when combined with penicillin compared with penicillin alone, but instead leads to increased adverse effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  19. The anti-inflammatory effect of topical tofacitinib on immediate and late-phase cutaneous allergic reactions in dogs: a placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blubaugh, Amanda; Rissi, Daniel; Elder, Deborah; Denley, Tara; Eguiluz-Hernandez, Sitka; Banovic, Frane

    2018-03-06

    Topical Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition is a promising therapeutic target for several inflammatory skin diseases of humans. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of tofacitinib, a JAK 1/3 inhibitor, on immediate and late-phase skin reactions in dogs. Five healthy laboratory beagle dogs. Topical tofacitinib (total daily dosage: 0.5 mg/cm 2 ) or its gel vehicle were applied on either the left or right lateral thorax of each dog for eight days. Three days before application and after eight days of topical treatment, intradermal injections of histamine and anticanine-IgE antibodies were performed on both sides; they were evaluated by an investigator blinded to the interventions. The tofacitinib gel was well-tolerated; one dog developed mild erythema at Day 5 that resolved by the next application. Treatment with tofacitinib reduced histamine and anticanine-IgE global wheal scores (one-way ANOVA, P ≤ 0.005 for both) compared to baseline; there was no significant difference for the vehicle placebo (histamine; P = 0.163; IgE, P = 0.223). Late-phase reactions (LPRs) were markedly, but not significantly reduced after tofacitinib treatment (P = 0.071). A blinded histological evaluation of 6 h-anti-IgE-associated LPRs revealed a significant reduction in the total leucocyte superficial dermal cellularity (P = 0.022), as well as eosinophil (P = 0.022) and mast cell (P = 0.022) counts at tofacitinib-treated sides compared with pretreatment values. Post-treatment complete blood counts and serum chemistry profiles did not show relevant tofacitinib-induced changes. Our observations suggest that topical tofacitinib exerts an inhibitory effect on activated canine skin-emigrating immune cells; this drug should be investigated further as a topical immunosuppressive drug in dogs. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Libertas: rationale and study design of a multicentre, Phase II, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled investigation to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of locally applied NRL001 in patients with faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siproudhis, L; Jones, D; Shing, R Ng Kwet; Walker, D; Scholefield, J H

    2014-03-01

    Faecal incontinence affects up to 8% of adults. Associated social isolation and subsequent depression can have devastating effects on quality of life (QoL). Faecal incontinence is an underreported health problem as the social isolation and stigma that patients experience makes it difficult for sufferers to discuss their condition with a physician. There have been few well-designed, placebo-controlled clinical trials of treatment for faecal incontinence and little clinical evidence is available to inform the most appropriate management strategies. Libertas, a robustly designed study will investigate the efficacy and safety of NRL001 (1R,2S-methoxamine), an α1 -adrenoceptor agonist, in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Libertas is a multicentre, Phase II, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Patient recruitment took place across 55 study centres in Europe. Patients suffering with faecal incontinence were randomised into four groups (approximately 110 each) to receive once daily self-administered doses of NRL001 (5, 7.5 or 10 mg or placebo in a suppository formulation) for 8 weeks. The primary objective of Libertas is to assess the impact of once daily administration of NRL001 on the severity and frequency of incontinence episodes as assessed by the Wexner score at 4 weeks, compared with placebo. Secondary outcomes include measures of efficacy of NRL001 compared with placebo following 8 weeks treatment; safety and tolerability; evaluation of plasma pharmacokinetics; establishment of any pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship to adverse events; dose-response relationship; the efficacy of NRL001 therapy at 4 and 8 weeks assessed by the Vaizey score; and QoL using the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life and the EQ-5D-5L Healthcare Questionnaires following 4 and 8 weeks NRL001 therapy. Overall patient satisfaction with the treatment will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised controlled study to investigate the efficacy

  1. Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of whole-brain irradiation with concomitant chloroquine for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Puentes, Luis L; Gonzalez-Pinedo, Marcelino; Crismatt, Alejando; Ortega-Gomez, Alette; Gamboa-Vignolle, Carlos; Nuñez-Gomez, Rodrigo; Dorantes-Gallareta, Yusmiren; Arce-Salinas, Claudia; Arrieta, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors. Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later. The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms. Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings

  2. Synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) stimulates cell mediated immunity in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled Phase I trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleguezuelos, Olga; Robinson, Stuart; Stoloff, Gregory A; Caparrós-Wanderley, Wilson

    2012-06-29

    Current Influenza vaccines elicit antibody mediated prophylactic immunity targeted to viral capsid antigens. Despite their global use these vaccines must be administered yearly to the population, cannot be manufactured until the circulating viral strain(s) have been identified and have limited efficacy. A need remains for Influenza vaccines addressing these issues and here we report the results of a Phase Ib trial of a novel synthetic Influenza vaccine (FLU-v) targeting T cell responses to NP, M1 and M2. Forty-eight healthy males aged 18-40 were recruited for this single-centre, randomised, double blind study. Volunteers received one single low (250 μg) or high (500 μg) dose of FLU-v, either alone or adjuvanted. Safety, tolerability and basic immunogenicity (IgG and IFN-γ responses) parameters were assessed pre-vaccination and for 21 days post-vaccination. FLU-v was found to be safe and well tolerated with no vaccine associated severe adverse events. Dose-dependent IFN-γ responses >2-fold the pre-vaccination level were detected in 80% and 100% of volunteers receiving, respectively, the low and high dose adjuvanted FLU-v formulations. No formulation tested induced any significant FLU-v antibody response. FLU-v is safe and induces a vaccine-specific cellular immunity. Cellular immune responses are historically known to control and mitigate infection and illness during natural infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adalimumab for nail psoriasis: Efficacy and safety from the first 26 weeks of a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewski, Boni E; Okun, Martin M; Papp, Kim; Baker, Christopher S; Crowley, Jeffrey J; Guillet, Gérard; Sundaram, Murali; Poulin, Yves; Gu, Yihua; Geng, Ziqian; Williams, David A; Rich, Phoebe A

    2018-01-01

    Previous clinical trials have not evaluated improvement in nail psoriasis as a primary end point. This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of adalimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe fingernail psoriasis and moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Patients were randomized 1:1 to 40 mg adalimumab every other week or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was at least 75% improvement in total-fingernail modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI75) response rate at week 26. Ranked secondary end point scores evaluated at week 26 were total-fingernail NAPSI and modified NAPSI, nail pain, Nail Psoriasis Physical Functioning Severity, Brigham Scalp Nail Inverse Palmo-Plantar Psoriasis Index, and Physician's Global Assessment (fingernail psoriasis). Of the 217 randomized patients (108 received placebo and 109 received adalimumab), 188 (86.6%) completed 26 weeks of treatment (period A) or escaped early to the open-label period. The study met the primary end point (response rate of 3.4% with placebo vs 46.6% with adalimumab [P psoriasis versus with placebo and no new safety risks were identified. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical efficacy and safety of a novel tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children in Asia: a phase 3, randomised, observer-masked, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Maria Rosario; Tran, Ngoc Huu; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki S; Ismail, Hussain Imam H J Muhammad; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Chua, Mary Noreen; Luong, Chan Quang; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Thisyakorn, Usa; Yoon, In-Kyu; van der Vliet, Diane; Langevin, Edith; Laot, Thelma; Hutagalung, Yanee; Frago, Carina; Boaz, Mark; Wartel, T Anh; Tornieporth, Nadia G; Saville, Melanie; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2014-10-11

    An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the first report of a phase 3 vaccine efficacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children. We did an observer-masked, randomised controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Between June 3, and Dec 1, 2011, healthy children aged 2-14 years were randomly assigned (2:1), by computer-generated permuted blocks of six with an interactive voice or web response system, to receive three injections of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), or placebo, at months 0, 6, and 12. Randomisation was stratified by age and site. Participants were followed up until month 25. Trial staff responsible for the preparation and administration of injections were unmasked to group allocation, but were not included in the follow-up of the participants; allocation was concealed from the study sponsor, investigators, and parents and guardians. Our primary objective was to assess protective efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue, irrespective of disease severity or serotype, that took place more than 28 days after the third injection. The primary endpoint was for the lower bound of the 95% CI of vaccine efficacy to be greater than 25%. Analysis was by intention to treat and per procotol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01373281. We randomly assigned 10,275 children to receive either vaccine (n=6851) or placebo (n=3424), of whom 6710 (98%) and 3350 (98%), respectively, were included in the primary analysis. 250 cases of virologically confirmed dengue took place more than 28 days after the third injection (117 [47%] in the vaccine group and 133 [53%] in the control group). The primary endpoint was achieved with 56·5% (95% CI 43·8-66·4) efficacy. We recorded 647 serious adverse

  5. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  6. Efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in heart failure patients with volume overload despite the standard treatment with conventional diuretics: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (QUEST study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Masunori; Hori, Masatsugu; Izumi, Tohru; Fukunami, Masatake

    2011-12-01

    Diuretics are recommended to treat volume overload with heart failure (HF), however, they may cause serum electrolyte imbalance, limiting their use. Moreover, patients with advanced HF could poorly respond to these diuretics. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of Tolvaptan, a competitive vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist developed as a new drug to treat volume overload in HF patients. A phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in treating HF patients with volume overload despite the use of conventional diuretics. One hundred and ten patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 15 mg/day tolvaptan for 7 consecutive days. Compared with placebo, tolvaptan administered for 7 days significantly reduced body weight and improved symptoms associated with volume overload. The safety profile of tolvaptan was considered acceptable for clinical use with minimal adverse effects. Tolvaptan reduced volume overload and improved congestive symptoms associated with HF by a potent water diuresis (aquaresis).

  7. Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, William; Merrill, Joan T; McKay, James D; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Zhong, Z John; Freimuth, William W; Genovese, Mark C

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy/safety of belimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients fulfilling American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA for ≥ 1 year who had at least moderate disease activity while receiving stable disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy and failed ≥ 1 DMARD were randomly assigned to placebo or belimumab 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg, administered intravenously on Days 1, 14, and 28, and then every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (n = 283). This was followed by an optional 24-week extension (n = 237) in which all patients received belimumab. Primary efficacy endpoint was the Week 24 ACR20 response. Week 24 ACR20 responses with placebo and belimumab 1, 4, and 10 mg/kg were 15.9%, 34.7% (p = 0.010), 25.4% (p = 0.168), and 28.2% (p = 0.080), respectively. Patients taking any belimumab dose who continued with belimumab in the open-label extension had an ACR20 response of 41% at 48 weeks. A similar ACR20 response (42%) at 48 weeks was seen in patients taking placebo who switched in the extension to belimumab 10 mg/kg. Greater response rates were observed in patients who at baseline were rheumatoid factor-positive, anticitrullinated protein antibody-positive, or tumor necrosis factor inhibitor-naive, or had elevated C-reactive protein levels, Disease Activity Score 28 > 5.1, or low B lymphocyte stimulator levels (< 0.858 ng/ml). Adverse event rates were similar across treatment groups. In this phase II trial, belimumab demonstrated efficacy and was generally well tolerated in patients with RA who had failed previous therapies. [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00071812].

  8. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Healthy Children and Adults in Dengue-Endemic Regions: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Barranco-Santana, Elizabeth A; Esquilin-Rivera, Inés; Oh, Helen M L; Raanan, Marsha; Sariol, Carlos A; Shek, Lynette P; Simasathien, Sriluck; Smith, Mary Kathryn; Velez, Ivan Dario; Wallace, Derek; Gordon, Gilad S; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2016-05-15

    A safe, effective tetravalent dengue vaccine is a global health priority. The safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated, recombinant tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV) were evaluated in healthy volunteers from dengue-endemic countries. This multicenter, double-blind, phase 2 study was conducted in Puerto Rico, Colombia, Singapore, and Thailand. During stage I, 148 volunteers aged 1.5-45 years were sequentially enrolled into 4 age-descending groups and randomized at a ratio of 2:1 to receive TDV or placebo. In stage II (group 5), 212 children aged 1.5-11 years were randomized at a ratio of 3:1 to receive TDV or placebo. Participants received a subcutaneous injection of TDV or placebo on days 0 and 90 and were followed for analysis of safety, seropositivity, and neutralizing antibodies to DENV-1-4. Injection site pain, itching, and erythema (mostly mild) were the only solicited adverse events more frequently reported with TDV than with placebo in all age groups. After 2 TDV doses, seropositivity was >95% in all 5 groups for DENV-1-3 and 72.7%-100% for DENV-4; geometric mean titers ranged from 582 to 1187 for DENV-1, from 582 to 1187 for DENV-2, from 196 to 630 for DENV-3, and from 41 to 210 for DENV-4 among the 5 groups. TDV was well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers aged 1.5-45 years, irrespective of prevaccination dengue exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mailjournals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Tofacitinib for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis in Japanese patients: Subgroup analyses from a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masatoshi; Nishigori, Chikako; Torii, Hideshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Ito, Kei; Nagaoka, Makoto; Isogawa, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Tomochika, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Mihoko; Tallman, Anna M; Papp, Kim A

    2017-11-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. These post-hoc analyses assessed tofacitinib efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with psoriasis enrolled in a 52-week global phase 3 study. Patients received tofacitinib 5 mg, tofacitinib 10 mg or placebo twice daily (b.i.d.); placebo-treated patients advanced to tofacitinib at week 16. Primary efficacy end-points were the proportions of patients with 75% or more reduction from baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI-75) and Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) of "clear" or "almost clear" (PGA response) at week 16. Other end-points included: Itch Severity Item (ISI), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. Overall, 58 Japanese patients were included in this analysis (tofacitinib 5 mg b.i.d., n = 22; 10 mg b.i.d., n = 24; placebo, n = 12); 29 completed the study. At week 16, significantly more patients receiving tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg b.i.d. versus placebo achieved PASI-75 (50% and 75% vs 0%, P tofacitinib doses. Over 52 weeks, similar rates of AEs were reported across treatment groups; one serious AE occurred with tofacitinib 10 mg b.i.d. Herpes zoster occurred in three patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg b.i.d. No deaths, serious infections, malignancies or gastrointestinal perforations were reported. Results were generally consistent with global analysis, suggesting sustained efficacy and a manageable safety profile, with increased herpes zoster incidence, of tofacitinib in Japanese patients with psoriasis. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Pharmacodynamics and safety of the novel selective progesterone receptor modulator vilaprisan: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Barbara; Kaiser, Andreas; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Seitz, Christian; Bell, David; Koch, Manuela; Rohde, Beate

    2016-08-01

    Does administration of vilaprisan (VPR) to healthy women for 12 weeks reduce menstrual bleeding? In this 12-week proof-of-concept phase 1 trial, most women (30/33, 90%) who received VPR at daily doses of 1-5 mg reported the absence of menstrual bleeding. Vilaprisan (BAY 1002670) is a novel, highly potent selective progesterone receptor modulator that markedly reduces the growth of human leiomyoma tissue in a preclinical model of uterine fibroids (UFs). In this double-blind, parallel-group study, of the 163 healthy women enrolled 73 were randomized to daily VPR 0.1 mg (n = 12), 0.5 mg (n = 12), 1 mg (n = 13), 2 mg (n = 12), 5 mg (n = 12) or placebo tablets (n = 12) for 12 weeks. Participants were followed up until the start of the second menstrual bleeding after the end of treatment. Trial simulations were used to determine the minimum sample size required to estimate the non-bleeding rate (i.e. self-assessed bleeding intensity of 'none' or 'spotting') using Bayesian dose-response estimation with incorporated prior information. It was estimated that 48 participants in the per-protocol analysis population would be sufficient. Women aged 18-45 years who had been sterilized by tubal ligation were enrolled between November 2011 and May 2012. Participants kept a daily diary of bleeding intensity. Blood and urine samples were taken, and transvaginal ultrasound was performed before treatment, during treatment and follow-up. Endometrial biopsies were obtained during the pretreatment cycle, at the end of the treatment period and during the follow-up phase. The primary outcome was the estimated dose-response curve of the observed non-bleeding rate during Days 10-84 of treatment, excluding the endometrial biopsy day and 2 days after biopsy. Secondary outcomes included return of bleeding during follow-up, size of follicle-like structures and serum hormone levels. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), endometrial thickness and histology, laboratory parameters, vital

  11. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed on sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Qin, Shukui; Merle, Philippe; Granito, Alessandro; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Bodoky, György; Pracht, Marc; Yokosuka, Osamu; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Breder, Valeriy; Gerolami, René; Masi, Gianluca; Ross, Paul J; Song, Tianqiang; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Ollivier-Hourmand, Isabelle; Kudo, Masatoshi; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Llovet, Josep M; Finn, Richard S; LeBerre, Marie-Aude; Baumhauer, Annette; Meinhardt, Gerold; Han, Guohong

    2017-01-07

    There are no systemic treatments for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whose disease progresses during sorafenib treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with HCC who have progressed during sorafenib treatment. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done at 152 sites in 21 countries, adults with HCC who tolerated sorafenib (≥400 mg/day for ≥20 of last 28 days of treatment), progressed on sorafenib, and had Child-Pugh A liver function were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) by a computer-generated randomisation list and interactive voice response system and stratified by geographical region, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, macrovascular invasion, extrahepatic disease, and α-fetoprotein level to best supportive care plus oral regorafenib 160 mg or placebo once daily during weeks 1-3 of each 4-week cycle. Investigators, patients, and the funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (defined as time from randomisation to death due to any cause) and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01774344. Between May 14, 2013, and Dec 31, 2015, 843 patients were screened, of whom 573 were enrolled and randomised (379 to regorafenib and 194 to placebo; population for efficacy analyses), and 567 initiated treatment (374 received regorafenib and 193 received placebo; population for safety analyses). Regorafenib improved overall survival with a hazard ratio of 0·63 (95% CI 0·50-0·79; one-sided p<0·0001); median survival was 10·6 months (95% CI 9·1-12·1) for regorafenib versus 7·8 months (6·3-8·8) for placebo. Adverse events were reported in all regorafenib recipients (374 [100%] of 374) and 179 (93%) of 193 placebo recipients. The most common clinically relevant grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent events were hypertension (57 patients [15%] in the regorafenib group

  12. Results from a pooled analysis of two European, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies of ATX-101 for the pharmacologic reduction of excess submental fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, James; Ruiz, Jesus Benito; Lee, Daniel; Lippert, Susanne; Hartisch, Claudia; Havlickova, Blanka

    2014-10-01

    The injectable adipocytolytic drug ATX-101 is the first nonsurgical treatment for the reduction of submental fat (SMF) to undergo comprehensive clinical evaluation. This study aimed to confirm the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for SMF reduction through a post hoc pooled analysis of two large phase 3 studies. Patients with unwanted SMF were randomized to receive 1 or 2 mg/cm(2) of ATX-101 or a placebo injected into their SMF during a maximum of four treatment sessions spaced approximately 28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up period. The proportions of patients with reductions in SMF of one point or more on the Clinician-Reported SMF Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS) and the proportions of patients satisfied with the appearance of their face and chin [Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS) score ≥4] were reported overall and in subgroups. Other efficacy measures included improvements in the Patient-Reported SMF Rating Scale (PR-SMFRS), calliper measurements of SMF thickness, and assessment of skin laxity [Skin Laxity Rating Scale (SLRS)]. Adverse events and laboratory test results were recorded. Significantly greater proportions of the patients had improvements in clinician-reported measures (≥1-point improvement in CR-SMFRS: 58.8 and 63.8 % of the patients who received ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2), respectively, and 28.6 % of the placebo recipients; p < 0.001 for both ATX-101 doses vs. placebo) and patient-reported measures (≥1-point improvement in PR-SMFRS: 60.0 and 63.1 % of the patients who received ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2), respectively, vs. 34.3 % of the placebo recipients; p < 0.001 for both), analyzed alone or in combination, with ATX-101 versus placebo. These improvements correlated moderately with patient satisfaction regarding face and chin appearance (SSRS score ≥4: 60.8 and 65.4 % of the patients who received ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2), respectively, vs. 29.0 % of the placebo recipients; p < 0.001 for both). In this study, ATX-101 was effective irrespective of

  13. A pragmatic, phase III, multisite, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, dose increment randomised trial of regular, low-dose extended-release morphine for chronic breathlessness: Breathlessness, Exertion And Morphine Sulfate (BEAMS) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David; Watts, Gareth John; Johnson, Miriam; McDonald, Christine F; Miners, John O; Somogyi, Andrew A; Denehy, Linda; McCaffrey, Nicola; Eckert, Danny J; McCloud, Philip; Louw, Sandra; Lam, Lawrence; Greene, Aine; Fazekas, Belinda; Clark, Katherine C; Fong, Kwun; Agar, Meera R; Joshi, Rohit; Kilbreath, Sharon; Ferreira, Diana; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-07-17

    Chronic breathlessness is highly prevalent and distressing to patients and families. No medication is registered for its symptomatic reduction. The strongest evidence is for regular, low-dose, extended- release (ER) oral morphine. A recent large phase III study suggests the subgroup most likely to benefit have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and modified Medical Research Council breathlessness scores of 3 or 4. This protocol is for an adequately powered, parallel-arm, placebo-controlled, multisite, factorial, block-randomised study evaluating regular ER morphine for chronic breathlessness in people with COPD. The primary question is what effect regular ER morphine has on worst breathlessness, measured daily on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Uniquely, the coprimary outcome will use a FitBit to measure habitual physical activity. Secondary questions include safety and, whether upward titration after initial benefit delivers greater net symptom reduction. Substudies include longitudinal driving simulation, sleep, caregiver, health economic and pharmacogenetic studies. Seventeen centres will recruit 171 participants from respiratory and palliative care. The study has five phases including three randomisation phases to increasing doses of ER morphine. All participants will receive placebo or active laxatives as appropriate. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used. Ethics approval has been obtained. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, findings presented at relevant conferences and potentially used to inform registration of ER morphine for chronic breathlessness. NCT02720822; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo A Koram

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline. The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  15. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Kwadwo A; Adu, Bright; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  16. Phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study of a H4 R-antagonist (JNJ-39758979) in Japanese adults with moderate atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoko; Song, Michael; Kikuchi, Hisayuki; Hisamichi, Katsuya; Xu, Xie L; Greenspan, Andrew; Kato, Mai; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Kato, Takeshi; Guzzo, Cynthia; Thurmond, Robin L; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-02-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the H4 R-antagonist JNJ-39758979 in adult Japanese patients with moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). Eligible patients were randomly assigned to JNJ-39758979 300 mg, 100 mg or placebo once daily for 6 weeks in this phase 2a, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. Primary efficacy was assessed via week-6 Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores. Secondary efficacy assessments included Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) and patient-reported outcome (PRO) pruritus assessments (Pruritus Categorical Response Scale [PCRS], Pruritus Numeric Rating Scales [PNRS], Pruritus Interference Numeric Rating Scale [PINRS] and Subject's Global Impressions of Change in Pruritus [SGICP]). Eighty-eight of 105 planned patients were randomized before the study was stopped and unblinded for safety reasons. The study did not meet the primary end-point. However, numerical improvements (i.e. decreases) in median EASI were observed with JNJ-39758979 100 mg (-3.7) and 300 mg (-3.0) versus placebo (-1.3) at week 6. Nominally significant improvements across PRO PCRS, PNRS and SGICP assessments were consistently observed, particularly with JNJ-39758979 300 mg. Safety, including adverse events (AE), was comparable between JNJ-39758979 and placebo with the exception of two patients (both receiving JNJ-39758979 300 mg) with serious AE of neutropenia, leading to premature study discontinuation. No deaths were reported. Except for neutropenia, no clinically relevant changes in laboratory values were observed. Although not conclusive, findings suggest H4 R-antagonism may be beneficial for AD, particularly in controlling pruritus. JNJ-39758979 appears to be associated with drug-induced agranulocytosis, likely an off-target effect. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  18. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  19. A phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, for secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Shigematsu, Takashi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujii, Akifumi; Kuramoto, Takuto; Odani, Motoi; Akizawa, Tadao

    2017-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide (ONO-5163/AMG 416), a novel intravenous calcimimetic, in Japanese haemodialysis patients with SHPT. In this phase 3, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, etelcalcetide was administered three times per week at an initial dose of 5 mg, and subsequently adjusted to doses between 2.5 and 15 mg at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. A total of 155 SHPT patients with serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels ≥300 pg/mL were assigned to receive etelcalcetide (n = 78) or placebo (n = 77). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with decreased serum iPTH to the target range proposed by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (60-240 pg/mL). The major secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥30% reductions in serum iPTH from baseline. The proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (59.0%) versus placebo (1.3%). Similarly, the proportion of patients meeting the major secondary endpoint was significantly higher for etelcalcetide (76.9%) versus placebo (5.2%). Serum albumin-corrected calcium, phosphorus and intact fibroblast growth factor-23 levels were decreased in the etelcalcetide group. Nausea, vomiting and symptomatic hypocalcaemia were mild with etelcalcetide. Serious adverse events related to etelcalcetide were not observed. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide. As the only available intravenous calcium-sensing receptor agonist, etelcalcetide is likely to provide a new treatment option for SHPT in haemodialysis patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  20. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman Samantha; Alvarez Patricia; Schwartz Howard I; Kalman Douglas S; Pezzullo John C; Krieger Diane R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digest...

  1. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with tumor necrosis factor a inhibitors: findings with up to five years of treatment in the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 GO-AFTER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Doyle, Mittie; Landewé, Robert; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Xu, Stephen; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who discontinued previous tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-inhibitor(s). Methods: Patients enrolled into this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of active

  2. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, Marcia S; Schlumberger, Martin; Nutting, Christopher M; Sherman, Steven I; Shong, Young Kee; Smit, Johannes WA; Reike, Gerhard; Chung, John; Kalmus, Joachim; Kappeler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory DTC. DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles), whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle) for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS); patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate, response rate, duration of response, safety, and

  3. Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María Elena; O'Ryan, Miguel L; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Prado, Valeria; Vergara, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Alma; Toneatto, Daniela; Graña, Gabriela; Wang, Huajun; Clemens, Ralf; Dull, Peter M

    2012-02-18

    Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents. We did a randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study at 12 sites in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Adolescents aged 11-17 years received one, two, or three doses of 4CMenB at 1 month, 2 month, or 6 month intervals. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) against three reference strains for individual vaccine antigens, and assessed by ELISA against the fourth strain. Local and systemic reactions were recorded 7 days after each vaccination, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Participants were initially randomised to five groups (3:3:3:3:1) during the primary phase to receive either one dose, two doses 1 or 2 months apart, or three doses of 4CMenB, or three doses of placebo, with an additional three groups generated for the booster phase. All subjects received at least one dose of 4CMenB. Geometric mean titres, proportions of participants with serum bactericidal antibody titres of 4 or more, and Clopper-Pearson 95% CIs were calculated. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00661713. Overall, 1631 adolescents (mean age 13·8 [SD 1·9] years) received at least one dose of 4CMenB. After two or three doses, 99-100% of recipients had hSBA titres of 4 or more against test strains, compared with 92-97% after one dose (pvaccine-related serious adverse events were reported and no significant safety signals were identified. On the basis of immunogenicity responses this study provides evidence for an adolescent 4CMenB vaccine schedule of two doses, 1-6 months apart, to provide protection against meningococcal B infection. The extent of this protection against

  4. LICC: L-BLP25 in patients with colorectal carcinoma after curative resection of hepatic metastases--a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational, double-blinded phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimanski Carl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC. Methods/Design This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2 and 12-week (year 3 intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive

  5. COMPARE CPM-RMI Trial: Intramyocardial Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived CD133+ Cells and MNCs during CABG in Patients with Recent MI: A Phase II/III, Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Madani, Hoda; Ahmadi Tafti, Seyed Hossein; Moshkani Farahani, Maryam; Kazemi Saleh, Davood; Hosseinnejad, Hossein; Hosseini, Saeid; Hekmat, Sepideh; Hossein Ahmadi, Zargham; Dehghani, Majid; Saadat, Alireza; Mardpour, Soura; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Sadeghian, Hakimeh; Bahoush, Gholamreza; Bassi, Ali; Amin, Ahmad; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Sharafi, Yaser; Arab, Leila; Movahhed, Mansour; Davaran, Saeid; Ramezanzadeh, Narges; Kouhkan, Azam; Hezavehei, Ali; Namiri, Mehrnaz; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Akhlaghi, Ali; Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Vosough Dizaji, Ahmad; Gourabi, Hamid; Syedi, Naeema; Shahverdi, Abdol Hosein; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2018-07-01

    The regenerative potential of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and CD133+ stem cells in the heart varies in terms of their pro-angiogenic effects. This phase II/III, multicenter and double-blind trial is designed to compare the functional effects of intramyocardial autologous transplantation of both cell types and placebo in patients with recent myocardial infarction (RMI) post-coronary artery bypass graft. This was a phase II/III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial COMPARE CPM-RMI (CD133, Placebo, MNCs - recent myocardial infarction) conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki that assessed the safety and efficacy of CD133 and MNCs compared to placebo in patients with RMI. We randomly assigned 77 eligible RMI patients selected from 5 hospitals to receive CD133+ cells, MNC, or a placebo. Patients underwent gated single photon emission computed tomography assessments at 6 and 18 months post-intramyocardial transplantation. We tested the normally distributed efficacy outcomes with a mixed analysis of variance model that used the entire data set of baseline and between-group comparisons as well as within subject (time) and group×time interaction terms. There were no related serious adverse events reported. The intramyocardial transplantation of both cell types increased left ventricular ejection fraction by 9% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.14% to 15.78%, P=0.01] and improved decreased systolic wall thickening by -3.7 (95% CI: -7.07 to -0.42, P=0.03). The CD133 group showed significantly decreased non-viable segments by 75% (P=0.001) compared to the placebo and 60% (P=0.01) compared to the MNC group. We observed this improvement at both the 6- and 18-month time points. Intramyocardial injections of CD133+ cells or MNCs appeared to be safe and efficient with superiority of CD133+ cells for patients with RMI. Although the sample size precluded a definitive statement about clinical outcomes, these results have provided the

  6. A phase 3, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of abiraterone acetate in chemotherapy-naïve patients with mCRPC in China, Malaysia, Thailand and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dingwei; Huang, Yiran; Zhou, Fangjian; Xie, Keji; Matveev, Vsevolod; Li, Changling; Alexeev, Boris; Tian, Ye; Qiu, Mingxing; Li, Hanzhong; Zhou, Tie; De Porre, Peter; Yu, Margaret; Naini, Vahid; Liang, Hongchuan; Wu, Zhuli; Sun, Yinghao

    2017-04-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study was designed to compare efficacy and safety of abiraterone acetate + prednisone (abiraterone) to prednisone alone in chemotherapy-naïve, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients from China, Malaysia, Thailand and Russia. Adult chemotherapy-naïve patients with confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) grade 0-1, ongoing androgen deprivation (serum testosterone <50 ng/dL) with prostate specific antigen (PSA) or radiographic progression were randomized to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg, QD) + prednisone (5 mg, BID) or placebo + prednisone (5 mg, BID), until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Primary endpoint was improvements in time to PSA progression (TTPP). Totally, 313 patients were randomized (abiraterone: n  = 157; prednisone: n  = 156); and baseline characteristics were balanced. At clinical cut-off (median follow-up time: 3.9 months), 80% patients received treatment (abiraterone: n  = 138, prednisone: n  = 112). Median time to PSA progression was not reached with abiraterone versus 3.8 months for prednisone, attaining 58% reduction in PSA progression risk (HR = 0.418; p  < 0.0001). Abiraterone-treated patients had higher confirmed PSA response rate (50% vs. 21%; relative odds = 2.4; p  < 0.0001) and were 5 times more likely to achieve radiographic response than prednisone-treated patients (22.9% vs.  4.8%, p  = 0.0369). Median survival was not reached. Most common (≥10% abiraterone vs.  prednisone-treated) adverse events: bone pain (7% vs. 14%), pain in extremity (6% vs. 12%), arthralgia (10% vs. 8%), back pain (7% vs. 11%), and hypertension (15% vs. 14%). Interim analysis confirmed favorable benefit-to-risk ratio of abiraterone in chemotherapy-naïve men with mCRPC, consistent with global study, thus supporting use of

  7. Pooled efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on treatment in patients with focal-onset seizures: Data from four double-blind placebo-controlled pivotal phase III clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Christian; Koepp, Mathias; Trinka, Eugen; Villanueva, Vicente; Chaves, João; Ben-Menachen, Elinor; Kowacs, Pedro A; Gil-Nagel, António; Moreira, Joana; Gama, Helena; Rocha, José-Francisco; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2017-12-01

    Pooled evaluation of the key efficacy and safety profile of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) added-on to stable antiepileptic therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. Data from 1703 patients enrolled in four phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were pooled and analyzed. Following a 2 week titration period, ESL was administered at 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1200 mg once-daily doses for 12 weeks (maintenance period). Pooled efficacy variable was standardized (/4 weeks) seizure frequency (SSF) analyzed over the maintenance period as reduction in absolute and relative SSF and proportion of responders (≥50% reduction in SSF). Pooled safety was analyzed by means of adverse events and clinical laboratory assessments. SSF was significantly reduced with ESL 800 mg (P ESL 800 mg and 37.8% for 1200 mg (placebo: 17.6%), and responder rate was 33.8% and 43.1% (placebo: 22.2%). ESL was more efficacious than placebo regardless of gender, geographical region, epilepsy duration, age at time of diagnosis, seizure type, and type of concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AED). Incidence of adverse events (AEs) and AEs leading to discontinuation was dose dependent. Most common AEs (>10% patients) were dizziness, somnolence, and nausea. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs (dizziness, somnolence, ataxia, vomiting, and nausea) was lower in patients who began taking ESL 400 mg (followed by 400 mg increments to 800 or 1200 mg) than in those who began taking ESL 600 mg or 800 mg. Once-daily ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg showed consistent results across all efficacy and safety endpoints, independent of study population characteristics and type of concomitant AEDs. Treatment initiated with ESL 400 mg followed by 400 mg increments to 800 or 1200 mg provides optimal balance of efficacy and tolerability. © 2017 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after high-dose melphalan in autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Neben, Kai; Freiberger, Anja; Hüsing, Johannes; Gronkowski, Martina; Thalheimer, Markus; Pelzl, Le Hang; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2014-10-20

    The optimal regimen to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is unclear. To evaluate the effect of aprepitant in addition to a standard regimen, we conducted this randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Patients with multiple myeloma were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to receive either aprepitant (125 mg orally on day 1 and 80 mg orally on days 2 to 4), granisetron (2 mg orally on days 1 to 4), and dexamethasone (4 mg orally on day 1 and 2 mg orally on days 2 to 3) or matching placebo, granisetron (2 mg orally on days 1 to 4), and dexamethasone (8 mg orally on day 1 and 4 mg orally on days 2 to 3). Melphalan 100 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously on days 1 to 2. ASCT was performed on day 4. The primary end point (complete response) was defined as no emesis and no rescue therapy within 120 hours of melphalan administration. Quality of life was assessed by modified Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire on days -1 and 6. Overall, 362 patients were available for the efficacy analysis (181 in each treatment arm). Significantly more patients receiving aprepitant reached the primary end point (58% v 41%; odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.00; P = .0042). Absence of major nausea (94% v 88%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 5.15; P = .026) and emesis (78% v 65%; OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.18; P = .0036) within 120 hours was increased by aprepitant. Mean total FLIE score (± standard deviation) was 114 ± 18 for aprepitant and 106 ± 26 for placebo (P < .001). The addition of aprepitant resulted in significantly less CINV and had a positive effect on quality of life. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Dupilumab with concomitant topical corticosteroid treatment in adults with atopic dermatitis with an inadequate response or intolerance to ciclosporin A or when this treatment is medically inadvisable: a placebo-controlled, randomized phase III clinical trial (LIBERTY AD CAFÉ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin-Weller, M; Thaçi, D; Smith, C H; Reich, K; Cork, M J; Radin, A; Zhang, Q; Akinlade, B; Gadkari, A; Eckert, L; Hultsch, T; Chen, Z; Pirozzi, G; Graham, N M H; Shumel, B

    2018-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that may require systemic therapy. Ciclosporin A (CsA) is a widely used, potent immunosuppressant but it is not effective in all patients with atopic dermatitis, and side-effects limit its use. Dupilumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 4 receptor-alpha monoclonal antibody, inhibits signaling of IL-4 and IL-13, key drivers of Type 2/Th2-mediated inflammation, and is approved in the U.S.A. and the European Union for the treatment of inadequately-controlled moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adults. To evaluate efficacy and safety of dupilumab with concomitant topical corticosteroids (TCS) in adults with atopic dermatitis with inadequate response to/intolerance of CsA, or for whom CsA treatment was medically inadvisable. In this 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial, patients were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to subcutaneous dupilumab 300 mg weekly (qw) or every 2 weeks (q2w) or placebo. All received concomitant medium-potency TCS from Week -2 through Week 16; dosage could be tapered if lesions cleared, or stopped for adverse reactions to TCS. In total, 390 patients were screened, 325 were randomized, and 318 completed the trial. Treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. Significantly more patients in the dupilumab qw + TCS and q2w + TCS groups achieved ≥ 75% improvement from baseline in the Eczema Area and Severity Index at Week 16 vs. the placebo + TCS group (primary end point) (59·1% and 62·6% vs. 29·6%, respectively; P < 0·001 vs. placebo + TCS, both doses). Other clinical outcomes and atopic dermatitis symptoms were significantly improved in the dupilumab qw + TCS and q2w + TCS groups, including pruritus, pain, sleep disturbance, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life (QoL). Treatment groups had similar overall rates of adverse events (qw + TCS, q2w + TCS and placebo + TCS groups: 69·1%, 72·0% and 69·4%, respectively) and serious adverse

  10. Combination therapy with sitagliptin and lansoprazole in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (REPAIR-T1D): 12-month results of a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kurt J; Thompson, Paul A; Gottschalk, Michael; Kyllo, Jennifer H; Rabinovitch, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Findings from preclinical studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and proton-pump inhibitors might enhance β-cell survival and regeneration. We postulated that sitagliptin and lansoprazole would preserve β-cell function in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial (REPAIR-T1D). Participants aged 11-36 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes within the past 6 months were recruited from Sanford Health Systems (Sioux Falls, SD, USA; Fargo, ND, USA), Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota (St Paul, MN, USA), and Rady Children's Hospital (San Diego, CA, USA). Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive oral sitagliptin (100 mg for participants ≥18 years, 50 mg for those lansoprazole (60 mg for participants ≥18 years, 30 mg for those <18 years) or matched placebo for 12 months. Randomisation was done by a blocked randomisation process (blocks of three and six), with separate streams for younger (<18 years) and older (≥18 years) participants, and males and females. All participants and personnel remained masked until after the completion of the final 12 month visit, at which time data were unmasked to the analysis team. The primary endpoint was C-peptide response to a mixed meal challenge at 12 months measured as 2 h area under curve. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01155284. Between Sept 21, 2010, and May 29, 2012, 46 participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 22 to the placebo group; of whom 40 participants in the treatment group and 18 in the placebo group completed the 12-month treatment. At 12 months, the mean change in C-peptide area under curve was -229 pmol/L (95% CI -316 to -142) for the treatment group and -253 pmol/L (-383 to -123) for the placebo group; this difference was not significant (p=0·77). No

  11. Phase 1, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of erenumab (AMG 334) and concomitant sumatriptan on blood pressure in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, Jan; Van Hecken, Anne; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Herbots, Marissa; Kubo, Yumi; Lee, Ed; Eisele, Osa; Vargas, Gabriel; Gabriel, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effects of concomitant administration of erenumab and sumatriptan on resting blood pressure, pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in healthy subjects. Methods In this phase 1, parallel-group, one-way crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy adult subjects were randomized (1:2) to receive either intravenous placebo and subcutaneous sumatriptan 12 mg (i.e. two 6-mg injections separated by 1 hour) or intravenous erenumab 140 mg and subcutaneous sumatriptan 12 mg. Blood pressure was measured pre-dose and at prespecified times post-dose. The primary endpoint was individual time-weighted averages of mean arterial pressure, measured from 0 hours to 2.5 hours after the first dose of sumatriptan. Pharmacokinetic parameters for sumatriptan were evaluated by calculating geometric mean ratios (erenumab and sumatriptan/placebo and sumatriptan). Adverse events and anti-erenumab antibodies were also evaluated. Results A total of 34 subjects were randomized and included in the analysis. Least squares mean (standard error) time-weighted averages of mean arterial pressure were 87.4 (1.0) mmHg for the placebo and sumatriptan group and 87.4 (1.2) mmHg for the erenumab and sumatriptan group. Mean difference in mean arterial pressure between groups was -0.04 mmHg (90% confidence interval: -2.2, 2.1). Geometric mean ratio estimates for maximum plasma concentration of sumatriptan was 0.95 (90% confidence interval: 0.82, 1.09), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 6 hours was 0.98 (90% confidence interval: 0.93, 1.03), and AUC from time 0 to infinity was 1.00 (90% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.05). No clinically relevant safety findings for co-administration of sumatriptan and erenumab were identified. Conclusion Co-administration of erenumab and sumatriptan had no additional effect on resting blood pressure or on pharmacokinetics of sumatriptan. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT

  12. Efficacy, patient-reported outcomes and safety profile of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an injectable drug for the reduction of unwanted submental fat: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, B; Hoffmann, K; Walker, P; Lippert, S; Wollina, U; Havlickova, B

    2014-12-01

    Unwanted submental fat (SMF) may result in an unattractive chin profile and dissatisfaction with appearance. An approved and rigorously tested non-surgical method for SMF reduction is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the pharmacological reduction of unwanted SMF in a phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients (n = 360) with moderate or severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 1 or 2 mg/cm(2) or placebo injected into their SMF for up to four treatments ~28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders, defined as a ≥1-point reduction in SMF on the Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS), and those satisfied with their appearance in association with their face and chin after treatment on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS score ≥4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included a ≥1-point improvement in SMF on the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (PR-SMFRS) and changes in the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Impact Scale (PR-SMFIS). Additional patient-reported outcomes and changes in the Skin Laxity Rating Scale were recorded. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory test results were monitored. Compared with placebo, a greater proportion of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm(2) showed a ≥1-point improvement in CR-SMFRS (58.3% and 62.3%, respectively, vs. 34.5% with placebo; P < 0.001) and patient satisfaction (SSRS score ≥4) with the appearance of their face and chin (68.3% and 64.8%, respectively, vs. 29.3%; P < 0.001). Patient-reported secondary efficacy endpoints showed significant improvements in SMF severity (PR-SMFRS; P = 0.009 for ATX-101 1 mg/cm(2) , P < 0.001 for ATX-101 2 mg/cm(2) vs. placebo) and emotions and perceived self-image (PR-SMFIS; P < 0.001). No overall worsening of skin laxity was observed. AEs were mostly transient, mild to moderate in intensity and localized to the treatment area. ATX

  13. Efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in Latin American infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Alexandre C; Velázquez, F Raúl; Pérez-Schael, Irene; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Abate, Hector; Espinoza, Felix; López, Pío; Macías-Parra, Mercedes; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Rivera-Medina, Doris Maribel; Rivera, Luis; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Nuñez, Ernesto; Damaso, Silvia; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; De Vos, Béatrice; O'Ryan, Miguel; Gillard, Paul; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2008-04-05

    Peak incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is seen in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. We therefore aimed to assess the 2-year efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe gastroenteritis in infants. 15 183 healthy infants aged 6-13 weeks from ten Latin American countries randomly assigned in a 1 to 1 ratio to receive two oral doses of RIX4414 or placebo at about 2 and 4 months of age in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study were followed up until about 2 years of age. Primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy from 2 weeks after dose two until 1 year of age. Treatment allocation was concealed from investigators and parents of participating infants. Efficacy follow-up for gastroenteritis episodes was undertaken from 2 weeks after dose two until about 2 years of age. Analysis was according to protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140673 (eTrack444563-023). 897 infants were excluded from the according-to-protocol analysis. Fewer cases (protavirus gastroenteritis were recorded for the combined 2-year period in the RIX4414 group (32 [0.4%] of 7205; 95% CI 0.3-0.6) than in the placebo group (161 [2.3%] of 7081; 1.9-2.6), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 80.5% (71.3-87.1) to 82.1% (64.6-91.9) against wild-type G1, 77.5% (64.7-86.2) against pooled non-G1 strains, and 80.5% (67.9-88.8) against pooled non-G1 P[8] strains. Vaccine efficacy for hospital admission for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 83.0% (73.1-89.7) and for admission for diarrhoea of any cause was 39.3% (29.1-48.1). No cases of intussusception were reported during the second year of follow-up. Two doses of RIX4414 were effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in a Latin American setting. Inclusion of RIX4414 in routine paediatric immunisations should reduce the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide.

  14. Regorafenib plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care in Asian patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer (CONCUR): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qin, Shukui; Xu, Ruihua; Yau, Thomas C C; Ma, Brigette; Pan, Hongming; Xu, Jianming; Bai, Yuxian; Chi, Yihebali; Wang, Liwei; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Bi, Feng; Cheng, Ying; Le, Anh Tuan; Lin, Jen-Kou; Liu, Tianshu; Ma, Dong; Kappeler, Christian; Kalmus, Joachim; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-06-01

    In the international randomised phase 3 CORRECT trial (NCT01103323), regorafenib significantly improved overall survival versus placebo in patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Of the 760 patients in CORRECT, 111 were Asian (mostly Japanese). This phase 3 trial was done to assess regorafenib in a broader population of Asian patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer than was studied in CORRECT. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial done in 25 hospitals in mainland China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam, we recruited Asian patients aged 18 years or older with progressive metastatic colorectal cancer who had received at least two previous treatment lines or were unable to tolerate standard treatments. Patients had to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function, without other uncontrolled medical disorders. We randomly allocated patients (2:1; with a computer-generated unicentric randomisation list [prepared by the study funder] and interactive voice response system; block size of six; stratified by metastatic site [single vs multiple organs] and time from diagnosis of metastatic disease [regorafenib 160 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 of each 28 day cycle; patients in both groups were also to receive best supportive care. Participants, investigators, and the study funder were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, and we analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01584830. Between April 29, 2012, and Feb 6, 2013, we screened 243 patients and randomly assigned 204 patients to receive either regorafenib (136 [67%]) or placebo (68 [33%]). After a median follow-up of 7·4 months (IQR 4·3-12·2), overall survival was significantly better with regorafenib

  15. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James F; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Benatar, Michael; Murai, Hiroyuki; Barohn, Richard J; Illa, Isabel; Jacob, Saiju; Vissing, John; Burns, Ted M; Kissel, John T; Muppidi, Srikanth; Nowak, Richard J; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing-Jing; Mantegazza, Renato

    2017-12-01

    Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in this patient population in a phase 3 trial. We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (REGAIN) in 76 hospitals and specialised clinics in 17 countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) score of 6 or more, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class II-IV disease, vaccination against Neisseria meningitides, and previous treatment with at least two immunosuppressive therapies or one immunosuppressive therapy and chronic intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange for 12 months without symptom control. Patients with a history of thymoma or thymic neoplasms, thymectomy within 12 months before screening, or use of intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange within 4 weeks before randomisation, or rituximab within 6 months before screening, were excluded. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either intravenous eculizumab or intravenous matched placebo for 26 weeks. Dosing for eculizumab was 900 mg on day 1 and at weeks 1, 2, and 3; 1200 mg at week 4; and 1200 mg given every second week thereafter as maintenance dosing. Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive voice or web-response system with patients stratified to one of four groups based on MGFA disease classification. Where possible, patients were maintained on existing myasthenia gravis therapies and rescue medication was allowed at the study physician's discretion. Patients, investigators

  16. Safety and efficacy of rasagiline as an add-on therapy to riluzole in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Albert C; Schuster, Joachim; Dorst, Johannes; Dupuis, Luc; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Kassubek, Jan; Weiland, Ulrike; Petri, Susanne; Meyer, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Schrank, Berthold; Boentert, Matthias; Emmer, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas; Zeller, Daniel; Prudlo, Johannes; Winkler, Andrea S; Grehl, Torsten; Heneka, Michael T; Wollebæk Johannesen, Siw; Göricke, Bettina

    2018-06-18

    Rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor with neuroprotective potential in Parkinson's disease, has shown a disease-modifying effect in the SOD1-Gly93Ala low-expressing mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, both alone and in combination with riluzole. We sought to test whether or not rasagiline 1 mg/day can prolong survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also receiving riluzole. Patients with possible, probable, or definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were enrolled to our randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, phase 2 trial from 15 German network for motor neuron diseases (MND-NET) centres (university hospitals or clinics). Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had onset of progressive weakness within the 36 months before the study, had disease duration of more than 6 months and less than 3 years, and had a best-sitting slow vital capacity of at least 50%. After a 4-week screening period, eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either rasagiline (1 mg/day) or placebo in addition to riluzole (100 mg/day), after stratification for site of onset (bulbar or spinal) and study centre. Patients and all personnel assessing outcome parameters were masked to treatment allocation. Patients were followed up 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after randomisation. The primary endpoint was survival time, defined as the time to death or time to study cutoff date (ie, the last patient's last visit plus 14 days). Analyses of primary outcome and safety measures were done in all patients who received at least one dose of trial treatment (intention-to-treat population). The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01879241. Between July 2, 2013, and Nov 11, 2014, 273 patients were screened for eligibility, and 252 patients were randomly assigned to receive rasagiline (n=127) or placebo (n=125). 126 patients taking rasagiline and 125 taking placebo were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. For the

  17. Long-term management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with dupilumab and concomitant topical corticosteroids (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS): a 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Gooderham, Melinda; Cather, Jennifer C; Weisman, Jamie; Pariser, David; Simpson, Eric L; Papp, Kim A; Hong, H Chih-Ho; Rubel, Diana; Foley, Peter; Prens, Errol; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Etoh, Takafumi; Pinto, Pedro Herranz; Pujol, Ramon M; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Ettler, Karel; Kemény, Lajos; Zhu, Xiaoping; Akinlade, Bolanle; Hultsch, Thomas; Mastey, Vera; Gadkari, Abhijit; Eckert, Laurent; Amin, Nikhil; Graham, Neil M H; Pirozzi, Gianluca; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Shumel, Brad

    2017-06-10

    Dupilumab (an anti-interleukin-4-receptor-α monoclonal antibody) blocks signalling of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, type 2/Th2 cytokines implicated in numerous allergic diseases ranging from asthma to atopic dermatitis. Previous 16-week monotherapy studies showed that dupilumab substantially improved signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with acceptable safety, validating the crucial role of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dupilumab with medium-potency topical corticosteroids versus placebo with topical corticosteroids in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. In this 1-year, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study (LIBERTY AD CHRONOS), adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis and inadequate response to topical corticosteroids were enrolled at 161 hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions in 14 countries in Europe, Asia-Pacific, and North America. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1:3) to subcutaneous dupilumab 300 mg once weekly (qw), dupilumab 300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w), or placebo via a central interactive voice/web response system, stratified by severity and global region. All three groups were given concomitant topical corticosteroids with or without topical calcineurin inhibitors where inadvisable for topical corticosteroids. Topical corticosteroids could be tapered, stopped, or restarted on the basis of disease activity. Coprimary endpoints were patients (%) achieving Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) 0/1 and 2-point or higher improvement from baseline, and Eczema Area and Severity Index 75% improvement from baseline (EASI-75) at week 16. Week 16 efficacy and week 52 safety analyses included all randomised patients; week 52 efficacy included patients who completed treatment by US regulatory submission cutoff. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02260986. Between Oct 3, 2014

  18. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-δ agonist, in patients with primary biliary cholangitis with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2, proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Boudes, Pol F; Swain, Mark G; Bowlus, Christopher L; Galambos, Michael R; Bacon, Bruce R; Doerffel, Yvonne; Gitlin, Norman; Gordon, Stuart C; Odin, Joseph A; Sheridan, David; Wörns, Markus-Alexander; Clark, Virginia; Corless, Linsey; Hartmann, Heinz; Jonas, Mark E; Kremer, Andreas E; Mells, George F; Buggisch, Peter; Freilich, Bradley L; Levy, Cynthia; Vierling, John M; Bernstein, David E; Hartleb, Marek; Janczewska, Ewa; Rochling, Fedja; Shah, Hemant; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Smith, John H; Choi, Yun-Jung; Steinberg, Alexandra; Varga, Monika; Chera, Harinder; Martin, Robert; McWherter, Charles A; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2017-10-01

    Many patients with primary biliary cholangitis have an inadequate response to first-line therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Seladelpar is a potent, selective agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ), which is implicated in bile acid homoeostasis. This first-in-class study evaluated the anti-cholestatic effects and safety of seladelpar in patients with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid. The study was a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of patients with alkaline phosphatase of at least 1·67 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) despite treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Patients, recruited at 29 sites in North America and Europe, were randomly assigned to placebo, seladelpar 50 mg/day, or seladelpar 200 mg/day while ursodeoxycholic acid was continued. Randomisation was done centrally (1:1:1) by a computerised system using an interactive voice-web response system with a block size of three. Randomisation was stratified by region (North America and Europe). The primary outcome was the percentage change from baseline in alkaline phosphatase over 12 weeks, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (any randomised patient who received at least one dose of medication and had at least one post-baseline alkaline phosphatase evaluation). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02609048) and the EU Clinical Trials Registry (EudraCT2015-002698-39). Between Nov 4, 2015, and May 26, 2016, 70 patients were screened at 29 sites in North America and Europe. During recruitment, three patients treated with seladelpar developed fully reversible, asymptomatic grade 3 alanine aminotransferase increases (one on 50 mg, two on 200 mg), ranging from just over five to 20 times the ULN; as a result, the study was terminated after 41 patients were randomly assigned. The modified ITT population consisted of 12 patients in the placebo group, 13 in the seladelpar 50 mg group, and 10 in the

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine in healthy adults in China: preliminary report of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Cai; Hou, Li-Hua; Li, Jing-Xin; Wu, Shi-Po; Liu, Pei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Hu, Yue-Mei; Meng, Fan-Yue; Xu, Jun-Jie; Tang, Rong; Zhang, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Juan; Duan, Lei; Chu, Kai; Liang, Qi; Hu, Jia-Lei; Luo, Li; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-06

    Up to now, all tested Ebola virus vaccines have been based on the virus strain from the Zaire outbreak in 1976. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine expressing the glycoprotein of the 2014 epidemic strain. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 clinical trial at one site in Taizhou County, Jiangsu Province, China. Healthy adults (aged 18-60 years) were sequentially enrolled and randomly assigned (2:1), by computer-generated block randomisation (block size of six), to receive placebo, low-dose adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine, or high-dose vaccine. Randomisation was pre-stratified by dose group. All participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary safety endpoint was occurrence of solicited adverse reactions within 7 days of vaccination. The primary immunogenicity endpoints were glycoprotein-specific antibody titres and T-cell responses at day 28 after the vaccination. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02326194. Between Dec 28, 2014, and Jan 9, 2015, 120 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=40), low-dose vaccine (n=40), or high-dose vaccine. Participants were followed up for 28 days. Overall, 82 (68%) participants reported at least one solicited adverse reaction within 7 days of vaccination (n=19 in the placebo group vs n=27 in the low-dose group vs n=36 in the high-dose group; p=0·0002). The most common reaction was mild pain at the injection site, which was reported in eight (20%) participants in the placebo group, 14 (35%) participants in the low-dose group, and 29 (73%) participants in the high-dose vaccine group (pvaccine groups at both day 14 (geometric mean titre 421·4 [95% CI 249·7-711·3] and 820·5 [598·9-1124·0], respectively; pday 28 (682·7 [424·3-1098·5] and 1305·7 [970·1-1757·2

  20. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent; Delaloge, Suzette; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Tomašević, Zorica; Denduluri, Neelima; Šeparović, Robert; Gokmen, Erhan; Bashford, Anna; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Kim, Sung-Bae; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Ciceniene, Audrone; Inoue, Kenichi; Overkamp, Friedrich; Heijns, Joan B; Armstrong, Anne C; Link, John S; Joy, Anil Abraham; Bryce, Richard; Wong, Alvin; Moran, Susan; Yao, Bin; Xu, Feng; Auerbach, Alan; Buyse, Marc; Chan, Arlene

    2017-12-01

    ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive vs hormone receptor-negative), nodal status (0 vs 1-3 vs or ≥4 positive nodes), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (given sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system, to receive 1 year of oral neratinib 240 mg/day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis was invasive disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. ExteNET is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709, and is closed to new participants. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, 2840 eligible women with early HER2-positive breast cancer were recruited from community-based and academic institutions in 40 countries and randomly assigned to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). After a median follow-up of 5·2 years (IQR 2·1-5·3), patients in the neratinib

  1. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; Harvey, Vernon J; Robert, Nicholas J; Silovski, Tajana; Gokmen, Erhan; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Ejlertsen, Bent; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Buyse, Marc; Gore, Ira; Smith, John; Harker, Graydon; Masuda, Norikazu; Petrakova, Katarina; Zotano, Angel Guerrero; Iannotti, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Gladys; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Wong, Alvin; Bryce, Richard; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Martin, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70

  2. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and Glucosamine Oligosaccharide Improve Erectile Function, Sexual Quality of Life, and Ejaculation Function in Patients with Moderate Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blinded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction. PMID:25136552

  3. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Samantha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence but no gastrointestinal (GI diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086: n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046 and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048, with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061. A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322

  4. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Methods Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 ± 12.6 years; height 165.1 ± 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 ± 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage™ Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Results Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. Conclusion In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322 PMID:19922649

  5. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group dual site trial to evaluate the effects of a Bacillus coagulans-based product on functional intestinal gas symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S; Schwartz, Howard I; Alvarez, Patricia; Feldman, Samantha; Pezzullo, John C; Krieger, Diane R

    2009-11-18

    This randomized double blind placebo controlled dual site clinical trial compared a probiotic dietary supplement to placebo regarding effects on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post-prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms (abdominal pain, distention, flatulence) but no gastrointestinal (GI) diagnoses to explain the symptoms. Sixty-one adults were enrolled (age 36.5 +/- 12.6 years; height 165.1 +/- 9.2 cm; weight 75.4 +/- 17.3 kg) and randomized to either Digestive Advantage Gas Defense Formula - (GanedenBC30 Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086): n = 30; or Placebo: n = 31. Study subjects were evaluated every two weeks over a four-week period using validated questionnaires and standard biochemical safety testing. Outcome criteria of interest included change from baseline in Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) abdominal pain, abdominal distention, flatus, and the Severity of Dyspepsia Assessment (SODA) bloating and gas subscores over four weeks of product use. Measured against the placebo, subjects in the probiotic group achieved significant improvements in GSRS abdominal pain subscore (p = 0.046) and the GSRS total score (p = 0.048), with a strong trend for improvement on the GSRS abdominal distension subscore (p = 0.061). A strong placebo effect was evident which could explain the lack of statistical significant differences between the groups for many of the efficacy variables. In conclusion, the Bacillus coagulans-based product was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with post prandial intestinal gas-related symptoms and no GI diagnoses. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00881322.

  6. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and Glucosamine Oligosaccharide Improve Erectile Function, Sexual Quality of Life, and Ejaculation Function in Patients with Moderate Mild-Moderate Erectile Dysfunction: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Blinded Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000 in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26 were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n=87 and Group B (placebo, n=90. Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD, and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P<0.05 at 3 months versus Group B (P<0.05. PSV (P<0.05, IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P<0.05, IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P<0.05, IIEF-sexual desire (P<0.05, IIEF-overall satisfaction (P<0.05, MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P<0.05, and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P<0.05 were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P<0.05, IIEF-EF (P<0.05, MSHQ-EjD (P<0.05, and SQoL-M (P<0.05 in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction.

  7. Alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide improve erectile function, sexual quality of life, and ejaculation function in patients with moderate mild-moderate erectile dysfunction: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Leonardi, Rosario; Antonini, Gabriele; Vitarelli, Antonio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Basic, Dragoslav; Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Russo, Giorgio Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy with alga Ecklonia bicyclis, Tribulus terrestris, and glucosamine oligosaccharide (Tradamix TX1000) in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) at 3 months of follow-up. From January 2013 to September 2013, 177 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate ED (IIEF-EF < 26) were enrolled in this multicenter, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study and randomized in Group A (Tradamix, n = 87) and Group B (placebo, n = 90). Penile color Doppler ultrasound measures, IIEF-15 questionnaire, male sexual health questionnaire-ejaculation disorder (MSHQ-EjD), and sexual quality of life (SQoL-M) were collected. We observed significant changes of the IIEF-15 in Group A (mean difference: 11.54; P < 0.05) at 3 months versus Group B (P < 0.05). PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-intercourse satisfaction (P < 0.05), IIEF-orgasmic function (mean P < 0.05), IIEF-sexual desire (P < 0.05), IIEF-overall satisfaction (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (mean difference: 1.21; P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (mean difference: 10.2; P < 0.05) were significantly changed in Group A versus baseline and Group B. Patients with moderate arterial dysfunction showed significant increase of PSV (P < 0.05), IIEF-EF (P < 0.05), MSHQ-EjD (P < 0.05), and SQoL-M (P < 0.05) in Group A. Therapy with Tradamix improves erectile and ejaculation function and sexual quality of life in patients with mild-moderate ED and in particular for those with moderate arterial dysfunction.

  8. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter evaluation of efficacy and dose finding of midodrine hydrochloride in women with mild to moderate stress urinary incontinence: a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, E H; Eerdmans, P H; Dijkman, G A; Tamussino, K; Feyereisl, J; Vierhout, M E; Schmidbauer, C; Egarter, C; Kölle, D; Plasman, J E; Heidler, H; Abbühl, B E; Wein, W

    1998-01-01

    Midodrine is a potent and selective alpha1-receptor agonist and its potential to increase urethral closure pressure could be useful in the treatment of female stress incontinence. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of midodrine for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. The primary criterion of efficacy was the maximum urethral closure pressure at rest. Voiding diaries, symptom and incontinence questionnaires and patient/investigator global assessment were also used to evaluate its efficacy. After 4 weeks of treatment no significant changes in MUCP were found. The global assessment by the patient and investigator did indicate that patients on active treatment had a more positive assessment than the placebo group. In conclusion, midodrine did not cause significant improvements in urodynamic parameters, but there were subjective improvements in some of the patients in the treated groups. Furthermore midodrine was well tolerated.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of the rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP Ebola virus vaccine candidate in healthy adults: a phase 1b randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D Gray; Kemp, Tracy L; Martin, Brian K; Ramsey, William J; Nichols, Richard; Dasen, Emily J; Link, Charles J; Das, Rituparna; Xu, Zhi Jin; Sheldon, Eric A; Nowak, Teresa A; Monath, Thomas P

    2017-08-01

    The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log 10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection. In cohort 1, participants were assigned to receive 3 × 10 3 , 3 × 10 4 , 3 × 10 5 , or 3 × 10 6 PFU doses of rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP or placebo. In cohort 2, participants were assigned to receive 3 × 10 6 , 9 × 10 6 , 2 × 10 7 , or 1 × 10 8 PFU doses of rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP or placebo. Participants were centrally allocated by the study statistician to vaccine groups or placebo through computer-generated randomisation lists. The primary safety outcome was incidence of adverse events within 14 days in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly assigned participants who received vaccine or placebo), and the primary outcome for immunogenicity was IgG ELISA antibody titres at day 28 in the per-protocol population. Surveillance was enhanced for arthritis and dermatitis through to day 56. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02314923. Between Dec 26, 2014, and June 8, 2015, 513 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; one was not immunised because of unsuccessful phlebotomy. In cohort 1, 256 participants received vaccine (3 × 10 3 [n=64], 3 × 10 4 [n=64], 3 × 10 5 [n=64], or 3 × 10 6 PFU [n=64]) and 74 received placebo. In cohort 2, 162 participants received vaccine (3 × 10 6 [n=20], 9 × 10 6 [n=47], 2 × 10 7 [n=47], or 1 × 10 8 PFU [n=48]) and 20 received placebo. Most

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of one versus two doses of Takeda's tetravalent dengue vaccine in children in Asia and Latin America: interim results from a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Tricou, Vianney; Yu, Delia; Rivera, Luis; Tuboi, Suely; Garbes, Pedro; Borkowski, Astrid; Wallace, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in human beings, and vector control has not halted its spread worldwide. A dengue vaccine for individuals aged 9 years and older has been licensed, but there remains urgent medical need for a vaccine that is safe and effective against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) in recipients of all ages. Here, we present the preplanned interim analyses at 6 months of a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV), which is comprised of an attenuated DENV-2 virus strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope protein genes of DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 genetically engineered into the attenuated TDV-2 genome backbone (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4). An ongoing phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a TDV is being done at three sites in dengue-endemic countries (Dominican Republic, Panama, and the Philippines) to determine its safety and immunogenicity over 48 months in healthy participants aged 2-17 years who were randomly assigned (1:2:5:1) using an interactive web response system (stratified by age) to subcutaneous TDV injection (one 0·5 mL dose containing 2·5 × 10 4 plaque-forming units [PFU] of TDV-1; 6·3 × 10 3 PFU of TDV-2; 3·2 × 10 4 PFU of TDV-3; and 4·0 × 10 5 PFU of TDV-4) in different dose schedules (two-dose regimen at 0 and 3 months, one dose at 0 months, or one dose at 0 months and a booster at 12 months) or placebo. The primary endpoint of this 6 month interim analysis was geometric mean titres (GMTs) of neutralising antibodies against DENV-1-4 in the per-protocol immunogenicity subset at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the first injection. Safety was assessed as a secondary outcome as percentage of participants with serious adverse events in all participants who were injected (safety set), and solicited and unsolicited adverse events (immunogenicity subset). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT

  11. Adjuvant sunitinib or sorafenib for high-risk, non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (ECOG-ACRIN E2805): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Naomi B; Manola, Judith; Uzzo, Robert G; Flaherty, Keith T; Wood, Christopher G; Kane, Christopher; Jewett, Michael; Dutcher, Janice P; Atkins, Michael B; Pins, Michael; Wilding, George; Cella, David; Wagner, Lynne; Matin, Surena; Kuzel, Timothy M; Sexton, Wade J; Wong, Yu-Ning; Choueiri, Toni K; Pili, Roberto; Puzanov, Igor; Kohli, Manish; Stadler, Walter; Carducci, Michael; Coomes, Robert; DiPaola, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Renal-cell carcinoma is highly vascular, and proliferates primarily through dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We tested sunitinib and sorafenib, two oral anti-angiogenic agents that are effective in advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in patients with resected local disease at high risk for recurrence. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients at 226 study centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients had pathological stage high-grade T1b or greater with completely resected non-metastatic renal-cell carcinoma and adequate cardiac, renal, and hepatic function. Patients were stratified by recurrence risk, histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and surgical approach, and computerised double-blind randomisation was done centrally with permuted blocks. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 54 weeks of sunitinib 50 mg per day orally throughout the first 4 weeks of each 6 week cycle, sorafenib 400 mg twice per day orally throughout each cycle, or placebo. Placebo could be sunitinib placebo given continuously for 4 weeks of every 6 week cycle or sorafenib placebo given twice per day throughout the study. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival between each experimental group and placebo in the intention-to-treat population. All treated patients with at least one follow-up assessment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00326898. Findings Between April 24, 2006, and Sept 1, 2010, 1943 patients from the National Clinical Trials Network were randomly assigned to sunitinib (n=647), sorafenib (n=649), or placebo (n=647). Following high rates of toxicity-related discontinuation after 1323 patients had enrolled (treatment discontinued by 193 [44%] of 438 patients on sunitinib, 199 [45%] of 441 patients on sorafenib), the starting dose of each

  12. Consistent and significant improvement of nighttime voiding frequency (nocturia) with silodosin in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: pooled analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Andreas; Schneider, Tim; Cruz, Francisco; Oelke, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Nocturia is prevalent and bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH). α-Adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity have inconsistently shown significant effects on nocturia in these patients. We explored the effects of the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin on nocturia by analyzing three placebo-controlled registration studies. Responses to question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed for the entire study population and patients with ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Improvement/worsening rates for nocturia were calculated for once-daily silodosin 8 mg and placebo. Silodosin effects on the mean number of nocturnal voids were compared with placebo, and the number of patients in whom nocturia was reduced to silodosin or placebo; 1,266 men (85 %) had ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Compared to placebo, more men treated with silodosin reported about nocturia improvement (53.4 vs. 42.8 %, p Silodosin significantly reduced nocturia within each study and pooled cohort compared to placebo (p silodosin and placebo had reductions of ≥ 1 voids/night, respectively (p = 0.0003), and significantly more patients with silodosin had nocturia episodes at study end compared to placebo (29.3 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.0002). Although a weak impact on nocturia is already known from α-adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity, the individual placebo-controlled studies and the pooled data analysis showed that the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin consistently and significantly improves nocturia in men with LUTS/BPH.

  13. Meningococcal serogroup B-specific responses after vaccination with bivalent rLP2086: 4 year follow-up of a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter C; Beeslaar, Johannes; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Lee, Su-San; Perez, John L

    2017-01-01

    Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6. Dispensing staff were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel. In stage 2 of the study (reported here), we enrolled healthy adolescents who had received three doses of 120 μg bivalent rLP2086 (the optimum dose level identified in stage 1) or saline. Immunogenicity was determined in serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA) by use of four meningococcal serogroup B test strains expressing vaccine-heterologous factor H binding protein variants: PMB80 (A22), PMB2001 (A56), PMB2948 (B24), and PMB2707 (B44). Immunogenicity in stage 2 was assessed at months 6, 12, 24, and 48 post-vaccination. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered as ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00808028. Between March 17, 2010, and Feb 8, 2011, 170 participants who received 120 μg of bivalent rLP2086 and 80 participants who received placebo in stage 1 of the study were entered into stage 2; 210 participants completed stage 2 up to 48 months. 1 month after the third vaccination, 93% (n=139/149) to 100% (n=48/48) of vaccine recipients achieved protective hSBA titres equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantification to each

  14. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupcinskas, L.; Lafolie, P.; Lignell, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in functional dyspepsia in different doses and compared with placebo. DESIGN: The study was a controlled, prospective, randomized, and double blind trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with functional d...

  15. Suicide risk in placebo-controlled studies of major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storosum, J. G.; van Zwieten, B. J.; van den Brink, W.; Gersons, B. P.; Broekmans, A. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if fear of an increased risk of attempted suicide in placebo groups participating in placebo-controlled studies is an argument against the performance of placebo-controlled trials in studies of major depression. All short-term and long-term,

  16. A Phase III, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of d-Threo-Methylphenidate HCl in Brain Tumor Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Jerome M.; Case, L. Douglas; Atkins, James; Frizzell, Bart; Sanders, George; Griffin, Patricia; Lesser, Glenn; McMullen, Kevin; McQuellon, Richard; Naughton, Michelle; Rapp, Stephen; Stieber, Volker; Shaw, Edward G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of life (QOL) and neurocognitive function of patients with brain tumors are negatively affected by the symptoms of their disease and brain radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the effect of prophylactic d-threo-methylphenidate HCl (d-MPH), a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant on QOL and cognitive function in patients undergoing RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with primary or metastatic brain tumors were randomly assigned to receive d-MPH or placebo. The starting dose of d-MPH was 5 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) and was escalated by 5 mg b.i.d. to a maximum of 15 mg b.i.d. The placebo was administered as one pill b.i.d. escalating three pills b.i.d. The primary outcome was fatigue. Patients were assessed at baseline, the end of radiation therapy, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after brain RT using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with brain and fatigue (FACIT-F) subscales, as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale and Mini-Mental Status Exam. Results: The Mean Fatigue Subscale Score at baseline was 34.7 for the d-MPH arm and 33.3 for the placebo arm (p = 0.61). At 8 weeks after the completion of brain RT, there was no difference in fatigue between patient groups. The adjusted least squares estimate of the Mean Fatigue Subscale Score was 33.7 for the d-MPH and 35.6 for the placebo arm (p = 0.64). Secondary outcomes were not different between the two treatment arms. Conclusions: Prophylactic use of d-MPH in brain tumor patients undergoing RT did not result in an improvement in QOL

  17. [Placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yuval; Davidson, Michael; Bleich, Avi

    2004-03-01

    Clinical trials involving human subjects give rise to ethical and medico-legal dilemmas. Essential research of new drugs may potentially expose patients to ineffective medications or to placebo. The complexity of the problem increases when dealing with mentally ill patients, for whom, on the one hand there is no known cure for their disease, and on the other hand, it is sometimes questionable whether or not they are able to provide informed consent to participate in clinical trials. The Israel Psychiatric Association decided to develop a position paper on the subject of placebo-controlled clinical trials in schizophrenia patients. Discussion groups were established, and the available material in the professional literature was examined, with an emphasis on recent developments. The Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments were analyzed, and experts in the field were consulted. Clinical drug trials for development of new medications are essential in all fields of medicine, especially in psychiatry. The requirement for a placebo arm in pharmaceutical trials presents ethical and clinical dilemmas that are especially complicated with regard to mentally ill persons whose free choice and ability to provide informed consent may be questionable. However, we do not believe that this predicament justifies unconditional rejection of placebo use in psychiatry, when it may provide substantial benefit for some patients. Simultaneously, it is our duty to provide stringent restrictions that will enable strict supervision over the scientific, clinical and ethical aspects of the trials. We propose the following criteria for approval of pharmaceutical trials that include a placebo arm: scientific justification; clinical and ethical justification; provision of informed consent; recruitment of patients hospitalized voluntarily; prevention of harm; administration of additional potential therapeutic interventions; benefit to patients participating in the study; control and follow

  18. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  19. Twelve-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative phase II/III study of benzoyl peroxide gel in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-07-01

    A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. PISA. The effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen and ibuprofen on body temperature in acute stroke: Protocol for a phase II double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN98608690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappelle Jaap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the first days after stroke, one to two fifths of the patients develop fever or subfebrile temperatures. Body temperature is a strong prognostic factor after stroke. Pharmacological reduction of temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke may improve their functional outcome. Previously, we studied the effect of high dose (6 g daily and low dose (3 g daily paracetamol (acetaminophen in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of 75 patients with acute ischemic stroke. In the high-dose paracetamol group, mean body temperature at 12 and 24 hours after start of treatment was 0.4°C lower than in the placebo group. The effect of ibuprofen, another potent antipyretic drug, on body-core temperature in normothermic patients has not been studied. Aim The aim of the present trial is to study the effects of high-dose paracetamol and ibuprofen on body temperature in patients with acute ischaemic stroke, and to study the safety of these treatments. Design Seventy-five (3 × 25 patients with acute ischaemic stroke confined to the anterior circulation will be randomised to treatment with either: 400 mg ibuprofen, 1000 mg acetaminophen, or with placebo 6 times daily during 5 days. Body-temperatures will be measured with a rectal electronic thermometer at the start of treatment and after 24 hours. An infrared tympanic thermometer will be used to monitor body temperature at 2-hour intervals during the first 24 hours and at 12-hour intervals thereafter. The primary outcome measure will be rectal temperature at 24 hours after the start of treatment. The study results will be analysed on an intent-to-treat basis, but an on-treatment analysis will also be performed. No formal interim analysis will be carried out.

  1. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-control study comparing the additive effect of oral midazolam and clonidine for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystecomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV continues to be a major challenge in perioperative care in spite of introduction of newer antiemetics with better efficacy and safety profiles. Therefore, we evaluated the additive effect of oral midazolam and clonidine for PONV prophylaxis in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized fashion, 120 selected cases were randomized into three groups: I, II or III to receive a tablet of midazolam (15 mg, n = 36, clonidine (150 mcg, n = 40, or glucose as placebo (5 g, n = 44 orally, 1 h before anesthesia. Occurrence of PONV along with need for rescue antiemetic during the first postoperative day was compared between groups as a primary outcome. Results: Episodes of PONV reduced significantly in Group II (15% as compared to group I and III (22.2%, 59% at various time points during the period of observation (P = 0.002. Need for rescue antiemetic was significantly lower in group I (13.88% and II (5% as compared to group III (52.27%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral clonidine is better adjuvant for PONV prophylaxis, as compared to midazolam, in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  2. The predictive value of transthoracic echocardiographic variables for sinus rhythm maintenance after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Results from the CAPRAF study, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundvold, Irene; Tveit, Arnljot; Smith, Pål; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Abdelnoor, Michael; Arnesen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation after electrical cardioversion is disappointingly high. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate if standard echocardiographic variables at the day of cardioversion could predict sinus rhythm maintenance. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed within 4 h after cardioversion for all the patients in the CAPRAF (Candesartan in the Prevention of Relapsing Atrial Fibrillation) study. Cardioversion was successful for 137 patients not given specific antiarrhythmic therapy, and only 41 (30%) maintained sinus rhythm at 6-month follow-up. There were significant (p = 0.05) lower transmitral A wave velocities in the group with relapsing atrial fibrillation compared with the group with sinus rhythm at 6-month follow-up. All patients with the lowest A wave velocities had an early recurrence of atrial fibrillation. There were no differences between the groups regarding atrial dimensions or left ventricular function. The use of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist candesartan had no influence on the echocardiographic variables, nor on the recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination performed a short time after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation showed that only A wave peak velocities were significantly predictive of sinus rhythm maintenance 6 months after the procedure. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments: a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaçi, Diamant; Simpson, Eric L; Beck, Lisa A; Bieber, Thomas; Blauvelt, Andrew; Papp, Kim; Soong, Weily; Worm, Margitta; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Sofen, Howard; Kawashima, Makoto; Wu, Richard; Weinstein, Steven P; Graham, Neil M H; Pirozzi, Gianluca; Teper, Ariel; Sutherland, E Rand; Mastey, Vera; Stahl, Neil; Yancopoulos, George D; Ardeleanu, Marius

    2016-01-02

    Data from early-stage studies suggested that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are requisite drivers of atopic dermatitis, evidenced by marked improvement after treatment with dupilumab, a fully-human monoclonal antibody that blocks both pathways. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of several dose regimens of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had an Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score of 12 or higher at screening (≥16 at baseline) and inadequate response to topical treatments from 91 study centres, including hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions, in Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Poland, and the USA. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1), stratified by severity (moderate or severe, as assessed by Investigator's Global Assessment) and region (Japan vs rest of world) to receive subcutaneous dupilumab: 300 mg once a week, 300 mg every 2 weeks, 200 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 4 weeks, 100 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo once a week for 16 weeks. We used a central randomisation scheme, provided by an interactive voice response system. Drug kits were coded, providing masking to treatment assignment, and allocation was concealed. Patients on treatment every 2 weeks and every 4 weeks received volume-matched placebo every week when dupilumab was not given to ensure double blinding. The primary outcome was efficacy of dupilumab dose regimens based on EASI score least-squares mean percentage change (SE) from baseline to week 16. Analyses included all randomly assigned patients who received one or more doses of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01859988. Between May 15, 2013, and Jan 27, 2014, 452 patients were assessed for eligibility, and 380 patients were randomly assigned. 379 patients received one or more

  4. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of adjunctive quetiapine SR in the treatment of PMS/PMDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Pearson, Brenda; Girdler, Susan; Johnson, Jacqueline; Hamer, Robert M; Killenberg, Susan; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2015-11-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), afflicts 5-8% of reproductive age women and results in significant functional impairment. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive quetiapine in patients with PMS/PMDD who had inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor therapy for their symptoms. A PMS/PMDD diagnosis was confirmed by 2-month prospective diagnostic assessment of PMS/PMDD using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Premenstrual Symptoms (PRISM) calendar. Women were randomized equally to receive quetiapine sustained-release (SR) or placebo (25-mg starting dose) during the luteal phase for 3 months. Outcome variables included the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, Clinical Global Impression Scale, and PRISM. Twenty women were enrolled in the treatment phase. Although the study was underpowered, greater reductions in luteal phase mood ratings were observed in the quetiapine group on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression improvement rating, and PRISM daily score. The quetiapine group showed most improvement in symptoms of mood lability, anxiety, and irritability. This small double-blind study suggests that adjunctive treatment with quetiapine SR may be a useful addition to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy in women with PMS/PMDD by reducing symptoms and improving quality of life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. BP-C1 in the treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study and an additional open-label treatment phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stig Larsen,1 Kritiya Butthongkomvong,2 Alexey Manikhas,3 Ekaterina Trishkina,4 Elena Poddubuskaya,5 Marina Matrosova,6 Vichien Srimuninnimit,7 Steen Lindkær-Jensen81Department of Controlled Clinical Trials and Biostatistics, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Life Science, Oslo, Norway; 2Udonthani Cancer Hospital, Udonthani, Thailand; 3Department of Oncology, City Clinical Oncology, Dispensary, St Petersburg, Russia; 4Department of Oncology, Leningrad Regional Oncology Centre, St Petersburg, Russia; 5Department of Oncology, Unit of Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia; 6Department of Oncology, N Novgorod Regional Oncology Dispensary, Novgorod, Russia; 7Division of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 8Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The aims were to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new benzene-poly-carboxylic acids complex with cis-diammineplatinum (II dichloride (BP-C1 versus placebo and to investigate the long-term tolerability of BP-C1 in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.Material and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study was performed with a semi-crossover design. Patients allocated to placebo switched to BP-C1 after 32 days of treatment. Patients who completed 32 days of BP-C1 treatment were offered the opportunity to continue on BP-C1 for an additional 32 days in an open-label extension. Patients were then followed up for another 28 days. Thirty patients were given daily intramuscular injections of 0.035 mg/kg of body weight BP-C1 or placebo for 32 days. Biochemistry, hematology, National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-NCI, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire (QOL-C30 and the breast-cancer–specific BR23 data were recorded at

  6. Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, James F.; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki; Benatar, Michael; Murai, Hiroyuki; Barohn, Richard J.; Illa, Isabel; Jacob, Saiju; Vissing, John; Burns, Ted M.; Kissel, John T.; Muppidi, Srikanth; Nowak, Richard J.; O'Brien, Fanny; Wang, Jing-Jing; Mantegazza, Renato; Mazia, Claudio Gabriel; Wilken, Miguel; Ortea, Carolina; Saba, Juliet; Rugiero, Marcelo; Bettini, Mariela; Vidal, Gonzalo; Garcia, Alejandra Dalila; Lamont, Phillipa; Leong, Wai-Kuen; Boterhoven, Heidi; Fyfe, Beverly; Roberts, Leslie; Jasinarachchi, Mahi; Willlems, Natasha; Wanschitz, Julia; Löscher, Wolfgang; de Bleecker, Jan; van den Abeele, Guy; de Koning, Kathy; de Mey, Katrien; Mercelis, Rudy; Wagemaekers, Linda; Mahieu, Delphine; van Damme, Philip; Smetcoren, Charlotte; Stevens, Olivier; Verjans, Sarah; D'Hondt, Ann; Tilkin, Petra; Alves de Siqueira Carvalho, Alzira; Hasan, Rosa; Dias Brockhausen, Igor; Feder, David; van der Kooi, Anneke

    2017-01-01

    Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with

  7. Efficacy of vildagliptin for prevention of postpartum diabetes in women with a recent history of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hummel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Women with insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at high risk of developing diabetes within a few years postpartum. We implemented this phase II study to test the hypothesis that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is superior to placebo in terms of reducing the risk of postpartum diabetes. Methods: Women with insulin-requiring GDM were randomized to either placebo or 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily for 24 months followed by a 12-month observation period (EudraCT: 2007-000634-39. Both groups received lifestyle counseling. The primary efficacy outcomes were the diagnosis of diabetes (American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria or impaired fasting glucose (IFG/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Results: Between 2008 and 2015, 113 patients (58 vildagliptin, 55 placebo were randomized within 2.2–10.4 (median 8.6 months after delivery. At the interim analysis, nine diabetic events and 28 IFG/IGT events had occurred. Fifty-two women withdrew before completing the treatment phase. Because of the low diabetes rate, the study was terminated. Lifestyle adherence was similar in both groups. At 24 months, the cumulative probability of postpartum diabetes was 3% and 5% (hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.15–7.36 and IFG/IGT was 43% and 22% (hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.26–1.19 in the placebo and vildagliptin groups, respectively. Vildagliptin was well tolerated with no unexpected adverse events. Conclusions: The study did not show significant superiority of vildagliptin over placebo in terms of reducing the risk of postpartum diabetes. However, treatment was safe and suggested some improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and β-cell function. The study identified critical issues in performing clinical trials in the early postpartum period in women with GDM hampering efficacy assessments. With this knowledge, we have set a basis for which properly powered trials could

  8. A combination of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol to test the effectiveness and safety in the fragile X syndrome: study protocol for a phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sánchez-Salido, Lourdes; García-Guirado, Francisco; del Arco-Herrera, Ignacio; Fernández-Carvajal, Isabel; Ferrando-Lucas, Teresa; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; Pérez-Costillas, Lucia

    2014-09-03

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental condition characterised by behavioural, learning disabilities, physical and neurological symptoms. In addition, an important degree of comorbidity with autism is also present. Considered a rare disorder affecting both genders, it first becomes apparent during childhood with displays of language delay and behavioural symptoms.Main aim: To show whether the combination of 10 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 10 mg/kg/day of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) reduces FXS symptoms among male patients ages 6 to 18 years compared to placebo treatment, as measured on the standardized rating scales at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment.Secondary aims: To assess the safety of the treatment. To describe behavioural and cognitive changes revealed by the Developmental Behaviour Checklist Short Form (DBC-P24) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. To describe metabolic changes revealed by blood analysis. To measure treatment impact at home and in an academic environment. A phase II randomized, double-blind pilot clinical trial. male children and adolescents diagnosed with FXS, in accordance with a standardized molecular biology test, who met all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria. clinical data, blood analysis, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Conners parent and teacher rating scale scores and the DBC-P24 results will be obtained at the baseline (t0). Follow up examinations will take place at 12 weeks (t1) and 24 weeks (t2) of treatment. A limited number of clinical trials have been carried out on children with FXS, but more are necessary as current treatment possibilities are insufficient and often provoke side effects. In the present study, we sought to overcome possible methodological problems by conducting a phase II pilot study in order to calculate the relevant statistical parameters and determine the safety of the proposed treatment. The

  9. Efficacy of vildagliptin for prevention of postpartum diabetes in women with a recent history of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Sandra; Beyerlein, Andreas; Pfirrmann, Markus; Hofelich, Anna; Much, Daniela; Hivner, Susanne; Bunk, Melanie; Herbst, Melanie; Peplow, Claudia; Walter, Markus; Kohn, Denise; Hummel, Nadine; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Hummel, Michael; Füchtenbusch, Martin; Hasford, Joerg; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2018-03-01

    Women with insulin-requiring gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes within a few years postpartum. We implemented this phase II study to test the hypothesis that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is superior to placebo in terms of reducing the risk of postpartum diabetes. Women with insulin-requiring GDM were randomized to either placebo or 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily for 24 months followed by a 12-month observation period (EudraCT: 2007-000634-39). Both groups received lifestyle counseling. The primary efficacy outcomes were the diagnosis of diabetes (American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Between 2008 and 2015, 113 patients (58 vildagliptin, 55 placebo) were randomized within 2.2-10.4 (median 8.6) months after delivery. At the interim analysis, nine diabetic events and 28 IFG/IGT events had occurred. Fifty-two women withdrew before completing the treatment phase. Because of the low diabetes rate, the study was terminated. Lifestyle adherence was similar in both groups. At 24 months, the cumulative probability of postpartum diabetes was 3% and 5% (hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.15-7.36) and IFG/IGT was 43% and 22% (hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.26-1.19) in the placebo and vildagliptin groups, respectively. Vildagliptin was well tolerated with no unexpected adverse events. The study did not show significant superiority of vildagliptin over placebo in terms of reducing the risk of postpartum diabetes. However, treatment was safe and suggested some improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and β-cell function. The study identified critical issues in performing clinical trials in the early postpartum period in women with GDM hampering efficacy assessments. With this knowledge, we have set a basis for which properly powered trials could be performed in women with recent GDM. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  10. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in further studies

  11. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive rasagiline in Japanese Parkinson's disease patients with wearing-off phenomena: A phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Nobutaka; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shinichi; Nishimura, Akira; Kato, Masafumi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Nagai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2018-04-27

    Rasagiline, a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is in development in Japan as adjunctive therapy to levodopa. This Phase 2/3 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of adjunctive rasagiline in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and wearing-off phenomena. Patients aged 30-79 years with diagnosed PD and stable levodopa use were randomized 1:1:1 to rasagiline (0.5/1 mg/day) or placebo for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean daily OFF-time during the treatment period. In total, 141, 134, and 129 patients were randomized to placebo, rasagiline 0.5 mg, or rasagiline 1 mg, respectively. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. Least squares (LS) mean differences vs. placebo for change from baseline in mean daily OFF-time were -0.84 h (rasagiline 1 mg/day) and -0.60 h (rasagiline 0.5 mg/day); both differences were statistically significant. LS mean differences vs. placebo for change from baseline in Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part II and Part III total scores (in ON-state) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 Summary Index Score were: -1.27, -1.74, and -2.51 (0.5 mg/day) and -1.27, -2.14, and -3.84 (1 mg/day); all statistically significant. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 50.4/69.9/73.6% of the placebo, 0.5 mg/day, and 1 mg/day groups, respectively (most common TEAEs were nasopharyngitis [9.2/18.0/14.7%] and dyskinesia [7.1/8.3/16.3%]). As an adjunct to levodopa, rasagiline reduced OFF-time and improved PD symptoms/signs (MDS-UPDRS scores) and quality of life in Japanese patients with PD and wearing-off phenomena. No important safety concerns were raised. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Morgia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. Material and methods: From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A or treatment (Group B. Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95% and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month. Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT. Results: A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01, IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01, PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01, peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01 and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01 with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant. Conclusions: In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of

  13. Retrospective quality control review of FDG scans in the imaging sub-study of PALETTE EORTC 62072/VEG110727: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristova, Ivalina [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters, Brussels (Belgium); Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [Maastricht University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Marreaud, Sandrine; Collette, Sandra [European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Headquarters, Brussels (Belgium); Schoeffski, Patrick [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of General Medical Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven (Belgium); Sanfilippo, Roberta [Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano (Italy); Dewji, Raz [GlaxoSmithKline, Oncology R and D, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Graaf, Winette van der [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    {sup 18}F-Labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can detect early changes in tumour metabolism and may be a useful quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) for prediction of disease stabilization, response and duration of progression-free survival (PFS). Standardization of imaging procedures is a prerequisite, especially in multicentre clinical trials. In this study we reviewed the quality of FDG scans and compliance with the imaging guideline (IG) in a phase III clinical trial. Forty-four cancer patients were enrolled in an imaging sub-study of a randomized international multicentre trial. FDG scan had to be performed at baseline and 10-14 days after treatment start. The image transmittal forms (ITFs) and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) [1] standard headers were analysed for compliance with the IG. Mean liver standardized uptake values (LSUV{sub mean}) were measured as recommended by positron emission tomography (PET) Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 (PERCIST) [2]. Of 88 scans, 81 were received (44 patients); 36 were properly anonymized; 77/81 serum glucose values submitted, all but one within the IG. In 35/44 patients both scans were of sufficient visual quality. In 22/70 ITFs the reported UT differed by >1 min from the DICOM headers (max. difference 1 h 4 min). Based on the DICOM, UT compliance for both scans was 31.4 %. LSUV{sub mean} was fairly constant for the 11 patients with UT compliance: 2.30 ± 0.33 at baseline and 2.27 ± 0.48 at follow-up (FU). Variability substantially increased for the subjects with unacceptable UT (11 patients): 2.27 ± 1.04 at baseline and 2.18 ± 0.83 at FU. The high attrition number of patients due to low compliance with the IG compromised the quantitative assessment of the predictive value for early response monitoring. This emphasizes the need for better regulated procedures in imaging departments, which may be achieved by education of involved personnel or efforts towards regulations. LSUV{sub mean} could be

  14. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study of the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of volixibat in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy adults: implications for treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Melissa; Jennings, Lee; Silberg, Debra G; Bliss, Caleb; Martin, Patrick

    2018-03-16

    mmol/L (- 3.341 to 0.570), respectively. This study indicates that maximal inhibition of bile acid reabsorption, as assessed by FBA excretion, occurs at volixibat doses of ≥20 mg/day in obese and overweight adults, without appreciable change in gastrointestinal tolerability. These findings guided dose selection for an ongoing phase 2 study in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287779 (registration first received 6 November 2014).

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hay, Christine M; Stapleton, Jack T; Marbury, Thomas C; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; Röesch, Siegfried; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P; Schmidt, Darja; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56-80 years old population. MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for Group

  16. Improvements in productivity at paid work and within the household, and increased participation in daily activities after 24 weeks of certolizumab pegol treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis: results of a phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, A; Gladman, D; van der Heijde, D; Purcaru, O; Mease, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of certolizumab pegol (CZP) on productivity outside and within the home, and on participation in family, social and leisure activities in adult patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788) is a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 409 patients with active PsA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). The arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) assessed the impact of PsA on paid work and household productivity, and participation in social activities during the preceding month. WPS responses were compared between treatment arms using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results At baseline, 56.6%, 60.1% and 61.5% of placebo, CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W patients were employed. By week 24, employed CZP patients reported an average of 1.0–1.8 and 3.0–3.9 fewer days of absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively, per month compared with 1.0 and 0.3 fewer days for placebo patients (pproductivity or days lost for participation in family, social and leisure activities. Improvements with CZP were seen as early as week 4 and continued to week 24. Conclusions CZP treatment significantly improved productivity at paid work and within the home, and resulted in greater participation in social activities for PsA patients. Trial registration number NCT01087788. PMID:24942382

  17. A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Electroporated HIV DNA with or without Interleukin 12 in Prime-Boost Combinations with an Ad35 HIV Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Seronegative African Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Mpendo

    Full Text Available Strategies to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans include i co-administration of molecular adjuvants, ii intramuscular administration followed by in vivo electroporation (IM/EP and/or iii boosting with a different vaccine. Combining these strategies provided protection of macaques challenged with SIV; this clinical trial was designed to mimic the vaccine regimen in the SIV study.Seventy five healthy, HIV-seronegative adults were enrolled into a phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Multi-antigenic HIV (HIVMAG plasmid DNA (pDNA vaccine alone or co-administered with pDNA encoding human Interleukin 12 (IL-12 (GENEVAX IL-12 given by IM/EP using the TriGrid Delivery System was tested in different prime-boost regimens with recombinant Ad35 HIV vaccine given IM.All local reactions but one were mild or moderate. Systemic reactions and unsolicited adverse events including laboratory abnormalities did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. No serious adverse events (SAEs were reported. T cell and antibody response rates after HIVMAG (x3 prime-Ad35 (x1 boost were independent of IL-12, while the magnitude of interferon gamma (IFN-γ ELISPOT responses was highest after HIVMAG (x3 without IL-12. The quality and phenotype of T cell responses shown by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS were similar between groups. Inhibition of HIV replication by autologous T cells was demonstrated after HIVMAG (x3 prime and was boosted after Ad35. HIV specific antibodies were detected only after Ad35 boost, although there was a priming effect with 3 doses of HIVMAG with or without IL-12. No anti-IL-12 antibodies were detected.The vaccines were safe, well tolerated and moderately immunogenic. Repeated administration IM/EP was well accepted. An adjuvant effect of co-administered plasmid IL-12 was not detected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496989.

  18. A Phase I Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Adjuvanted HIV-1 Gag-Pol-Nef Fusion Protein and Adenovirus 35 Gag-RT-Int-Nef Vaccine in Healthy HIV-Uninfected African Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi

    Full Text Available Sequential prime-boost or co-administration of HIV vaccine candidates based on an adjuvanted clade B p24, RT, Nef, p17 fusion protein (F4/AS01 plus a non-replicating adenovirus 35 expressing clade A Gag, RT, Int and Nef (Ad35-GRIN may lead to a unique immune profile, inducing both strong T-cell and antibody responses.In a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 146 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to one of four regimens: heterologous prime-boost with two doses of F4/AS01E or F4/AS01B followed by Ad35-GRIN; Ad35-GRIN followed by two doses of F4/AS01B; or three co-administrations of Ad35-GRIN and F4/AS01B. T cell and antibody responses were measured.The vaccines were generally well-tolerated, and did not cause serious adverse events. The response rate, by IFN-γ ELISPOT, was greater when Ad35-GRIN was the priming vaccine and in the co-administration groups. F4/AS01 induced CD4+ T-cells expressing primarily CD40L and IL2 +/- TNF-α, while Ad35-GRIN induced predominantly CD8+ T-cells expressing IFN-γ +/- IL2 or TNF-α. Viral inhibition was induced after Ad35-GRIN vaccination, regardless of the regimen. Strong F4-specific antibody responses were induced. Immune responses persisted at least a year after the last vaccination. The complementary response profiles, characteristic of each vaccine, were both expressed after co-administration.Co-administration of an adjuvanted protein and an adenovirus vector showed an acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile and resulted in strong, multifunctional and complementary HIV-specific immune responses.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264445.

  19. Subsurface Prospecting by Planetary Drones, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program innovates subsurface prospecting by planetary drones to seek a solution to the difficulty of robotic prospecting, sample acquisition, and sample...

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and oral...

  1. Use of ChAd3-EBO-Z Ebola virus vaccine in Malian and US adults, and boosting of Malian adults with MVA-BN-Filo: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial, a phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial, and a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Lyke, Kirsten E; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Traore, Awa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Kodio, Mamoudou; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Sztein, Marcelo B; Wahid, Rezwanul; Campbell, James D; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Moorthy, Vasee; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Rampling, Tommy; Roman, Francois; De Ryck, Iris; Bellamy, Abbie R; Dally, Len; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Ploquin, Aurélie; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Bailer, Robert; Koup, Richard A; Roederer, Mario; Ledgerwood, Julie; Hill, Adrian V S; Ballou, W Ripley; Sullivan, Nancy; Graham, Barney; Levine, Myron M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 west African Zaire Ebola virus epidemic prompted worldwide partners to accelerate clinical development of replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vector vaccine expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (ChAd3-EBO-Z). We aimed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Malian and US adults, and assess the effect of boosting of Malians with modified vaccinia Ankara expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein and other filovirus antigens (MVA-BN-Filo). In the phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in the USA, we recruited adults aged 18-65 years from the University of Maryland medical community and the Baltimore community. In the phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial of ChAd3-EBO-Z in Mali, we recruited adults 18-50 years of age from six hospitals and health centres in Bamako (Mali), some of whom were also eligible for a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MVA-BN-Filo. For randomised segments of the Malian trial and for the US trial, we randomly allocated participants (1:1; block size of six [Malian] or four [US]; ARB produced computer-generated randomisation lists; clinical staff did randomisation) to different single doses of intramuscular immunisation with ChAd3-EBO-Z: Malians received 1 × 10(10) viral particle units (pu), 2·5 × 10(10) pu, 5 × 10(10) pu, or 1 × 10(11) pu; US participants received 1 × 10(10) pu or 1 × 10(11) pu. We randomly allocated Malians in the nested trial (1:1) to receive a single dose of 2 × 10(8) plaque-forming units of MVA-BN-Filo or saline placebo. In the double-blind segments of the Malian trial, investigators, clinical staff, participants, and immunology laboratory staff were masked, but the study pharmacist (MK), vaccine administrator, and study statistician (ARB) were unmasked. In the US trial, investigators were not masked, but participants were. Analyses were per protocol. The primary outcome was safety, measured

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reither

    Full Text Available Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1 formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults.HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5:1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay.47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.015. Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-α and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells.H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR PACTR201105000289276.

  3. Double-blind, placebo controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Vestergaard, H.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  4. A randomized placebo-controlled study of noninvasive cortical electrostimulation in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Jeffrey B; Bennett, Robert M; Simons, David G; Smith, Susan J; Nagpal, Sunil; Deering, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of noninvasive cortical electrostimulation in the management of fibromyalgia (FM). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Setting.  Subjects received therapy at two different outpatient clinical locations. There were 77 subjects meeting the American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria for FM. Intervention.  Thirty-nine (39) active treatment (AT) FM patients and 38 placebo controls received 22 applications of either noninvasive cortical electrostimulation or a sham therapy over an 11-week period. The primary outcome measures were the number of tender points (TePs) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). Secondary outcome measures were responses to the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a novel sleep questionnaire, all evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment. Intervention provided significant improvements in TeP measures: compared with placebo, the AT patients improved in the number of positive TePs (-7.4 vs -0.2, PFIQ score (-15.5 vs -5.6, P=0.03), FIQ pain (-2.0 vs -0.6, P=0.03), FIQ fatigue (-2.0 vs -0.4, P=0.02), and FIQ refreshing sleep (-2.1 vs -0.7, P=0.02); and while FIQ function improved (-1.0 vs -0.2), the between-group change had a 14% likelihood of occurring due to chance (P=0.14). There were no significant side effects observed. Noninvasive cortical electrostimulation in FM patients provided modest improvements in pain, TeP measures, fatigue, and sleep; and the treatment was well tolerated. This form of therapy could potentially provide worthwhile adjunctive symptom relief for FM patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lactobacillus reuteri strain combination in Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Demichina, Antonella; Maurogiovanni, Giovanni; Principi, Beatrice; Scaccianoce, Giuseppe; Ierardi, Enzo; Russo, Francesco; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Alfredo; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Antonio; Versalovic, James

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the role of a new probiotic preparation (Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475) in Helicobacter pylori infection. Specific probiotic strains play a role in H. pylori infection for their ability to decrease bacterial load and gastritis, prevent antibiotic-associated side effects, and increase the eradication rate. This is a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in a tertiary care setting. A total of 100 H. pylori-positive naive patients received either L. reuteri combination (2×10 Colony Forming Units) or placebo during a 3-phase study (pre-eradication, eradication, and follow-up). All underwent C urea breath test (C-UBT), blood assessments of gastrin-17 (G17), endoscopy, and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Eradication was confirmed by C-UBT 8 weeks after the completion of therapy. Fifty patients were allocated in each group. During pre-eradication period, C-UBT δ decreased by 13% in L. reuteri combination as compared with a 4% increase in placebo (-13.2±34% vs. 4.3±27%; Preuteri combination (6.8±2.9 vs. 4±3.1; Preuteri combination as compared with placebo-reported side effects (40.9% vs. 62.8%; Preuteri combination (28% vs. 12%; Preuteri combination and 65.9% in placebo (P=NS). L. reuteri combination increased eradication rate by 9.1% (odds ratio: 1.5). L. reuteri combination alone is able to exert an inhibitory effect on H. pylori growth, and when administered with eradication therapy, it determines a significant reduction in antibiotic-associated side effects. Moreover, L. reuteri combination was able to decrease serum G17 levels and to (not significantly) increase the H. pylori-eradication rate.

  6. NILVAD protocol: a European multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of nilvadipine in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawlor, B.; Kennelly, S.; O'Dwyer, S.; Cregg, F.; Walsh, C.; Coen, R.; Kenny, R.A.; Howard, R.; Murphy, C.; Adams, J.; Daly, L.; Segurado, R.; Gaynor, S.; Crawford, F.; Mullan, M.; Lucca, U.; Banzi, R.; Pasquier, F.; Breuilh, L.; Riepe, M.; Kalman, J.; Wallin, A.; Borjesson, A.; Molloy, W.; Tsolaki, M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study is a European multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy and safety of nilvadipine as a disease course modifying treatment for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a phase III study that will run for a period of 82

  7. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of adalimumab in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I; Lynggaard, C D; Lophaven, S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled,......BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo......-controlled, two-centre clinical trial conducted in Denmark. Inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe HS defined as Hurley stage II or III for at least 6 months. The patients were randomized 1:2 (placebo/active). Actively treated patients received adalimumab 80 mg...... subcutaneously (s.c.) at baseline followed by 40 mg s.c. every other week for 12 weeks. Placebo-treated patients received identical-looking injections with no active ingredient. The medicine was dispensed in sequentially numbered computer-randomized containers. Participants, care givers and those assessing...

  8. Lycopene in the management of oral lichen planus: A placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisheeth Saawarn

    2011-01-01

    Settings and Design: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done in the Oral Medicine Department of a postgraduate teaching dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: Thirty symptomatic OLP patients, randomly divided into two groups of 15 each, were administered lycopene 8 mg/day and an identical placebo, respectively, for 8 consecutive weeks. Burning sensation using visual analogue scale and overall treatment response using Tel Aviv-San Francisco scale were recorded at every visit. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon Rank test, Mann-Whitney and Fischer′s Exact test. Results: A higher (84% reduction in burning sensation was seen in lycopene than in the placebo group (67%. All 15 (100% patients in the lycopene group showed 50% or more benefit and 11 (73.3% patients showed 70-100% benefit, while this number was only 10 and 4 (26.7%, respectively, in the placebo group. Conclusion: Lycopene was very effective in the management of OLP, and oxidative stress may have a role in disease pathogenesis.

  9. Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in dog with chronic enteropathies: double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Simona; Fracassi, Federico; Bresciani, Francesca; Galuppi, Roberta; Diana, Alessia; Linta, Nikolina; Bettini, Giuliano; Morini, Maria; Pietra, Marco

    2018-03-03

    Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat acute and chronic enteropathies in humans, but to date, no studies have evaluated the use of this yeast in dogs. The current study, a prospective non-randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, evaluated the effects of S boulardii in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE). Four healthy dogs and 20 dogs with CE were included. In healthy dogs, S boulardii was administered for 10 days. Possible short-term adverse effects were recorded, and quantitative stool cultures for yeasts were performed. In dogs with CE, S boulardii or a placebo was administered in addition to standard treatment protocols. Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index, abdominal ultrasonography, gastroenteroscopy and histology were performed at the time of diagnosis and after 60 days of treatment. In healthy dogs, S boulardii reached a steady state in five days and was completely eliminated on day 4 after administration. No short-term side effects were seen. Clinical activity index, stool frequency, stool consistency and body condition score improved significantly in dogs with CE receiving S boulardii versus the placebo. In conclusion, S boulardii can be safely used in dogs with CE and seems to achieve better control of clinical signs than standard therapy alone. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Electric field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for chronic tinnitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Paavola, Janika; Taiminen, Tero; Sjösten, Noora; Salonen, Jaakko; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may alleviate tinnitus. We evaluated effects of electric field (E-field) navigated rTMS targeted according to tinnitus pitch. No controlled studies have investigated anatomically accurate E-field-rTMS for tinnitus. Effects of E-field-rTMS were evaluated in a prospective randomised placebo-controlled 6-month follow-up study on parallel groups. Patients received 10 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS or placebo targeted to the left auditory cortex corresponding to tonotopic representation of tinnitus pitch. Effects were evaluated immediately after treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months. Primary outcome measures were visual analogue scores (VAS 0-100) for tinnitus intensity, annoyance and distress, and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Thirty-nine patients (mean age 50.3 years). The mean tinnitus intensity (F 3  = 15.7, p tinnitus, differences between active and placebo groups remained non-significant, due to large placebo-effect and wide inter-individual variation.

  11. Comparison of Levetiracetam and sodium Valproate in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sadeghian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic and disabling disorder. Treatment of migraine often comprises of symptomatic (abortive and preventive (prophylactic treatment. The current drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include antidepressant drugs (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants, and anti-epileptic drugs (valproate, gabapentin, etc. Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in adult migraine prophylaxis, compared to valproate and placebo. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 85 patients were randomized to receive levetiracetam 500 mg/d (n = 27, valproate 500 mg/d (n = 32 or placebo (n = 26. The patients were evaluated for treatment efficacy after 6 months. Efficacy was assessed as a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency. Results: In levetiracetam group, 17 (63.0% patients experienced a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency, while this efficacy number was 21 (65.6% for valproate group and 4 (15.4% for placebo group. The difference was not statistically significant between levetiracetam and valproate, while it was significant when comparing either levetiracetam or valproate to placebo. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, levetiracetam offers improvement in headache frequency in patients with migraine. The efficacy of levetiracetam in migraine prophylaxis is comparable to currently used drugs such as valproate.

  12. Clinical and Microbiological Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Celiac Patients With Persistent IBS-type Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, Ruggiero; Piccolo, Maria; Francavilla, Antonio; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Semeraro, Francesco; Cristofori, Fernanda; Castellaneta, Stefania; Barone, Michele; Indrio, Flavia; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2018-04-23

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a probiotic mixture in patients with celiac disease (CD) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). About 30% of patients with CD adherent to a GFD suffer from IBS-type symptoms; a possible cause resides in the imbalances of the intestinal microbiota in CD. Probiotics may represent a potential treatment. CD patients with IBS-type symptoms entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. A 6-week treatment period was preceded by a 2-week run-in and followed by a 6-week follow-up phase. Clinical data were monitored throughout the study by validated questionnaires: IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS); Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS); and IBS Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL). The fecal microbiota were assayed using plate counts and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. In total, 109 patients were randomized to probiotics (n=54) or placebo (n=55). IBS-SSS and GSRS decreased significantly in probiotics, as compared with placebo [(-15.9%±14.8% vs. 8.2%±25.9%; Psymptoms, in CD patients on strict GFD, and is associated with a modification of gut microbiota, characterized by an increase of bifidobacteria.

  13. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and

  14. Lack of effect of intravenous immunoglobulins on tics : A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Minderaa, RB; Kallenberg, CGM

    Background: Case studies and a placebo-controlled study previously suggested the effectiveness of immunomodulatory therapy in patients with tic or related disorders whose symptoms show a relationship with streptococcal infections. No data are available on the effectiveness of intravenous

  15. The use of placebo control in clinical trials: An overview of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of placebo control in clinical trials: An overview of the ethical issues involved for the protection of human research participants. ... A placebo looks exactly like the experimental drugs in every respect both in appearance and wrappings ...

  16. Benfotiamine in diabetic polyneuropathy (BENDIP): results of a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, H; Gaus, W; Achenbach, U; Federlin, K; Bretzel, R G

    2008-11-01

    Efficacy and safety of benfotiamine in treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. Double blind, placebo-controlled, phase-III-study. 181 patients were screened. 165 patients with symmetrical, distal diabetic polyneuropathy were randomised to one of three treatment groups entering the wash-out phase and 133/124 patients were analysed in the ITT/PP analysis: Benfotiamine 600 mg per day (n=47/43), benfotiamine 300 mg per day (n=45/42) or placebo (n=41/39). After 6 weeks of treatment, the primary outcome parameter NSS (Neuropathy Symptom Score) differed significantly between the treatment groups (p=0.033) in the PP (per protocol) population. In the ITT (intention to treat) population, the improvement of NSS was slightly above significance (p=0.055). The TSS (Total Symptom Score) showed no significant differences after 6 weeks of treatment. The improvement was more pronounced at the higher benfotiamine dose and increased with treatment duration. In the TSS, best results were obtained for the symptom "pain". Treatment was well tolerated in all groups. Benfotiamine may extend the treatment option for patients with diabetic polyneuropathy based on causal influence on impaired glucose metabolism. Further studies should confirm the positive experiences.

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) as therapeutic option in supraspinatus tendon syndrome? One year results of a placebo controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Tosch, A; Hünerkopf, M; Haake, M

    2002-07-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is seen as a therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic supraspinatus tendinitis by some authors. To test whether ESWT comprising 3 x 2000 pulses with the positive energy flux density ED+ of 0.33 mJ/mm2 is clinically superior to a sham ESWT treatment, a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study with an independent observer was performed. Forty patients were treated either by verum ESWT or sham ESWT under local anesthesia. Target criteria were the age-corrected Constant score, pain at rest and during activity on a visual analogue scale, and subjective improvement. Patients who reported no subjective improvement after 12 weeks were deblinded and received verum ESWT if they had belonged to the placebo group (partial crossover). The results of the verum group lie within the range of results for ESWT published by other authors. Patients in the placebo group with local anesthetic showed equally good results. At 12 weeks, and 1 year after intervention, no difference could be found between the verum and placebo groups regarding Constant score, pain, shoulder function, or subjective improvement. The nonresponders to the placebo ESWT continued to show no improvement after receiving verum ESWT. This contradicts a specific ESWT effect. Based on the results of this placebo-controlled study, ESWT appears to have no clinically relevant effect on supraspinatus tendinitis. The study underlines the importance of a control group in evaluating new treatment methods for diseases with unknown natural history.

  18. Attitudes toward Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials of Patients with Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Sugawara

    Full Text Available Although the use of placebo in clinical trials of schizophrenia patients is controversial because of medical and ethical concerns, placebo-controlled clinical trials are commonly used in the licensing of new drugs.The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes toward placebo-controlled clinical trials among patients with schizophrenia in Japan.Using a cross-sectional design, we recruited patients (n = 251 aged 47.7±13.2 (mean±SD with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were admitted to six psychiatric hospitals from December 2013 to March 2014. We employed a 14-item questionnaire specifically developed to survey patients' attitudes toward placebo-controlled clinical trials.The results indicated that 33% of the patients would be willing to participate in a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Expectations for improvement of disease, a guarantee of hospital treatment continuation, and encouragement by family or friends were associated with the willingness to participate in such trials, whereas a belief of additional time required for medical examinations was associated with non-participation.Fewer than half of the respondents stated that they would be willing to participate in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Therefore, interpreting the results from placebo-controlled clinical trials could be negatively affected by selection bias.

  19. MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the treatment of patients with moderate rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase Ib/IIa randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Frank; Tak, Paul P; Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoilov, Rumen; Wiland, Piotr; Huizinga, Thomas W; Berenfus, Vadym Y; Vladeva, Stoyanka; Rech, Juergen; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Korkosz, Mariusz; Rekalov, Dmitriy; Zupanets, Igor A; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Geiseler, Jens; Fresenius, Julia; Korolkiewicz, Roman P; Schottelius, Arndt J; Burkhardt, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with active, moderate RA were enrolled in a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous MOR103 (0.3, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) once a week for 4 weeks, with follow-up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was safety. Results Of the 96 randomised and treated subjects, 85 completed the trial (n=27, 24, 22 and 23 for pooled placebo and MOR103 0.3, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively). Treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) in the MOR103 groups were mild or moderate in intensity and generally reported at frequencies similar to those in the placebo group. The most common AE was nasopharyngitis. In two cases, AEs were classified as serious because of hospitalisation: paronychia in a placebo subject and pleurisy in a MOR103 0.3 mg/kg subject. Both patients recovered fully. In exploratory efficacy analyses, subjects in the MOR103 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg groups showed significant improvements in Disease Activity Score-28 scores and joint counts and significantly higher European League Against Rheumatism response rates than subjects receiving placebo. MOR103 1.0 mg/kg was associated with the largest reductions in disease activity parameters. Conclusions MOR103 was well tolerated and showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients with active RA. The data support further investigation of this monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF in RA patients and potentially in those with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Trial registration number NCT01023256 PMID:24534756

  20. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled feasibility study evaluating individualized homeopathy in managing pain of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Ghosh, Shubhamoy

    2015-07-01

    Few homeopathic complexes seemed to produce significant effects in osteoarthritis; still, individualized homeopathy remained untested. We evaluated the feasibility of conducting an efficacy trial of individualized homeopathy in osteoarthritis. A prospective, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted from January to October 2014 involving 60 patients (homeopathy, n = 30; placebo, n = 30) who were suffering from acute painful episodes of knee osteoarthritis and visiting the outpatient clinic of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India. Statistically significant reduction was achieved in 3 visual analog scales (measuring pain, stiffness, and loss of function) and Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores in both groups over 2 weeks (P .05). Overall, homeopathy did not appear to be superior to placebo; still, further rigorous evaluation in this design involving a larger sample size seems feasible in future. Clinical Trials Registry, India (CTRI/2014/05/004589). © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Trial of early noninvasive ventilation for ALS: A pilot placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Teresa L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Migda, Erin M; Funckes, Timothy; Gruis, Kirsten L

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the use and tolerability of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) early in their disease by comparing active NIV and sham NIV in patients not yet eligible for NIV use as recommended by practice guidelines. This was a single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo (sham)-controlled pilot trial. Patients with ALS were randomized to receive either sham NIV or active NIV and underwent active surveillance approximately every 3 months until they reached a forced vital capacity (FVC) NIV for clinical symptom management. In total, 54 participants were randomized. The mean NIV use was 2.0 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.0) per day in the sham NIV treatment group and 3.3 hours (CI 2.0-4.6) per day in the active NIV group, which did not differ by treatment group (p = 0.347). The majority of sham NIV participants (88%) and active NIV participants (73%) reported only mild or no problem with NIV use. Difference of change in FVC through the treatment period by group (0.44 per month) favored active NIV (p = 0.049). Survival and changes in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressure did not differ between treatment groups. The efficacy of early NIV in ALS should be tested in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00580593). This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with ALS, adherence with NIV and sham NIV are similar. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of herbal therapy for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Sung, Rita Yn Tz; Leung, Ting Fan; Wong, Yeuk Oi; Li, Albert M C; Cheung, Kam Lau; Wong, Chun Kwok; Fok, Tai Fai; Leung, Ping Chung

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate whether the herbal formula of CUF2 used as complementary therapy improves the clinical symptoms and biochemical markers in children with asthma using inhaled corticosteroids. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective trial, 85 children with asthma aged 7-15 years were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral herbal formula of 0.619-g CUF2 capsule of dried aqueous extract with an equal weight of five herbs (Astragalus mongholius Bunge, Cordyceps sinensis Sacc., Radix stemonae, Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae, and Radix scutellariae) or placebo for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the change in steroids dosage; the secondary outcomes included the disease severity score, lung function test, and biochemical markers in blood. Eighty-five (85) children (42 on active treatment and 43 on placebo) completed the 6-month clinical trial. Children randomized to the herbal formula of CUF2 and the placebo showed a similar improvement in clinical symptoms and biomedical markers. The comparison between the CUF2 group and the placebo group showed no significant difference on the dosage of steroids (-2.3 versus -3.1 mg, p = 0.915), disease severity score (-2.3 versus -3.1, p = 0.215), and lung function test of forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity percent (0.1 versus 0.6%, p = 0.809) and peak expiratory flow rate (-7.3 versus -0.6 l/minutes, p = 0.118). No significant difference was found between the two study groups in the biochemical outcomes measured. The intervention effect of CUF2 was smaller than the placebo effect. This study provides no evidence to support the use of the herbal formula of CUF2 in children with asthma. Parents are thus advised to discuss with health professionals before choosing an herbal formula in preference to conventional treatment modes.

  3. Dronabinol and lofexidine for cannabis use disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Brooks, Daniel; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Dakwar, Elias; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Sullivan, Maria A; Choi, Jean C

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and, after alcohol, is the most common drug bringing adolescents and adults into treatment. At present, there are no FDA-approved medications for cannabis use disorder. Combined pharmacologic interventions might be particularly useful in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and promoting abstinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, and lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, in treating cannabis dependence. One hundred fifty six cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled and following a 1-week placebo lead-in phase 122 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial. Participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg three times a day and lofexidine 0.6 mg three times a day or placebo. Medications were maintained until the end of week eight, were then tapered over two weeks and patients were monitored off medications during the last study week. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow-back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 3 weeks of abstinence during the maintenance phase of the trial (27.9% for the medication group and 29.5% for the placebo group), although both groups showed a reduction over time. Based on this treatment study, the combined intervention did not show promise as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the treatment of patients with moderate rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase Ib/IIa randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Frank; Tak, Paul P; Østergaard, Mikkel; Stoilov, Rumen; Wiland, Piotr; Huizinga, Thomas W; Berenfus, Vadym Y; Vladeva, Stoyanka; Rech, Juergen; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Korkosz, Mariusz; Rekalov, Dmitriy; Zupanets, Igor A; Ejbjerg, Bo J; Geiseler, Jens; Fresenius, Julia; Korolkiewicz, Roman P; Schottelius, Arndt J; Burkhardt, Harald

    2015-06-01

    To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with active, moderate RA were enrolled in a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous MOR103 (0.3, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg) once a week for 4 weeks, with follow-up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome was safety. Of the 96 randomised and treated subjects, 85 completed the trial (n=27, 24, 22 and 23 for pooled placebo and MOR103 0.3, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively). Treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) in the MOR103 groups were mild or moderate in intensity and generally reported at frequencies similar to those in the placebo group. The most common AE was nasopharyngitis. In two cases, AEs were classified as serious because of hospitalisation: paronychia in a placebo subject and pleurisy in a MOR103 0.3 mg/kg subject. Both patients recovered fully. In exploratory efficacy analyses, subjects in the MOR103 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg groups showed significant improvements in Disease Activity Score-28 scores and joint counts and significantly higher European League Against Rheumatism response rates than subjects receiving placebo. MOR103 1.0 mg/kg was associated with the largest reductions in disease activity parameters. MOR103 was well tolerated and showed preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients with active RA. The data support further investigation of this monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF in RA patients and potentially in those with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. NCT01023256. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Does different information disclosure on placebo control affect blinding and trial outcomes? A case study of participant information leaflets of randomized placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cheon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes. Methods Authors of published randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture were identified from PubMed search and invited to provide PILs for their trials. The collected PILs were subjected to content analysis and categorized based on degree of information disclosure on placebo. Blinding index (BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding was calculated and its association with different information disclosure was examined. The impact of different information disclosure from PILs on primary outcomes was estimated using a random effects model. Results In 65 collected PILs, approximately 57% of trials fully informed the participants of placebo control, i.e. full disclosure, while the rest gave deceitful or no information on placebo, i.e. no disclosure. Placebo groups in the studies with no disclosure tended to make more opposite guesses on the type of received intervention than those with disclosure, which may reflect wishful thinking (BI −0.21 vs. −0.16; p = 0.38. In outcome analysis, studies with no disclosure significantly favored acupuncture than those with full disclosure (standardized mean difference − 0.43 vs. −0.12; p = 0.03, probably due to enhanced expectations. Conclusions How participants are told about placebos can be another potential factor that may influence participant blinding and study outcomes by possibly modulating patient expectation. As we

  6. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-01-01

    groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications...... with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). Results The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0–2), 0.5% (0–1%). We identified...

  7. Maintenance N-acetyl cysteine treatment for bipolar disorder: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berk Michael

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-acetyl cysteine (NAC is a glutathione precursor that has been shown to have antidepressant efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. The current study aimed to investigate the maintenance effects of NAC following eight weeks of open-label treatment for bipolar disorder. Method The efficacy of a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 g/day NAC as adjunct maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder was examined. Participants (n = 149 had a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Score of ≥12 at trial entry and, after eight weeks of open-label NAC treatment, were randomized to adjunctive NAC or placebo, in addition to treatment as usual. Participants (primarily outpatients were recruited through public and private services and through newspaper advertisements. Time to intervention for a mood episode was the primary endpoint of the study, and changes in mood symptoms, functionality and quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. Results There was a substantial decrease in symptoms during the eight-week open-label NAC treatment phase. During the subsequent double-blind phase, there was minimal further change in outcome measures with scores remaining low. Consequently, from this low plateau, between-group differences did not emerge on recurrence, clinical functioning or quality of life measures. Conclusions There were no significant between-group differences in recurrence or symptomatic outcomes during the maintenance phase of the trial; however, these findings may be confounded by limitations. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000074493.

  8. Specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of primary headache disorders in adolescents: a randomized attention-placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Lenzen, Christoph; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Resch, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache have a high prevalence in children and adolescents. In addition to common pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, music therapy has been shown to be efficient in the prophylaxis of pediatric migraine. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of adolescents with primary headache (tension-type headache and migraine). A prospective, randomized, attention-placebo-controlled parallel group trial was conducted. Following an 8-week baseline, patients were randomized to either music therapy (n = 40) or a rhythm pedagogic program (n = 38) designed as an "attention placebo" over 6 sessions within 8 weeks. Reduction of both headache frequency and intensity after treatment (8-week postline) as well as 6 months after treatment were taken as the efficacy variables. Treatments were delivered in equal dose and frequency by the same group of therapists. Data analysis of subjects completing the protocol showed that neither treatment was superior to the other at any point of measurement (posttreatment and follow-up). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no impact of drop-out on these results. Both groups showed a moderate mean reduction of headache frequency posttreatment of about 20%, but only small numbers of responders (50% frequency reduction). Follow-up data showed no significant deteriorations or improvements. This article presents a randomized placebo-controlled trial on music therapy in the treatment of adolescents with frequent primary headache. Music therapy is not superior to an attention placebo within this study. These results draw attention to the need of providing adequate controls within therapeutic trials in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An algorithm for evaluating the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdur, R J; Biddle, C J

    2001-10-20

    The purpose of this article is to clarify the decision points that are important to consider when evaluating the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial. The ethical requirements for research involving human subjects are reviewed, and the rationale for and potential problems with concomitant placebo control are explained. A series of case discussions are used to illustrate each decision point. The critical decision points in the evaluation of the ethics of a placebo-controlled trial are as follows: (i) Is placebo being used in place of standard therapy? (ii) Is standard therapy likely to be effective? (iii) Is the toxicity of standard therapy such that patients routinely refuse this treatment? (iv) Could the use of placebo result in severe suffering or irreversible harm? (v) Is the variability in the placebo response such that it is reasonable to consider other options for the control group? (vi) Would a reasonable person with an average degree of altruism and risk aversiveness agree to participate in this study? The algorithm presented in this article gives researchers and research monitors (such as Institutional Review Board members) the tools they need to evaluate the ethics of a study that uses concomitant placebo control. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. No matrix effect in double-blind, placebo-controlled egg challenges in egg allergic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libbers, L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; van der Meulen, G. N.; Kukler, J.; Kerkhof, M.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Background Diagnostic and accidental food allergic reactions may be modified by the matrix containing the allergenic food. Previous studies of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with peanut found an effect of the fat content of the challenge matrix on the severity of the

  11. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of paroxetine in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A double-blind placebo controlled trial of paroxetine in the management of social phobia (social anxiety disorder) in South Africa. Dan J. Stein, Michael Berk, Charl Els, Robin A. Emsley, Leon Gittelson, Don Wilson, Rosemary Oakes, Brian Hunter ...

  12. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, E.; Kersemaekers, W.M.; Elliesen, J.; Kepers, M.; Apter, D.; Behre, H.M.; Beynon, J.; Bouloux, P.M.; Costantino, A.; Gerbershagen, H.P.; Gronlund, L.; Heger-Mahn, D.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Lange, C.; Lindenberg, S.; Meriggiola, M.C.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Nieschlag, E.; Perheentupa, A.; Solomon, A.; Vaisala, L.; Wu, F.C.; Zitzmann, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess spermatogenesis suppression and safety of a new combination of an etonogestrel (ENG) implant combined with testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections for male contraception. This is the first large placebo-controlled study for male hormonal contraception.

  13. Exclusively breastfed infants at risk for false negative double blind placebo controlled milk challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, N. C. M.; Kole, E. A.; Schoemaker, A. A.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Sprikkelman, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing cow's milk allergy (CMA). However, false-negative DBPCFC have been reported. We present 2 cases with a false negative DBPCFC in exclusively breastfed infants suspected of CMA. These cases highlight the

  14. The challenge of recruiting patients into a placebo-controlled surgical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristoffer B; Lohmander, L Stefan; Roos, Ewa M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomized placebo-controlled trials represent the gold standard in evaluating healthcare interventions but are rarely performed within orthopedics. Ethical concerns or well-known challenges in recruiting patients for surgical trials in general have been expressed and adding a placebo...

  15. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multisite Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Ventura, Daniel; Korotzer, Andrew; Tourkodimitris, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involves 312 male and female patients aged 12-17 reveal the effectiveness of escitalopram in the treatment of depressed adolescents. Eighty-three percent of the participants or 259 participants completed the 8 weeks therapy period.

  16. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sertraline with naltrexone for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farren, Conor K

    2009-01-01

    Significant preclinical evidence exists for a synergistic interaction between the opioid and the serotonin systems in determining alcohol consumption. Naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, is approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This double-blind placebo-controlled study examined whether the efficacy of naltrexone would be augmented by concurrent treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitor (SSRI).

  17. Melatonin for chronic whiplash syndrome with delayed melatonin onset randomised, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringen, S. van; Jansen, T.; Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of melatonin in patients with chronic whiplash syndrome and delayed melatonin onset. Design: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. One-week baseline was followed by a 4-week treatment period with either melatonin or placebo. In the

  18. Clinical effects of buspirone in social phobia : A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denBoer, JA; Westenberg, HGM; Pian, KLH

    Background: The results of open pilot studies suggest that the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone might be effective in social phobia. Method: In the present study, the efficacy of buspirone was investigated in patients with social phobia using a 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled

  19. Mefloquine prophylaxis prevents malaria during pregnancy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosten, F.; ter Kuile, F.; Maelankiri, L.; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T.; Nopdonrattakoon, L.; Tangkitchot, S.; Boudreau, E.; Bunnag, D.; White, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of mefloquine antimalarial prophylaxis in pregnancy (> 20 weeks of gestation) was conducted in 339 Karen women living in an area of multidrug-resistant malaria transmission on the Thai-Burmese border. Mefloquine gave > or = 86% (95% confidence interval [CI],

  20. Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: A Randomized placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.G.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Heijden, J.A.M. van der; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kerkhof, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of melatonin treatment in childhood sleep onset insomnia, 40 elementary school children, 6 to 12 years of age, who suffered more than 1 year from chronic sleep onset insomnia, were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The children were randomly assigned to

  1. Validation and acceptability of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, Carina; Maslin, Kate; Patil, Veeresh; Grundy, Jane; Glasbey, Gillian; Raza, Abid; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Dean, Taraneh

    2016-01-01

    The Double Blind Placebo Controlled Food Challenge (DBPCFC) is considered the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis (1, 2). It is recommended that active and placebo challenge foods for DBPCFCs are sufficiently blinded in terms of smell, flavour and texture. Difficulties arise with children

  2. Treatment of post-myocardial infarction depressive disorder : A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with mirtazapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honig, Adriaan; Kuyper, Astrid M. G.; Schene, Aart H.; van Melle, Joost P.; De Jonge, Peter; Tulner, Dorien M.; Schins, Annique; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Kuijpers, Petra M. J. C.; Vossen, Helen; Lousberg, Richel; Ormel, Johan

    Objective: To examine the antidepressant efficacy of a dual-acting antidepressant (mirtazapine) in patients with post-myocardial infarction (MI) depressive disorder. Antidepressants used in post MI trials with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design have been restricted to selective

  3. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  4. Safety of Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution 5.0% in Patients With Dry Eye Disease: A 1-Year, Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Karpecki, Paul M; Majmudar, Parag A; Nichols, Kelly K; Raychaudhuri, Aparna; Roy, Monica; Semba, Charles P

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 1-year safety of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% in patients with dry eye disease compared with placebo. SONATA (Safety Of a 5.0% coNcentrATion of lifitegrAst ophthalmic solution) was a multicenter, randomized, prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 study (NCT01636206). Adults (≥18 years) with dry eye disease (Schirmer test score ≥1 and ≤10 mm; corneal staining score ≥2.0) were randomized 2:1 to lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% or placebo twice daily for 360 days. The primary objective was percentage and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Secondary objectives were ocular safety measures: corneal fluorescein staining, drop comfort, best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and intraocular pressure over 7 visits. Exploratory objectives included concentration of lifitegrast in plasma. The safety population comprised 331 participants (220 lifitegrast; 111 placebo). There were no serious ocular TEAEs. Overall, 53.6% of participants receiving lifitegrast experienced ≥1 ocular TEAE versus 34.2% in the placebo group; most TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity. Rates of discontinuation because of TEAEs were 12.3% (lifitegrast) versus 9.0% (placebo). The most common (>5%) TEAEs occurring in either treatment group were instillation site irritation (burning), instillation site reaction, visual acuity reduced, dry eye, and dysgeusia (change in taste). Ocular safety parameters for lifitegrast were similar to placebo. The mean plasma lifitegrast concentration at 360 days (n = 43) was below the limit of detection. There was no indication of systemic toxicity or localized infectious complications secondary to chronic immunosuppression. Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% seemed safe and well tolerated in this study, with no unexpected adverse events.

  5. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial of the TLR-3 agonist rintatolimod in severe cases of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Strayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a severely debilitating disease of unknown pathogenesis consisting of a variety of symptoms including severe fatigue. The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a TLR-3 agonist, rintatolimod (Poly I: C(12U, in patients with debilitating CFS/ME. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Phase III prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing twice weekly IV rintatolimod versus placebo was conducted in 234 subjects with long-standing, debilitating CFS/ME at 12 sites. The primary endpoint was the intra-patient change from baseline at Week 40 in exercise tolerance (ET. Secondary endpoints included concomitant drug usage, the Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS, Activities of Daily Living (ADL, and Vitality Score (SF 36. Subjects receiving rintatolimod for 40 weeks improved intra-patient placebo-adjusted ET 21.3% (p = 0.047 from baseline in an intention-to-treat analysis. Correction for subjects with reduced dosing compliance increased placebo-adjusted ET improvement to 28% (p = 0.022. The improvement observed represents approximately twice the minimum considered medically significant by regulatory agencies. The rintatolimod cohort vs. placebo also reduced dependence on drugs commonly used by patients in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of CFS/ME (p = 0.048. Placebo subjects crossed-over to receive rintatolimod demonstrated an intra-patient improvement in ET performance at 24 weeks of 39% (p = 0.04. Rintatolimod at 400 mg twice weekly was generally well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rintatolimod produced objective improvement in ET and a reduction in CFS/ME related concomitant medication usage as well as other secondary outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00215800.

  6. Tranexamic Acid for Lower GI Hemorrhage: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R; Murray, David; Pockney, Peter G; Bendinelli, Cino; Draganic, Brian D; Carroll, Rosemary

    2018-01-01

    Lower GI hemorrhage is a common source of morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that has been shown to reduce blood loss in a variety of clinical conditions. Information regarding the use of tranexamic acid in treating lower GI hemorrhage is lacking. The aim of this trial was to determine the clinical efficacy of tranexamic acid when used for lower GI hemorrhage. This was a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital in Australia. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with lower GI hemorrhage requiring hospital admission from November 2011 to January 2014 were screened for trial eligibility (N = 265). A total of 100 patients were recruited after exclusions and were randomly assigned 1:1 to either tranexamic acid or placebo. The primary outcome was blood loss as determined by reduction in hemoglobin levels. The secondary outcomes were transfusion rates, transfusion volume, intervention rates for bleeding, length of hospital stay, readmission, and complication rates. There was no difference between groups with respect to hemoglobin drop (11 g/L of tranexamic acid vs 13 g/L of placebo; p = 0.9445). There was no difference with respect to transfusion rates (14/49 tranexamic acid vs 16/47 placebo; p = 0.661), mean transfusion volume (1.27 vs 1.93 units; p = 0.355), intervention rates (7/49 vs 13/47; p = 0.134), length of hospital stay (4.67 vs 4.74 d; p = 0.934), readmission, or complication rates. No complications occurred as a direct result of tranexamic acid use. A larger multicenter trial may be required to determine whether there are more subtle advantages with tranexamic acid use in some of the secondary outcomes. Tranexamic acid does not appear to decrease blood loss or improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage in the context of this trial. see Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A453.

  7. A European multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled monotherapy clinical trial of milnacipran in treatment of fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Jaime C; Zachrisson, Olof; Perrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population.......This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population....

  8. Hyoscine butylbromide for colorectal polyp detection: prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The removal of pre-malignant colorectal lesions prevents cancer. Hyoscine has been proposed as a means of improving diagnosis by reducing colonic movements. The aim of this study was to analyze whether this anti-spasmodic enhances the detection of pre-malignant colorectal lesions. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded fashion patients received hyoscine or a saline solution in all consecutive colonoscopies in which the cecum was reached. Lesions were analysed with respect to number, size, location, histology and capillary pattern. RESULTS: A total of 440 colonoscopies were randomized. The overall polyp detection rate (PDR and the adenoma detection rate (ADR were 65.2% and 49.3%, respectively. In the hyoscine group, non-polypoid lesions were detected significantly more often (p=0.01. In the placebo group 281 lesions were diagnosed (202 adenomas and in the hyoscine group 282 lesions were detected (189 adenomas (p=0.23. The PDR and ADR were similar between the placebo and hyoscine groups (64% vs 66% and 50% vs 47%, respectively. No differences were observed between the two groups in the advanced-ADR or advanced neoplasia detection rate, as well the mean numbers of polyps, adenomas, advanced adenomas and advanced neoplasias detected per patient. The administration of hyoscine also did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of digital chromoendoscopy. The presence of adenomatous polyps in the right colon was detected significantly more frequently in the hyoscine group (OR 5.41 95% CI 2.7 - 11; p<0.01 vs OR 2.3 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p=0.02. CONCLUSION: The use of hyoscine before beginning the withdrawal of the colonoscope does not seem to enhance the PDR and the ADR.

  9. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA: Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hayder Al-kuraishy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was evaluation the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels during eustress on normal healthy volunteers. Method: 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from medical students at college of medicine with age range (22.61±3.63 years, the volunteers were divided into two groups, Group A: 35 subjects treated by Panax Ginseng 500mg/day regarded as treated group. Group B: 30 subjects treated by placebo 500mg/day regarded as control group. Baseline data was obtained and then after one month of study for following induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing while; stress-induced oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels. Results: placebo showed significant increases in MDA serum levels p=0.0004 which related with significant increases in perceived stress scale from p<0.0001, while; Panax Ginseng led to significant reduction in MDA serum levels from p<0.01 that related with significant increment in perceived stress scale p=0.02. Conclusion: An MDA serum level is positively correlated with eustress and this association is modulated by   Panax Ginseng therapy that produced significant reduction in MDA and rising of eustress level.

  10. Rationale and design of the allogeneiC human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in patients with aging fRAilTy via intravenoUS delivery (CRATUS) study: A phase I/II, randomized, blinded and placebo controlled trial to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cell infusion in patients with aging frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpanian, Samuel; DiFede, Darcy L; Pujol, Marietsy V; Lowery, Maureen H; Levis-Dusseau, Silvina; Goldstein, Bradley J; Schulman, Ivonne H; Longsomboon, Bangon; Wolf, Ariel; Khan, Aisha; Heldman, Alan W; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-03-15

    Frailty is a syndrome associated with reduced physiological reserves that increases an individual's vulnerability for developing increased morbidity and/or mortality. While most clinical trials have focused on exercise, nutrition, pharmacologic agents, or a multifactorial approach for the prevention and attenuation of frailty, none have studied the use of cell-based therapies. We hypothesize that the application of allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (allo-hMSCs) as a therapeutic agent for individuals with frailty is safe and efficacious. The CRATUS trial comprises an initial non-blinded phase I study, followed by a blinded, randomized phase I/II study (with an optional follow-up phase) that will address the safety and pre-specified beneficial effects in patients with the aging frailty syndrome. In the initial phase I protocol, allo-hMSCs will be administered in escalating doses via peripheral intravenous infusion (n=15) to patients allocated to three treatment groups: Group 1 (n=5, 20 million allo-hMSCs), Group 2 (n=5, 100 million allo-hMSCs), and Group 3 (n=5, 200 million allo-hMSCs). Subsequently, in the randomized phase, allo-hMSCs or matched placebo will be administered to patients (n=30) randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to one of two doses of MSCs versus placebo: Group A (n=10, 100 million allo-hMSCs), Group B (n=10, 200 million allo-hMSCs), and Group C (n=10, placebo). Primary and secondary objectives are, respectively, to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of allo-hMSCs administered in frail older individuals. This study will determine the safety of intravenous infusion of stem cells and compare phenotypic outcomes in patients with aging frailty.

  11. Flecainide in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis as a Neuroprotective Strategy (FANS): A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna B; Vucic, Steve; Cheah, Benjamin C; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Kirby, Adrienne; Mann, Kristy P; Zoing, Margie C; Winhammar, Jennica; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities in membrane excitability and Na(+) channel function are characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aimed to examine the neuroprotective potential, safety and tolerability of the Na(+) channel blocker and membrane stabiliser flecainide in ALS. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of flecainide (200 mg/day) for 32-weeks with a 12-week lead-in phase was conducted in participants with probable or definite ALS recruited from multiple Australian centres (ANZCT Registry number ACTRN12608000338369). Patients were reviewed by a cardiologist to rule out cardiac contraindications. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to flecainide or placebo using stratified permuted blocks by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome measure was the slope of decline of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALS FRS-r) during the treatment period. Between March 11, 2008 and July 1, 2010, 67 patients were screened, 54 of whom were randomly assigned to receive flecainide (26 patients) or placebo (28 patients). Four patients in the flecainide group and three patients in the placebo group withdrew from the study. One patient in the flecainide group died during the study, attributed to disease progression. Flecainide was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported in either group. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in the primary outcome measure ALS-FRS-r between placebo and flecainide treated patients (Flecainide 0.65 [95% CI 0.49 to 0.98]; Placebo 0.81 [0.49 to 2.12] P = 0.50). However, the rate of decline of the neurophysiological index was significantly reduced in the flecainide group (Flecainide 0.06 [0.01 to 0.11]; Placebo 0.14 [0.09 to 0.19], P = 0.02). Placebo-treated patients demonstrated greater CMAP amplitude reduction during the course of the study in the subset of patients with a reduced baseline CMAP amplitude (Flecainide: - 15 ± 12%; Placebo - 59 ± 12%; P = 0.03). Flecainide

  12. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Thomas McGraw Global Medical Affairs, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation.Patients and methods: The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or ...

  13. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vojtaššák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA. Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

  14. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  15. Ethical Overview of Placebo Control in Psychiatric Research - Concepts and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurković, Marko; Živković, Maja; Radić, Krešimir; Vilibić, Maja; Ćelić, Ivan; Bagarić, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Permissibility of placebo controls in psychiatric research is raising everlasting controversies. The main ethical issue remains: whether, when, under what conditions, and to what extent is it justifiable to disregard subject's present (best) interest for the presumably "greater" ones. In relation to this main ethical concern, two distinct arguments arose: proponents of placebo controls trials (placebo ortxodoxy) and proponents of active controls trials (active-control orthodoxy). More recently, in new ethical guidelines, Declaration of Helsinki and International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, a "middle way" approach was formulated, acceptable to both sides of the argument, saying placebo controls can be justified under certain conditions: when and only when, they firstly present undisputed methodological reasoning, and secondly, fulfill certain ethical considerations - mainly regarding the permissibility of accompanied risks. These ethical evaluations are inevitably contextual and evoke the need for the principle of proportionality. In scope of recent findings of substantial and progressively increasing placebo response in psychiatric research, contextual factors are identified and both theoretical and practical challenges are discussed.

  16. Should we reconsider the routine use of placebo controls in clinical research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avins Andrew L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern clinical-research practice favors placebo controls over usual-care controls whenever a credible placebo exists. An unrecognized consequence of this preference is that clinicians are more limited in their ability to provide the benefits of the non-specific healing effects of placebos in clinical practice. Methods We examined the issues in choosing between placebo and usual-care controls. We considered why placebo controls place constraints on clinicians and the trade-offs involved in the choice of control groups. Results We find that, for certain studies, investigators should consider usual-care controls, even if an adequate placebo is available. Employing usual-care controls would be of greatest value for pragmatic trials evaluating treatments to improve clinical care and for which threats to internal validity can be adequately managed without a placebo-control condition. Conclusions Intentionally choosing usual-care controls, even when a satisfactory placebo exists, would allow clinicians to capture the value of non-specific therapeutic benefits that are common to all interventions. The result could be more effective, patient-centered care that makes the best use of both specific and non-specific benefits of medical interventions.

  17. Should we reconsider the routine use of placebo controls in clinical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avins, Andrew L; Cherkin, Daniel C; Sherman, Karen J; Goldberg, Harley; Pressman, Alice

    2012-04-27

    Modern clinical-research practice favors placebo controls over usual-care controls whenever a credible placebo exists. An unrecognized consequence of this preference is that clinicians are more limited in their ability to provide the benefits of the non-specific healing effects of placebos in clinical practice. We examined the issues in choosing between placebo and usual-care controls. We considered why placebo controls place constraints on clinicians and the trade-offs involved in the choice of control groups. We find that, for certain studies, investigators should consider usual-care controls, even if an adequate placebo is available. Employing usual-care controls would be of greatest value for pragmatic trials evaluating treatments to improve clinical care and for which threats to internal validity can be adequately managed without a placebo-control condition. Intentionally choosing usual-care controls, even when a satisfactory placebo exists, would allow clinicians to capture the value of non-specific therapeutic benefits that are common to all interventions. The result could be more effective, patient-centered care that makes the best use of both specific and non-specific benefits of medical interventions.

  18. Developing a placebo-controlled trial in surgery: issues of design, acceptability and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M K; Entwistle, V A; Cuthbertson, B H; Skea, Z C; Sutherland, A G; McDonald, A M; Norrie, J D; Carlson, R V; Bridgman, S

    2011-02-21

    Surgical placebos are controversial. This in-depth study explored the design, acceptability, and feasibility issues relevant to designing a surgical placebo-controlled trial for the evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic lavage for the management of people with osteoarthritis of the knee in the UK. Two surgeon focus groups at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic surgeons and one regional surgeon focus group (41 surgeons); plenary discussion at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic anaesthetists (130 anaesthetists); three focus groups with anaesthetists (one national, two regional; 58 anaesthetists); two focus groups with members of the patient organisation Arthritis Care (7 participants); telephone interviews with people on consultant waiting lists from two UK regional centres (15 participants); interviews with Chairs of UK ethics committees (6 individuals); postal surveys of members of the British Association of Surgeons of the Knee (382 surgeons) and members of the British Society of Orthopaedic Anaesthetists (398 anaesthetists); two centre pilot (49 patients assessed). There was widespread acceptance that evaluation of arthroscopic lavage had to be conducted with a placebo control if scientific rigour was not to be compromised. The choice of placebo surgical procedure (three small incisions) proved easier than the method of anaesthesia (general anaesthesia). General anaesthesia, while an excellent mimic, was more intrusive and raised concerns among some stakeholders and caused extensive discussion with local decision-makers when seeking formal approval for the pilot.Patients were willing to participate in a pilot with a placebo arm; although some patients when allocated to surgery became apprehensive about the possibility of receiving placebo, and withdrew. Placebo surgery was undertaken successfully. Our study illustrated the opposing and often strongly held opinions about surgical placebos, the ethical issues underpinning this

  19. Developing a placebo-controlled trial in surgery: Issues of design, acceptability and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald AM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical placebos are controversial. This in-depth study explored the design, acceptability, and feasibility issues relevant to designing a surgical placebo-controlled trial for the evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of arthroscopic lavage for the management of people with osteoarthritis of the knee in the UK. Methods Two surgeon focus groups at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic surgeons and one regional surgeon focus group (41 surgeons; plenary discussion at a UK national meeting for orthopaedic anaesthetists (130 anaesthetists; three focus groups with anaesthetists (one national, two regional; 58 anaesthetists; two focus groups with members of the patient organisation Arthritis Care (7 participants; telephone interviews with people on consultant waiting lists from two UK regional centres (15 participants; interviews with Chairs of UK ethics committees (6 individuals; postal surveys of members of the British Association of Surgeons of the Knee (382 surgeons and members of the British Society of Orthopaedic Anaesthetists (398 anaesthetists; two centre pilot (49 patients assessed. Results There was widespread acceptance that evaluation of arthroscopic lavage had to be conducted with a placebo control if scientific rigour was not to be compromised. The choice of placebo surgical procedure (three small incisions proved easier than the method of anaesthesia (general anaesthesia. General anaesthesia, while an excellent mimic, was more intrusive and raised concerns among some stakeholders and caused extensive discussion with local decision-makers when seeking formal approval for the pilot. Patients were willing to participate in a pilot with a placebo arm; although some patients when allocated to surgery became apprehensive about the possibility of receiving placebo, and withdrew. Placebo surgery was undertaken successfully. Conclusions Our study illustrated the opposing and often strongly held opinions about

  20. Efficacy and safety of almorexant in adult chronic insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial with an active reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jed; Pillar, Giora; Hedner, Jan; Polo, Olli; Berkani, Ouali; Mangialaio, Sara; Hmissi, Abdel; Zammit, Gary; Hajak, Goran

    2017-08-01

    The orally active dual OX 1 R and OX 2 R antagonist, almorexant, targets the orexin system for the treatment of primary insomnia. This clinical trial assessed the effect of almorexant on sleep maintenance and other sleep endpoints, and its safety and tolerability in adults. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active referenced trial in male and female adults aged 18-64 years with chronic, primary insomnia. Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive placebo, almorexant 100 mg, almorexant 200 mg, or zolpidem 10 mg (active reference) for 16 days. Primary efficacy assessments were objective (polysomnography-measured) and subjective (patient-recorded) wake time after sleep onset (WASO). Further sleep variables were also evaluated. From 709 randomized patients, 707 (mean age 45.4 years; 61.7% female) received treatment and 663 (93.8%) completed the study. A significant decrease versus placebo in median objective WASO was observed with almorexant 200 mg at the start and end of randomized treatment (-26.8 min and -19.5 min, respectively; both p system in insomnia disorder. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00608985. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymchantowski, A V; Barbosa, J S; Cheim, C; Alves, L A

    2001-03-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, were studied prospectively. Patients received LC or placebo once the headache reached moderate or severe intensity for 6 consecutive attacks. With regard to the moderate attacks, LC was superior than placebo after 1, 2 and 4 hours. The consumption of other rescue medications after 4 hours was significantly higher in the placebo group. With regard to the severe attacks, there was no difference between the active drug group and the placebo group concerning headache intensity and consumption of other rescue medications. We conclude that the NSAID lysine clonixinate is effective in treating moderately severe migraine attacks. It is not superior than placebo in treating severe migraine attacks.

  2. Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of ozone therapy as treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, A; Shreef, E; Behiry, E; Zalat, S; Noaman, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of ozone therapy in adult patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Forty-five adult patients presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and were randomly allocated to receive either placebo (15 patients) or ozone therapy (auto-haemotherapy; 30 patients). For the latter treatment, 100 ml of the patient's blood was treated immediately with a 1:1 volume, gaseous mixture of oxygen and ozone (from an ozone generator) and re-injected into the patient by intravenous infusion. Treatments were administered twice weekly for 10 sessions. The following data were recorded: pre- and post-treatment mean hearing gains; air and bone pure tone averages; speech reception thresholds; speech discrimination scores; and subjective recovery rates. Significant recovery was observed in 23 patients (77 per cent) receiving ozone treatment, compared with six (40 per cent) patients receiving placebo (p < 0.05). Mean hearing gains, pure tone averages, speech reception thresholds and subjective recovery rates were significantly better in ozone-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients (p < 0.05). Ozone therapy is a significant modality for treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss; no complications were observed.

  3. Effectiveness of tamsulosin in prevention of post-operative urinary retention: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ali Hamidi; Aval, Hamidreza Baghani; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Shakiba, Maryam; Shakiba, Reza Shahrokhi; Seyed Damavand, Seyed Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary retention is one of the most common complications contributing to surgical procedures. Recent studies have shown the benefits of alpha-adrenergic blockers in preventing post-operative urinary retention (POUR). The aim of this prospective study was to compare the prophylactic effect of tamsulosin with placebo on postoperative urinary retention. In this randomized placebo controlled, clinical trial, 232 male patients aged 18 to 50 years old admitted to Razi University Hospital for varicocelectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, and scrotal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either three doses of 0.4mg tamsulosin (n = 118) or placebo (n = 114), 14 and 2 hours before, and 10 hours after surgery. Patients were closely monitored for the development of urinary retention 24 hours after surgical intervention. The primary endpoint was to investigate the effect of tamsulosin in prevention of post-operative urinary retention during the first 24 hours after surgical intervention. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and the P tamsulosin arm and 114 in placebo arm. POUR in patients who received tamsulosin was significantly lower than placebo, as 5.9% of the patients treated with tamsulosin and 21.1% placebo group, reported urinary retention following surgery (P = 0.001). No serious adverse effects were seen in both groups. This study suggests that short perioperative treatment with tamsulosin can reduce the incidence of urinary retention and the need for catheterization after varicocelectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, and scrotal surgery.

  4. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of piracetam on breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawires, Happy; Botrous, Osama

    2012-07-01

    Breath-holding spells (BHS) are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of breath-holding spells. Forty patients with BHS (who were classified into two groups)were involved in a double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective study. Piracetam was given to group A while group B received placebo. Patients were followed monthly for a total period of 4 months. The numbers of attacks/month before and monthly after treatment were documented, and the overall number of attacks/month after treatment was calculated in both groups. The median number of attacks/month before treatment in the two groups was 5.5 and 5,respectively, while after the first month of treatment, it was 2 and 5, respectively. The median overall number of attacks/month after treatment in both groups was 1 and 5, respectively.There was a significant decline of number of attacks after piracetam treatment compared to placebo (p valuepiracetam throughout the study period. In conclusion, piracetam is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of breath-holding spells in children.

  5. Treatment rationale and study design for a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care immediately following induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Jesús

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, additional maintenance chemotherapy may be given after initial induction chemotherapy in patients who did not progress during the initial treatment, rather than waiting for disease progression to administer second-line treatment. Maintenance therapy may consist of an agent that either was or was not present in the induction regimen. The antifolate pemetrexed is efficacious in combination with cisplatin for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC and has shown efficacy as a maintenance agent in studies in which it was not included in the induction regimen. We designed a phase III study to determine if pemetrexed maintenance therapy improves progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS after cisplatin/pemetrexed induction therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Furthermore, since evidence suggests expression levels of thymidylate synthase, the primary target of pemetrexed, may be associated with responsiveness to pemetrexed, translational research will address whether thymidylate synthase expression correlates with efficacy outcomes of pemetrexed. Methods/Design Approximately 900 patients will receive four cycles of induction chemotherapy consisting of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 who have not progressed during induction therapy will randomly receive (in a 2:1 ratio one of two double-blind maintenance regimens: pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle plus best supportive care (BSC or placebo plus BSC. The primary objective is to compare PFS between treatment arms. Secondary objectives include a fully powered analysis of OS, objective tumor response rate, patient-reported outcomes, resource utilization, and toxicity. Tumor specimens for translational research will be obtained from

  6. Treatment rationale and study design for a phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus best supportive care immediately following induction treatment with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Ares, Luis G; Altug, Sedat; Vaury, Alexandra Thareau; Jaime, Jesús Corral; Russo, Francesca; Visseren-Grul, Carla

    2010-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), additional maintenance chemotherapy may be given after initial induction chemotherapy in patients who did not progress during the initial treatment, rather than waiting for disease progression to administer second-line treatment. Maintenance therapy may consist of an agent that either was or was not present in the induction regimen. The antifolate pemetrexed is efficacious in combination with cisplatin for first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC and has shown efficacy as a maintenance agent in studies in which it was not included in the induction regimen. We designed a phase III study to determine if pemetrexed maintenance therapy improves progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after cisplatin/pemetrexed induction therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Furthermore, since evidence suggests expression levels of thymidylate synthase, the primary target of pemetrexed, may be associated with responsiveness to pemetrexed, translational research will address whether thymidylate synthase expression correlates with efficacy outcomes of pemetrexed. Approximately 900 patients will receive four cycles of induction chemotherapy consisting of pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 ) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 who have not progressed during induction therapy will randomly receive (in a 2:1 ratio) one of two double-blind maintenance regimens: pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle) plus best supportive care (BSC) or placebo plus BSC. The primary objective is to compare PFS between treatment arms. Secondary objectives include a fully powered analysis of OS, objective tumor response rate, patient-reported outcomes, resource utilization, and toxicity. Tumor specimens for translational research will be obtained from consenting patients before induction

  7. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  8. Effects of trans fatty acids on glucose homeostasis: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials123

    OpenAIRE

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Khan, Sami M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although evidence from cohort studies has suggested that trans fatty acid (TFA) consumption may be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) have yielded conflicting results.

  9. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); S. Thomas (Siep); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam.

  10. Treatments for acute bipolar depression: meta-analyses of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of anticonvulsants, lithium and antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selle, V.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Vazquez, G.H.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optimal treatments for bipolar depression, and the relative value of specific drugs for that purpose, remain uncertain, including agents other than antidepressants. METHODS: We searched for reports of placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of mood-stabilizing anticonvulsants,

  11. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.; Sanders, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined

  12. Misoprostol for cervical priming prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women; a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasma, M L; Louwerse, M D; Hehenkamp, W J; Geomini, P M; Bongers, M Y; Veersema, S; van Kesteren, P J; Tromp, E; Huirne, J A; Graziosi, G C

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reduction of pain by misoprostol compared with placebo prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal and premenopausal nulliparous women. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre double-blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Two Dutch teaching hospitals and one Dutch university medical

  13. The Efficacy of Vitamin C on Postoperative Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woo; Yang, Han Seok; Yeom, Jin S; Ahn, Myun-Whan

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin C has critical features relavant to postoperative pain management and functional improvement; however, no study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of vitamin C on improving the surgical outcomes for spine pathologies. Thus, this study aimed to explore the impact of vitamin C on postoperative outcomes after single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for lumbar spinal stenosis in prospectively randomized design. We conducted a 1-year prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the impact of vitamin C on the postoperative outcomes after PLIF surgery. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either group A (62 patients with vitamin C) or group B (61 patients with placebo). Patient follow-up was continued for at least 1 year after surgery. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity in the lower back using a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures were: (1) the clinical outcome assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); (2) the fusion rate assessed using dynamic radiographs and computed tomography scans; and (3) complications. Pain intensity in the lower back was significantly improved in both groups compared with preoperative pain intensity, but no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups over the follow-up period. The ODI score of group A at the third postoperative month was significantly higher than the score of group B. After the sixth postoperative month, the ODI score of group A was slightly higher than the score of group B; however, this difference was not significant. The fusion rates at 1 year after surgery and the complication rates were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Postoperative pain intensity, the primary outcome measure, was not significantly different at 1 year after surgery between the 2 groups. However, vitamin C may be associated with improving functional status after PLIF surgery, especially during the first 3

  14. New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, Anna; Nordström, Lisbeth; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nylander, Annica; Jonsäll, Anette; Rönmark, Eva; West, Christina E

    2013-05-01

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acid-based product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 8-10 and 14-15 yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p > 0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of high-dose lecithin in Alzheimer's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Little, A; Levy, R; Chuaqui-Kidd, P; Hand, D

    1985-01-01

    The first long-term double-blind placebo controlled trial of high dose lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type is reported. Fifty one subjects were given 20-25 g/day of purified soya lecithin (containing 90% phosphatidyl plus lysophosphatidyl choline) for six months and followed up for at least a further six months. Plasma choline levels were monitored throughout the treatment period. There were no differences between the placebo group and the lecithin group but there was an improve...

  16. Escitalopram in painful polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in pain modulation via descending pathways in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to test if escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), would relieve pain in polyneuropathy. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled cross-over trial. The daily dose of escitalopram was 20mg once daily. During the two treatment periods of 5 weeks duration, patients rated pain relief (primary outcome variable) on a 6-point ordered nominal scale. Secondary outcome measures comprised total pain and different pain symptoms (touch...

  17. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYLBROMIDE IN TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Arifullina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan was evaluated in a placebobcontrolled trial, on pediatric patients with algid type of irritable bowel syndrome. Hyoscine butylbromide favored to the increase of quality of life in pediatric patients, alleviation of clinical symptoms of disease, reliable decrease of malonic dialdehyde and increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma significantly superior to placebo. Clinical efficacy of hyoscine butylbromide accompanies to its good tolerance and safety.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, hyoscine butylbromide, placebo controlled trial.

  18. "Live high-train low" using normobaric hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Jacobs, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The combination of living at altitude and training near sea level [live high-train low (LHTL)] may improve performance of endurance athletes. However, to date, no study can rule out a potential placebo effect as at least part of the explanation, especially for performance measures. With the use o...... of a placebo-controlled, double-blinded design, we tested the hypothesis that LHTL-related improvements in endurance performance are mediated through physiological mechanisms and not through a placebo effect. Sixteen endurance cyclists trained for 8 wk at low altitude (...

  19. Probiotic Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Natália A; Carmo, Flávia L; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; de Brito, Jessyca S; Dolenga, Carla J; Ferreira, Dennis C; Nakao, Lia S; Rosado, Alexandre; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota profile and inflammatory markers in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six HD patients were assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: probiotic (n = 23; Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterialongum, 90 billion colony-forming units per day) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 3 months. Blood and feces were collected at baseline and after intervention. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Uremic toxins plasma levels (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and indole-3-acetic acid) were obtained by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Routine laboratory parameters were measured by standard techniques. Fecal pH was measured by the colorimetric method, and the gut microbiota profile was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Sixteen patients remained in the probiotic group (11 men, 53.6 ± 11.0 year old, 25.3 ± 4.6 kg/m 2 ) and 17 in the placebo group (10 men, 50.3 ± 8.5 year old, 25.2 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ). After probiotic supplementation there was a significant increase in serum urea (from 149.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL to 172.6 ± 45.0 mg/dL, P = .02), potassium (from 4.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .02), and indoxyl sulfate (from 31.2 ± 15.9 to 36.5 ± 15.0 mg/dL, P = .02). The fecal pH was reduced from 7.2 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 0.5 (P = .01). These parameters did not change significantly in placebo group. Changes in the percentage delta (Δ) between groups were exhibited with no statistical differences observed. The inflammatory markers and gut profile were not altered by supplementation. Aprobiotic supplementation failed to reduce uremic toxins and

  20. Donepezil for Irradiated Brain Tumor Survivors: A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Stephen R; Case, L Doug; Peiffer, Ann; Naughton, Michelle M; Chan, Michael D; Stieber, Volker W; Moore, Dennis F; Falchuk, Steven C; Piephoff, James V; Edenfield, William J; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Loghin, Monica E; Shaw, Edward G

    2015-05-20

    Neurotoxic effects of brain irradiation include cognitive impairment in 50% to 90% of patients. Prior studies have suggested that donepezil, a neurotransmitter modulator, may improve cognitive function. A total of 198 adult brain tumor survivors ≥ 6 months after partial- or whole-brain irradiation were randomly assigned to receive a single daily dose (5 mg for 6 weeks, 10 mg for 18 weeks) of donepezil or placebo. A cognitive test battery assessing memory, attention, language, visuomotor, verbal fluency, and executive functions was administered before random assignment and at 12 and 24 weeks. A cognitive composite score (primary outcome) and individual cognitive domains were evaluated. Of this mostly middle-age, married, non-Hispanic white sample, 66% had primary brain tumors, 27% had brain metastases, and 8% underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the composite scores did not differ significantly between groups (P = .48); however, significant differences favoring donepezil were observed for memory (recognition, P = .027; discrimination, P = .007) and motor speed and dexterity (P = .016). Significant interactions between pretreatment cognitive function and treatment were found for cognitive composite (P = .01), immediate recall (P = .05), delayed recall (P = .004), attention (P = .01), visuomotor skills (P = .02), and motor speed and dexterity (P < .001), with the benefits of donepezil greater for those who were more cognitively impaired before study treatment. Treatment with donepezil did not significantly improve the overall composite score, but it did result in modest improvements in several cognitive functions, especially among patients with greater pretreatment impairments. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke (PAIS) trial : a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, Heleen M.; van der Worp, H. Bart; van Gemert, H. Maarten A.; Algra, Ate; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Van Gijn, Jan; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.

    Background High body temperature in the first 12-24 h after stroke onset is associated with poor functional outcome. The Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) In Stroke (PAIS) trial aimed to assess whether early treatment with paracetamol improves functional outcome in patients with acute stroke by reducing

  2. Erythropoietin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Giuseppe; Dalla Bella, Eleonora; Antonini, Giovanni; Borghero, Giuseppe; Capasso, Margherita; Caponnetto, Claudia; Chiò, Adriano; Corbo, Massimo; Eleopra, Roberto; Fazio, Raffaella; Filosto, Massimiliano; Giannini, Fabio; Granieri, Enrico; La Bella, Vincenzo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Mandrioli, Jessica; Mazzini, Letizia; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Mora, Gabriele; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Quatrale, Rocco; Rizzi, Romana; Salvi, Fabrizio; Siciliano, Gabriele; Sorarù, Gianni; Volanti, Paolo; Tramacere, Irene; Filippini, Graziella

    2015-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Patients with probable laboratory-supported, probable or definite ALS were enrolled by 25 Italian centres and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous rhEPO 40,000 IU or placebo fortnightly as add-on treatment to riluzole 100 mg daily for 12 months. The primary composite outcome was survival, tracheotomy or >23 h non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Secondary outcomes were ALSFRS-R, slow vital capacity (sVC) and quality of life (ALSAQ-40) decline. Tolerability was evaluated analysing adverse events (AEs) causing withdrawal. The randomisation sequence was computer-generated by blocks, stratified by centre, disease severity (ALSFRS-R cut-off score of 33) and onset (spinal or bulbar). The main outcome analysis was performed in all randomised patients and by intention-to-treat for the entire population and patients stratified by severity and onset. The study is registered, EudraCT 2009-016066-91. We randomly assigned 208 patients, of whom 5 (1 rhEPO and 4 placebo) withdrew consent and 3 (placebo) became ineligible (retinal thrombosis, respiratory insufficiency, SOD1 mutation) before receiving treatment; 103 receiving rhEPO and 97 placebo were eligible for analysis. At 12 months, the annualised rate of death (rhEPO 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.20; placebo: 0.08, CI 0.04 to 0.17), tracheotomy or >23 h NIV (rhEPO 0.16, CI 0.10 to 0.27; placebo 0.18, CI 0.11 to 0.30) did not differ between groups, also after stratification by onset and ALSFRS-R at baseline. Withdrawal due to AE was 16.5% in rhEPO and 8.3% in placebo. No differences were found for secondary outcomes. RhEPO 40,000 IU fortnightly did not change the course of ALS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A phase 3 randomized placebo-controlled trial of tadalafil for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Ronald G; Sweeney, H Lee; Finkel, Richard; McDonald, Craig M; Byrne, Barry; Eagle, Michelle; Goemans, Nathalie; Vandenborne, Krista; Dubrovsky, Alberto L; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miceli, M Carrie; Furlong, Pat; Landry, John; Elashoff, Robert; Cox, David

    2017-10-24

    To conduct a randomized trial to test the primary hypothesis that once-daily tadalafil, administered orally for 48 weeks, lessens the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three hundred thirty-one participants with DMD 7 to 14 years of age taking glucocorticoids were randomized to tadalafil 0.3 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , tadalafil 0.6 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) after 48 weeks. Secondary efficacy measures included North Star Ambulatory Assessment and timed function tests. Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) was a prespecified exploratory outcome. Tadalafil had no effect on the primary outcome: 48-week declines in 6MWD were 51.0 ± 9.3 m with placebo, 64.7 ± 9.8 m with low-dose tadalafil ( p = 0.307 vs placebo), and 59.1 ± 9.4 m with high-dose tadalafil ( p = 0.538 vs placebo). Tadalafil also had no effect on secondary outcomes. In boys >10 years of age, total PUL score and shoulder subscore declined less with low-dose tadalafil than placebo. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tadalafil and the DMD disease state. Tadalafil did not lessen the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with DMD. Further studies should be considered to confirm the hypothesis-generating upper limb data and to determine whether ambulatory decline can be slowed by initiation of tadalafil before 7 years of age. NCT01865084. This study provides Class I evidence that tadalafil does not slow ambulatory decline in 7- to 14-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  4. N-acetyl cysteine for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder--a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Copolov, David L; Dean, Olivia; Lu, Kristy; Jeavons, Sue; Schapkaitz, Ian; Anderson-Hunt, Murray; Bush, Ashley I

    2008-09-15

    Treatment-resistant subthreshold depression is a major problem in bipolar disorder. Both depression and bipolar disorder are complicated by glutathione depletion. We hypothesized that treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe, orally bioavailable precursor of glutathione, may improve the depressive component of bipolar disorder. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study of individuals (n = 75) with bipolar disorder in the maintenance phase treated with NAC (1 g twice daily) adjunctive to usual medication over 24 weeks, with a 4-week washout. The two primary outcomes were the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and time to a mood episode. Secondary outcomes included the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale and 11 other ratings of clinical status, quality of life, and functioning. NAC treatment caused a significant improvement on the MADRS (least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval]: -8.05 [-13.16, -2.95], p = .002) and most secondary scales at end point. Benefit was evident by 8 weeks on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale and at 20 weeks on the MADRS. Improvements were lost after washout. There was no effect of NAC on time to a mood episode (log-rank test: p = .968) and no significant between-group differences in adverse events. Effect sizes at end point were medium to high for improvements in MADRS and 9 of the 12 secondary readouts. NAC appears a safe and effective augmentation strategy for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder.

  5. Placebo-Controlled Study of Pimozide Augmentation of Fluoxetine in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Although body dysmorphic disorder often responds to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), most patients do not respond or respond only partially. However, placebo-controlled studies of augmentation of SRIs have not been done. Furthermore, although 40%–50% of patients are delusional, studies of antipsychotic medications have not been done. Method Twenty-eight patients with body dysmorphic disorder or its delusional variant participated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study of pimozide augmentation of fluoxetine. Results Pimozide was not more effective than placebo: two (18.2%) of 11 subjects responded to pimozide and three (17.6%) of 17 subjects responded to placebo. There was no significant effect of baseline delusionality on endpoint severity of body dysmorphic disorder. Delusionality did not decrease significantly more with pimozide than placebo. Conclusions Pimozide augmentation of fluoxetine treatment for body dysmorphic disorder was not more effective than placebo, even in more delusional patients. Further studies of augmentation for SRIs are needed. PMID:15677604

  6. A placebo-controlled investigation of synaesthesia-like experiences under LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Luke, David P; Kaelen, Mendel; Bolstridge, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Ward, Jamie

    2016-07-29

    The induction of synaesthesia in non-synaesthetes has the potential to illuminate the mechanisms that contribute to the development of this condition and the shaping of its phenomenology. Previous research suggests that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) reliably induces synaesthesia-like experiences in non-synaesthetes. However, these studies suffer from a number of methodological limitations including lack of a placebo control and the absence of rigorous measures used to test established criteria for genuine synaesthesia. Here we report a pilot study that aimed to circumvent these limitations. We conducted a within-groups placebo-controlled investigation of the impact of LSD on colour experiences in response to standardized graphemes and sounds and the consistency and specificity of grapheme- and sound-colour associations. Participants reported more spontaneous synaesthesia-like experiences under LSD, relative to placebo, but did not differ across conditions in colour experiences in response to inducers, consistency of stimulus-colour associations, or in inducer specificity. Further analyses suggest that individual differences in a number of these effects were associated with the propensity to experience states of absorption in one's daily life. Although preliminary, the present study suggests that LSD-induced synaesthesia-like experiences do not exhibit consistency or inducer-specificity and thus do not meet two widely established criteria for genuine synaesthesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of Neuragen PN® on Neuropathic pain: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p ® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0% subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601

  8. Duloxetine in the treatment of binge eating disorder with depressive disorders: a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; McElroy, Susan L; Winstanley, Erin L; Nelson, Eric B; Mori, Nicole; McCoy, Jessica; Keck, Paul E; Hudson, James I

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated duloxetine in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) with comorbid current depressive disorders. In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR BED and a comorbid current depressive disorder received duloxetine (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The primary outcome measure was weekly binge eating day frequency. In the primary analysis, duloxetine (mean 78.7 mg/day) was superior to placebo in reducing weekly frequency of binge eating days (p = .04), binge eating episodes (p = .02), weight (p = .04), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness ratings for binge eating (p = .02) and depressive disorders (p = .01). Changes in body mass index and measures of eating pathology, depression, and anxiety did not differ between the two groups. Duloxetine may be effective for reducing binge eating, weight, and global severity of illness in BED with a comorbid current depressive disorder, but this finding needs confirmation in larger, placebo-controlled trials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, RS; Jorgensen, E; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of......: Bone marrow stem cell mobilization with subcutaneous G-CSF is safe but did not lead to further improvement in ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction compared with the recovery observed in the placebo group...

  10. Randomised clinical trial: evaluation of the efficacy of mesalazine (mesalamine) suppositories in patients with ulcerative colitis and active rectal inflammation -- a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Nishino, H; Sameshima, Y; Ota, A; Nakamura, S; Hibi, T

    2013-08-01

    Mesalazine suppositories are recommended and widely used as the standard therapy in induction and maintenance of remission for proctitis. To evaluate the efficacy of mesalazine suppositories in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and rectal inflammation; and in patient groups categorised by the extent of lesions. This study was a phase III multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Mild-to-moderate UC patients with rectal inflammation were randomly assigned either a 1 g mesalazine or placebo suppository. The suppository was administered in the rectum once daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the rate of endoscopic remission (mucosal score of 0 or 1) after 4 weeks. The endoscopic remission rates after 4 weeks in the mesalazine and placebo suppository groups were 81.5% and 29.7%, respectively, and the superiority of mesalazine to placebo was confirmed (P suppositories in all types of UC patients with rectal inflammation was confirmed for the first time in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (JapicCTI- 111421). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation Decreases TGF-β1 Bioavailability in PCOS: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mohamad; Seifer, David B; Grazi, Richard V; Julka, Nitasha; Bhatt, Devika; Kalgi, Bharati; Irani, Sara; Tal, Oded; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Tal, Reshef

    2015-11-01

    There is an abnormal increase in TGF-β1 bioavailability in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which might play a role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Vitamin D (VD) supplementation improves various clinical manifestations of PCOS and decreases TGF-β1 levels in several diseases including myelofibrosis. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of VD supplementation on TGF-β1 bioavailability in VD-deficient women with PCOS and assess whether changes in TGF-β1/soluble endoglin (sENG) levels correlate with an improvement in PCOS clinical manifestations. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The study was conducted at an academic-affiliated medical center. Sixty-eight VD-deficient women with PCOS who were not pregnant or taking any exogenous hormones were recruited between October 2013 and January 2015. Forty-five women received 50 000 IU of oral vitamin D3 and 23 women received oral placebo once weekly for 8 weeks. Serum TGF-β1, sENG, lipid profile, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and insulin resistance were measured. The clinical parameters were evaluated before and 2 months after treatment. The VD level significantly increased and normalized after VD supplementation (16.3 ± 0.9 [SEM] to 43.2 ± 2.4 ng/mL; P PCOS significantly decreases the bioavailability of TGF-β1, which correlates with an improvement in some abnormal clinical parameters associated with PCOS. This is a novel mechanism that could explain the beneficial effects of VD supplementation in women with PCOS. These findings may support new treatment modalities for PCOS, such as the development of anti-TGF-β drugs.

  12. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral docusate in the management of constipation in hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Yoko; Wilson, Mitchell P; Szafran, Olga; Spooner, G Richard

    2013-01-01

    The stool softener docusate is widely used in the management of constipation in hospice patients. There is little experimental evidence to support this practice, and no randomized trials have been conducted in the hospice setting. To assess the efficacy of docusate in hospice patients. This was a 10-day, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docusate and sennosides vs. placebo and sennosides in hospice patients in Edmonton, Alberta. Patients were included if they were age 18 years or older, able to take oral medications, did not have a gastrointestinal stoma, and had a Palliative Performance Scale score of 20% or more. The primary outcome measures were stool frequency, volume, and consistency. Secondary outcomes were patient perceptions of bowel movements (difficulty and completeness of evacuation) and bowel-related interventions. A total of 74 patients were randomized into the study (35 to the docusate group and 39 to the placebo group). There were neither significant differences between the groups in stool frequency, volume, or consistency, nor in difficulty or completeness of evacuation. On the Bristol Stool Form Scale, more patients in the placebo group had Type 4 (smooth and soft) and Type 5 (soft blobs) stool, whereas in the docusate group, more had Type 3 (sausage like) and Type 6 (mushy) stool (P=0.01). There was no significant benefit of docusate plus sennosides compared with placebo plus sennosides in managing constipation in hospice patients. Docusate use should be considered on an individual basis. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The protocol of the Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium; LUCID: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerland, Bjørn Erik; Hov, Karen Roksund; Bruun Wyller, Vegard; Qvigstad, Eirik; Skovlund, Eva; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir

    2015-02-10

    Delirium affects 15% of hospitalised patients and is linked with poor outcomes, yet few pharmacological treatment options exist. One hypothesis is that delirium may in part result from exaggerated and/or prolonged stress responses. Dexmedetomidine, a parenterally-administered alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist which attenuates sympathetic nervous system activity, shows promise as treatment in ICU delirium. Clonidine exhibits similar pharmacodynamic properties and can be administered orally. We therefore wish to explore possible effects of clonidine upon the duration and severity of delirium in general medical inpatients. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel group study with 4-month prospective follow-up. We will recruit 100 older medical inpatients with delirium or subsyndromal delirium in the acute geriatric ward. Participants will be randomised to oral clonidine or placebo until delirium free for 2 days (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria), or after a maximum of 7 days treatment. Assessment of haemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram) and delirium will be performed daily until discharge or a maximum of 7 days after end of treatment. The primary endpoint is the trajectory of delirium over time (measured by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale). Secondary endpoints include the duration of delirium, use of rescue medication for delirium, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clonidine, cognitive function after 4 months, length of hospital stay and need for institutionalisation. LUCID will explore the efficacy and safety of clonidine for delirium in older medical inpatients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956604. EudraCT Number: 2013-000815-26.

  14. Effectiveness of tamsulosin in prevention of post-operative urinary retention: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hamidi Madani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urinary retention is one of the most common complications contributing to surgical procedures. Recent studies have shown the benefits of alpha-adrenergic blockers in preventing post-operative urinary retention (POUR. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the prophylactic effect of tamsulosin with placebo on postoperative urinary retention. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo controlled, clinical trial, 232 male patients aged 18 to 50 years old admitted to Razi University Hospital for varicocelectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, and scrotal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either three doses of 0.4mg tamsulosin (n = 118 or placebo (n = 114, 14 and 2 hours before, and 10 hours after surgery. Patients were closely monitored for the development of urinary retention 24 hours after surgical intervention. The primary endpoint was to investigate the effect of tamsulosin in prevention of post-operative urinary retention during the first 24 hours after surgical intervention. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and the P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and eighteen patients were included in tamsulosin arm and 114 in placebo arm. POUR in patients who received tamsulosin was significantly lower than placebo, as 5.9% of the patients treated with tamsulosin and 21.1% placebo group, reported urinary retention following surgery (P = 0.001. No serious adverse effects were seen in both groups. Conclusions: This study suggests that short perioperative treatment with tamsulosin can reduce the incidence of urinary retention and the need for catheterization after varicocelectomy, inguinal herniorrhaphy, and scrotal surgery.

  15. Efficacy of the Power Balance Silicone Wristband: a single-blind, randomized, triple placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, David D; Thiel, Gundula; Khoo, S G; Dillon, Wanda A; Sulway, Shaleen; Rutka, John A

    2012-06-01

    The Power Balance Silicone Wristband (Power Balance LLC, Laguna Niguel, CA) (power balance band; PBB) consists of a silicone wristband, incorporating two holograms, which is meant to confer improvements in balance on the wearer. Despite its popularity, the PBB has become somewhat controversial, with a number of articles being published in the news media regarding its efficacy. The PBB has not been formally evaluated but remains popular, largely based on anecdotal evidence. This study subjectively and objectively measured the effects of the PBB on balance in normal participants. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, triple placebo-controlled crossover study was undertaken. Twenty participants underwent measurement using the modified Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) and gave subjective feedback (visual analogue scale [VAS]) for each of four band conditions: no band, a silicone band, a deactivated PBB, and the PBB. Participants acted as their own controls. The mean of the four mCTSIB conditions (eyes open and closed on both firm and compliant surfaces) was calculated. This mean value and condition 4 of the mCTSIB were compared between band conditions using path length (PL) and root mean square (RMS) as outcome measures. No significant differences were found between band conditions for PL (p  =  .91 and p  =  .94, respectively) and RMS (p  =  .85 and p  =  .96, respectively). VASs also showed no difference between bands (p  =  .25). The PBB appears to have no effect on mCTSIB or VAS measurements of balance.

  16. Triiodothyronine Supplementation in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (TRICC) A Multicenter Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial: Age Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Michael A.; Slee, April; Olson, Aaron K.; Cohen, Gordon; Karl, Tom; Tong, Elizabeth; Hastings, Laura; Patel, Hitendra; Reinhartz, Olaf; Mott, Antonio R.; Mainwaring, Richard; Linam, Justin; Danzi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Triiodothyronine levels decrease in infants and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. We tested the primary hypothesis that triiodothyronine (T3) repletion is safe in this population and produces improvements in postoperative clinical outcome. Methods and Results The TRICC study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children younger than 2 years old undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Enrollment was stratified by surgical diagnosis. Time to extubation (TTE) was the primary outcome. Patients received intravenous T3 as Triostat (n=98) or placebo (n=95), and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards. Overall, TTE was similar between groups. There were no differences in adverse event rates, including arrhythmia. Prespecified analyses showed a significant interaction between age and treatment (P=0.0012). For patients younger than 5 months, the hazard ratio (chance of extubation) for Triostat was 1.72. (P=0.0216). Placebo median TTE was 98 hours with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 71 to 142 compared to Triostat TTE at 55 hours with CI of 44 to 92. TTE shortening corresponded to a reduction in inotropic agent use and improvement in cardiac function. For children 5 months of age, or older, Triostat produced a significant delay in median TTE: 16 hours (CI, 7–22) for placebo and 20 hours (CI, 16–45) for Triostat and (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.0220). Conclusions T3 supplementation is safe. Analyses using age stratification indicate that T3 supplementation provides clinical advantages in patients younger than 5 months and no benefit for those older than 5 months. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00027417. PMID:20837917

  17. Efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of BK viremia: a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Belinda T; Gabardi, Steven; Grafals, Monica; Hofmann, R Michael; Akalin, Enver; Aljanabi, Aws; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Adey, Deborah B; Heher, Eliot; Fan, Pang-Yen; Conte, Sarah; Dyer-Ward, Christine; Chandraker, Anil

    2014-03-01

    BK virus reactivation in kidney transplant recipients can lead to progressive allograft injury. Reduction of immunosuppression remains the cornerstone of treatment for active BK infection. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are known to have in vitro antiviral properties, but the evidence for their use in patients with BK viremia is inconclusive. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of BK viremia. Enrollment in this prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial occurred from July 2009 to March 2012. Thirty-nine kidney transplant recipients with BK viremia were randomly assigned to receive levofloxacin, 500 mg daily, or placebo for 30 days. Immunosuppression in all patients was adjusted on the basis of standard clinical practices at each institution. Plasma BK viral load and serum creatinine were measured monthly for 3 months and at 6 months. At the 3-month follow-up, the percentage reductions in BK viral load were 70.3% and 69.1% in the levofloxacin group and the placebo group, respectively (P=0.93). The percentage reductions in BK viral load were also equivalent at 1 month (58% versus and 67.1%; P=0.47) and 6 months (82.1% versus 90.5%; P=0.38). Linear regression analysis of serum creatinine versus time showed no difference in allograft function between the two study groups during the follow-up period. A 30-day course of levofloxacin does not significantly improve BK viral load reduction or allograft function when used in addition to overall reduction of immunosuppression.

  18. Tinnitus control by dopamine agonist pramipexole in presbycusis patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziklai, István; Szilvássy, Judit; Szilvássy, Zoltán

    2011-04-01

    Since the concept of tinnitus dopaminergic pathway emerged, studies have been proposed to investigate if dopaminergic agents influence tinnitus. We hypothesized that pramipexole, an agonist on D2/D3 receptors, may antagonize tinnitus in the presbycusis patients (in the frequency range of 250 to 8,000 Hz) in a dose schedule accepted for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in elderly people. We designed a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. Forty presbycusis patients aged 50 years or older with subjective tinnitus were randomized to two groups (20 patients in both). Patients in the drug group took pramipexole over a period of 4 weeks according to a treatment schedule as follows: week 1, 0.088 mg t.i.d.; week 2, 0.18 mg t.i.d.; week 3, 0.7 mg t.i.d.; week 4, 0.18 mg t.i.d. over 3 days and 0.088 mg t.i.d. the rest of the week. Patients in the second group received placebo. Determination of subjective grading of tinnitus perception, the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) questionnaire and electrocochleography (ECOG) examinations served as the end points. Subjective audiometry was used to produce secondary data. A significant improvement in tinnitus annoyance is found in the group treated with pramipexole versus placebo with respect to inhibition of tinnitus and a decrease of tinnitus loudness greater than 30 dB. However, neither ECOG nor subjective pure-tone threshold audiometry revealed any change in hearing threshold in response to either pramipexole or placebo. Pramipexole is an effective agent against subjective tinnitus associated with presbycusis at a dose schedule used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The drug did not change hearing threshold. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Protection of Salivary Function by Concomitant Pilocarpine During Radiotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlage, Fred R.; Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HNSCC was executed to study the protective effect of pilocarpine on radiotherapy-induced parotid gland dysfunction. The primary objective endpoint was parotid flow rate complication probability (PFCP) scored 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Secondary endpoints included Late Effects of Normal Tissue/Somatic Objective Management Analytic scale (LENT SOMA) and patient-rated xerostomia scores. For all parotid glands, dose-volume histograms were assessed because the dose distribution in the parotid glands is considered the most important prognostic factor with regard to radiation-induced salivary dysfunction. Results: Although no significant differences in PFCP were found for the two treatments arms, a significant (p = 0.03) reduced loss of parotid flow 1 year after radiotherapy was observed in those patients who received pilocarpine and a mean parotid dose above 40 Gy. The LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores showed similar trends toward less dryness-related complaints for the pilocarpine group. Conclusions: Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy did not improve the PFCP or LENT SOMA and patient-rated xerostomia scores. In a subgroup of patients with a mean dose above 40 Gy, pilocarpine administration resulted in sparing of parotid gland function. Therefore, pilocarpine could be provided to patients in whom sufficient sparing of the parotid is not achievable

  20. Sodium bicarbonate on severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Donnino, Michael W; Kim, Won Young

    2018-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is controversial. Current guidelines recommend sodium bicarbonate injection in patients with existing metabolic acidosis, but clinical trials, particularly, those involving patients with acidosis, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged CPR. Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2015 and December 2015, at a single center emergency department (ED). After 10 minutes of CPR, patients who failed to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and with severe metabolic acidosis (pH<7.1 or bicarbonate <10 mEq/L) were enrolled. Sodium bicarbonate (n=25) or normal saline (n=25) were administered. The primary end point was sustained ROSC. The secondary end points were the change of acidosis and good neurologic survival. Sodium bicarbonate group had significant effect on pH (6.99 vs. 6.90, P=0.038) and bicarbonate levels (21.0 vs. 8.0 mEq/L, P=0.007). However, no significant differences showed between sodium bicarbonate and placebo groups in sustained ROSC (4.0% vs. 16.0%, P=0.349) or good neurologic survival at 1 month (0.0% vs. 4.0%, P=1.000). The use of sodium bicarbonate improved acid-base status, but did not improve the rate of ROSC and good neurologic survival. We could not draw a conclusion, but our pilot data could be used to design a larger trial to verify the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate. NCT02303548 (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov).

  1. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine for clozapine-associated weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D C; Fan, X; Copeland, P M; Borba, C P; Daley, T B; Nguyen, D D; Zhang, H; Hayden, D; Freudenreich, O; Cather, C; Evins, A E; Goff, D C

    2007-02-01

    This study sought to examine the effectiveness of sibutramine, a weight loss agent, on clozapine-associated weight gain. This was a 12-week double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial of sibutramine for weight loss in obese clozapine-treated schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder subjects. Ten patients were enrolled into the placebo group and 11 patients into the sibutramine group. There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups on age, gender, education, ethnicity, diagnosis, weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. At week 12, there were no significant differences in changes in weight, BMI, abdominal and waist circumferences, Hba1c, fasting glucose, or cholesterol levels. Sibutramine treatment did not show significant weight loss compared with placebo in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Further research with a larger sample size and longer follow-up duration is warranted.

  2. Pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia - A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...

  3. Randomized clinical trial of transversus abdominis plane block versus placebo control in live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Thiyagarajan, Umasanker M; Nicholson, Harriet F L; Jeyapalan, Inthira; Nicholson, Michael L

    2012-09-15

    Laparoscopic surgery reduces pain after donor nephrectomy; however, most patients still require a significant amount of postoperative parenteral opiate analgesia. Therefore, there is a need to investigate techniques that might further reduce postoperative pain. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of using a transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-six patients were analyzed in the trial and were randomized to undergo the TAP block procedure with either bupivacaine (n=24) or saline placebo (Control n=22) injected into the muscle plane. Prefilled syringes were dispensed with the group allocation concealed to maintain blinding. After surgery, the amount of morphine, level of pain, and measures of recovery were recorded. The amount of morphine used 6 hr after surgery was significantly lower in patients receiving TAP block with bupivacaine compared with the control (presented as mean [SD], 12.4 [8.4] vs. 21.2 [14.0] mg; P=0.015). However, the total amount of morphine used was similar in both groups 45.6 [31.4] vs. 52.7 [28.8] mg; P=0.771. Patients in the bupivacaine group experienced significantly less pain on postoperative days 1 (score, 19 [15] vs. 37 [20]; P=0.003) and 2 (score, 11 [10] vs. 19 [13]; P=0.031). Recovery and postoperative hospital stay were similar in both groups. There were no complications associated with the procedure. The TAP block procedure is beneficial in reducing postoperative pain and early morphine requirements in laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy.

  4. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation in lumbosacral spondylotic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yew L; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Huerto, Antonio P; George, Jane M

    2011-07-01

    Lumbar spondylosis is a degenerative disorder of the spine, whereby pain is a prominent feature that poses therapeutic challenges even after surgical intervention. There are no randomized, placebo-controlled studies utilizing repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation (SMS) in pain associated with lumbar spondylosis. In this study, we utilize SMS technique for patients with this condition in a pilot clinical trial. We randomized 20 patients into SMS treatment or placebo arms. All patients must have clinical and radiological evidence of lumbar spondylosis. Patients should present with pain in the lumbar region, localized or radiating down the lower limbs in a radicular distribution. SMS was delivered with a Medtronic R30 repetitive magnetic stimulator (Medtronic Corporation, Skovlunde, Denmark) connected to a C-B60 figure of eight coil capable of delivering a maximum output of 2 Tesla per pulse. The coil measured 90 mm in each wing and was centered over the surface landmark corresponding to the cauda equina region. The coil was placed flat over the back with the handle pointing cranially. Each patient on active treatment received 200 trains of five pulses delivered at 10 Hz, at an interval of 5 seconds between each train. "Sham" SMS was delivered with the coil angled vertically and one of the wing edges in contact with the stimulation point. All patients tolerated the procedure well and no side effects of SMS were reported. In the treatment arm, SMS had resulted in significant pain reduction immediately and at Day 4 after treatment (P lumbar spondylosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled setting. The novel findings support the potential of this technique for future studies pertaining to neuropathic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Visual improvements in vaginal mucosa correlate with symptoms of VVA: data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, James A; Archer, David F; Kagan, Risa; Bernick, Brian; Graham, Shelli; Constantine, Ginger D; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the response of the vaginal mucosa with TX-004HR and its correlation with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) symptoms, and whether visual examination is a useful measure for assessing VVA. REJOICE was a 12-week, phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a vaginal, muco-adhesive, 17β-estradiol softgel capsule (TX-004HR 4, 10, and 25 μg) in postmenopausal women with VVA and moderate-to-severe dyspareunia. Treatments were self-administered vaginally once per day for 2 weeks, then twice per week for 10 weeks. The vagina was visually examined at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, 8, and 12; changes were evaluated using a 4-item scale for vaginal color, vaginal epithelial integrity, vaginal epithelial surface thickness, and vaginal secretions. Significant improvements were observed with all three TX-004HR doses versus placebo in vaginal color (least square mean score changes of -0.96 to -1.06 for TX-004HR doses vs -0.60 for placebo at week 12), epithelial integrity (-0.97 to -1.07 vs -0.60), epithelial surface thickness (-0.94 to -1.03 vs -0.61), and secretions (-1.01 to -1.06 vs -0.64) (P vaginal dryness (P vaginal mucosa of postmenopausal women with VVA and moderate-to-severe dyspareunia were observed with TX-004HR versus placebo, and vaginal mucosa assessment scores correlated with vaginal symptoms of dyspareunia and dryness. Visual vaginal assessment by healthcare professionals is a useful measure for diagnosing VVA and assessing response to treatment.

  6. A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Chappell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy S Chappell1, Laurence A Bradley2, Curtis Wiltse1, Michael J Detke1,3,4, Deborah N D’Souza1, Michael Spaeth51Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Practice for Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, Graefelfing, GermanyObjective: Assess the efficacy of duloxetine 60/120 mg (N = 162 once daily compared with placebo (N = 168 in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia, during six months of treatment.Methods: This was a phase-III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessing the efficacy and safety of duloxetine.Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups on the co-primary efficacy outcome measures, change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain severity from baseline to endpoint (P = 0.053 and the Patient’s Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I at endpoint (P = 0.073. Duloxetine-treated patients improved significantly more than placebo-treated patients on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire pain score, BPI least pain score and average interference score, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity scale, area under the curve of pain relief, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue dimension, Beck Depression Inventory-II total score, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary and mental health score. Nausea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the duloxetine group. Overall discontinuation rates were similar between groups.Conclusions: Although duloxetine 60/120 mg/day failed to demonstrate significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary outcome measures, in this supportive study, duloxetine demonstrated significant improvement compared with placebo on numerous secondary measures.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, placebo, double-blind, trial

  7. A blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy of morphine analgesia for procedural pain in infants: Trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Hartley, Caroline; Moultrie, Fiona; Adams, Eleri; Juszczak, Ed; Rogers, Richard; Norman, Jane E; Patel, Chetan; Stanbury, Kayleigh; Hoskin, Amy; Green, Gabrielle

    2016-11-15

    Infant pain has both immediate and long-term negative consequences, yet in clinical practice it is often undertreated. To date, few pain-relieving drugs have been tested in infants. Morphine is a potent analgesic that provides effective pain relief in adults, but there is inconclusive evidence for its effectiveness in infants. The purpose of this study is to establish whether oral morphine provides effective analgesia for procedural pain in infants. A blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized, phase II, clinical trial will be undertaken to determine whether morphine sulphate administered orally prior to clinically-required retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and heel lancing provides effective analgesia. 
156 infants between 34 and 42 weeks' gestational age who require a clinical heel lance and ROP screening on the same test occasion will be included in the trial. Infants will be randomised to receive either a single dose of morphine sulphate (100 μg/kg) or placebo. Each infant will be monitored for 48 hours and safety data will be collected during the 24 hours following drug administration. The primary outcome will be the Premature Infant Pain Profile-revised (PIPP-R) score 30 seconds after ROP screening. The co-primary outcome will be the magnitude of nociceptive-specific brain activity evoked by a clinically-required heel lance. Infant clinical stability will be assessed by comparing the number of episodes of bradycardia, tachycardia, desaturation and apnoea, and changes in respiratory support requirements in the 24-hour periods before and after the clinical intervention. In addition, drug safety will be assessed by considering the occurrence of apnoeic and hypotensive episodes requiring intervention in the 24-hour period following drug administration. This study has been published as an Accepted Protocol Summary by The Lancet .

  8. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Guanfacine Extended Release in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E; Robertson, Brigitte; Sikirica, Vanja; Harper, Linda; Young, Joel L; Bloomfield, Ralph; Lyne, Andrew; Rynkowski, Gail; Cutler, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Despite the continuity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) into adolescence, little is known regarding use of nonstimulants to treat ADHD in adolescents. This phase 3 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of guanfacine extended release (GXR) in adolescents with ADHD. This 13-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated once-daily GXR (1-7 mg per day) in adolescents with ADHD aged 13 to 17 years. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score; key secondary endpoints included scores from the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), and Learning and School domain and Family domain scores from the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) at week 13. A total of 314 participants were randomized (GXR, n = 157; placebo, n = 157). The majority of participants received optimal doses of 3, 4, 5, or 6 mg (30 [22.9%], 26 [19.8%], 27 [20.6%], or 24 [18.3%] participants, respectively), with 46.5% of participants receiving an optimal dose above the currently approved maximum dose limit of 4 mg. Participants receiving GXR showed improvement in ADHD-RS-IV total score compared with placebo (least-squares mean score change, -24.55 [GXR] versus -18.53 [placebo]; effect size, 0.52; p ADHD symptoms in adolescents. GXR was well tolerated, with no new safety signals reported. Dose-Optimization in Adolescents Aged 13-17 Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Using Extended-Release Guanfacine HCl; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT01081132. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Ziprasidone Augmentation of Escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder: Efficacy Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, George I; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Swee, Michaela B; Jaeger, Adrienne; Bobo, William V; Shelton, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    The authors sought to test the efficacy of adjunctive ziprasidone in adults with nonpsychotic unipolar major depression experiencing persistent symptoms after 8 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram. This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at three academic medical centers. Participants were 139 outpatients with persistent symptoms of major depression after an 8-week open-label trial of escitalopram (phase 1), randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive adjunctive ziprasidone (escitalopram plus ziprasidone, N=71) or adjunctive placebo (escitalopram plus placebo, N=68), with 8 weekly follow-up assessments. The primary outcome measure was clinical response, defined as a reduction of at least 50% in score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). The Hamilton Anxiety Rating scale (HAM-A) and Visual Analog Scale for Pain were defined a priori as key secondary outcome measures. Rates of clinical response (35.2% compared with 20.5%) and mean improvement in HAM-D total scores (-6.4 [SD=6.4] compared with -3.3 [SD=6.2]) were significantly greater for the escitalopram plus ziprasidone group. Several secondary measures of antidepressant efficacy also favored adjunctive ziprasidone. The escitalopram plus ziprasidone group also showed significantly greater improvement on HAM-A score but not on Visual Analog Scale for Pain score. Ten (14%) patients in the escitalopram plus ziprasidone group discontinued treatment because of intolerance, compared with none in the escitalopram plus placebo group. Ziprasidone as an adjunct to escitalopram demonstrated antidepressant efficacy in adult patients with major depressive disorder experiencing persistent symptoms after 8 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram.

  10. Lovastatin for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Dengue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Khanh, Lam Phung; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Hue Tai, Luong Thi; Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nhon, Vo Thanh; Van Tram, Ta; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P; Wills, Bridget

    2016-02-15

    Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy. Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures. We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe.Chinese Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN03147572. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. MIDAS (Modafinil in Debilitating Fatigue After Stroke): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Pagram, Heather; Nilsson, Michael; Parsons, Mark; Levi, Christopher R

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent in alleviating post-stroke fatigue ≥3 months after stroke. We hypothesized that 200 mg of modafinil daily for 6 weeks would result in reduced symptoms of fatigue compared with placebo. This single-center phase 2 trial used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The key inclusion criterion was a multidimensional fatigue inventory score of ≥60. Patients were randomized to either modafinil or placebo for 6 weeks of therapy, then after a 1 week washout period swapped treatment arms for a second 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the multidimensional fatigue inventory; secondary outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale. The multidimensional fatigue inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with a range of 0 to 100. Treatment efficacy was assessed using linear regression by estimating within-person, baseline-adjusted differences in mean outcomes after therapy. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000350527). A total of 232 stroke survivors were screened and 36 were randomized. Participants receiving modafinil reported a significant decrease in fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory, -7.38; 95% CI, -21.76 to -2.99; P 0.05). Stroke survivors with nonresolving fatigue reported reduced fatigue and improved quality of life after taking 200 mg daily treatment with modafinil. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368268. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Stephan; Guo, Nan; Hinz, Rebecca; Schoppen, Stefanie; May, Jürgen; Reiser, Markus; Schroeder, Maximilian Philipp; Schmiedel, Stefan; Keuchel, Martin; Reisinger, Emil C; Langeheinecke, Andreas; de Weerth, Andreas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Schaberg, Tom; Ligges, Sandra; Eveslage, Maria; Hagen, Ralf M; Burchard, Gerd D; Lohse, Ansgar W

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) are common complications of antibiotic use. Data on the efficacy of probiotics to prevent AAD and CDAD are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii to prevent AAD and CDAD in hospitalized adult patients. Methods.  We conducted a multicenter, phase III, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized patients who received systemic antibiotic treatment in 15 hospitals in Germany between July 2010 and October 2012. Participants received Perenterol forte 250 mg capsules or matching placebo twice per day within 24 hours of initiating antibiotic treatment, continued treatment for 7 days after antibiotic discontinuation, and were then observed for 6 weeks. Results.  Two thousand four hundred forty-four patients were screened. The trial was stopped early for futility after inclusion of 477 participants. Two hundred forty-six patients aged 60.1 ± 16.5 years and 231 patients aged 56.5 ± 17.8 were randomized to the S boulardii group and the placebo group, respectively, with 21 and 19 AADs in the respective groups (P = .87). The hazard ratio of AAD in the S boulardii group compared with the placebo group was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, .55-1.90; P = .94). Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea occurred in 0.8% of participants (4 of 477). Nine serious adverse events were recorded in the S boulardii group, and 3 serious adverse events were recorded in the placebo group. None were related to study participation. Conclusions.  We found no evidence for an effect of S boulardii in preventing AAD or CDAD in a population of hospitalized patients without particular risk factors apart from systemic antibiotic treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier.  NCT01143272.

  13. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHASED ANTENNA ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dzuba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main achievements in the development of phased antenna arrays (par in the past decade. Provides an overview of the most famous systems based on the PAR and PAR based on MMIC technology - PAR in radar stations, PAR to control the laser and optical beams. The existing options for the design of the PAR:ferroelectric antenna array; plasma antenna with electronic scanning; reflective grating on 100-mm semiconductor wafers; wideband antenna arrays with aperture; antenna arrays with digital beam forming.

  14. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of denosumab for the treatment of men with low bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orwoll, Eric; Teglbjærg, Christence S; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt

    2012-01-01

    Context: Men with low bone mineral density (BMD) were treated with denosumab. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effects of denosumab compared with placebo in men with low BMD after 1 yr of treatment. Design, Subjects, and Intervention: This was a placebo-controlled, phase 3 study...... by controlling for baseline covariates (such as baseline testosterone levels, BMD T-scores, and 10-yr osteoporotic fracture risk) demonstrated that the results of the primary endpoint were robust. Subgroup analyses indicate that treatment with denosumab was effective across a spectrum of clinical situations....... Treatment with denosumab significantly reduced serum CTX levels at d 15 (adjusted P adverse events was similar between groups. Conclusions: One year of denosumab therapy in men with low BMD was well tolerated and resulted in a reduction in bone resorption and significant increases...

  15. Safety of Flibanserin in Women Treated With Antidepressants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Croft, Harry A; Yuan, James; Brown, Louise; Kissling, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Depression is often associated with sexual dysfunction, and pharmacologic treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder can be considered in women receiving treatment for depression. To evaluate the safety of flibanserin in women treated for depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. In this double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, women with remitted or mild depression treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors who were not postmenopausal and were experiencing symptoms of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (ie, decreased sexual desire and related distress) received flibanserin 50 mg at bedtime (qhs) for 2 weeks and up-titrated to 100 mg qhs, flibanserin 100 mg qhs for the entire treatment period, or placebo for up to 12 weeks. Safety assessment included adverse events and symptoms of depression and anxiety. 73 patients were randomly assigned to flibanserin (both dose groups combined) and 38 to placebo. The sponsor terminated the study early at discontinuation of the development of flibanserin. Treatment duration was at least 8 weeks for 84.9% and 94.7% of patients in the flibanserin and placebo groups, respectively. The most common adverse events (incidence ≥ 2% in the flibanserin group and higher than that in the placebo group) included dry mouth (5.5% for flibanserin vs 2.6% for placebo), insomnia (5.5% vs 2.6%), back pain (4.1% vs 2.6%), and dizziness (4.1% vs 0.0%). There were no serious adverse events and no instances of suicidal ideation or behavior. The proportions of patients with symptom worsening in the flibanserin and placebo groups, respectively, were 6.9% and 21.6% for depression and 1.4% and 2.7% for anxiety. Remission of depression at study end point, as measured by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report, was experienced by 19.4% of flibanserin-treated patients and 10.8% of patients

  16. Sodium valproate in the treatment of aggressive behavior in patients with dementia--a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, Rob C.; Haffmans, P. M. Judith; Jansen, Paul A. F.; Duursma, Sijmen A.; Eikelenboom, Piet

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The efficacy and tolerability of sodium valproate 2 x 240 mg compared to placebo were investigated in aggressive behavior in dementia. DESIGN: A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind cross-over design. The trial included a baseline period (one week); a placebo period (three

  17. PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY OF MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL COMBINED WITH CYCLOSPORINE AND CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR PREVENTION OF ACUTE REJECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRINYO, J; GROTH, C; PICHLMAYR, R; SADEK, SA; VANRENTERGHEM, Y; BEHREND, M; LUCK, R; MORESO, F; PEETERS, J; RODICIO, J; MORALES, J; ALBRECHTSEN, D; FAUCHALD, P; SADEK, S; LODGE, J; SOULILLOU, JP; CANTAROVICH, D; van Son, W; Tegzess, Adam; WAGNER, K; ERHARD, J; BRATTSTROM, C; MJORNSTEDT, L; WIESEL, M; CARL, S; NEUMAYER, HH; HAUSER, [No Value; LANG, P; BOURGEON, B; TUFVESON, G; GANNEDAHL, G; EKBERG, H; PERSSON, N; TARANTINO, A; CAMPISE, M; THIEL, G; ZEILER, M; HENE, R; LIGTENBERG, G; MORGAN, A; RIGG, K; HOOFTMAN, L; HUTCHINSON, K

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), which inhibits proliferation of T and B cells, may reduce the frequency of acute rejection after renal transplantation. Our randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of MMF with

  18. High-volume infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...

  19. Validation of novel recipes for double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Herpertz, I.; Pasker, L.; van der Heide, S.; Kukler, J.; Jansink, C.; Vaessen, W.; Beusekamp, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: In double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs), the use of challenge materials in which blinding is validated is a prerequisite for obtaining true blinded conditions during the test procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to enlarge the available range of

  20. Validation of novel recipes for double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Herpertz, I.; Pasker, L.; van der Heide, S.; Kukler, J.; Jansink, C.; Vaessen, W.; Beusekamp, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    In double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs), the use of challenge materials in which blinding is validated is a prerequisite for obtaining true blinded conditions during the test procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to enlarge the available range of validated recipes for

  1. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN

  2. OVULATION INDUCTION IN PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE - A PLACEBO-CONTROLLED RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMBINING PITUITARY SUPPRESSION WITH GONADOTROPIN STIMULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKASTEREN, YM; HOEK, A; SCHOEMAKER, J

    Objectives: To determine the effect of pituitary suppression with a GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) on the success of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Design: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. The data were analyzed with a

  3. Suicide risk in placebo-controlled trials of treatment for acute manic episode and prevention of manic-depressive episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storosum, Jitschak G.; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Linszen, Don H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to investigate whether there is a greater suicide risk in the placebo arms of placebo-controlled studies of active medication for the treatment of acute manic episode and the prevention of manic/depressive episode. If so, this would be a strong ethical argument

  4. Cognitive, health and psychosocial effects of melatonin and light therapy in childhood insomnia. Double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; van Maanen, A.; Meijer, A.M.; van der Heijden, K.; Oort, F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To examine effects of melatonin and light therapy on cognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes in children with chronic sleep onset insomnia; and to disentangle direct effects from indirect effects through sleep improvement. Methods: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled

  5. Relapse prevention in pediatric patients with ADHD treated with atomoxetine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelson, D.; Danckaerts, M.; Gillberg, C.; Spencer, T.J.; Zuddas, A.; Faries, D.E.; Zhang, S.; Biederman, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically treated over extended periods; however, few placebo-controlled, long-term studies of efficacy have been reported. METHOD: In a global multicenter study, children and adolescents who responded to an initial 12-week, open-label

  6. Masking foods for food challenge: practical aspects of masking foods for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, G. B.; Colen, A. A.; Jansen, J. J.; Kardinaal, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Martens, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    In diagnosing a food allergy or food intolerance, a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with the suspected food or food substance is the only method available for objective confirmation of an assumed relationship between a suspected agent and a complaint. When the use of

  7. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...

  8. Placebo-controlled comparison of captopril, metoprolol, and hydrochlorothiazide therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with primary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Skøtt, P

    1992-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of captopril, metoprolol, and hydrochlorothiazide was compared in 23 non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM) diabetic patients less than or equal to 75 years of age, with borderline to moderate primary hypertension. In a double blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial...

  9. Skeletal effects and functional outcome with olpadronate in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: a 2-year randomised placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakkers, Ralph; Kok, Dieke; Engelbert, Raoul; van Dongen, Alice; Jansen, Maarten; Pruijs, Hans; Verbout, Ab; Schweitzer, Dave; Uiterwaal, Cuno

    2004-01-01

    Non-randomised studies have suggested beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in osteogenesis imperfecta. We assessed the effects of oral olpadronate in children with this disorder in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. 34 children recruited from the Dutch national centre for

  10. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of controlled release fluvoxamine for the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, HGM; Stein, DJ; Yang, HC; Li, D; Barbato, LM

    This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvoxamine in a controlled release (CR) formulation for treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). A total of 300 subjects with GSAD were randomly assigned to

  11. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Florescu, A; Oturai, P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per...

  12. Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    Aim The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. Material & Methods Thirty patients (79 implants) with

  13. Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C.M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Meijer, Hendrikus; Winkel, Edwin G; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    AIM: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. MATERIAL & METHODS: Thirty patients (79 implants) with

  14. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Eftekhari; Zahra Vahedi; Mojtaba Kamali Aghdam; Diana Noemi Diaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to ...

  15. Development and validation of challenge materials for double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, BJ; Bijleveld, CMA; van der Heide, S; Beusekamp, BJ; Wolt-Plompen, SAA; Kukler, J; Brinkman, J; Duiverman, EJ; Dubois, AEJ

    Background: The use of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. Despite this, materials and methods used in DBPCFCs have not been standardized. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate

  16. Renal Hemodynamic Effects of Serelaxin in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Dahlke, Marion; Meyer, Sven; Stepinska, Janina; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Jones, Andrew; Zhang, Yiming; Laurent, Didier; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Navis, Gerjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background-Serelaxin is a promising therapy for acute heart failure. The renal hemodynamic effects of serelaxin in patients with chronic heart failure are unknown. Methods and Results-In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, patients with New York Heart Association

  17. Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with botulinum toxin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padberg, M.; de Bruijn, S. F. T. M.; de Haan, R. J.; Tavy, D. L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is increasingly advocated as effective treatment in chronic tension-type headache. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to prove efficacy of botulinum toxin in chronic tension-type headache. Patients were randomly assigned to receive botulinum toxin (maximum

  18. Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-15

    Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20–30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. - Highlights: • Thin membranes can be used as aberration correctors in electron columns. • We demonstrate tilt, twofold-, threefold-astigmatism, and spherical aberrations. • Experimental and physical-optics simulation results are in good agreement. • Advantages in cost, size, nonmagnetism, and nearly-arbitrary correction.

  19. Bell's Palsy in Children (BellPIC): protocol for a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T; Borland, Meredith L; Herd, David W; Kochar, Amit; Hort, Jason; Rao, Arjun; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Barrow, Lisa; George, Shane; Zhang, Michael; Gardiner, Kaya; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Berkowitz, Robert; Sullivan, Frank; Porrello, Emily; Dalziel, Kim Marie; Anderson, Vicki; Oakley, Ed; Hopper, Sandy; Williams, Fiona; Wilson, Catherine; Williams, Amanda; Dalziel, Stuart R

    2017-02-13

    Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neurone facial paralysis is characterized by sudden onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. While there is high level evidence in adults demonstrating an improvement in the rate of complete recovery of facial nerve function when treated with steroids compared with placebo, similar high level studies on the use of steroids in Bell's palsy in children are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of steroids in Bell's palsy in children in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. We are conducting a randomised, triple-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the use of prednisolone to improve recovery from Bell's palsy at 1 month. Study sites are 10 hospitals within the Australian and New Zealand PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative) research network. 540 participants will be enrolled. To be eligible patients need to be aged 6 months to Bell's palsy to one of the participating hospital emergency departments. Patients will be excluded in case of current use of or contraindications to steroids or if there is an alternative diagnosis. Participants will receive either prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 50 mg/day or taste matched placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome is complete recovery by House-Brackmann scale at 1 month. Secondary outcomes include assessment of recovery using the Sunnybrook scale, the emotional and functional wellbeing of the participants using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Child Health Utility 9D Scale, pain using Faces Pain Scale Revised or visual analogue scales, synkinesis using a synkinesis assessment questionnaire and health utilisation costs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Participants will be tracked to 12 months if not recovered earlier. Data analysis will be by intention to treat with primary outcome presented as differences in proportions and an odds ratio

  20. Efficacy of antidepressants for dysthymia: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitz, Yeciel; Tedeschini, Enrico; Papakostas, George I

    2011-04-01

    The authors sought to determine the efficacy of antidepressants in dysthymic disorder and to compare antidepressant and placebo response rates between major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder. PubMed/MEDLINE databases were searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants used as monotherapy for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder. We defined antidepressants as those with a letter of approval by the US, Canadian, or European Union drug regulatory agencies for treatment of MDD or dysthymic disorder, which included the following: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, trimipramine, protriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin, lofepramine, amoxapine, maprotiline, amineptine, nomifensine, bupropion, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, brofaromine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, zimelidine, tianeptine, ritanserin, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and mianserin. Eligible studies were identified by cross-referencing the search term placebo with each of the above-mentioned agents. The search was limited to articles published between January 1, 1980, and November 20, 2009 (inclusive). To expand our database, we also reviewed the reference lists of the identified studies. We selected randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for either MDD or dysthymic disorder according to preset criteria relating to comorbidities, patient age, drug formulation, study duration, diagnostic criteria, choice of assessment scales, and whether or not the study reported original data. Final selection of articles was determined by consensus among the authors. A total of 194 studies were found that were eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Of these, 177 focused on the treatment of MDD and 17 on the treatment of dysthymic disorder. We found that

  1. Meta-Analysis: Risk of Tics Associated With Psychostimulant Use in Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephanie C; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Stuckelman, Zachary D; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    Clinical practice currently restricts the use of psychostimulant medications in children with tics or a family history of tics for fear that tics will develop or worsen as a side effect of treatment. Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis to examine the risk of new onset or worsening of tics as an adverse event of psychostimulants in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We used a fixed effects meta-analysis with risk ratio of new onset or worsening tics in children treated with psychostimulants compared to placebo. We used stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of stimulant type, dose, duration of treatment, recorder of side effect data, trial design, and mean age of participants on the measured risk of tics. We identified 22 studies involving 2,385 children with ADHD for inclusion in our meta-analysis. New onset tics or worsening of tic symptoms were commonly reported in the psychostimulant (event rate = 5.7%, 95% CI = 3.7%-8.6%) and placebo groups (event rate = 6.5%, 95% CI = 4.4%-9.5%). The risk of new onset or worsening of tics associated with psychostimulant treatment was similar to that observed with placebo (risk ratio = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.78-1.27, z = -0.05, p = .962). Type of psychostimulant, dose, duration of treatment, recorder, and participant age did not affect risk of new onset or worsening of tics. Crossover studies were associated with a significantly greater measured risk of tics with psychostimulant use compared to parallel group trials. Meta-analysis of controlled trials does not support an association between new onset or worsening of tics and psychostimulant use. Clinicians may want to consider rechallenging children who report new onset or worsening of tics with psychostimulant

  2. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Hair Regrowth: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2015-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery, and preliminary evidence suggests that it might have a beneficial role in hair regrowth. Here, we report the results of a randomized, evaluator-blinded, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare, with the aid of computerized trichograms, hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo. The safety and clinical efficacy of autologous PRP injections for pattern hair loss were investigated. PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients' scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were administered to each patient at 30-day intervals. The endpoints were hair regrowth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 evaluation. Patients were followed for 2 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded. At the end of the 3 treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 33.6 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 45.9 hairs per cm² compared with baseline values. No side effects were noted during treatment. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles 2 weeks after the last PRP treatment compared with baseline value (p plastic surgery, and preliminary evidence suggests that it might have a beneficial role in hair regrowth. Here, the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare the hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo are reported. Hair regrowth was quantified by a blinded evaluator using computerized trichograms. The safety and clinical efficacy of autologous PRP injections for pattern hair loss were investigated. Of the 23 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded. At the end of the 3 treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical

  3. The Use of Ketamine for Acute Treatment of Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Billy; Tatunchak, Tamara; Paryavi, Mohammad; Olivo, Maria; Mian, Usman; Ruiz, Josel; Shah, Bupendra; de Souza, Sylvie

    2017-05-01

    Pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. Ketamine is a sedative with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism. Recent literature has suggested that the use of subdissociative dose ketamine (SDDK) may be safe and effective for acute pain. The objective of our study was to evaluate ketamine in subdissociative doses as an adjunct for acute pain in the ED. This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the use of SDDK in adult patients who presented to the ED with acute pain. Patients received ketamine 0.3 mg/kg via intravenous piggyback over 15 min or placebo. Morphine 0.1 mg/kg intravenous push was administered with the study interventions. The primary outcome was the patient's pain score 15 min after initiation of the intervention. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, consumption of rescue analgesia, patient's length of stay, and patient satisfaction with treatment. Thirty patients were enrolled in each group. Median pain scores in patients who received ketamine were lower than in controls at 15 min (3.5 [interquartile range {IQR} 1.0-7.3 vs. 6.0 [IQR 4.0-9.0], respectively; p = 0.018). No serious adverse events occurred. No difference was detected in the amount of rescue analgesia used or in length of stay. Patients who received ketamine reported a higher mean satisfaction score with their pain management (8.57 [standard deviation {SD} 2.1]) than patients who received placebo (6.05 [SD 2.6]; p = 0.01). When used as an adjunct, SDDK administered at 0.3 mg/kg over 15 min resulted in safe and effective analgesia for ≤30 min in patients who presented with acute pain in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the acute metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance L Albaugh

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics exhibit metabolic side effects including diabetes mellitus and obesity. The adverse events are preceded by acute worsening of oral glucose tolerance (oGTT along with reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA and leptin in animal models. It is unclear whether the same acute effects occur in humans.A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted to examine the potential metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers. Participants included male (8 and female (7 subjects [18-30 years old, BMI 18.5-25]. Subjects received placebo or olanzapine (10 mg/day for three days prior to oGTT testing. Primary endpoints included measurement of plasma leptin, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Secondary metabolic endpoints included: triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and BMI. Olanzapine increased glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC by 42% (2808±474 vs. 3984±444 mg/dl·min; P = 0.0105 during an oGTT. Fasting plasma leptin and triglycerides were elevated 24% (Leptin: 6.8±1.3 vs. 8.4±1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.0203 and 22% (Triglycerides: 88.9±10.1 vs. 108.2±11.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0170, whereas FFA and HDL declined by 32% (FFA: 0.38±0.06 vs. 0.26±0.04 mM; P = 0.0166 and 11% (54.2±4.7 vs. 48.9±4.3 mg/dl; P = 0.0184, respectively after olanzapine. Other measures were unchanged.Olanzapine exerts some but not all of the early endocrine/metabolic changes observed in rodent models of the metabolic side effects, and this suggest that antipsychotic effects are not limited to perturbations in glucose metabolism alone. Future prospective clinical studies should focus on identifying which reliable metabolic alterations might be useful as potential screening tools in assessing patient susceptibility to weight gain and diabetes caused by atypical antipsychotics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00741026.

  5. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Pindolol augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder: a double-blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, P N; Sasson, Y; Hirschmann, S; Iancu, I; Grunhaus, L J; Zohar, J

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pindolol augmentation in treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who were unsuccessfully treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Fourteen treatment-resistant OCD patients were treated with paroxetine for 17.4+/-2.1 weeks up to 60 mg/d after they failed at least two other serotonin reuptake inhibitor trials. The patients, who did not respond to open-label paroxetine treatment, were assigned to a double-blind, placebo-controlled pindolol (2.5 mgx3/d) augmentation. All the subjects were evaluated biweekly for a six-week period with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-Anx), and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Data was analyzed by paired t-test, and ANOVA with repeated measures. Pindolol augmentation to paroxetine (n=8) as compared to placebo augmentation (n=6), was associated with a significant (P<0.01) improvement in Y-BOCS as measured by paired t-test after the fourth week of the treatment and by ANOVA with repeated measures (df: 4.9, f: 3,3, P<0.006). Although no significant differences were found between placebo and pindolol groups on HAM-Anx and MADRS, a trend for improvement in the pindolol group was noted. The results of our study demonstrated that pindolol may augment the therapeutic effect of paroxetine in treatment-resistant OCD patients.

  7. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of caffeine in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momsen, A H; Jensen, M B; Norager, C B; Madsen, M R; Vestersgaard-Andersen, T; Lindholt, J S

    2010-10-01

    Intermittent claudication is a disabling symptom of peripheral arterial disease for which few medical treatments are available. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study included 88 patients recruited by surgeons from outpatient clinics. The participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h before each test and then received either a placebo or oral caffeine (6 mg/kg). After 75 min, pain-free and maximal walking distance on a treadmill, perceived pain, reaction times, postural stability, maximal isometric knee extension strength, submaximal knee extension endurance and cognitive function were measured. The analysis was by intention to treat. Caffeine increased the pain-free walking distance by 20.0 (95 per cent confidence interval 3.7 to 38.8) per cent (P = 0.014), maximal walking distance by 26.6 (12.1 to 43.0) per cent (P postural stability was reduced significantly, by 22.1 (11.7 to 33.4) per cent with eyes open (P < 0.001) and by 21.8 (7.6 to 37.8) per cent with eyes closed (P = 0.002). Neither reaction time nor cognition was affected. In patients with moderate intermittent claudication, caffeine increased walking distance, maximal strength and endurance, but affected balance adversely.

  8. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levetiracetam in central pain in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falah, M; Madsen, C; Holbech, J V

    2012-01-01

    sclerosis. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial with levetiracetam 3000 mg/day versus placebo (6-week treatment periods). Patients with multiple sclerosis, symptoms and signs complying with central neuropathic pain and pain symptoms for more than 6 months, as well....... Twenty-seven patients were included in the data analysis. There were no differences in the ratings of pain relief (levetiracetam 2.4 vs. placebo 2.1, p = 0.169), total pain intensity (levetiracetam 5.3 vs. placebo 5.7, p = 0.147) or any of the other outcome measures (p = 0.086-0.715) in the total sample...... of patients. However, there was significant reduction of pain, increased pain relief and/or more favourable pain relief with levetiracetam than with placebo in patients with lancinating or without touch-evoked pain (p = 0.025-0.046). This study found no effect of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in non...

  9. Sweeten, soother and swaddle for retinopathy of prematurity screening: a randomised placebo controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral sucrose combined with swaddling and non-nutritive suck (NNS) as a method for reducing pain associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled study. SETTING: Tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. SAMPLE: 40 infants undergoing primary eye examination for ROP screening. INTERVENTION: The control group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sterile water given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. The intervention group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sucrose 24% given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. RESULTS: 40 infants were included in the study. There was no difference in mean gestational age at birth, mean birth weight or corrected gestational age at first examination between both groups. The sucrose group had a significantly lower median Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) score during ROP screening, initially following insertion of the speculum (6.5 vs 5, p=0.02) and subsequently during scleral indentation (9.5 vs 7.5, p=0.03). Fewer infants experienced episodes of desaturations or bradycardia in the intervention group (1 vs 4, p=0.18). CONCLUSION: ROP screening is a necessary but recognised painful procedure. Sucrose combined with NNS and swaddling reduced the behavioural and physiological pain responses. However, pain scores remained consistently high and appropriate pain relief for ROP screening remains a challenge.

  10. Estrogen for Alzheimer's disease in women: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, V W; Paganini-Hill, A; Miller, B L; Elble, R J; Reyes, P F; Shoupe, D; McCleary, C A; Klein, R A; Hake, A M; Farlow, M R

    2000-01-25

    AD, the most prevalent cause of dementia, affects twice as many women as men. Therapeutic options are limited, but results of prior studies support the hypothesis that estrogen treatment may improve symptoms of women with this disorder. Forty-two women with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of unopposed conjugated equine estrogens (1.25 mg/day) for 16 weeks. Outcome data were available for 40 women at 4 weeks and 36 women at 16 weeks. At both 4 and 16 weeks, there were no significant differences or statistical trends between treatment groups on the primary outcome measure (the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale), clinician-rated global impression of change, or caregiver-rated functional status. Exploratory analyses of mood and specific aspects of cognitive performance also failed to demonstrate substantial group differences. Although conclusions are limited by small sample size and the possibility of a type II error, results suggest that short-term estrogen therapy does not improve symptoms of most women with AD. These findings do not address possible long-term effects of estrogen in AD, possible interactions between estrogen and other treatment modalities, or putative effects of estrogen in preventing or delaying onset of this disorder.

  11. Placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninan, P T; McElroy, S L; Kane, C P; Knight, B T; Casuto, L S; Rose, S E; Marsteller, F A; Nemeroff, C B

    2000-06-01

    Compulsive buying is a syndrome characterized by the impulsive and/or compulsive buying of unneeded objects that results in personal distress, impairment in vocational or social functioning, and/or financial problems. Results from a two-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled 13-week trial of fluvoxamine are presented. Subjects had problematic buying behavior that they could not control for the previous 6 months or longer and met DSM-IV criteria for impulse control disorder-not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS) and the University of Cincinnati criteria for compulsive buying. Assessments included clinician-rated scales-the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for compulsive buying, the Clinical Global Impression Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-and patient self-reports using daily diaries, which measured episodes of compulsive buying. Forty-two subjects gave informed consent, with 37 subjects providing evaluable information and 23 completing the study. Current or past psychiatric comorbidity was present in 74% of subjects. Intent-to-treat and completer analyses failed to show a significant difference between treatments on any measures of outcome. A high placebo-response rate, possibly from the behavioral benefits of maintaining a daily diary, prevents any definitive statement on the efficacy of fluvoxamine in treating compulsive buying.

  12. Recruitment and accrual of women in a placebo-controlled clinical pilot study on manual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Hawk, Cheryl; Evans, Roni; Long, Cynthia R

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the accrual rates and recruitment processes among 3 Midwestern sites during a pilot study on manual therapy for chronic pelvic pain. Multisite pilot study for a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three chiropractic institutions in or near major metropolitan cities in the Midwestern United States. Thirty-nine women aged 18 to 45 with chronic pelvic pain of at least 6 months duration, diagnosed by a board certified gynecologist. The method of recruitment was collected for each individual who responded to an advertisement and completed an interviewer-administered telephone screen. Participants who were willing and eligible after 3 baseline visits were entered into a randomized clinical trial. The number of responses and accrual rates were determined for the overall study, each of the 3 treatment sites, and each of the 5 recruitment efforts. In this study, 355 women were screened over the telephone and 39 were randomized, making the rate of randomization approximately 10%. The most effective recruitment methods leading to randomization were direct mail (38%) and radio advertisements (34%). However, success of the recruitment process differed by site. Based on the accrual of this multisite pilot study, a full-scale trial would not be feasible using this study's parameters. However, useful information was gained on recruitment effectiveness, eligibility criteria, and screening protocols among the 3 metropolitan sites.

  13. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Tsodikov, Alexander; Millman, Jeanna; Bentley, Heather; Gouaux, Ben; Fishman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the National Institute for Drug Abuse (NIDA) report that no sound scientific studies support the medicinal use of cannabis. Despite this lack of scientific validation, many patients routinely use “medical marijuana,” and in many cases this use is for pain related to nerve injury. We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of smoking cannabis for neuropathic pain. Thirty-eight patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for smoking either high-dose (7%), low-dose (3.5%), or placebo cannabis. In addition to the primary outcome of pain intensity, secondary outcome measures included evoked pain using heat-pain threshold, sensitivity to light touch, psychoactive side effects, and neuropsychological performance. A mixed linear model demonstrated an analgesic response to smoking cannabis. No effect on evoked pain was seen. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, with some acute cognitive effects, particularly with memory, at higher doses. PMID:18403272

  14. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tiralongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.

  15. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  16. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Hertz

    Full Text Available Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants' (unwarranted reliance on their partners' opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other's performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration.

  17. Oxytocin Effect on Collective Decision Making: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Kelly, Maria; Rutledge, Robb B; Winston, Joel; Wright, Nicholas; Dolan, Raymond J; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-01-01

    Collective decision making often benefits both the individuals and the group in a variety of contexts. However, for the group to be successful, individuals should be able to strike a balance between their level of competence and their influence on the collective decisions. The hormone oxytocin has been shown to promote trust, conformism and attention to social cues. We wondered if this hormone may increase participants' (unwarranted) reliance on their partners' opinion, resulting in a reduction in collective benefit by disturbing the balance between influence and competence. To test this hypothesis we employed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design in which male dyads self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo and then performed a visual search task together. Compared to placebo, collective benefit did not decrease under oxytocin. Using an exploratory time dependent analysis, we observed increase in collective benefit over time under oxytocin. Moreover, trial-by-trial analysis showed that under oxytocin the more competent member of each dyad was less likely to change his mind during disagreements, while the less competent member showed a greater willingness to change his mind and conform to the opinion of his more reliable partner. This role-dependent effect may be mediated by enhanced monitoring of own and other's performance level under oxytocin. Such enhanced social learning could improve the balance between influence and competence and lead to efficient and beneficial collaboration.

  18. Topical undecylenic acid for herpes simplex labialis: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, S D; Sacks, S L; Aoki, F Y; Tyrrell, D L; Schlech, W F; Mendelson, J; Rosenthal, D; Gill, M J; Bader, R L; Chang, I

    1997-07-01

    A multicenter, patient-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 15% undecylenic acid cream was conducted with 573 patients with recurrent herpes labialis. Treatment was applied 5 or 6 times daily until crusting and then thrice daily until healing. Patients were assessed daily until 48 h after crusting and then every other day until healing. Undecylenic acid significantly reduced the incidence and duration of viral shedding and the duration and severity of itching but did not increase abortive episodes or reduce times to healing, crusting, or progression of lesion size. When treatment was initiated during the prodrome, the time to crusting was reduced (P = .02) and the area under the symptom-time curve for pain and tenderness was reduced, approaching statistical significance (P = .06). Active treatment was well tolerated but caused dysgeusia and local irritation. Undecylenic acid 15% cream reduces viral shedding in recurrent herpes labialis, but clinical benefits are minimal and largely restricted to patients initiating therapy during the prodrome.

  19. Effect of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsareh, Fatemeh; Taavoni, Simin; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Haghani, Hamid

    2012-09-01

    Menopause is a significant event in most women's lives because it marks the end of a woman's natural reproductive life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at a menopausal clinic at a gynecology hospital in Tehran. The study population comprised 90 women who were assigned to an aromatherapy massage group, a placebo massage group, or a control group. Each participant in the aromatherapy massage group received 30-minute aromatherapy treatment sessions twice a week for 4 weeks with aroma oil, whereas participants in the placebo massage group received the same treatment with plain oil. No treatment was provided to participants in the control group. The outcome measures in this study were menopausal symptoms, as obtained through the Menopause Rating Scale. The mean baseline level of the menopausal score did not differ among all groups. However, after eight sessions of intervention, the Menopause Rating Scale score differed significantly among the three groups (P aromatherapy massage group and the placebo massage group had a lower menopausal score than the control group (P aromatherapy massage and the placebo massage groups were compared, the menopausal score for the aromatherapy massage group was found to be significantly lower (P aromatherapy massage were effective in reducing menopausal symptoms. However, aromatherapy massage was more effective than only massage.

  20. Triiodothyronine Administration in a Model of Septic Shock: A Randomized Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Matthew J; Chapman, Marianne J; Torpy, David J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Clarke, Iain J; Nash, Coralie H; Fraser, Jonathan D; Ludbrook, Guy L

    2016-06-01

    Triiodothyronine concentration in plasma decreases during septic shock and may contribute to multiple organ dysfunction. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of administering triiodothyronine, with and without hydrocortisone, in a model of septic shock. Randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial. Preclinical research laboratory. Thirty-two sheep rendered septic with IV Escherichia coli and receiving protocol-guided sedation, ventilation, IV fluids, and norepinephrine infusion. Two hours following induction of sepsis, 32 sheep received a 24-hour IV infusion of 1) placebo + placebo, 2) triiodothyronine + placebo, 3) hydrocortisone + placebo, or 4) triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone. Primary outcome was the total amount of norepinephrine required to maintain a target mean arterial pressure; secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and metabolic indices. Plasma triiodothyronine levels increased to supraphysiological concentrations with hormonal therapy. Following 24 hours of study drug infusion, the amount of norepinephrine required was no different between the study groups (mean ± SD μg/kg; placebo + placebo group 208 ± 392; triiodothyronine + placebo group 501 ± 370; hydrocortisone + placebo group 167 ± 286; triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone group 466 ± 495; p = 0.20). There was no significant treatment effect on any hemodynamic variable, metabolic parameter, or measure of organ function. A 24-hour infusion of triiodothyronine, with or without hydrocortisone, in an ovine model of septic shock did not markedly alter norepinephrine requirement or any other physiological parameter.

  1. Prophylaxis of irradiation-induced Diarrhea with smectite. Results of a placebo-controlled investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombrink, J.; Froehlich, D.; Glatzel, M.; Krauss, A.; Thiel, H.J.; Meier, J.; Hamann, D.; Muecke, R.; Glaser, F.H.; Koest, S.

    2000-01-01

    Between April 1994 and May 1995, a total of 176 patients obtaining radiotherapy of the pelvis or the abdomen were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled investigation regarding the prophylactic effect of smectite (=Colina trademark ) against radiotherapy-induced diarrhea. During the whole period of radiotherapy 85 patients obtained 2x6 g smectite daily and 91 patients received 2x6 g placebo. The primary end point of the analysis was the time to the first appearance of diarrhea (≥3 pappy stools). Results: All 176 patients were evaluated according to an intent-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference between the prophylactic effects of smectite and placebo. For an explorative post-hoc analysis the total study group was split up into 2 subgroups, one with an irradiated small bowel volume ≤837.5 ml, the other with a small bowel volume >837.5 ml (median); the analysis indicated that the first subgroup showed a benefit for the smectite-treated patients in contrast to the placebo treatment (32 vs. 18 calendar days to the first appearance of diarrhea). This benefit was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Prophylactic application of smectite during irradiation of the pelvis and the abdomen can delay the development of radiotherapy-induced diarrhea, a statistical significance could not be verified neither in the total study group nor in the post-hoc subgroup analysis. (orig.) [de

  2. The efficacy of azithromycin in pityriasis rosea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrolides are prescribed in the treatment of pityriasis rosea despite conflicting results of the limited number of studies evaluating their role in its treatment. Aim: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of azithromycin on the clinical course of pityriasis rosea. Methods: Seventy patients of pityriasis rosea were given either azithromycin (n = 35 or placebo (n = 35 and were followed-up at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Pruritus was assessed in both groups using the visual analogue scale (VAS . Change in the pityriasis rosea severity score (PRSS and in the VAS were recorded as outcome measures and were compared statistically. Results: The decrease in PRSS from baseline through 2, 4 and 6 weeks within both treatment (P < 0.001 and placebo (P < 0.001 arms was found to be statistically significant; however, this change was not significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.179. Similarly, the decrease in VAS was found to be statistically significant within both groups (P < 0.001; however, the change was comparable between the two groups (P < 0.937. Analysis by Fisher′s exact test did not find a significant difference between the two groups for PRSS and VAS. Conclusion: Azithromycin is not effective in pityriasis rosea and the use of macrolides for this disease should not be encouraged in clinical practice.

  3. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of early treatment of the patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluckow, Martin; Jeffery, Michele; Gill, Andy; Evans, Nick

    2014-03-01

    Failure of closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may be associated with harm. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA may result in a reduction in adverse outcomes and need for later PDA closure with no increase in adverse effects. Multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Three neonatal intensive care units in Australia. Eligible infants born <29 weeks were screened for a large PDA and received indomethacin or placebo before age 12 h. Death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. The trial ceased enrolment early due to lack of availability of indomethacin. 164 eligible infants were screened before 12 h; of the 92 infants with a large PDA, 44 were randomised to indomethacin and 48 to placebo. There was no difference in the main outcome between groups. Infants receiving early indomethacin had significantly less early pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) (2% vs 21%), a trend towards less periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) (4.5% vs 12.5%) and were less likely to receive later open-label treatment for a PDA (20% vs 40%). The 72 non-randomised infants with a small PDA were at low risk of pulmonary haemorrhage and had an 80% spontaneous PDA closure rate. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA is feasible and safe, resulted in a reduction in early pulmonary haemorrhage and later medical treatment but had no effect on the primary outcome of death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000295347).

  4. Memantine enhances the effect of olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive treatment to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either memantine (week 1:10 mg/day; weeks 2-6:20 mg/day plus olanzapine (15-20 mg/day or olanzapine plus placebo. At baseline, no statistically significant difference regarding the mean total PANSS scores between treatment groups was found. Results showed that memantine significantly improved the positive and negative PANSS score in patients maintained on olanzapine after six weeks compared to olanzapine alone (P<0.001. Furthermore, female patients showed significantly better response than males, especially in positive PANSS score. No significant changes in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed.These findings indicate that olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with memantine. Furthermore, this effect is more remarkable in female patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Elham; Raisi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Hosseini, Hamed; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghobadi, Ali

    2014-04-28

    Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.

  6. Pentoxifylline, inflammation, and endothelial function in HIV-infected persons: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K Gupta

    Full Text Available Untreated HIV may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo research suggests that pentoxifylline (PTX reduces vascular inflammation and improves endothelial function in HIV-infected persons not requiring antiretroviral therapy.We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PTX 400 mg orally thrice daily for 8 weeks in 26 participants. The primary endpoint was change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery after 8 weeks. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTGMD and circulating markers of inflammation, cellular immune activation, coagulation, and metabolism were also assessed.The difference in mean absolute change (SD in FMD after 8 weeks between the placebo [-1.06 (1.45%] and PTX [-1.93 (3.03%] groups was not significant (P = 0.44. No differences in NTGMD were observed. The only significant between-group difference in the changes in biomarkers from baseline to week 8 was in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFRI [-83.2 pg/mL in the placebo group vs. +65.9 pg/mL in the PTX group; P = 0.03]. PTX was generally well-tolerated.PTX did not improve endothelial function and unexpectedly increased the inflammatory biomarker sTNFRI in HIV-infected participants not requiring antiretroviral therapy. Additional interventional research is needed to reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796822.

  7. Effect of Low Concentrations of Apomorphine on Parkinsonism in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzler, Steven A.; Koudelka, Caroline; Carlson, Nichole E.; Pavel, Misha; Nutt, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether low concentrations of a dopamine agonist worsen parkinsonism, which would suggest that activation of presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors causes a super-off state. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. Setting Academic movement disorders center. Patients Patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations. Intervention Fourteen patients with Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations were randomized to receive 1 of 6 possible sequences of placebo, low-dose (sub-threshold) apomorphine hydrochloride, and high-dose (threshold to suprathreshold) apomorphine hydrochloride infusions. Subthreshold doses of apomorphine hydrochloride (12.5 μg/kg/h every 2 hours and 25 μg/kg/h every 2 hours), threshold to suprathreshold doses of apomorphine hydrochloride (50 μg/kg/h every 2 hours and 100 μg/kg/h every 2 hours), and placebo were infused for 4 hours daily for 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures Finger and foot tapping rates. Results There was no decline in finger or foot tapping rates during the low-dose apomorphine hydrochloride infusions relative to placebo. The high-dose infusions increased foot tapping (P<.001) and trended toward increasing finger tapping compared with placebo infusions. Conclusions Subthreshold concentrations of apomorphine did not worsen parkinsonism, suggesting that pre-synaptic dopamine autoreceptors are not important to the motor response in moderate to advanced Parkinson disease. PMID:18268187

  8. Does EEG-Neurofeedback Improve Neurocognitive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Systematic Review and a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollebregt, Madelon A.; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of placebo-controlled randomized studies relating to EEG-neurofeedback and its effect on neurocognition in attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited. For this reason, a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the effects of EEG-neurofeedback on neurocognitive functioning…

  9. Antispasmodic/analgesic associations in primary dysmenorrhea double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, A R; Zmijanovich, R; Pérez Macri, S; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    We studied 125 patients with primary dysmenorrhea in a prospective randomized double-blind crossover study. After an admission pretreatment period without medication, the patients completed three consecutive randomized treatment phases with lysine clonixinate 125 mg plus propinox 10 mg or paracetamol 500 mg plus hyoscine N-butylbromide 10 mg or placebo, according to a fixed-dose schedule of 1 tablet every 6 h, 3 days before onset of menses and for 5 days thereafter. Changes in menstrual pain intensity and duration, amount of bleeding measured according to the number of daily pads used and concomitant symptoms were assessed on the fifth day of each cycle. Every night, the patients recorded the average intensity of menstrual pain during the first 4 days of menstruation in a diary The follow-up visit carried out at day 5 showed significant reduction in pain intensity with both active treatments vs. the other two phases: baseline: 2.72 +/- 0.61; placebo: 1.85 +/- 0.87; lysine clonixinate plus propinox 1.36 +/- 0.81, and paracetamol plus hyosine N-butylbromide: 1.45 +/- 0.87. The patients' diaries showed increasingly lower pain intensities starting from day 1 with the three treatments. Active treatments revealed significantly higher analgesic efficacy from the outset compared with baseline and placebo; however, only the lysine clonixinate plus propinox combination reached a statistically significant difference by days 3 and 4. No changes in duration or intensity of menstrual bleeding or in the incidence of adverse effects were observed during the four study periods.

  10. Cyproheptadine in the treatment of autistic disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, S; Erfani, S; Mohammadi, M R; Tehrani-Doost, M; Amini, H; Gudarzi, S S; Yasamy, M T

    2004-04-01

    Autism is a childhood-onset disorder of unknown, possibly of multiple aetiologies. The core symptoms of autism are abnormalities in social interaction, communication and behaviour. The involvement of neurotransmitters such as 5-HT has been suggested in neuropsychiatric disorders and particularly in autistic disorder. Increased platelet 5-HT levels were found in 40% of the autistic population, suggesting that hyperserotonaemia may be a pathologic factor in infantile autism. Therefore, it is of interest to assess the efficacy of cyproheptadine, a 5-HT2 antagonist in the treatment of autistic disorder. In this 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed the effects of cyproheptadine plus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder. Children between the ages 3 and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children at Roozbeh Psychiatric Teaching Hospital were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to cyproheptadine + haloperidol (Group A) or haloperidol + placebo (Group B) for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of haloperidol and cyproheptadine was titrated up to 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg/day respectively. Patients were assessed by a third-year resident of psychiatry at baseline and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of starting medication. The primary measure of the outcome was the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist-Community (ABC-C) and the secondary measure of the outcome was the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (relating to people and verbal communication). Side effects and extrapyramidal symptoms were systematically recorded throughout the study and were assessed using a checklist and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale, administered by a resident of psychiatry during weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8. The ABC-C and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores improved

  11. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; Remontet, Laurent; Noel-Baron, Florence; Nicolas, Alain; Feugier-Favier, Nathalie; Roy, Pascal; Claustrat, Bruno; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2010-06-22

    To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497.

  12. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustrat Bruno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group or olive oil (placebo group for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95. A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62% and active (65% group (p = 0.52. The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91. Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497

  13. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in patients with functional constipation. The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g) ASC or placebo solution for 14 days. The study comprised a screening period (visit 1), endoscopy procedure (visits 2 and 3), and followup telephone calls 30 days post-treatment. Safety end points included adverse events (AEs), clinical laboratory evaluations, vital signs, and others. The primary end points were the proportion of patients with abnormalities of the oral and esophageal mucosa, detected by visual and endoscopic examination of the oral cavity and esophagus, respectively, compared with placebo. A secondary objective was to compare the safety and tolerability of ASC by evaluating AEs or adverse drug reactions. A total of 65 patients were enrolled in this study, 31 were randomized to PEG 3350 ASC and 34 were randomized to placebo, of which 62 patients completed the study. No patients in either group showed abnormalities in inflammation of the oral mucosa during visit 2 (before treatment) or visit 3 (after treatment). Fewer abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa were observed in the PEG 3350 ASC group than in the placebo group on visit 3, with no significant difference in the proportion of abnormalities between the treatment groups. Overall, 40 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 48.4% of patients treated with PEG 3350 ASC, and 41 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 55.9% of patients treated with placebo - nonsignificant difference of -7.5% (95% CI: -21.3, 6.3) between treatment groups. No serious AEs or deaths were reported, and no patient discontinued because of an AE. PEG 3350 ASC is safe and well tolerated in patients with functional constipation (NCT01885104).

  14. Evaluation of Isosorbide Mononitrate for Preinduction of Cervical Ripening: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Krishnamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Isosorbide mononitrate (IMN as a cervical ripening agent prior to induction of labour in term pregnant women.A randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted on 100 term singleton pregnancies planned for induction of labour. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received 40 mg IMN and the other group received 40mg of placebo kept vaginally. The main outcome of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of IMN in cervical ripening based on the change in modified Bishop score and the effect on time duration between the drug insertion and delivery. Safety of isosorbide mononitrate was assessed by measuring variables related to maternal and neonatal outcomes.Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean change in modified Bishop score after 2 doses of 40mg IMN was insignificant when compared to placebo. Though IMN shortened the time duration between the drug insertion to delivery when compared to placebo, it was statistically insignificant. The need for oxytocin and 2(nd ripening agent was less in IMN group when compared to placebo group but statistically this also proved to be insignificant. It was noted that there was an increase in caesarean deliveries in IMN than in placebo group. IMN did not cause any significant change in maternal hemodynamics and adverse side effects. Though NICU admission and stay was less in IMN than in placebo group, it was statistically insignificant.Though IMN did not cause any maternal and neonatal adverse effects, it was found to be inefficient in comparison to placebo as a cervical ripening agent.

  15. Radon balneotherapy and physical activity for osteoporosis prevention: a randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklmayr, Martina; Kluge, Christian; Winklmayr, Wolfgang; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Steiner, Martina; Ritter, Markus; Hartl, Arnulf

    2015-03-01

    Low-dose radon hyperthermia balneo treatment (LDRnHBT) is applied as a traditional measure in the non-pharmacological treatment of rheumatic diseases in Europe. During the last decades, the main approach of LDRnHBT was focused on the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, but scientific evidence for the biological background of LDRnHBT is weak. Recently, evidence emerged that LDRnHBT influences bone metabolism. We investigated, whether combined LDRnHBT and exercise treatment has an impact on bone metabolism and quality of life in a study population in an age group at risk for developing osteoporosis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprised guided hiking tours and hyperthermia treatment in either radon thermal water (LDRnHBT) or radon-free thermal water (PlaceboHBT). Markers of bone metabolism, quality of life and somatic complaints were evaluated. Statistics was performed by linear regression and a linear mixed model analysis. Significant changes over time were observed for most analytes investigated as well as an improvement in self-assessed health in both groups. No significant impact from the LDRnHBT could be observed. After 6 months, the LDRnHBT group showed a slightly stronger reduction of the osteoclast stimulating protein receptor activator of nuclear kB-ligand compared to the PlaceboHBT group, indicating a possible trend. A combined hyperthermia balneo and exercise treatment has significant immediate and long-term effects on regulators of bone metabolism as well as somatic complaints. LDRnHBT and placeboHBT yielded statistically equal outcomes.

  16. Rasagiline for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Hauser, Robert A; Elm, Jordan J; Pagan, Fernando; Davis, Matthew D; Choudhry, Azhar

    2016-05-01

    This study's aims were to determine the efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline, a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor B, for PD patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients on stable dopaminergic therapy were randomized to adjunct rasagiline 1 mg/day or placebo in this 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multisite study. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 24 on the Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition total score. Key secondary measures included changes in cognition, activities of daily living, motor scores, and Clinical Global Impression of Change, as well as safety and tolerability measures. Of the 170 patients randomized, 151 (88.2%) completed the study. Change in Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition scores were not significantly different in the rasagiline and placebo groups (adjusted mean: 1.6 [standard error {SE} = 0.5] vs. 0.8 [SE = 0.5] points; LS means difference = 0.8; 95% confidence interval: -0.48, 2.05; P = 0.22). There were no between-group differences in change in the MoCA (p=0.84) or Penn Daily Activities Questionnaire (P = 0.48) scores or in the distribution of Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change modified for mild cognitive impairment (P = 0.1). Changes in motor (UPDRS part III; P = 0.02) and activities of daily living (UPDRS part II; P rasagiline. Rasagiline was well tolerated; the most common adverse events in both groups were falls and dizziness. Rasagiline treatment in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment was not associated with cognitive improvement. Rasagiline did not worsen cognition, improved motor symptoms and activities of daily living, and was well tolerated in elderly cognitively impaired patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled, preoperative trial of allopurinol in subjects with colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntoni, Matteo; Branchi, Daniela; Argusti, Alessandra; Zanardi, Silvia; Crosta, Cristiano; Meroni, Emanuele; Munizzi, Francesco; Michetti, Paolo; Coccia, Gianni; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Bandelloni, Roberto; Turbino, Laura; Minetti, Egle; Mori, Marco; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Benelli, Roberto; Sonzogni, Angelica; DeCensi, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interference with these mechanisms represents a strategy in CRC chemoprevention. Allopurinol, a safe molecular scavenger largely used as antigout agent, has been shown to increase survival of patients with advanced CRC and to reduce CRC incidence in long-term gout users in epidemiologic studies. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled preoperative trial in subjects with colorectal adenomatous polyps to assess the activity of allopurinol on biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis. After complete colonoscopy and biopsy of the index polyp, 73 subjects with colorectal adenomas were assigned to either placebo or one of two doses of allopurinol (100 mg or 300 mg) and treated for four weeks before polyp removal. Change of Ki-67 labeling index in adenomatous tissue was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of NF-κB, β-catenin, topoisomerase-II-α, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in adenomatous polyps and normal adjacent colonic tissue. Compared with placebo, Ki-67 levels were not significantly modulated by allopurinol, whereas β-catenin and NF-κB expression levels decreased significantly in adenomatous tissue, with a mean change from baseline of -10.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -20.5 to -0.7, and -8.1%, 95% CI, -22.7 to 6.5, respectively. NF-κB also decreased significantly in normal adjacent tissue (-16.4%; 95% CI, -29.0 to -3.8). No dose-response relationship was noted, except for NF-κB expression in normal tissue. Allopurinol can inhibit biomarkers of oxidative activation in colon adenomatous polyps and normal adjacent tissue. Further studies should define its potential chemopreventive activity.

  18. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone plus topiramate in children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Vala; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sahraian, Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2010-10-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that forms part of a spectrum of related disorders referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study assessed the effects of topiramate plus risperidone in the treatment of autistic disorder. Forty children between the ages of 4 and 12 years with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to topiramate+risperidone (Group A) or placebo+risperidone (Group B) for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of topiramate was titrated up to 200 mg/day depending on weight (100 mg/day for 30 kg). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after starting medication. Measure of outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale. Difference between the two protocols was significant as the group that received topiramate had a greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behavior and hyperactivity/noncompliance. The results suggest that the combination of topiramate with risperidone may be superior to risperidone monotherapy for children with autistic disorder. However the results need to be further confirmed by a larger randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Double blind, placebo-controlled trial of Tranexamic acid on recent internal hemorrhoid bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A. Rani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Tranexamic acid in 54 patients with recent hemorrhoid bleeding. Age, gender, body weight, height, grade of hemorrhoid, time of onset of recent bleeding were comparable between two groups. Analysis of haemostatic effect or stop bleeding as an immediate outcome of this study revealed that in the grade 2 patients, 23/23 (100% of tranexamic group and 18/23(78.26% of placebo group the bleeding stop. After 3 days of observation, there was statistically significant different for the rate of stop bleeding as well as at the end of observation. Bleeding stop earlier in the Tranexamic group with median 4 days (3-5 days, compare to placebo, median 11(9.55-12.45. Analysis of recurrent bleeding as an outcome of this study revealed that in the placebo group 9/18(50% of grade 2 patients and all grade 3 (100%patients suffered from recurrent bleeding. Since the days 4, both group have significant different time for recurrent bleeding and at the end of observation, cumulative probability of free of bleeding between two groups significantly different. Median still stop bleeding in the placebo group was 36 days, and the tranexamic group never reaches the median until the end of observation. Conclusion: tranexamic acid was an effective drug to stop recent hemorrhoid bleeding and prevent further recurrent bleeding, significantly better than placebo. (Med J Indones 2002;11: 215-21Keywords: Tranexamic acid, hemorrhoid bleeding, haemostatic effect, recurrent bleeding.

  20. Vitamin D as supplementary treatment for tuberculosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo; Gustafson, Per; Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Paul L; Glerup, Henning; Sodemann, Morten

    2009-05-01

    Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in the host immune response toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test whether vitamin D supplementation of patients with tuberculosis (TB) improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in TB clinics at a demographic surveillance site in Guinea-Bissau. We included 365 adult patients with TB starting antituberculosis treatment; 281 completed the 12-month follow-up. The intervention was 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo at inclusion and again 5 and 8 months after the start of treatment. The primary outcome was reduction in a clinical severity score (TBscore) for all patients with pulmonary TB. The secondary outcome was 12-month mortality. No serious adverse effects were reported; mild hypercalcemia was rare and present in both arms. Reduction in TBscore and sputum smear conversion rates did not differ among patients treated with vitamin D or placebo. Overall mortality was 15% (54 of 365) at 1 year of follow-up and similar in both arms (30 of 187 for vitamin D treated and 24 of 178 for placebo; relative risk, 1.19 [0.58-1.95]). HIV infection was seen in 36% (131 of 359): 21% (76 of 359) HIV-1, 10% (36 of 359) HIV-2, and 5% (19 of 357) HIV-1+2. Vitamin D does not improve clinical outcome among patients with TB and the trial showed no overall effect on mortality in patients with TB; it is possible that the dose used was insufficient. Clinical trial registered with www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn (ISRCTN35212132).

  1. Distal Ureteric Stones and Tamsulosin: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furyk, Jeremy S; Chu, Kevin; Banks, Colin; Greenslade, Jaimi; Keijzers, Gerben; Thom, Ogilvie; Torpie, Tom; Dux, Carl; Narula, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    We assess the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin compared with placebo as medical expulsive therapy in patients with distal ureteric stones less than or equal to 10 mm in diameter. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of adult participants with calculus on computed tomography (CT). Patients were allocated to 0.4 mg of tamsulosin or placebo daily for 28 days. The primary outcomes were stone expulsion on CT at 28 days and time to stone expulsion. There were 403 patients randomized, 81.4% were men, and the median age was 46 years. The median stone size was 4.0 mm in the tamsulosin group and 3.7 mm in the placebo group. Of 316 patients who received CT at 28 days, stone passage occurred in 140 of 161 (87.0%) in the tamsulosin group and 127 of 155 (81.9%) with placebo, a difference of 5.0% (95% confidence interval -3.0% to 13.0%). In a prespecified subgroup analysis of large stones (5 to 10 mm), 30 of 36 (83.3%) tamsulosin participants had stone passage compared with 25 of 41 (61.0%) with placebo, a difference of 22.4% (95% confidence interval 3.1% to 41.6%) and number needed to treat of 4.5. There was no difference in urologic interventions, time to self-reported stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. Adverse events were generally mild and did not differ between groups. We found no benefit overall of 0.4 mg of tamsulosin daily for patients with distal ureteric calculi less than or equal to 10 mm in terms of spontaneous passage, time to stone passage, pain, or analgesia requirements. In the subgroup with large stones (5 to 10 mm), tamsulosin did increase passage and should be considered. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Caffeine and Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation in Preterm Infants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Cynthia M; Bello, Jose A; Jain, Deepak; Ramnath, Alexandra; D'Ugard, Carmen; Vanbuskirk, Silvia; Bancalari, Eduardo; Claure, Nelson

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial the effect of early caffeine on the age of first successful extubation in preterm infants. Preterm infants born at 23-30 weeks of gestation requiring mechanical ventilation in the first 5 postnatal days were randomized to receive a 20 mg/kg loading dose followed by 5 mg/kg/day of caffeine or placebo until considered ready for extubation. The placebo group received a blinded loading dose of caffeine before extubation. Infants were randomized to receive caffeine (n = 41) or placebo (n = 42). Age at first successful extubation did not differ between early caffeine (median, 24 days; IQR, 10-41 days) and control groups (median, 20 days; IQR, 9-43 days; P = .7). An interim analysis at 75% enrollment showed a trend toward higher mortality in 1 of the groups and the data safety and monitoring board recommended stopping the trial. Unblinded analysis revealed mortality did not differ significantly between the early caffeine (9 [22%]) and control groups (5 [12%]; P = .22). Early initiation of caffeine in this group of premature infants did not reduce the age of first successful extubation. A nonsignificant trend toward higher mortality in the early caffeine group led to a cautious decision to stop the trial. These findings suggest caution with early use of caffeine in mechanically ventilated preterm infants until more efficacy and safety data become available. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01751724. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical treatment of chronic venous ulcers with sucralfate: a placebo controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, Giovanni; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Simonelli, Lucilla; Santoro, Alberto; Francipane, Silvana

    2008-07-01

    Venous leg ulcers are an important medical issue due to their high incidence in the elderly and the lack of a standard curative approach. Apart from surgical therapy, different medical treatments to effect ulcer wound repair and regeneration are currently being investigated. Sucralfate is a cytoprotective agent employed to prevent or treat several gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux, gastritis, peptic ulcer, stress ulcer and dyspepsia. In this study we evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical sucralfate (SUC-LIS 95) on the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers in 50 patients by a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Our results indicated that the daily application of SUC-LIS 95 to non-infected post-phlebitis/vascular ulcers, for a median period of 42.0 days, led to complete healing in 95.6% of patients, against only 10.9% of cases with a matched placebo. A significant improvement was obtained in the SUC-LIS 95-treated patient group with regard to local tissue inflammation as well as pain and burning, and consequently, in ulcer size and the evolution of granulation tissue. Our findings were corroborated for selected patients by the morphological analysis of biopsies obtained before and after treatment. Using ultrastructural analysis we demonstrated that the topical use of SUC-LIS 95 was able to affect neoangiogenesis, increase wound contraction, promote re-epithelialization of the wound area and diminish the inflammatory reaction. Overall, our results indicated that patients with chronic venous ulcers show improvement after the use of topical sucralfate.

  4. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial of Selenium in Graves Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Riedl, Michaela; König, Jochem; Diana, Tanja; Schomburg, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Supplemental selenium (Se) may affect the clinical course of Graves disease (GD). Evaluate efficacy of add-on Se on medical treatment in GD. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized supplementation trial. Academic endocrine outpatient clinic. Seventy untreated hyperthyroid patients with GD. Additionally to methimazole (MMI), patients received for 24 weeks either sodium selenite 300 µg/d po or placebo. MMI was discontinued at 24 weeks in euthyroid patients. Response rate (week 24), recurrence rate (week 36), and safety. A response was registered in 25 of 31 patients (80%) and in 27 of 33 (82%) at week 24 [odds ratio (OR) 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26 to 3.25; P = 0.904] in the Se (+MMI) and placebo (+MMI) groups, respectively. During a 12-week follow-up, 11 of 23 (48%) and 12 of 27 (44%) relapsed (OR 1.13; 95% CI, 0.29 to 2.66; P = 0.81) in the Se and placebo groups, respectively. Serum concentrations of Se and selenoprotein P were unrelated to response or recurrence rates. At week 36, 12 of 29 (41%) and 15 of 33 (45%) were responders and still in remission in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.31 to 2.32; P = 0.80). Serum levels of free triiodothyronine/free tetraiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, prevalence of moderate to severe Graves orbitopathy, thyroid volume, and MMI starting dose were significantly lower in responders than in nonresponders. A total of 56 and 63 adverse events occurred in the Se and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.164), whereas only one drug-related side effect (2.9%) was noted in 35 patients on placebo + MMI. Supplemental Se did not affect response or recurrence rates in GD. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Effects of Febuxostat in Early Gout: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Saag, Kenneth G; Palmer, William E; Choi, Hyon K; Hunt, Barbara; MacDonald, Patricia A; Thienel, Ulrich; Gunawardhana, Lhanoo

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of treatment with febuxostat versus placebo on joint damage in hyperuricemic subjects with early gout (1 or 2 gout flares). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 314 subjects with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid [UA] level of ≥7.0 mg/dl) and early gout were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily febuxostat 40 mg (increased to 80 mg if the serum UA level was ≥6.0 mg/dl on day 14) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint. Additional efficacy end points included change from baseline to month 24 in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) scores for synovitis, erosion, and edema in the single affected joint, the incidence of gout flares, and serum UA levels. Safety was assessed throughout the study. Treatment with febuxostat did not lead to any notable changes in joint erosion over 2 years. In both treatment groups, the mean change from baseline to month 24 in the modified Sharp/van der Heijde erosion score for the single affected joint was minimal, with no between-group differences. However, treatment with febuxostat significantly improved the RAMRIS synovitis score at month 24 compared with placebo treatment (change from baseline -0.43 versus -0.07; P gout flares (29.3% versus 41.4%; P gout flares in subjects with early gout. © 2017 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.

  6. A preliminary placebo-controlled crossover trial of fludrocortisone for chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, P K; Pheley, A; Schroeppel, J; Schenck, C; Marshall, P; Kind, A; Haugland, J M; Lambrecht, L J; Swan, S; Goldsmith, S

    1998-04-27

    To provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy and safety of fludrocortisone acetate treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-allocation crossover trial of 6 weeks of fludrocortisone. An outpatient clinical trials unit. Twenty-five participants with chronic fatigue syndrome (mean age, 40 years; 19 [76%] women; mean duration of illness, 7.0 years) were recruited from a research and clinic registry. Five patients withdrew from the trial. All participants were scheduled to receive fludrocortisone acetate (0.1-0.2 mg) or a placebo for 6 weeks in each treatment. Self-administered questionnaires were completed at the beginning and end of each treatment arm that asked patients to rate the severity of their symptoms on a visual analogue scale. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, a reaction time test, and a treadmill exercise test were used to assess functional status. Blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine levels were obtained at baseline. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at the end of the exercise test and monitored at all subsequent visits. At baseline, the study participants reported symptom severity greater than 5 for most symptoms, and all had evidence of marked functional impairments. No improvement was observed in the severity of any symptom or in any test of function for the 20 participants who completed both arms of the trial. Blood pressure and heart rate readings were unaffected by treatment, and plasma norepinephrine levels did not differ from those of a healthy control group. The incidence of adverse experiences was similar in the fludrocortisone and placebo arms of the trial. Low-dose fludrocortisone does not provide sufficient benefit to be evident in a preliminary blinded trial of unselected patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  7. Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of benfotiamine for severe alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analog, benfotiamine (BF), and BF's effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, -611 ± 380 standard drinks; PL: N=11, -159 ± 562 standard drinks, p-value=0.02). BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  9. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A

    2007-12-01

    In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.

  10. In vitro testing to diagnose venom allergy and monitor immunotherapy: a placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S G A; Haas, M A; Black, J A; Parameswaran, A; Woods, G M; Heddle, R J

    2004-05-01

    In people with a history of sting allergy, only prior reaction severity and older age are known to predict subsequent reaction risk. Furthermore, no diagnostic test other than a deliberate sting challenge has been found to identify people in whom venom immunotherapy (VIT) has been unsuccessful. We aimed to assess the utility of a number of in vitro tests to diagnose venom allergy and to monitor immunotherapy. During a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of Myrmecia pilosula ant VIT the following venom-specific tests were performed at enrolment, and at completion of treatment prior to a diagnostic sting challenge; leucocyte stimulation index (SI), IL-4 production, IgE RAST, histamine release test (HRT), leukotriene release test (LRT) and basophil activation test (BAT). Intradermal venom skin testing (VST) was also performed at trial entry. Only VST and HRT identified those at risk of sting anaphylaxis in the placebo group. Although IgE RAST, leucocyte SI and IL-4 production, LRT and BAT all correlated well with intradermal VSTs, they did not predict sting challenge outcome. After successful VIT, venom-induced leucocyte IL-4 production tended to fall, whereas IgE RAST increased and a natural decline in HRT reactivity was reversed. A confounding seasonal affect on laboratory results was suspected. The HRT warrants further assessment for diagnosis of venom allergy. Uninformative performance of the commercially available LRT and BAT tests may be due to pre-incubation with IL-3. None of the tests evaluated appear to be reliable markers of successful VIT.

  11. Efficacy of physiotherapy management of knee joint osteoarthritis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Hinman, R; Metcalf, B; Buchbinder, R; McConnell, J; McColl, G; Green, S; Crossley, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management. Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial; 140 community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and 119 completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks. Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment. Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Secondary measures included WOMAC, knee pain scale, SF-36, assessment of quality of life index, quadriceps strength, and balance test. Results: Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: –2.2 cm (95% CI, –2.6 to –1.7) and –2.0 cm (–2.5 to –1.5), respectively. At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: –2.1 (–2.6 to –1.6) and –1.6 (–2.2 to –1.0), respectively. Global improvement was reported by 70% of physiotherapy participants (51/73) at 12 weeks and by 59% (43/73) at 24 weeks. Similarly, global improvement was reported by 72% of placebo participants (48/67) at 12 weeks and by 49% (33/67) at 24 weeks (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability. PMID:15897310

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  13. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walsh

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase.We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected.We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed.One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (p<0.01 and weight gain (p = 0.08 seemed better in the ibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen.Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes

  14. Femicomfort in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndromes: A Double-Blind, Randomized and Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective:Premenstrual syndromes (PMS affecting 20-40% of women of reproductive age. The aim of this double blind and placebo controlled trial was to investigate whether femicofort a supplement contains Vitamin B6, Vitamin E and evening primrose oil could relieve symptoms of PMS. "nMethod: This was a randomized and double blind clinical trial. The trial was conducted between November 2009 and April March 2010. Women aged 20 to 45 years with regular menstrual cycles and experience of PMS symptoms (According to the current diagnostic criteria proposed by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology for at least 6 months were eligible for the study. Patients were randomized to receive femicomfort or placebo in a 1: ratio using a computer-generated code. The assignments were kept in sealed, opaque envelopes until the point of analysis of data. In this double-blind, patients were randomly assigned to receive capsule of femicomfort (Group A or capsule placebo for two menstrual cycles (cycles 3 and 4. The primary outcome measure was the Daily Symptom Report, a checklist of 17 premenstrual symptoms rated from 0 to 4 according to their severity throughout the menstrual cycle. Secondary outcome measure was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17-item. "nResults:Femicomfort at this dose was found to be effective in relieving symptoms of PMS. The difference between the femicomfort and placebo in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the efficacy of femicomfort in the treatment of PMS.

  15. Soy in hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, P; Korpelainen, V; Høie, L H; Skovlund, E; Lahti, T; Smerud, K T

    2002-04-01

    To study whether Abacor, a product based on isolated soy protein with high and standardised levels of isoflavones and cotyledon soy fibres, was more effective in lowering total and LDL cholesterol than placebo. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, single centre study. Primary care in Joensuu, North Karelia, Finland. Subjects were screened from the patient database of the health centre; 30 were randomised to the Abacor group and 30 subjects to placebo. Eight subjects were withdrawn, six from the active group, two from the placebo group. The preparations were given as two daily liquid supplements in addition to the subjects' regular diets for 6 weeks. Abacor showed a statistically significant lipid-lowering effect as compared to placebo, although an unexpected reduction was seen in the placebo group. The estimated difference between active treatment and placebo was 0.25 mmol/l (95% CI 0.01, 0.50; P=0.049) for total cholesterol, corresponding to reductions of 8.3 and 5.1%, respectively. The difference in reduction of LDL-cholesterol was 0.27 mmol/l (95% CI 0.06, 0.49; P=0.014) and corresponded to a reduction of 13.2% in the active treatment group, and 8.0% in the placebo group. Abacor showed a rapid onset of effect, as compared with placebo. During a wash-out period of 4 weeks after treatment, the subjects returned to pre-treatment cholesterol levels. Added to a regular diet, Abacor significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. These beneficial effects occurred within 6 weeks of treatment.

  16. A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Ibuprofen for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in a Bovine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Paul; Behrens, Nicole; Carvallo Chaigneau, Francisco R.; McEligot, Heather; Agrawal, Karan; Newman, John W.; Anderson, Mark; Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and hospital admission in infants. An analogous disease occurs in cattle and costs US agriculture a billion dollars a year. RSV causes much of its morbidity indirectly via adverse effects of the host response to the virus. RSV is accompanied by elevated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) which is followed by neutrophil led inflammation in the lung. Ibuprofen is a prototypical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that decreases PGE2 levels by inhibiting cyclooxygenase. Hypotheses We hypothesized that treatment of RSV with ibuprofen would decrease PGE2 levels, modulate the immune response, decrease clinical illness, and decrease the histopathological lung changes in a bovine model of RSV. We further hypothesized that viral replication would be unaffected. Methods We performed a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen in 16 outbred Holstein calves that we infected with RSV. We measured clinical scores, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and endocannabinoid products in plasma and mediastinal lymph nodes and interleukin (Il)-4, Il-13, Il-17 and interferon-γ in mediastinal lymph nodes. RSV shedding was measured daily and nasal Il-6, Il-8 and Il-17 every other day. The calves were necropsied on Day 10 post inoculation and histology performed. Results One calf in the ibuprofen group required euthanasia on Day 8 of infection for respiratory distress. Clinical scores (pibuprofen group. Ibuprofen decreased cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 products, and increased monoacylglycerols in lung lymph nodes. Ibuprofen modulated the immune response as measured by narrowed range of observed Il-13, Il-17 and IFN-γ gene expression in mediastinal lymph nodes. Lung histology was not different between groups, and viral shedding was increased in calves randomized to ibuprofen. Conclusions Ibuprofen decreased PGE2, modulated the immune response, and improved clinical outcomes. However lung

  17. Memantine in frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A multicenter, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Adam L.; Knopman, David S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.; Grossman, Murray; Onyike, Chiadi; Graf-Radford, Neill; Mendez, Mario; Kerwin, Diana; Lerner, Alan; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Koestler, Mary; Shapira, Jill; Sullivan, Kathryn; Klepac, Kristen; Lipowski, Kristine; Ullah, Jerin; Fields, Scott; Kramer, Joel H.; Merrilees, Jennifer; Neuhaus, John; Mesulam, M. Marsel; Miller, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Memantine has been used off-label to treat frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD). A previous 26 week open label study suggested a transient, modest benefit on neuropsychiatric symptoms as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Methods We performed a randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 20 mg memantine taken orally daily for 26 weeks in FTD. Participants met Neary criteria for behavioral variant (bvFTD) or semantic dementia (SD) and had characteristic brain atrophy. Use of cholinesterase inhibitors was prohibited. The objective of the study was to determine whether memantine is an effective treatment for FTD. Individuals were randomized to memantine or matched placebo tablets in blocks of two and four. Primary endpoints were the change in total NPI score and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scores after 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes included a neuropsychological battery, and other cognitive, global and activity of daily living measures. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00545974 Findings 100 subjects were screened, 81 were randomized, 5 (6%) discontinued and 76 completed all visits. Enrollment numbers were lower than planned due to many subjects’ preference to take memantine or cholinesterase inhibitors off-label rather than participate in a clinical trial. 39 memantine and 42 placebo subjects entered the primary intent to treat analysis. There was no effect of memantine treatment on either the NPI (mean difference [MD] 2.2, 95%CI: −3.9, 8.3, p = 0.47) or CGIC (MD 0, 95%CI: −0.4, 0.4, p = 0.90) after 26 weeks of treatment. Memantine was generally well tolerated, however there were more frequent cognitive adverse events in the memantine group. Interpretation There was no benefit of memantine treatment in bvFTD or SD. These data do not support memantine use in FTD. Funding Forest Research Institute PMID:23290598

  18. Nicoboxil/nonivamide cream effectively and safely reduces acute nonspecific low back pain – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahova Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zuzana Blahova,1 Janina Claudia Holm,1 Thomas Weiser,2 Erika Richter,2 Matthias Trampisch,2 Elena Akarachkova3 1Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Vienna, Austria; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 3I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background/objective: Low back pain affects many patients and has a high socioeconomic impact. Topical capsaicinoids have been used for decades to treat musculoskeletal pain. This study investigated the effects of the fixed dose combination (FDC of nonivamide (a capsaicinoid and nicoboxil (a nicotinic acid ester cream in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain.Materials and methods: This phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multi-center trial investigated efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topical nicoboxil 1.08%/nonivamide 0.17% (Finalgon® cream in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain with the endpoints: pain intensity (PI difference between pre-dose baseline and 8 hours after first application and the end of treatment, mobility score, and efficacy score.Results: Patients (n=138, 21–65 years of age, were treated for up to 4 days with FDC or placebo cream. Mean baseline PI was 6.8 on a 0–10 point numerical rating scale. After 8 hours, pain was more reduced with the FDC than with placebo (adjusted means: 2.824 vs. 0.975 points; p<0.0001. On the last treatment day, mean pain reduction by the FDC was stronger than with placebo (adjusted means: 5.132 vs. 2.174 points; p<0.0001. Mobility on Day 1 was in favor of the FDC when compared to placebo (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 7.200 [3.609, 14.363], p<0.0001. At the end of treatment, patients treated with the FDC rated efficacy significantly higher than placebo (odds ratio [95% CI]: 11.370 [5.342, 24.199], p<0.0001. Both treatments were tolerated well. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Nicoboxil

  19. Magnet therapy for the relief of pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (CAMBRA: A randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Stewart J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory autoimmune disease. Although disease activity may be managed effectively with prescription drugs, unproven treatments such as magnet therapy are sometimes used as an adjunct for pain control. Therapeutic devices incorporating permanent magnets are widely available and easy to use. Magnets may also be perceived as a more natural and less harmful alternative to analgesic compounds. Of interest to health service researchers is the possibility that magnet therapy might help to reduce the economic burden of managing chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Magnets are extremely cheap to manufacture and prolonged treatment involves a single cost. Despite this, good quality scientific evidence concerning the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of magnet therapy is scarce. The primary aim of the CAMBRA trial is to investigate the effectiveness of magnet therapy for relieving pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods/Design The CAMBRA trial employs a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participant will each wear four devices: a commercially available magnetic wrist strap; an attenuated wrist strap; a demagnetised wrist strap; and a copper bracelet. Device will be allocated in a randomised sequence and each worn for five weeks. The four treatment phases will be separated by wash out periods lasting one week. Both participants and researchers will be blind, as far as feasible, to the allocation of experimental and control devices. In total 69 participants will be recruited from general practices within the UK. Eligible patients will have a verified diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis that is being managed using drugs, and will be experiencing chronic pain. Outcomes measured will include pain, inflammation, disease activity, physical function, medication use, affect, and health related costs. Data will be collected using questionnaires, diaries, manual

  20. Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the nitric oxide scavenger pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene in distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinasewitz, Gary T; Privalle, Christopher T; Imm, Amy; Steingrub, Jay S; Malcynski, John T; Balk, Robert A; DeAngelo, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the hemoglobin-based nitric oxide scavenger, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene (PHP), in patients with distributive shock. Phase II multicenter, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study. Fifteen intensive care units in North America. Sixty-two patients with distributive shock, > or = 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and persistent catecholamine dependence despite adequate fluid resuscitation (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > or = 12). Patients were randomized to PHP at 0.25 mL/kg/hr (20 mg/kg/hr), or an equal volume of placebo, infused for up to 100 hrs, in addition to conventional vasopressor therapy. Because treatment could not be blinded, vasopressors and ventilatory support were weaned by protocol. Sixty-two patients were randomized to PHP (n = 33) or placebo (n = 29). Age, sex, etiology of shock (sepsis in 94%), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (33.1 +/- 8.3 vs. 30 +/- 7) were similar in PHP and placebo patients, respectively. Baseline plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were markedly elevated in both groups. PHP infusion increased systemic blood pressure within minutes. Overall 28-day mortality was similar (58% PHP vs. 59% placebo), but PHP survivors were weaned off vasopressors faster (13.7 +/- 8.2 vs. 26.3 +/- 21.4 hrs; p = .07) and spent less time on mechanical ventilation (10.4 +/- 10.2 vs. 17.4 +/- 9.9 days; p = .21). The risk ratio (PHP/placebo) for mortality was .79 (95% confidence interval, .39-1.59) when adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and etiology of sepsis. No excess medical interventions were noted with PHP use. PHP survivors left the intensive care unit earlier (13.6 +/- 8.6 vs. 17.9 +/- 8.2 days; p = .21) and more were discharged by day 28 (57.1 vs. 41.7%). PHP is a hemodynamically active nitric oxide scavenger. The role of PHP in distributive shock remains to be determined.

  1. Oral lysine clonixinate in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Krymchantowski,Abouch V.; Barbosa,Jackeline S.; Cheim,Celia; Alves,Luiz A.

    2001-01-01

    Several oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective to treat migraine attacks. Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a NSAID derived from nicotinic acid that has proven to be effective in various pain syndromes such as renal colic and muscular pain. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral LC compared to placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. Sixty four patients with the diagnosis of migraine, according to the IHS criteria, wer...

  2. Efficacy of polyglucosamine for weight loss?confirmed in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhis, Karina; Bitterlich, Norman; Cornelli, Umberto; Cassano, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this clinical study was to ascertain whether low molecular weight chitosan polyglucosamine is able to produce significantly better weight loss than placebo. Method 115 participants were included in the study. We used a two-center randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled design. The participants followed a standard treatment (ST), which included the combination of a low-calorie diet achieved through creating a daily calorie deficit (500 cal) and an increased daily...

  3. Evaluation of homoeopathic treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome: A single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Chetna Deep Lamba; Praveen Oberai; Raj K Manchanda; Padmalaya Rath; P Hima Bindu; Maya Padmanabhan

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objectives: This study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating efficacy of Homoeopathy in establishing the menstrual regularity with improvement in either ultrasonological findings or hirsutism/acne. The quality of life was also assessed using polycystic ovary syndrome questionnaire (PCOSQ). Materials and Methods: A single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted from February 2014 to May 2015 at two research centres. The cases fulfilling t...

  4. Prospects and challenges of quantitative phase imaging in tumor cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Björn; Götte, Martin; Greve, Burkhard; Ketelhut, Steffi

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques provide high resolution label-free quantitative live cell imaging. Here, prospects and challenges of QPI in tumor cell biology are presented, using the example of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). It is shown that the evaluation of quantitative DHM phase images allows the retrieval of different parameter sets for quantification of cellular motion changes in migration and motility assays that are caused by genetic modifications. Furthermore, we demonstrate simultaneously label-free imaging of cell growth and morphology properties.

  5. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy...... hours after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg of body weight) or placebo for 6 days. The primary end point was change in systolic wall thickening from baseline to 6 months determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An independent core...

  6. Safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 solution in chronic constipation: randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGraw T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thomas McGraw Global Medical Affairs, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of aqueous solution concentrate (ASC of polyethylene glycol (PEG 3350 in patients with functional constipation.Patients and methods: The patients who met Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional constipation were randomized in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study to receive once daily dose of PEG 3350 (17 g ASC or placebo solution for 14 days. The study comprised a screening period (visit 1, endoscopy procedure (visits 2 and 3, and follow-up telephone calls 30 days post-treatment. Safety end points included adverse events (AEs, clinical laboratory evaluations, vital signs, and others. The primary end points were the proportion of patients with abnormalities of the oral and esophageal mucosa, detected by visual and endoscopic examination of the oral cavity and esophagus, respectively, compared with placebo. A secondary objective was to compare the safety and tolerability of ASC by evaluating AEs or adverse drug reactions.Results: A total of 65 patients were enrolled in this study, 31 were randomized to PEG 3350 ASC and 34 were randomized to placebo, of which 62 patients completed the study. No patients in either group showed abnormalities in inflammation of the oral mucosa during visit 2 (before treatment or visit 3 (after treatment. Fewer abnormalities of the esophageal mucosa were observed in the PEG 3350 ASC group than in the placebo group on visit 3, with no significant difference in the proportion of abnormalities between the treatment groups. Overall, 40 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 48.4% of patients treated with PEG 3350 ASC, and 41 treatment-emergent AEs were observed in 55.9% of patients treated with placebo – nonsignificant difference of -7.5% (95% CI: -21.3, 6.3 between treatment groups. No serious AEs or deaths were reported, and no patient discontinued because

  7. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion therapy in Addison's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Lucia; Nenke, Marni A; Thynne, Tilenka R J; von der Borch, Jenny; Rankin, Wayne A; Henley, David E; Sorbello, Jane; Inder, Warrick J; Torpy, David J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Addison's disease (AD) report impaired subjective health status (SHS). Since cortisol exhibits a robust circadian cycle that entrains other biological clocks, impaired SHS may be due to the noncircadian cortisol profile achieved with conventional glucocorticoid replacement. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) reproduces a circadian cortisol profile, but its effects on SHS have not been objectively evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CSHI on SHS in AD. This was a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CSHI vs oral glucocorticoid therapy. Participants received in random order 4 weeks of: CSHI and oral placebo, and subcutaneous placebo and oral hydrocortisone, separated by a 2-week washout period. SHS was assessed using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Fatigue Scale (FS), Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); and Addison's Quality of Life Questionnaire (AddiQoL). Participants were asked their (blinded) treatment preference. Twenty-four hour urine free cortisol (UFC) and diurnal salivary cortisol collections compared cortisol exposure during each treatment. Ten participants completed the study. Baseline SHS scores (mean ± SE) were consistent with mild impairment: SF-36 physical component summary 48.4 (± 2.4), mental component summary 53.3 (± 3.0); GHQ-28 18.1 (± 3.3); GSRS 3.7 (± 1.6), and AddiQoL 94.7 (± 3.7). FS was similar to other AD cohorts 13.5 (± 1.0) (P = 0.82). UFC between treatments was not different (P = 0.87). The salivary cortisol at 0800 h was higher during CSHI (P = 0.03), but not at any other time points measured. There was no difference between the treatments in the SHS assessments. Five participants preferred CSHI, four oral hydrocortisone, and one was uncertain. Biochemical measurements indicate similar cortisol exposure during each treatment period, although a more circadian pattern was evident during CSHI. CSHI does not

  8. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: Designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyu Ming-Chien

    2009-09-01

    model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms was applied. Traditional procedures such as ANCOVA, chi-squared analysis, and regression were used for comparisons. Discussion We present the rationale, design, and methodology of a placebo-controlled randomized trial to investigate a new complementary and alternative medicine strategy featuring a dietary supplement and a mind-body exercise for alleviating bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00625391

  9. Inorganic Nitrate in Angina Study: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Konstantin; Singh, Satnam; Parasuraman, Satish K; Rudd, Amelia; Shepstone, Lee; Feelisch, Martin; Minnion, Magdalena; Ahmad, Shakil; Madhani, Melanie; Horowitz, John; Dawson, Dana K; Frenneaux, Michael P

    2017-09-08

    In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial, we investigated whether oral sodium nitrate, when added to existing background medication, reduces exertional ischemia in patients with angina. Seventy patients with stable angina, positive electrocardiogram treadmill test, and either angiographic or functional test evidence of significant ischemic heart disease were randomized to receive oral treatment with either placebo or sodium nitrate (600 mg; 7 mmol) for 7 to 10 days, followed by a 2-week washout period before crossing over to the other treatment (n=34 placebo-nitrate, n=36 nitrate-placebo). At baseline and at the end of each treatment, patients underwent modified Bruce electrocardiogram treadmill test, modified Seattle Questionnaire, and subgroups were investigated with dobutamine stress, echocardiogram, and blood tests. The primary outcome was time to 1 mm ST depression on electrocardiogram treadmill test. Compared with placebo, inorganic nitrate treatment tended to increase the primary outcome exercise time to 1 mm ST segment depression (645.6 [603.1, 688.0] seconds versus 661.2 [6183, 704.0] seconds, P =0.10) and significantly increased total exercise time (744.4 [702.4, 786.4] seconds versus 760.9 [719.5, 802.2] seconds, P =0.04; mean [95% confidence interval]). Nitrate treatment robustly increased plasma nitrate (18.3 [15.2, 21.5] versus 297.6 [218.4, 376.8] μmol/L, P nitrate treatment). Other secondary outcomes were not significantly altered by the intervention. Patients on antacid medication appeared to benefit less from nitrate supplementation. Sodium nitrate treatment may confer a modest exercise capacity benefit in patients with chronic angina who are taking other background medication. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02078921. EudraCT number: 2012-000196-17. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischaemic stroke (FLAME): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, François; Tardy, Jean; Albucher, Jean-François; Thalamas, Claire; Berard, Emilie; Lamy, Catherine; Bejot, Yannick; Deltour, Sandrine; Jaillard, Assia; Niclot, Philippe; Guillon, Benoit; Moulin, Thierry; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Arnaud, Catherine; Loubinoux, Isabelle

    2011-02-01

    Hemiplegia and hemiparesis are the most common deficits caused by stroke. A few small clinical trials suggest that fluoxetine enhances motor recovery but its clinical efficacy is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fluoxetine would enhance motor recovery if given soon after an ischaemic stroke to patients who have motor deficits. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients from nine stroke centres in France who had ischaemic stroke and hemiplegia or hemiparesis, had Fugl-Meyer motor scale (FMMS) scores of 55 or less, and were aged between 18 years and 85 years were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned, using a computer random-number generator, in a 1:1 ratio to fluoxetine (20 mg once per day, orally) or placebo for 3 months starting 5-10 days after the onset of stroke. All patients had physiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the change on the FMMS between day 0 and day 90 after the start of the study drug. Participants, carers, and physicians assessing the outcome were masked to group assignment. Analysis was of all patients for whom data were available (full analysis set). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00657163. 118 patients were randomly assigned to fluoxetine (n=59) or placebo (n=59), and 113 were included in the analysis (57 in the fluoxetine group and 56 in the placebo group). Two patients died before day 90 and three withdrew from the study. FMMS improvement at day 90 was significantly greater in the fluoxetine group (adjusted mean 34·0 points [95% CI 29·7-38·4]) than in the placebo group (24·3 points [19·9-28·7]; p=0·003). The main adverse events in the fluoxetine and placebo groups were hyponatraemia (two [4%] vs two [4%]), transient digestive disorders including nausea, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain (14 [25%] vs six [11%]), hepatic enzyme disorders (five [9%] vs ten [18%]), psychiatric disorders (three [5%] vs four [7%]), insomnia (19 [33%] vs 20 [36%]), and partial

  11. Better than sham? A double-blind placebo-controlled neurofeedback study in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabus, Manuel; Griessenberger, Hermann; Gnjezda, Maria-Teresa; Heib, Dominik P J; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    See Thibault et al. (doi:10.1093/awx033) for a scientific commentary on this article.Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the 'law of effect'. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard. Earlier treatment approaches using sensorimotor-rhythm neurofeedback indicated that training to increase 12-15 Hz sensorimotor rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex during wakefulness could reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy symptoms and even improve sleep quality by enhancing sleep spindle activity (lying in the same frequency range). In the present study we sought to critically test whether earlier findings on the positive effect of sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback on sleep quality and memory could also be replicated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study on 25 patients with insomnia. Patients spent nine polysomnography nights and 12 sessions of neurofeedback and 12 sessions of placebo-feedback training (sham) in our laboratory. Crucially, we found both neurofeedback and placebo feedback to be equally effective as reflected in subjective measures of sleep complaints suggesting that the observed improvements were due to unspecific factors such as experiencing trust and receiving care and empathy from experimenters. In addition, these improvements were not reflected in objective electroencephalographic-derived measures of sleep quality. Furthermore, objective electroencephalographic measures that potentially reflected mechanisms underlying the efficacy of neurofeedback such as spectral electroencephalographic

  12. Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jerome H; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Coughlin, Catherine; Mulqueen, Jilian; Johnson, Jessica A; Gabriel, Daniel; Reed, Margot O; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. Ketamine is a potent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 18 adults with DSM-5 SAD and compared the effects between intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) and placebo (normal saline) on social phobia symptoms. Ketamine and placebo infusions were administered in a random order with a 28-day washout period between infusions. Ratings of anxiety were assessed 3-h post-infusion and followed for 14 days. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of ketamine and placebo on anxiety symptoms. Outcomes were blinded ratings on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and self-reported anxiety on a visual analog scale (VAS-Anxiety). We also used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the proportion of treatment responders. Based on prior studies, we defined response as a greater than 35% LSAS reduction and 50% VAS-Anxiety reduction. We found ketamine resulted in a significantly greater reduction in anxiety relative to placebo on the LSAS (Time × Treatment: F 9,115 =2.6, p=0.01) but not the VAS-Anxiety (Time × Treatment: F 10,141 =0.4, p=0.95). Participants were significantly more likely to exhibit a treatment response after ketamine infusion relative to placebo in the first 2 weeks following infusion measured on the LSAS (33.33% response ketamine vs 0% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.24, p=0.025) and VAS (88.89% response ketamine vs 52.94% response placebo, Wilcoxon signed-rank test z=2.12, p=0.034). In conclusion, this proof-of-concept trial provides initial evidence that ketamine may be effective in reducing anxiety.

  13. Electroacupuncture Versus Gabapentin for Hot Flashes Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun J.; Bowman, Marjorie A.; Xie, Sharon X.; Bruner, Deborah; DeMichele, Angela; Farrar, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hot flashes are a common and debilitating symptom among survivors of breast cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) versus gabapentin (GP) for hot flashes among survivors of breast cancer, with a specific focus on the placebo and nocebo effects. Patients and Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving 120 survivors of breast cancer experiencing bothersome hot flashes twice per day or greater. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of EA or GP once per day with validated placebo controls (sham acupuncture [SA] or placebo pills [PPs]). The primary end point was change in the hot flash composite score (HFCS) between SA and PP at week 8, with secondary end points including group comparisons and additional evaluation at week 24 for durability of treatment effects. Results By week 8, SA produced significantly greater reduction in HFCS than did PP (−2.39; 95% CI, −4.60 to −0.17). Among all treatment groups, the mean reduction in HFCS was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, GP, and PP (−7.4 v −5.9 v −5.2 v −3.4; P = < .001). The pill groups had more treatment-related adverse events than did the acupuncture groups: GP (39.3%), PP (20.0%), EA (16.7%), and SA (3.1%), with P = .005. By week 24, HFCS reduction was greatest in the EA group, followed by SA, PP, and GP (−8.5 v −6.1 v −4.6 v −2.8; P = .002). Conclusion Acupuncture produced larger placebo and smaller nocebo effects than did pills for the treatment of hot flashes. EA may be more effective than GP, with fewer adverse effects for managing hot flashes among breast cancer survivors; however, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in larger randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. PMID:26304905

  14. Immunomodulatory effects of ResistAid™: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18-61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine).

  15. Methylphenidate and Memory and Attention Adaptation Training for Persistent Cognitive Symptoms after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brenna C; Flashman, Laura A; Arciniegas, David B; Ferguson, Robert J; Xing, Li; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Sprehn, Gwen C; Hammond, Flora M; Maerlender, Arthur C; Kruck, Carrie L; Gillock, Karen L; Frey, Kim; Wall, Rachel N; Saykin, Andrew J; McAllister, Thomas W

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacological enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least 4 months before study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18). Assessments were conducted pre-treatment (baseline) and after 6 weeks of treatment (post treatment). Outcome measures included scores on neuropsychological measures and subjective rating scales. Statistical analyses used linear regression models to predict post-treatment scores for each outcome variable by treatment type, adjusting for relevant covariates. Statistically significant (PABT/placebo), nonverbal learning (MAAT/MPH>MAAT/placebo and MAAT/MPH>ABT/MPH), and auditory working memory and divided attention (MAAT/MPH>ABT/MPH). These results suggest that combined treatment with metacognitive rehabilitation (MAAT) and pharmacotherapy (MPH) can improve aspects of attention, episodic and working memory, and executive functioning after TBI.

  16. The effect of different dosage regimens of tranexamic acid on blood loss in bimaxillary osteotomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apipan, B; Rummasak, D; Narainthonsaenee, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three dosage regimens of intravenous tranexamic acid and normal saline placebo on blood loss and the requirement for transfusion during bimaxillary osteotomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. Eighty patients scheduled for elective bimaxillary osteotomy were divided into four groups: a placebo group and three groups receiving a single dose of tranexamic acid 10, 15, or 20mg/kg body weight after the induction of anaesthesia. Demographic data, the anaesthetic time, the operative time, and the experience of the surgical team were similar in the four groups. Patients receiving placebo had increased blood loss compared to those receiving tranexamic acid. No significant difference in blood loss was found among those who received 10, 15, or 20mg/kg body weight of tranexamic acid. There was no significant difference in transfusion requirement, amount of 24-h postoperative vacuum drainage, length of hospital stay, or complications among the four groups. Prophylactic tranexamic acid decreased bleeding during bimaxillary osteotomy. Of the three dosages of tranexamic acid studied, the most efficacious and cost-effective dose to reduce bleeding was 10mg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral pregabalin for relief of shoulder pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutthachote, Pattiya; Sirayapiwat, Porntip; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach; Charuluxananan, Somrat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of pregabalin for the relief of postoperative shoulder pain after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Tertiary referral center, university hospital. Fifty-six women undergoing elective laparoscopic gynecologic surgery between June 2012 and March 2013. Women in the study group received 75 mg pregabalin 2 hours before surgery and then every 12 hours for 2 doses, and women in the control group received an identical capsule and the same dosage of placebo. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores for shoulder pain and surgical pain at 24 and 48 hours after surgery were evaluated as primary outcome. Postoperative analgesics used and drug-related adverse events were also monitored. Patients in the pregabalin group had significantly lower postoperative VAS scores for shoulder pain at 24 hours, compared with the placebo group (median, 23.14 [range, 13.67-32.61] vs. 37.22 [27.75-46.64]; p = .04), and required less analgesic (p = .01). There were no significant differences in VAS scores for surgical pain and adverse events between the 2 groups (p = .56). Perioperative administration of 75 mg pregabalin significantly reduced postoperative laparoscopic shoulder pain and amount of analgesic used. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Karla Zanolla Dias; Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Geber, Selmo

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days. Randomization was performed using sealed envelopes. All participants answered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Sexual Quotient-female version questionnaires and had their serum levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured. A total of 36 participants completed the study, because 3 from each group were excluded due to side effects and 3 dropped out due to personal reasons. FSFI questionnaire results demonstrated an improvement in all domains in both groups (P  0.05). Moreover, free and bioavailable testosterone levels showed a significant increase in the T terrestris group (P < 0.05). Tribulus terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women, because it was effective in reducing symptoms with few side effects. Its probable mechanism of action involves an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

  19. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris for the treatment of premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Fabiene Bernardes Castro; Zanolla Dias de Souza, Karla; Rezende, Camilla Russi; Geber, Selmo

    2018-05-01

    Although hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual complaint, there is no consensus for the ideal treatment. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treating premenopausal women with HSDD with Tribulus terrestris and its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 40 premenopausal women reporting diminished libido, receiving T. terrestris or placebo. The questionnaires FSFI and the QS-F were used to evaluate sexual dysfunction before and after treatment. Patients treated with T. terrestris experienced improvement in total score of FSFI (p < .001) and domains "desire" (p < .001), "sexual arousal" (p = .005), "lubrication" (p = .001), "orgasm" (p <.001), "pain" (p = .030) and "satisfaction" (p = .001). Treatment with placebo did not improve the scores for the "lubrication" and "pain". QS-F scores showed that patients using T. terrestris had improvements in "desire" (p = .012), "sexual arousal/lubrication" (p = .002), "pain" (p = .031), "orgasm" (p = .004) and "satisfaction" (p = .001). Women treated with placebo did not score improvements. Women receiving T. terrestris had increased levels of free (p = .046) and bioavailable (p < .048) testosterone. T. terrestris might be a safe alternative for the treatment of premenopausal women with HSDD as it was effective in reducing the symptoms, probably due to an increase in the serum levels of free and bioavailable testosterone.

  20. Effect of Paracetamol Pretreatment on Rocuronium-Induced Injection Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Comparison with Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol on rocuronium-induced injection pain with that of lidocaine. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A 20-gauge cannula was inserted into a vein on the dorsum of the patient%u2019s left hand and lactated Ringer%u2019s solution was infused at 100 ml/h. After 5 minutes, infusion was stopped and the left arm of the patient%u2019s was elevated for 15 seconds for gravity of venous blood. While venous occlusion was applied to the left upper arm using a pneumatic tourniquet, one of the pretreatment solutions (normal saline 5 mL, lidocaine 40 mg, paracetamol 50 mg was injected over a period of 10 seconds. The intensity of the pain patients experienced was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale in Group C (normal saline 5 mL, n=60, Group L (lidocaine 40 mg, n=60 and Group P (paracetamol 50 mg, n=60. After 2 minutes, the venous occlusion was released and the patients received 0.06 mg/kg rocuronim bromide over 10 seconds and the rocuronim-induced pain was assessed. Results: The overall incidence of rocuronium-induced injection pain was significantly more in Group C than the other groups (p

  1. Role of oral tramadol 50 mg in reducing pain associated with outpatient hysteroscopy: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, AbdelGany; Haggag, Hisham

    2016-02-01

    Several drugs have been used to reduce hysteroscopy-associated pain. Although the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has recommended against the use of opiates in outpatient hysteroscopy, we wished to investigate if opioids can be used if the appropriate opioid was given in the appropriate dose. To study the effectiveness of tramadol 50 mg in reducing pain associated with outpatient hysteroscopy. A prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in the outpatient hysteroscopy clinic at Cairo University Hospital. Main outcome measures were the severity of pain during the procedure, immediately after the procedure and 30 minutes later assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS of 0 indicates no pain and VAS of 10 indicates the worst possible pain. A total of 140 women who had diagnostic outpatient hysteroscopy were randomised to receive oral tramadol 50 mg or placebo one h before performing outpatient hysteroscopy. There was no difference between the groups in the age, parity, duration of the procedures or indications of hysteroscopy. The median pain score was significantly lower in the tramadol group during the procedure (5 vs 6; P = 0.013), immediately after the procedure (3 vs 4; P pain evoked by the procedure and the drug was well tolerated by women. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. The effects of Alkanna tinctoria Tausch on split-thickness skin graft donor site management: a randomized, blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, Aliasghar; Amini, Shahideh; Javidan, Abbas Norouzi; Saghafi, Mohammad Mehdi; Khorasani, Ghasemali

    2017-05-08

    A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the healing effectiveness of Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch (Boraginaceae) with standard dressing on wound healing at the donor site after removal of the skin graft. Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive topicalA. tinctoria extract ointment (20%) or standard dressing (dressing with base ointment) daily. Wound healing was assessed using the Bates-Jenson assessment tool at the 2 nd and 4 th weeks after intervention. Decreases in wound score were significantly greater in the A. tinctoria group compared with the placebo group (P <0.05). The surface areas of graft donor sites in the A. tinctoria group were significantly reduced as compared with the control group at day 28 of the intervention (P < 0.05). The proportion of patients in the A. tinctoria group achieving complete wound healing within 2 to 4 weeks was 50% and 96.66%, respectively, significantly higher than in patients receiving standard care: 0% and 23.3%, respectively. This clinical study showed that A. tinctoria dressing accelerates wound healing after graft harvesting. IRCT ID: IRCT201511165781N2 .

  3. Effect of preoperative medications on the efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis: A placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Amit; Shashirekha, Govind

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the effect of the administration of preoperative ibuprofen, ketorolac, combination of etodolac with paracetamol and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol versus placebo for the potential increased effectiveness of the inferior alveolar nerve block [IANB] anesthesia. A total of 100 endodontic emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, either a drug or placebo 30 minutes before the administration of a conventional IANB. Cold testing was done before administration of anesthesia to determine level of pain using Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Success was defined as no pain or pain (VAS) on access or initial instrumentation. Overall success was 54% for all the groups. Success was highest (70%) for the ketorolac group, 55% for both ibuprofen group and combination of aceclofenac with paracetamol group, 50% for combination of etodolac with paracetamol group, and 40% for the placebo group. Under the conditions of this study, the use of preoperative medication did improve the anesthetic efficacy of IANB for the treatment of teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis but not significantly.

  4. The Effect of Dextromethorphan Premedication on Cough and Patient Tolerance During Flexible Bronchoscopy: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Shahideh; Peiman, Soheil; Khatuni, Mahdi; Ghalamkari, Marziyeh; Rahimi, Besharat

    2017-10-01

    Patients undergoing bronchoscopy can experience problems such as anxiety and cough, requiring various doses of sedatives and analgesics. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of premedication with dextromethorphan on patients' cough and anxiety, and the use of analgesics/sedatives during flexible bronchoscopy (FB). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study was performed to assess the effect of dextromethorphan premedication on patients who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy. Seventy patients included in this study were randomly allocated into 2 groups: group A consisted of 35 patients who received dextromethorphan before FB; and group B consisted of 35 patients who received a placebo. A questionnaire was given to the patients and bronchoscopist about perception of cough, anxiety, and discomfort. The amount of sedative medication and lidocaine use during the procedure and the procedure time were recorded. The group that was premedicated with dextromethorphan had lower complaint scores, significantly less coughing, significantly less stress assessed by the patient and the physician evaluation, shorter total procedure time, and fewer midazolam requirements during FB (P-value dextromethorphan premedication is an effective approach to facilitate the performance of FB for the physician, and could improve patient comfort.

  5. Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Capsules on Glycemic Control in Therapy-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchaporn Taweerutchana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies showed effects of Moringa oleifera (MO on lowering blood sugar levels in animal and diabetes patients. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of MO leaf capsules on glucose control in therapy-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and to evaluate its safety. Method. This was a prospective randomized placebo controlled study. Therapy-naïve T2DM was randomly assigned to receive either 8 grams per day of MO leaf capsules (MO leaf group or placebo for 4 weeks. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded at screening and at the end of 4-week study. 9-point plasma glucose was obtained before and every week during the study. Results. Thirty-two T2DM patients were enrolled. The mean age was 55 years and the mean HbA1C was 7.0%. There was no significant difference in FPG and HbA1C between groups. MO leaf group had SBP reduction by 5 mmHg as compared to baseline but this difference had no statistical significance. There were no adverse effects of MO leaf. Conclusions. Moringa oleifera leaf had no effect on glycemic control and no adverse effects in T2DM. Interestingly, this study demonstrated that MO leaf had a tendency on blood pressure reduction in T2DM, and this result needs further investigation.

  6. Addition of atropine to submaximal exercise stress testing in patients evaluated for suspected ischaemia with SPECT imaging: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganelli, Fiore; Sauro, Rosario; Di Lorenzo, Emilio; Rosato, Giuseppe; Spadafora, Marco; Varrella, Paola; Peluso, Giuseppina; Daniele, Stefania; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the addition of atropine to exercise testing in patients who failed to achieve their target heart rate (HR) during stress myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who failed to achieve a target HR (≥85% of maximal predicted HR) during exercise SPECT imaging were randomized to receive intravenous atropine (n = 100) or placebo (n = 101). The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to demographic or clinical characteristics. A higher proportion of patients in the atropine group achieved the target HR compared to the placebo group (60% versus 3%, p < 0.0001). SPECT imaging was abnormal in a higher proportion of patients in the atropine group as compared to the placebo group (57% versus 42%, p < 0.05). Stress-induced myocardial ischaemia was present in more patients in the atropine group as compared to placebo (47% versus 29%, p < 0.01). In both groups of patients, no major side effects occurred. The addition of atropine at the end of exercise testing is more effective than placebo in raising HR to adequate levels, without additional risks of complications. The use of atropine in patients who initially failed to achieve their maximal predicted HR is associated with a higher probability of achieving a diagnostic myocardial perfusion study. (orig.)

  7. Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Mansooreh; Jamilian, Mehri; Ebrahimi, Faraneh Afshar; Rahimi, Maryam; Tajbakhsh, Banafsheh; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited data are available for evaluating the effects of oral carnitine supplementation on weight loss and metabolic profiles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was designed to determine the effects of oral carnitine supplementation on weight loss, and glycaemic and lipid profiles in women with PCOS. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 overweight patients diagnosed with PCOS were randomized to receive either 250 mg carnitine supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify parameters of glucose homoeostasis and lipid concentrations. At the end of the 12 weeks, taking carnitine supplements resulted in a significant reduction in weight (-2·7 ± 1·5 vs +0·1 ± 1·8 kg, P weight, BMI, WC and HC, and beneficial effects on glycaemic control; however, it did not affect lipid profiles or free testosterone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prophylactic use of pregabalin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit K. Srivastava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Succinylcholine is commonly used to achieve profound neuromuscular blockade of rapid onset and short duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the efficacy of pregabalin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients of both genders undergoing elective spine surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group P (pregabalin group received 150 mg of pregabalin orally 1 h prior to induction of anesthesia with sips of water and patients in Group C (control group received placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1.5-2.0 mg/kg followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. The intensity of fasciculations was assessed by an observer blinded to the group allotment of the patient on a 4-point scale. A blinded observer recorded postoperative myalgia grade after 24 h of surgery. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. RESULTS: Demographic data of both groups were comparable (p > 0.05. The incidence of muscle fasciculation's was not significant between two groups (p = 0.707, while more patients in group C had moderate to severe fasciculation's compared to group P (p = 0.028. The incidence and severity of myalgia were significantly lower in group P (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Pregabalin 150 mg prevents succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and myalgia and also decreases the fentanyl consumption in elective sine surgery.

  9. Methylphenidate for Apathy in Community-Dwelling Older Veterans With Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Prasad R; Padala, Kalpana P; Lensing, Shelly Y; Ramirez, Daniel; Monga, Varun; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Dennis, Richard A; Petty, Frederick; Sullivan, Dennis H; Burke, William J

    2018-02-01

    Apathy is a common behavioral problem in Alzheimer's disease. Apathy has profound consequences, such as functional impairment, higher service utilization, higher caregiver burden, and increased mortality. The authors' objective was to study the effects of methylphenidate on apathy in Alzheimer's disease. A 12-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (methylphenidate versus placebo) was conducted in community-dwelling veterans (N=60) with mild Alzheimer's disease. The primary outcome for apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale-Clinician) and secondary outcomes for cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination), functional status (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living), improvement and severity (Clinical Global Impressions Scale [CGI]), caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Scale), and depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Participants were all men (77 years old, SD=8). After adjusting for baseline, the methylphenidate group had significantly greater improvement in apathy than the placebo group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, there was also greater improvement in cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression in the methylphenidate group compared with the placebo group. Methylphenidate improved apathy in a group of community-dwelling veterans with mild Alzheimer's disease. Methylphenidate also improved cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression.

  10. The efficacy of oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy - a prospective, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breazu, Caius Mihai; Ciobanu, Lidia; Hadade, Adina; Bartos, Adrian; Mitre, Călin; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Ionescu, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Pain control after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can represent a challenge, considering the side effects due to standard analgesia methods. Recently the transversus abdominis plane block (TAP Block) has been used as a part of multimodal analgesia with promising results. The subcostal approach (OSTAP Block), a variant on the TAP block, produces reliable unilateral supraumbilical analgesia. This study evaluated the efficacy of the OSTAP block with bupivacaine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with the placebo OSTAP block. Sixty ASA I/II adult patients listed for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated in one of two groups: Group A (OSTAP placebo) received preoperatively bilateral OSTAP block with sterile normal saline and Group B (OSTAP bupivacaine) received bilateral preoperatively OSTAP block with the same volumes of 0.25% bupivacaine. Twenty-four hours postoperative opioid consumption, the dose of opioid required during surgery, opioid dose in the recovery unit (PACU) and PACU length of stay were evaluated. The quality of analgesia was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at specific interval hours during 24 h, at rest and with movement. The mean intraoperative opioid consumption showed a significant difference between the two groups, (385 ± 72.52 mg in group A vs 173.67 ± 48.60 mg in group B, p consumption showed a statistically significant difference between groups (32 ± 26.05 mg vs 79 ± 16.68 mg, p < 0.001). PACU length of stay was significantly lower for group B patients compared with group A patients (20.67 ± 11.27 min vs 41.67 ± 12.41 min, p < 0.001). The OSTAP bupivacaine group had a statistically significant lower pain score than the OSTAP placebo group at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 h, both at rest and with movement. No signs or symptoms of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity or other complications were detected. OSTAP block with bupivacaine 0.25% can provide effective analgesia up to 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when combined with conventional multimodal analgesia regimen.

  11. The Effect of Zinc Lozenge on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Borzoo; Grondin, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is commonly seen after endotracheal intubation, and oral zinc prevents oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy. This study is designed to evaluate the effects of administration of zinc lozenges on POST. Seventy-nine patients undergoing low- or moderate-risk surgery with endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Control group received placebo and zinc group received 40-mg zinc lozenges 30 minutes preoperatively. Patients were assessed for incidence and severity (4-point scale, 0-3) of POST at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24 hours and the severity of POST. At 4 hours, there was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the zinc group, 7%, than the control group, 29% (P = .046). The incidence of POST at 0 hour was 0% in zinc group and 24% in control group (P = .004). The highest incidence of POST occurred at the second hour after surgery, with the rate of 10% in the zinc group and 34% in the control group (P = .0495). The incidence of POST at 24 hours was 13% in zinc group and 24% in control group (not significant). The severity of POST was significantly lower in the zinc group for mild (P = .003) and moderate (P = .004) POST. The administration of a single dose of 40-mg zinc lozenge 30 minutes preoperatively is effective to reduce both incidence of POST in the first 4 hours and severity of mild and moderate POST in the immediate postoperative period.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in experimental peripheral nerve injury in rats: a prospective randomized and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Aykut; Guclu, Bulent; Kazanci, Burak; Cakir, Murteza; Coban, Mustafa Kemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the activity of agmatine, an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor and selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, on reducing tissue damage in distal part of traumatic nerve in an experimental rat peripheral nerve injury model. Sciatic nerves of 30 Sprague Dawley male rats were used. Rats were divided into 5 groups; group 1 (n=6), control group; group 2 (n=6), axonotmesis + placebo group; group 3 (n=6), axonotmesis + 50 mg/kg agmatine treatment group; group 4 (n=6), neurotmesis + placebo group; group 5 (n=6), neurotmesis + 50 mg/kg agmatine treatment group. Axonolysis, axon degeneration, edema, hemorrhage, and inflammation were evaluated in histopathologic examinations of all the groups. When group 2 was compared with group 3 in histopathologic sections, axonolysis was less in group 3 (p=0.007), as was axon degeneration (p=0.022) and edema (p=0.018). When group 4 was compared with group 5, axonolysis was less in group 5 (p=0.009), as was axon degeneration (p=0.006) and edema (p=0.021). This study demonstrated agmatine to have antioxidant and antineurotoxic effects in an experimental rat peripheral nerve injury model.

  13. Efficacy of 10% sucralfate ointment after anal fistulotomy: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandipour, Mina; Ala, Shahram; Tavakoli, Hasan; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Shiva, Afshin

    2016-12-01

    The most frequent problems after anal fistulotomy are pain, bleeding, and delayed or impaired wound healing. Topical Sucralfate preparation has been used to treat a wide variety of wounds. In this study, we investigate effects of 10% sucralfate ointment on wound healing and postoperative pain after fistulotomy. A total of 41 patients undergoing anorectal fistulotomy were included in this randomized, blinded, controlled trial and were randomly allocated to either sucralfate ointment (every 12 h) or placebo. The patients were visited weekly for up to 5 weeks. The intensity of pain and the wound healing were assessed. The sucralfate group had significantly less pain at rest (1.92 ± 0.88 vs 2.96 ± 0.98; P = 0.002) and on defecation (1.68 ± 0.92 vs 3.08 ± 1.12; p < 0.001) than the placebo group from 1st to 5th post-operative visits. Complete wound healing was achieved after 8.15 ± 1 weeks in placebo group versus 5.9 ± 0.8 weeks in sucralfate group (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of postoperative complications between the two groups. Compared with placebo, sucralfate ointment reduced postoperative pain at rest and on defecation and improves wound healing in patients undergoing fistulotomy. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does glyceryl nitrate prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis? A