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Sample records for placa vulnerable solitaria

  1. Presencia de placas coronarias vulnerables en mujeres de mediana edad que sufrieron muerte cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gurfinkel; Carlos Vigliano; Patricia Cabeza Meckert; Alejandro Bertolotti; Roberto Favaloro; Juan Carlos Troncoso; Rubén Laguens

    2009-01-01

    RESUMENIntroducciónLas placas vulnerables de las arterias coronarias se encuentran habitualmente en varonessin sintomatología previa que fallecieron súbitamente o debido a un síndrome coronarioagudo. La frecuencia y las características de estas placas en la población femenina de medianaedad se desconocen.ObjetivoIndagar acerca de la presencia de placas coronarias vulnerables en mujeres de medianaedad que sufrieron muerte cerebral.Material y métodosDe un total de 652 corazones de donantes para...

  2. Presencia de placas coronarias vulnerables en mujeres de mediana edad que sufrieron muerte cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gurfinkel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENIntroducciónLas placas vulnerables de las arterias coronarias se encuentran habitualmente en varonessin sintomatología previa que fallecieron súbitamente o debido a un síndrome coronarioagudo. La frecuencia y las características de estas placas en la población femenina de medianaedad se desconocen.ObjetivoIndagar acerca de la presencia de placas coronarias vulnerables en mujeres de medianaedad que sufrieron muerte cerebral.Material y métodosDe un total de 652 corazones de donantes para trasplante obtenidos entre 1996 y 2007, seseleccionaron los provenientes de individuos aparentemente sanos y mayores de 40 añosque murieron a causa de un accidente traumático o cerebrovascular. De los 160 órganos quecumplieron los criterios de selección, se estudiaron 70 corazones femeninos en los que seexaminaron las arterias coronarias en cortes consecutivos a intervalos de 3 mm. Las áreascon estrechamiento luminal se procesaron para su posterior estudio histológico einmunohistoquímico. Las placas se clasificaron según la American Heart Association (AHA.ResultadosLa edad promedio de las mujeres fue de 50,7 ± 5,7 años. El grado de oclusión vascularpromedio fue del 28,66% ± 17,35%. Cuarenta y un corazones poseían sólo lesionesateroscleróticas no avanzadas (tipos I, II y III de la clasificación de la AHA. En los 29restantes se encontraron 58 placas consideradas de alto riesgo o vulnerables (AHA tipos IV,V y VI. Éstas fueron menos frecuentes que en los varones (p < 0,001 y se asociaron con elpeso del órgano (OR 1,02, IC 95% 1,01-1,04; p < 0,001 y con la edad (OR 1,11, IC 95% 1,01-1,23; p = 0,038. No se encontró una relación significativa con la causa de la muerte (p =0,065.ConclusionesEl 41,4% de las mujeres que sufrieron muerte cerebral presentaron placas vulnerables enlos vasos coronarios no asociadas con una reducción significativa de la luz. De esta seriepuede inferirse que existe un promedio de 0,82 lesiones propensas a

  3. Fibromatosis orbitaria solitaria: reporte de caso

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    Jorge Docampo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un caso de fibromatosis orbitaria solitaria en una paciente de sexo femenino de 4 años de edad, la que acudió a consulta por proptosis derecha y pérdida de la agudeza visual. Por tomografía computada (TC, ecografía y resonancia magnética (RM se identificó una masa intraconal que comprometía a los músculos extrínsecos de la órbita y hacía impronta sobre el nervio óptico.Solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit. Case report We report on a 4-year-old female patient with solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit, who presented with right eye ptosis and loss of visual sharpness. Computed tomography (CT scan, ultrasonography (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed an intraconal mass lesion involving the extrinsic orbit muscles, leaving a depression on the aptic nerve.

  4. A role for archaeal organisms in development of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques and myxoid matrices Um papel para organismos de arqueia no desenvolvimento de placas ateroscleróticas vulner��veis e matriz mixomatosa

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    Maria L Higuchi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Vulnerable plaques are characterized by a myxoid matrix, necrotic lipidic core, reactive oxygen species, and high levels of microorganisms. Aerobic microbes such as Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae usually do not survive in oxidative stress media. Archaea are anaerobic microbes with powerful anti-oxidative enzymes that allow detoxification of free radicals whose presence might favor the survival of aerobic microorganisms. We searched for archaeal organisms in vulnerable plaques, and possible associations with myxoid matrix, chlamydia, and mycoplasma bodies. METHODS: Twenty-nine tissue samples from 13 coronary artherectomies from large excentric ostial or bifurcational lesions were studied using optical and electron microscopy. Infectious agents compatible with archaea, chlamydia, and mycoplasma were semiquantified using electron micrographs and correlated with the amounts of fibromuscular tissue, myxoid matrix, and foam cells, as determined from semi-thin sections. Six of the cases were also submitted to polymerase chain reaction with archaeal primers. RESULTS: All 13 specimens showed archaeal-compatible structures and chlamydial and mycoplasmal bodies in at least 1 sample. There was a positive correlation between extent of the of myxoid matrix and archaeal bodies (r = 0.44, P = 0.02; between archaeal and mycoplasmal bodies (r = 0.41, P = 0.03, and between chlamydial bodies and foam cells (r = 0.42; P = 0.03. The PCR test was positive for archaeal DNA in 4 of the 6 fragments. DISCUSSION: DNA and forms suggestive of archaea are present in vulnerable plaques and may have a fundamental role in the proliferation of mycoplasma and chlamydia. This seems to be the first description of apparently pathogenic archaea in human internal organ lesions.PROPOSTA: Placas vulneráveis são caracterizadas por matriz mixomatosa, centro lipídico necrótico, espécies reativas de oxigênio e alto níveis de microorganismos. Micróbios aer

  5. "Enfermedad de las tres mentiras": síndrome de la úlcera rectal solitaria A disease of three lies: solitary rectal ulcer syndrome

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    L. Crespo Pérez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de la úlcera rectal solitaria es una entidad benigna poco común cuyos síntomas más frecuentes son la rectorragia y el dolor anal. Los hallazgos anatomopatológicos son típicos. Se suele evidenciar engrosamiento de la mucosa, elongación y distorsión de las glándulas, una lámina propia edematosa con gran cantidad de colágena y engrosamiento de la muscularis mucosae. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante endoscopia con toma de biopsias. No siempre se trata de lesiones ulceradas. Se suele localizar preferentemente en la cara rectal anterior y/o lateral, aunque hasta un 30% de las lesiones son múltiples, existiendo casos de afectación del colon sigmoide y descendente. Por tanto, la presentación puede ser heterogénea y este es el motivo por el que esta entidad es también conocida como la "enfermedad de las tres mentiras". Presentamos un caso de síndrome de la ulcera rectal solitaria manifestado endoscópicamente como una placa eritematosa localizada en la cara lateral izquierda del recto.Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is an uncommon benign condition characterized by rectal bleeding, passage of mucus, and pain. Histological features are well established as obliteration of the lamina propria by fibrosis and smooth-muscle fibers extending from a thickened muscularis mucosa to the lumen. Diagnosis can usually be made on sigmoidoscopy, and biopsies should always be taken. Ulceration is not universally present, and polypoid, non-ulcerated lesions and erythematous areas are also seen. The lesion or lesions are most often found on the anterior or anterolateral wall of the rectum, although they can also be located in the left colon and be more extensive or even circumferential. Lesions are multiple in 30 percent of cases. These are the reasons why this entity is also known as "the disease of three lies". We report a case of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome presenting at endoscopy with an erythematous area on the left side wall of the

  6. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales.

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    Franziska Szokoli

    Full Text Available Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages.

  7. 单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrumsp.)的培养条件及其细胞组成%Culture condition and cellular biochemical composition of two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佳琦; 黄旭雄; 马坤俊; 黄征征; 吕为群

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are the potential resources for producing biological and renewable energy. In this study, two microalgae Oocystis solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Were collected from a coastal freshwater pond, and a culture experiment was conducted to determine the optimum water temperature, light intensity, and water salinity for the growth and reproduction of the two microalgae. The cellular biochemical composition of the two microalgae was analyzed, and the effects of water salinity on the lipid content of these microalgae were investigated. The suitable water temperature and light intensity for the growth of 0. Solitaria and Selenastrum, sp. Were 35. 9-40.5 ℃ and 29.7-32. 8 ℃, and 46-70 μmol · M-2 · S-1 and 17-54 μmol · M-2 · S-1, respectively. O. Solitaria grew best in fresh water, while Selenastrum sp. Flourished in brackish water at salinity 2. Under suitable culture conditions, the cell protein, carbohydrate, and total lipid contents of O. Solitaria were 27.61% , 22. 00% , and 3. 84% , respectively, and those of Selenastrum sp. Were 28.06% , 21. 99% and 12. 53% , respectively. In the fatty acid of O. Solitaria, 18:3n3 was abundant; while in that of Selenastrum sp. , DHA presented. Water salinity affected the total lipid content of the two microalgae. At salinity 4 and 10, O. Solitaria and Selenastrum sp. Had the highest lipid content, being 8.29% and 18.21% , respectively.%从海滨的淡水池沼中分离得到单生卵囊藻(Oocystis solitaria)和月牙藻(Selenastrum sp.),分别研究了温度、光照强度、盐度对2种微藻生长繁殖的影响,分析了2种微藻的细胞组成、脂肪酸组成及盐度对2种微藻脂肪积累的影响.结果表明:单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜生长温度分别为35.9℃~40.5℃和29.7℃~32.8℃;单生卵囊藻和月牙藻的适宜光照强度分别为46~70μmol · m-2·s-1和17 ~54 μmol·m-2·s-1;单生卵囊藻在淡水培养液中生长最好,月牙藻在盐度为2的半成水培养

  8. Modelo de propagación de ondas solitarias en el corazón

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    Ivonne Domínguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actividad eléctrica cardiaca, distintos tipos de onda viajan a través del corazón. Presentamos un modelo de la actividad eléctrica del corazón, proponemos que los frentes de onda homogéneos que se propagan en el corazón son, de hecho, ondas solitarias, o “solitones”. Usamos un conjunto general de ecuaciones de reacción-difusión conocido como el modelo de Barrio-Varea-Aragón- Maini (BVAM[1], el cual presenta una abundancia de bifurcaciones no lineales, siendo capaces de encontrar la ruta al caos usando un mapeo de las ecuaciones de amplitud a la dinámica de la ecuación compleja de Ginzburg-Landau. Estudiamos numéricamente la dinámica de los frentes de onda en el modelo BVAM para describir los mecanismos que conducen a la fibrilación en el corazón y comparamos los resultados con datos experimentales.

  9. A role for archaeal organisms in development of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques and myxoid matrices Um papel para organismos de arqueia no desenvolvimento de placas ateroscleróticas vulner��veis e matriz mixomatosa

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Vulnerable plaques are characterized by a myxoid matrix, necrotic lipidic core, reactive oxygen species, and high levels of microorganisms. Aerobic microbes such as Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae usually do not survive in oxidative stress media. Archaea are anaerobic microbes with powerful anti-oxidative enzymes that allow detoxification of free radicals whose presence might favor the survival of aerobic microorganisms. We searched for archaeal organisms in vulner...

  10. Actividad inflamatoria en múltiples placas ateroscleróticas en pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio

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    Alejandro García Escudero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónEstudios clínicos y anatomopatológicos sugieren que los procesos inflamatorios tienen un papel importante en la inestabilidad de la placa aterosclerótica, dado que en pacientes con síndromes coronarios agudos se observan infiltrados inflamatorios difusos en las arterias coronarias.ObjetivosEvaluar y localizar la distribución de placas vulnerables e infiltrados inflamatorios en pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio.Material y métodosMediante microscopia óptica se estudiaron las arterias coronarias de 58 pacientes fallecidos por infarto de miocardio. En las arterias coronarias relacionadas con el infarto y en las no relacionadas se registraron las siguientes variables: presencia de trombo, rotura de placa, hemorragia intraplaca y presencia de infiltrado inflamatorio.ResultadosAl analizar las diferencias existentes entre las arterias responsables del infarto y en las no responsables se encontraron diferencias significativas con respecto a la presencia de trombo (69% versus 38%; p < 0,008 y de hemorragia intraplaca (69% versus 50%; p < 0,03. No se encontró una diferencia significativa entre la arteria responsable y la no responsable al evaluar la presencia de infiltrado inflamatorio en las placas ateroscleróticas (77% versus 71%; p = ns.ConclusiónEn el infarto agudo de miocardio se comprobó la presencia de actividad inflamatoria que afectaba a más de un vaso, con compromiso de otras arterias además de la responsable del infarto. Se detectó también accidente agudo de placa en más de una arteria coronaria.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:81-87.

  11. Evaluación de las placas coronarias por tomografía computarizada multidetector de 16 filas. Correlación con ecografía intravascular

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    Patricia Carrascosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónEl 50% de las muertes de etiología cardiovascular se deben a la enfermedad arteriosclerótica. Estudios recientes demostraron que las placas ateromatosas más propensas al desarrollo de un evento coronario son las que presentan ciertas características particulares, como un centro o core lipídico y remodelación positiva, denominadas placas vulnerables. La determinación temprana de la presencia de este tipo de placas ateroscleróticas tendría un impacto clínico de suma importancia y podría ayudar a prevenir el desarrollo de un síndrome coronario agudo en el futuro.ObjetivoDeterminar la certeza diagnóstica de la angiografía coronaria por tomografía computarizada multidetector de 16 filas (16-ACTCM en la identificación, la caracterización y la cuantificación de las lesiones arterioscleróticas coronarias en comparación con la ecografía intravascular (EIV.Material y métodosSe estudiaron 45 pacientes con indicación de angiografía coronaria con 16-ACTCM y EIV.En cada segmento coronario se analizaron la carga de placa y las características de la placa aterosclerótica, que se clasificó en blanda, fibrosa y cálcica. La certeza diagnóstica de la 16-ACTCM para determinar la carga de placa y la identificación de placas coronarias se calculó con el método exacto binomial. Sobre la base de un análisis con curvas ROC se determinó el punto de corte para cada tipo de placa, así como la densidad media y la desviación estándar en unidades Hounsfield [UH]. Se evaluó además la certeza diagnóstica de la ACTCM para el diagnóstico de estenosis coronaria = 50%.ResultadosPara la detección de carga de placa, la sensibilidad fue del 96,2% y la especificidad fue del 81,9%. Para la detección de placas blandas, fibrosas y calcificadas, la sensibilidad y la especificidad fueron del 94,6% y 92,62%, del 94,9% y 98,5% y del 93,2% y 95,1%, respectivamente.Con un valor de corte de 85 UH, la 16-ACTCM diferenció correctamente el 86

  12. Inestabilidad en múltiples placas ateroescleróticas en pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio

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    Ricardo A. Sarmiento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos inflamatorios en los síndromes coronarios agudos juegan un rol importante en la inestabilidad de la placa ateroesclerótica. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la presencia y distribución de placas vulnerables e infiltrados inflamatorios en pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio y su comparación con los hallazgos en pacientes fallecidos por cuadros no coronarios. Se analizaron los estudios anatomopatológicos de corazón de 68 pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio y 15 fallecidos por causa no coronaria. Se registró la presencia de trombo, hemorragia intraplaca, ruptura endotelial e infiltrado inflamatorio. Al evaluar los pacientes fallecidos por IAM, encontramos trombo en 73.5% de las arterias responsables del IAM y en 28.7% de las no responsables (p < 0.0001. La hemorragia intraplaca se halló en el 70.5% de las arterias responsables y en 39.7% de las no responsables, p < 0.0001; ruptura endotelial en el 29.4% de las arterias responsables y en 3.7% de las no responsables, p < 0.0001. No encontramos diferencias en la presencia de infiltrado inflamatorio (76.5% versus 68.4%. Comparando con los fallecidos por causas no coronarias, la presencia de trombo fue significativamente superior (73.5% vs. 13.3%; p < 0.0001, así como la de hemorragia intraplaca (70.5% vs. 0%; p < 0.0001 y de infiltrado inflamatorio en las placas ateroescleroticas (76.5% vs. 46.6%; p = 0.021. En los pacientes fallecidos por infarto agudo de miocardio se observa inestabilidad de placa y actividad inflamatoria, no sólo en la arteria responsable del infarto sino también en las arterias no responsables del infarto.

  13. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  14. Meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade cerebral

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    M. de Almeida

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado caso de extenso meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade e determinando grande hiperostose da calota craniana. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por aumento do volume do crânio, cefaléia, déficit de visão e convulsões. As radiografias e o estudo necroscópico mostraram que as tábuas ósseas foram substituídas por espículas dispostas radialmente. O aspecto histológico, típico de meningioma, não sugeria malignidade.

  15. Colector solar de placa plana desarrollado en la Universidad Nacional

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    Fernando Mesa Claros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo describe el análisis teórico que .se aplica al colector solar de placa plana desarrollado por el Grupo de Ingeniería Solar de la Universidad Nacional. Esta investigación se lleva a cabo para diseñar y estudiar el comportamiento de un dispositivo que transformar. El presente articulo describe el análisis teórico que .se aplica al colector solar de placa plana desarrollado por el Grupo de Ingeniería Solar de la Universidad Nacional. Esta investigación se lleva a cabo para diseñar y estudiar el comportamiento de un dispositivo que transformara la energía solar en energía térmica para una necesidad especifica (el calentamiento de agua, en condiciones meteorológicas y geográficas propias de la ciudad de Bogotá.  

  16. Correlação da composição de placas à histologia virtual com proteína C-reativa

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    Dimytri Alexandre de Alvim Siqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Estudos prévios demonstram que o principal determinante de vulnerabilidade da placa aterosclerótica é a sua composição. Recentemente, diversos métodos de imagens e marcadores laboratoriais têm sido investigados visando identificar lesões vulneráveis. O ultrassom com Histologia Virtual® (HV permite a diferenciação e quantificação dos componentes da placa. Por sua vez, a proteína C-reativa (PCR é apontada como importante preditor de eventos adversos. A correlação entre este marcador e as características da placa não é bem estabelecida. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a constituição da lesão culpada em pacientes com síndrome coronária aguda (SCA - conforme caracterizada pela HV - e investigar a relação dos componentes da placa com o marcador inflamatório PCR. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e dois pacientes com SCA e com indicação de intervenção coronária percutânea foram submetidos a dosagens de PCR de alta sensibilidade antes e 24 horas após a ICP. Análise por ultrassom HV da lesão-alvo foi realizada antes da ICP. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 55,3 ± 4,9 anos, sendo 76,9% homens, 67,3% hipertensos e 30,8% diabéticos. A área luminal mínima foi de 3,9 ± 1,3 mm², e a carga de placa de 69 ± 11,3%. Os componentes da placa foram assim identificados: fibrótico (59,6 ± 15,8%, fibrolipídico (7,6 ± 8,2%, cálcio (12,1 ± 9,2%, necrótico (20,7 ± 12,7%. Não observamos correlação entre os níveis basais de PCR ou a variação dentre os valores pré e pós-ICP com os componentes da placa. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a composição das placas pela HV foi predominantemente fibrótica, com alto conteúdo necrótico. Não foi encontrada correlação entre a PCR e os componentes da lesão culpada em pacientes com SCA.

  17. La placa bacteriana: conceptos básicos para el higienista bucodental

    OpenAIRE

    Poyato Ferrera, Manuel María; Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Ríos-Santos, J.V.; Bullon, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    La placa bacteriana es el factor etiológico principal de las dos enfermedades bucodentales de mayor prevalencia, la caries y la enfermedad periodontal. El higienista bucodental y colaborador del odontoestomatólogo en la aplicación del programa de control de placa, debe conocer en profundidad la microbiología de la placa bacteriana dental, así como los mecanismos implicados en su patogenicidad cariogénica y periodontal, aspectos que se revisan a continuación. Dental plaque is the main etiol...

  18. Propriedades inflamatorias da placa dental e de alguns de seus componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Oslei Paes de Almeida

    1980-01-01

    Resumo: Está bem fundamentada a relação entre placa dental e doença periodem tal inflamatória. Entretanto, devido à coraplexidade da estrutura da placa ainda não se sabe quais as bactérias ou substâncias diretamente envolvidas no processo. Como as bactérias normalmente não atravessam a barreira epitelial, a atenção tem sido voltada para os componentes da placa que têm possibilidade de atingir o tecido conjuntivo subjacente. No presente trabalho foi utilizado como modelo experimental a cavidad...

  19. Pila de combustible de placas bipolares con lámina metálica corrugada

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea Díaz, Domingo; Guinea García-Alegre, Domingo M.; Villanueva Martínez, Eugenio; García-Sánchez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Destaca fundamentalmente porque las placas bipolares (4, 7) están constituidas por láminas metálicas delgadas que son corrugadas para configurar canales de distribución de fluidos sobre los electrodos (6)

  20. Consideraciones prácticas sobre la placa distalizadora Benac

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    Mariela González Fernández

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen muchas modalidades de tratamiento sin extracciones de la maloclusión de clase II. Una de ellas consiste en convertir la relación molar de clase II en una de clase I mediante el desplazamiento de los molares superiores hacia distal en las etapas iniciales del tratamiento. Este procedimiento resulta interesante y controvertido, ya que desplaza los dientes en contra de la tendencia normal de movimiento mesial que muestran durante toda la vida, y en la actualidad ha ganado interés. Prestigiosos investigadores han comenzado a profundizar en ella y han aparecido técnicas intraorales, en su mayoría fijas, muy novedosas, con materiales cada vez más efectivos. Todos estos aparatos son efectivos distalizadores, pero crean incomodidad al paciente, dificultan la higiene bucal y, lo más importante, son muy costosos. Por lo antes expuesto, se decidió realizar este trabajo, con el objetivo de ampliar los conocimientos que se tiene sobre la placa distalizadora Benac, un aparato intraoral removible, su modo de construcción y las ventajas de su uso. Se concluye que esta placa no solo resulta de muy bajo costo, sino que además permite una higiene bucal correcta, es más aceptada por el paciente y logra resultados similares a los alcanzados con técnicas más modernas.There are many variants of non-extraction treatment of class II malocclusion. One of these variants consists of turning class II into class I molar relation through the displacement of upper molar to distal position at the initial stages of the treatment. This procedure is interesting but controversial since it moves teeth contrary to the normal mesial movement that they show during the whole life. However, this method has aroused the interest of prestigious researchers who have begun to delve into its application, so novel and mostly fixed intraoral techniques that use increasingly effective materials have emerged. All these appliances are effective distalizers but bother the

  1. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  2. Placa cerámica fotovoltaica para fachadas ventiladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastrana, A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Gres de la Mancha, in response to the increasing demand for friendly with the environment products, and realizing towards the use of renewable energies and the energy efficiency in the construction, has developed his new ceramic ecological photovoltaic panel ECOCERAVOLT developed for its use in systems of Ventilated Façade. ECOCERAVOLT joins the benefits of the ventilated façade (energy saving, thermal - acoustic isolation, increase of the comfort in the buildings, reduction of the emission of CO2, etc. and the generation of electrical energy without compromising neither the aesthetics of the frontage, not of the building. This way, it puts itself in value on the direct and indirect exhibition to the sun of the frontages, which happen of being passive elements of closing and decoration, to be generators of a clean energy for proper or commercial use. ECOCERAVOLT, due to its design, does not need to be hidden, as it happens with other photovoltaic generators. These technical and innovative merits imply the entire optimization of the installed revetment in addition to creating a criterion of sustainability and energy efficiency.

    Gres de La Mancha, en respuesta a la demanda creciente por productos medioambientalmente amigables, y su concienciación hacia el uso de energías renovables y la eficiencia energética en la construcción, ha lanzado su nueva placa cerámica ecológica fotovoltaica ECOCERAVOLT concebida para su uso en sistemas de fachada ventilada. ECOCERAVOLT aúna los beneficios de la fachada ventilada (ahorro energético, asilamiento térmico-acústico, aumento del confort en los edificios, reducción de las emisiones de CO2, etc. y la generación de energía eléctrica sin comprometer la estética de la fachada, ni del edificio. De este modo, se pone en valor la exposición directa e indirecta al sol de las fachadas, que pasan de ser elementos pasivos de cerramiento y decoración, a ser generadores de una

  3. Neovascularización mediada por factor tisular en la placa aterosclerótica

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Ferrer, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte en todo el mundo y representan uno de los desafíos primordiales en la investigación biomédica. La aterosclerosis es causante de la mayoría de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Un factor clave en la evolución de la aterosclerosis subclínica hacia un evento isquémico es la vulnerabilidad de la placa aterosclerótica. No se conocen las causas que producen la rotura de alguna de las placas existentes en el árbol arterial mientras qu...

  4. Farmacos orales para el control quimico de las biopeliculas dentales (placa bacteriana)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Abello Moreno

    2013-01-01

    La placa dentobacteriana o biopelicula es la responsable de patologias clinicas como la caries dental, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, por lo tanto productos con agentes germicidas actuan en la prevencion de la biopelicula dental cuando las medidas de higiene oral no son las mas apropiadas.

  5. Fragmento de placa com grafitos, de Tróia (Conventus Pacensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Encarnação, José d'

    2014-01-01

    Descreve-se uma placa de mármore achada em recolha de superfície no sítio romano de Tróia, que ostenta grafitos, cujo significado se desconhece. Direcção da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra

  6. Pila de combustible de placas bipolares con lámina metálica corrugada

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea Díaz, Domingo; Villanueva Martínez, Eugenio; García-Sánchez, Daniel; Guinea García-Alegre, Domingo M.

    2010-01-01

    [ES] Destaca fundamentalmente porque las placas bipolares (4,7) están constituidas por láminas metálicas delgadas que son corrugadas para configurar canales de distribución de fluidos sobre los electrodos

  7. Farmacos orales para el control quimico de las biopeliculas dentales (placa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abello Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La placa dentobacteriana o biopelicula es la responsable de patologias clinicas como la caries dental, gingivitis y enfermedad periodontal, por lo tanto productos con agentes germicidas actuan en la prevencion de la biopelicula dental cuando las medidas de higiene oral no son las mas apropiadas.

  8. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  9. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  10. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw a...

  11. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the peo

  12. Vulnerable Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Asha Begum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This project "VULNERABLE HUNTER" application main aim is to detect risk in our mobile applications. This application contains modules like Fetch Application, Generate Score, Uninstall and Display Graph. Through this application it detects risk so that this application is very useful to smart phone users Now-a-days so many people are using smart phones and people are crazy about new apps. But by installing all the applications into our mobile may reduce its performance. Some apps contain more risk. But user may not know the effects that are caused by the app which is installed until the performance of mobile is reduced. With the prosperity of the Android app economy, many apps have been published and sold in various markets. However, short development applications and insufficient security development apps have led to many vulnerable apps. So to reduce these type of problems Vulnerable Hunter is proposed. Through the proposed application user can see which application is risky and then the user may uninstall that application. The main advantage of designing this app is without internet also the users will use this application. Users also feel more convenient to work with mobile apps.

  13. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Julia Rovira; Jennifer Orozco Páez; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar e...

  14. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Julia Rovira; Jennifer Orozco Páez; Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2013-01-01

    ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar e...

  15. Una solución directa para las cubiertas de hormigón en placa plegada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parme, A. L. L.

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, debido a la comprobada economía de las construcciones en placa plegada, en la literatura americana han aparecido algunos notables artículos sobre este tema. En general, las fórmulas y ecuaciones presentadas en ellos tienen la base común de dividir el funcionamiento resistente de una placa plegada en dos acciones interdependientes, una transversal y otra longitudinal. Se establece el equilibrio de fuerzas en dirección transversal, suponiendo que unas cintas transversales genéricas están apoyadas en los puntos de unión de las placas sobre unos soportes rígidos o flexibles. La reacción que resulta de esta hipótesis se descompone en fuerzas paralelas a la placa, que, entonces, resiste estas solicitaciones como viga longitudinal. Así, pues, el problema de la placa plegada se reduce a procedimientos familiares para la mayor parte de los ingenieros, y, desde este punto de vista, el análisis es perfectamente satisfactorio.

  16. Corte de placas solares con láser. Estudio de modificaciones microestructurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Del Valle, A. J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In photovoltaic solar cells manufacturing process, system breaks are produced. Recycling improves the material profitability. In this sense, manufacturing of components with non-straight shapes is not feasible using traditional methods. The processing of these materials through Nd-YAG laser, allows manufacturing with any geometric shape. This work shows a study of solar cells cutting process with laser. First of all, it is necessary to carry out a parameter optimization in order to make an accurate material cutting. The microstructure of the cutting area and possible microcompositional changes were studied by scanning electronic miscroscopy (SEM and X-ray analysis (EDX.

    En el proceso de fabricación de placas fotovoltaicas se producen roturas de las células solares, por tanto, el reciclaje es necesario para mejorar la rentabilidad de este proceso, además, la fabricación de piezas de formas curvas no es factible por los métodos tradicionales. El procesado de estos materiales mediante un láser de Nd-YAG, permitirá la fabricación en cualquier forma geométrica además del mejor aprovechamiento de las placas desechadas por estar rotas. El presente trabajo muestra un estudio del proceso de corte de placas solares con láser. En primer lugar se procede a la optimización de los parámetros necesarios para realizar el corte de este material. La microestructura de la zona de corte y los posibles cambios microcomposicionales que se hayan podido producir, se estudian mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido, con microanálisis de energías dispersivas de Rayos X.

  17. Prevalencia y grado de gingivitis asociada a placa dentobacteriana en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Lucía Rocha Navarro; Sanjuana Serrano Reyes; Martha Eugenia Fajardo Araujo; Víctor Hugo Giovani Servín Zavala

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las enfermedades periodontales (EPs) son comunes en niños y adolescentes, y algunas son rápidamente destructivas. El consenso internacional de Periodontología de 1999, vigente hasta hoy día, incluyó a la gingivitis como parte de las EPs. Este estudio se enfocó en la gingivitis inducida por placa dentobacteriana (PDB). Estudios previos reportan porcentajes similares de prevalencia en niños Nigerianos, Polacos y Tanzaneses de alrededor del 54.4%. Sin embargo Oh TJ y col. encontró ...

  18. Placa bacteriana dentária em cães Dental bacterial plaque in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a incidência de placa bacteriana dentária, foram utilizados 30 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos em três grupos iguais, de acordo com a faixa etária, sendo o grupo I de 0 a 2 anos, o grupo II de 3 a 5 anos e o grupo III acima de 6 anos. Os animais foram submetidos a anestesia geral e sobre os dentes foi aplicado cloreto de metilrosanilina, para evidenciar acúmulos bacterianos. As placas encontravam-se distribuídas em 80,99% no grupo I, 71,45% no grupo II e 83,96% no grupo III. Os grupos dentários foram considerados separadamente, apresentando índices de 64,84% nos dentes incisivos, 84,80% nos caninos, 87,23% nos pré-molares e 78,34% nos molares. Nos três grupos de cães observou-se índices semelhantes de placa bacteriana nos diferentes grupos dentários. Os animais do grupo II e o grupo de dentes incisivos apresentaram menores índices de placa bacteriana.To avaliate the incidence of bacterial plaque 30 mogreal dogs were utilizated, distributed among three equal groups. According to age, group I was composed of 0 to 2 years-old dogs, group II was 3 to 5 years-old, and group III over 6 years-old. The animals underwent a general anesthesia and metilrosanilin cloret was applied over the tooth, to evidence the bacterial mass. The plaques were distributed to 80.99% in group I, 71.42% in group II and 83.96% in group III. The dental groups were considerated apart, showing index of 64.84% on the incisar tooth, 84.80% on the canine tooth, 87.23% on the premolar tooth, and 78.34% on the molar tooth. At the dogs groups, similar Índex of bacterial plaque were observed on the diffèrent dental groups. The dogs from group II and the incisive tooth group showed minar bacterial plaque index.

  19. Tres placas de yeserías mudéjares en museos europeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordano Barbudo, M.ª Ángeles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These unpublished plaques with a Toledan provenance are in the Victoria & Albert Museum and the Museum of Islamic Art of Berlin. Two of the plaques are unique in that they combine mocarabe honeycomb arches with ataurique and a series of human heads in relief.

    Estas placas inéditas procedentes de Toledo se encuentran en el Victoria & Albert Museum y el Museum für Islamische Kunst de Berlín. Dos de las planchas presentan la singularidad de combinar mocárabes con ataurique y una serie de cabezas humanas en relieve.

  20. Osteosíntesis cervical posterior con placa en lesiones cervicales

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El propósito del presente estudio es analizar retrospectivamente los resultados a largo plazo de las lesiones de la columna cervical baja tratadas mediante estabilización posterior con placas atornilladas de Roy-Cmille a las masas laterales. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudian 15 pacientes, de los cuales sólo 14 completos con lesiones traumáticas (13) y 1 no traumática (1 paciente con inestabilidad sobre artrosis por doble Cloward) durante un periodo postoperatorio medio de 8 años (6-12). Salvo ...

  1. Osteotomía tibial alta con placa VCO: Resultados a medio plazo

    OpenAIRE

    Panisello Sebastiá, Juan José; Martínez Martín, Angel Antonio; Herrera Rodríguez, Antonio; Cuenca Espiérrez, Jorge; Canales Cortés, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de 31 pacientes afectos de genu varo artrósico tratados mediante osteotomía tibial alta y posterior estabilización con placa VCO. Este material permite la movilización y carga precoz de la rodilla, acortando el tiempo de recuperación y las necesidades de rehabilitación. El seguimiento a 4 años muestra una evolución clínica y radiológica satisfactoria en el 80,5% de los pacientes. We report a retrospective análisis of 31 patients presenting varus deformit...

  2. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Tânia Berbert Ferreira; Eurides Duvaldo; Rezende Renata Junqueira; Milken Vanessa Martins Fayad; Silva Luiz Antonio Franco da; Fioravanti Maria Clorinda Soares

    2004-01-01

    A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05) entre a utilização da escova dental e ...

  3. Comparacoes preliminares entre a histologia virtual ultrassonografica in vivo e os achados histopatologicos da placa carotidea produto de endarterectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Husemann Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A doença aterosclerótica da carótida extracraniana é uma das principais causas evitáveis de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi, sendo este a segunda causa mais comum de morte nos países desenvolvidos. Nos grandes estudos sobre a cirurgia carotídea, a indicação estava embasada fundamentalmente no grau de estenose arterial. Analisar somente o grau de estenose, entretanto, não revela todas as características da placa, na medida em que a morfologia e a composição da placa complementam a avaliação da doença carotídea avançada e são fundamentais para a análise e o acompanhamento da maioria das placas carotídeas tratadas clinicamente. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a caracterização dos componentes da placa de ateroma pela histologia virtual ultrassonográfica (HVUS com a histologia. MÉTODOS: As imagens pré-operatórias obtidas por ultrassonografia transcutânea de 12 placas de ateroma de bifurcação carotídea foram submetidas a um programa de computador, o qual correlacionou os níveis de cinza com os prováveis componentes da placa da bifurcação carotídea (HVUS. Estes achados foram correlacionados com o exame anatomopatológico das placas coletadas pela cirurgia de endarterectomia. RESULTADOS: O coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para os conteúdos de lipídeos e músculo/tecido fibroso foram, respectivamente, R=0,83 para gordura e R=0,91 para músculo/tecido fibroso. Quanto ao cálcio e ao sangue, foram R=0,05 e R=0,19, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: O presente trabalho corrobora a literatura demonstrando que a histologia virtual computadorizada baseada em ultrassonografia transcutânea apresenta boa correlação com os achados da histologia quanto ao conteúdo da placa. Maiores estudos para a padronização da técnica e o aperfeiçoamento do programa de análise permitirão maior uso clínico deste método.

  4. Las manufacturas textiles en la Prehistoria: Las placas de telar en el Calcolítico peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz CARDITO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se plantea la hipótesis sobre la existencia de telares de placas en el Calcolítico peninsular.ABSTRACT: In this article the hypothesis about the existence of tablet-weaving or card-weaving in the Iberian Peninsula during the Copper Age is proposed

  5. Correlação da composição de placas à histologia virtual com proteína C-reativa Correlation between plaque composition as assessed by virtual histology and C-reactive protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimytri Alexandre de Alvim Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Estudos prévios demonstram que o principal determinante de vulnerabilidade da placa aterosclerótica é a sua composição. Recentemente, diversos métodos de imagens e marcadores laboratoriais têm sido investigados visando identificar lesões vulneráveis. O ultrassom com Histologia Virtual® (HV permite a diferenciação e quantificação dos componentes da placa. Por sua vez, a proteína C-reativa (PCR é apontada como importante preditor de eventos adversos. A correlação entre este marcador e as características da placa não é bem estabelecida. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a constituição da lesão culpada em pacientes com síndrome coronária aguda (SCA - conforme caracterizada pela HV - e investigar a relação dos componentes da placa com o marcador inflamatório PCR. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e dois pacientes com SCA e com indicação de intervenção coronária percutânea foram submetidos a dosagens de PCR de alta sensibilidade antes e 24 horas após a ICP. Análise por ultrassom HV da lesão-alvo foi realizada antes da ICP. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 55,3 ± 4,9 anos, sendo 76,9% homens, 67,3% hipertensos e 30,8% diabéticos. A área luminal mínima foi de 3,9 ± 1,3 mm², e a carga de placa de 69 ± 11,3%. Os componentes da placa foram assim identificados: fibrótico (59,6 ± 15,8%, fibrolipídico (7,6 ± 8,2%, cálcio (12,1 ± 9,2%, necrótico (20,7 ± 12,7%. Não observamos correlação entre os níveis basais de PCR ou a variação dentre os valores pré e pós-ICP com os componentes da placa. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a composição das placas pela HV foi predominantemente fibrótica, com alto conteúdo necrótico. Não foi encontrada correlação entre a PCR e os componentes da lesão culpada em pacientes com SCA.BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that coronary plaque composition plays a pivotal role in plaque instability, and imaging modalities and serum biomarkers have been investigated to identify

  6. ANÁLISE NUMÉRICA DE PLACA DE MATERIAL COMPÓSITO DE

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Guilherme .; de Morais, Marcus V Girao; AVILA, SUZANA M.; Shzu, Maura A M

    2017-01-01

    Resumo. O trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre o comportamento mecânico de placas feitas em material compósito utilizado em pás eólicas para geração de energia limpa, renovável e abundante. Nos dias atuais, existe uma vasta ampliação da utilização de materiais compósitos aplicados à engenharia, os quais são muito conhecidos por sua excelente combinação de alta rigidez e baixo peso. Algumas características dos materiais compósitos, como a anisotropia, permitem que projetistas tenham em mãos u...

  7. Emprego experimental da placa de compósito poli-hidroxibutirado/hidroxiapatita na fixação femoral em gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.L. Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o compósito de poli-hidroxibutirado (PHB 70% e hidroxiapatita (HA 30% na forma de placas para fixação óssea em gatos. Foram usadas placas do compósito com 60mm de comprimento por 10mm de largura e espessura variando de 3mm no centro a 5mm nas extremidades, com seis orifícios. A placa do compósito foi empregada na fixação de osteotomia de fêmur em quatro gatos, totalizando seis intervenções. Verificou-se a ruptura de cinco placas (83,3% até o quarto dia e de uma placa (16,7% aos 21 dias, quando se observou um calo ósseo exuberante. O resultado da implantação da placa no gato mostrou que o compósito não possui resistência suficiente para ser empregado como placas de fixação de fêmur em gatos.

  8. Software Vulnerability Taxonomy Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polepeddi, Sriram S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2004-12-07

    In today's environment, computers and networks are increasing exposed to a number of software vulnerabilities. Information about these vulnerabilities is collected and disseminated via various large publicly available databases such as BugTraq, OSVDB and ICAT. Each of these databases, individually, do not cover all aspects of a vulnerability and lack a standard format among them, making it difficult for end-users to easily compare various vulnerabilities. A central database of vulnerabilities has not been available until today for a number of reasons, such as the non-uniform methods by which current vulnerability database providers receive information, disagreement over which features of a particular vulnerability are important and how best to present them, and the non-utility of the information presented in many databases. The goal of this software vulnerability taxonomy consolidation project is to address the need for a universally accepted vulnerability taxonomy that classifies vulnerabilities in an unambiguous manner. A consolidated vulnerability database (CVDB) was implemented that coalesces and organizes vulnerability data from disparate data sources. Based on the work done in this paper, there is strong evidence that a consolidated taxonomy encompassing and organizing all relevant data can be achieved. However, three primary obstacles remain: lack of referencing a common ''primary key'', un-structured and free-form descriptions of necessary vulnerability data, and lack of data on all aspects of a vulnerability. This work has only considered data that can be unambiguously extracted from various data sources by straightforward parsers. It is felt that even with the use of more advanced, information mining tools, which can wade through the sea of unstructured vulnerability data, this current integration methodology would still provide repeatable, unambiguous, and exhaustive results. Though the goal of coalescing all available data

  9. Actinomyces sp. en muestras de placa bacteriana de personas adultas jovenes y adultas mayores.(Articulo de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Concha, Sonia Constanza; Florez, Luisa Teresa

    2009-01-01

    ...; aspectos potencialmente comprometidos en ancianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar la presencia los Actinomyces sp en la placa dentobacteriana y determinar la asociacion de su presencia con la edad...

  10. Efectividad de las placas oclusales estabilizadoras en el manejo de la sintomatología temporomandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Bustillo Verbel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenObjetivo: Determinar la efectividad de las placas oclusales estabilizadoras en el manejo de la sintomatología temporomandibular. Materiales y método: 50 pacientes fueron seleccionados de las clínicas de postgrado del Colegio Universitario Colombiano, 33 mujeres y 17 hombres, con edades entre 18 y 70 años, a los cuales se les diseñaron placas oclusales estabilizadas de acuerdo a los requerimientos de cada paciente en particular, usándose durante 24 horas al día por 6 semanas, con controles a los 8, 21 y 45 días de haber sido iniciado el tratamiento. La sintomatología dolorosa muscular y articular fue palpada y evaluada por medio de la Escala Visual Análoga del Dolor, el ruido articular fue auscultada por medio del fonendoscopio, la evaluación de la desviación y rangos de movimiento mandibular se realizó por medio de una regla milimetrada. Resultados: El dolor muscular y articular disminuyo significativamente en un 89% y 97% respectivamente, en el comportamiento del ruido articular tipo chasquido hubo disminución del 45.63%, mientras que en el tipo crepitación no hubo ninguna variación. Los rangos del movimiento mandibular aumentaron en un 8.08%, mientras la desviación en el movimiento mandibular no presentó cambios. Conclusión: La placa oclusal estabilizadora fue efectiva para resolver la sintomatología temporomandibular. (Duazary 2007; 1: 19 - 24AbstractObject: determinate the effectivity of the stabilizing occlusive plates in the managing of the symptomatology tempolomandibular. Materials and method: 50 patients were selected of the clinics of post degree of the university Colombian college, 33 women and 17 men, by ages between 18 to 70 years, the plates occlusive were stabilized in agreement to the requirements of every patient especially, being used for 24 hours a day for 6 weeks, with controls for8, 21, 45 days to have been started the treatment. The painful muscular simptomatology and to articulated was felt and

  11. Armado con familias de armaduras en direcciones arbitrarias. Parte II. Placas y láminas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samartín, Avelino

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of a previous one, what was dedicated to the study of the problem of design/verification of reinforcement in two-dimensional concrete structures subjected to in plane forces. Here, the verification of the reinforcement of two-dimensional concrete structures subjected to out-of-plan actions (plates and shells is reviewed. The presented verification procedure allow us to handle important situations that often appear in reinforced concrete structures. such as reinforcement at plate cornes. combination of in-plane forces and bending stresses occurring at function of cantilever and webs in continuous bridge box sections. The usual alternatives to treat these cases are based oo heuristic procedures or semi-empirical formulae as the Wood. The analysis can be carried out by the use of a simple computer program. The output of this program includes the diagrams of stresses and strains for each of the bar reinforcement families and the principal stresses in the as function of the load amplification factor: Iii this way it is possible to find the safety factor at a point of the reinforced concrete strutctureEste artículo corresponde a la extensión de uno anterior dedicado al estudio del problema de la comprobación y el dimensionamiento de las armaduras de acero en estructuras bidimensionales de hormigón armado tipo laja, cuyos esfuerzos están contenidos en su plano medio. Aquí se consideran las estructuras con cargas normales a su plano medio (placas y láminas, es decir. sometidas a esfuerzos de flexión. El procedimiento de comprobación y dimensionamiento que se propone, permite tratar situaciones importantes como el armado en las esquinas de placa, la combinación de tensiones axiles, rasantes y de flexión que aparecen en los arranques de 10s voladizos en las estructuras de los tableros continuos de puentes, particularmente las zonas sobre apoyos. En estos casos las alternativas actuales son procedimientos heur

  12. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  13. Modelización de tableros de obras de paso de luces cortas ejecutados con placa alveolar pretensada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Padilla, V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of plane grilled modeling used for the calculation of prestressed hollow core slab bridge decks not provide sufficient accuracy to determine the influence of phenomena such as slabs torsion or shear between the interface slab-toping. A new hybrid modeling approach is proposed. It allows more realistically quantify the resistant mechanism of this type of decks. The application of the method on a typical deck has yielded results that show the good correlation between the numerical predictions and the behavior observed in reality.Los métodos tradicionales de emparrillado plano utilizados para el cálculo de tableros conformados con placa alveolar pretensada no aportan suficiente precisión para determinar la influencia de fenómenos tales como la torsión sobre las placas o el rasante entre la capa de reparto y la propia placa. Se propone un nuevo método de modelización híbrido que permite cuantificar de forma más realista el mecanismo resistente de este tipo de tableros. La aplicación del método sobre un tablero tipo ha permitido obtener unos resultados que demuestran la buena correlación de las predicciones numéricas con el comportamiento observado en la realidad.

  14. Osteosíntesis con placa puente en fracturas diafisiarias conminutas de húmero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mancilla Mancilla

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir y evaluar la técnica de osteosíntesis percutánea mínimamente invasiva en fracturas disfisiarias conminutas de húmero. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo longitudinal de tres pacientes con diagnóstico de fractura de húmero clasificación AO 12C3 tratado quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, evaluándose pérdida sanguínea intraoperatoria, tiempo quirúrgico, movilidad de articulaciones vecinas y callo óseo. Resultados: La perdida promedio de sangre fue de 180cc y el tiempo operatorio promedio 60 minutos. Los pacientes presentaron dolor leve tolerable desde el primer día post operatorio, movilidad del hombro y del codo sin limitación, formación del callo óseo a partir de la cuarta semana y consolidación ósea a las 12 semanas promedio. No hubo lesión del nervio radial. Conclusiones: La placa puente es una alternativa de tratamiento en fracturas conminutas diafisiarias del húmero tanto por su bajo costo como por la rehabilitación funcional precoz de las articulaciones vecinas, asimismo recomendamos la visualización intra operatoria del nervio radial.

  15. Meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade cerebral "Meningioma en plaque" involving the entire cerebral convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Almeida

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado caso de extenso meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade e determinando grande hiperostose da calota craniana. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por aumento do volume do crânio, cefaléia, déficit de visão e convulsões. As radiografias e o estudo necroscópico mostraram que as tábuas ósseas foram substituídas por espículas dispostas radialmente. O aspecto histológico, típico de meningioma, não sugeria malignidade.The case of a patient with hystologically confirmed meningeoma is reported. The tumor extended continuously over the entire cerebral convexity and promoted remarkable hyperostosis of the skull. Headache, blindness, increased skul and convulsions were the main clinical manifestations. The two laminae of the skull were replaced by spikes radially arranged, as suggested by the X-ray picture and confirmed at necropsy. The hystologic aspect of the tumor did not show evidence of malignity.

  16. Eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija multibrackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Claudet Angulo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija "multibrackets". Material y métodos. Participaron 16 sujetos (11 mujeres y 5 hombres entre 12 a 39 años de edad. El estudio fue realizado bajo condiciones de un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, doble ciego y paralelo de grupos balanceados usando un diseño de recrecimiento de placa. Los sujetos recibieron una profilaxis oral y suspendieron toda medida de higiene oral por los siguientes 4 días, usando sólo el gel asignado. Se evaluó el Índice de placa de Quigley-Hein modificado por Turesky (IPQH-T, el Índice de placa bracket (IPb y el Índice de Sangrado al Sondaje (ISS. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el test de la t de Student para muestras independientes, el test exacto de Fisher y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativa entre el JAL 90458 y el gel control en el IPQH-T (2,52±0,57 vs 1,78±0,79, p<0,05, así como en el IPb (2,04±0,73 vs 1,27±0,59, p<0,05, y ISS (1,24±0,20 vs 0,48±0,24, p<0,05. Hubo una alta correlación entre el IPb y el IPQH-T (r=0,94, p<0,01. La ecuación de regresión lineal para predecir el valor del IPQH-T a través del IPb fue: IPQH-T=0,568+0,956 * IPb. Discusión. La aplicación del JAL 90458 en pacientes con aparatos fijos "multibrackets" demostró ser eficaz en la disminución del recrecimiento de placa bacteriana. No se detectó ningún efecto secundario clínico relevante.

  17. Efeito do controle da placa supragengival sobre a microflora subgengival e tecidos periodontais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA Allyson Nogueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar, clínica e microbiologicamente, 44 sítios em 11 pacientes com periodontite crônica generalizada. IP, IG, SS, PS e NI foram registrados. Amostras de placa subgengival foram colhidas nos mesmos sítios para cultivo de bactérias anaeróbias e determinação dos morfotipos microbianos por MCE. Os registros clínicos e estudos microbiológicos foram tomados no "baseline" e 4 semanas após a incorporação em um programa de controle de placa e cálculo supragengival. A análise microbiológica categorizou o grau de desenvolvimento em: 0 - não detectado, 1 - escasso, 2 - moderado e 3 - abundante. Os registros clínicos no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: IP - 1,73 ± 0,10 e 0,30 ± 0,08, IG - 1,73 ± 0,08 e 1,41 ± 0,08, SS - 0,91 ± 0,04 e 0,59 ± 0,07, PS - 6,43 ± 0,20 e 5,77 ± 0,25, NI - 6,86 ± 0,32 e 6,52 ± 0,34, respectivamente. A redução do IP, IG, SS e PS foi significativa. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no NI. As proporções relativas dos morfotipos bacterianos observados por MCE no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: células cocóideas - 21,16 ± 3,77 e 36,00 ± 4,66, bacilos móveis - 44,86 ± 2,65 e 39,50 ± 2,64, treponemas totais - 24,66 ± 3,08 e 19,25 ± 2,75. No "baseline" e no dia 28 foi observado: Pi/n - 1,36 ± 0,18 e 0,43 ± 0,11, Pg - 0,48 ± 0,16 e 0,32 ± 0,13, Aa - 0,23 ± 0,09 e 0,23 ± 0,10, Fusobacterium nucleatum - 0,32 ± 0,14 e 0,41 ± 0,13 e peptostreptococos - 0,82 ± 0,19 e 0,54 ± 0,16, respectivamente. Houve um aumento significativo das células cocóideas, diminuição de treponemas e de Pi/n.

  18. Avaliação por imagem das lesões da placa de crescimento Imaging of growth plate injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiko Yanaguizawa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas responsáveis pelo crescimento do osso incluem a fise (também chamada placa de crescimento e as epífises. Afecções que acometem pacientes com o esqueleto imaturo, ou seja, com a placa de crescimento ainda aberta, podem interferir no crescimento ósseo, resultando em complicações como parada do crescimento, encurtamento dos membros ou deformidades angulares. Condições traumáticas que resultam muitas vezes em fraturas epifisárias são a causa mais comum das lesões da placa de crescimento. A avaliação cuidadosa desses pacientes pelos métodos de diagnóstico por imagem atualmente disponíveis, sobretudo a radiografia, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética, permite o reconhecimento precoce do comprometimento das estruturas relacionadas ao crescimento ósseo, além de tratamento adequado, diminuindo a possibilidade do desenvolvimento de tais complicações.The structures responsible for the growth of bones include the physis (also called growth plate and the epiphysis. Affections involving patients with immature skeletons, i.e., with a still open growth plate, may affect the bone growth, resulting in complications such as growth arrest, limb shortening and angular deformities. Traumatic conditions, many times resulting in epiphyseal fractures, are the most frequent cause of growth plate injuries. A careful evaluation of these patients by means of currently available imaging methods, especially radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, allows an early diagnosis of the involvement of structures related to the bone growth, besides an appropriate management, reducing the probability of secondary complications.

  19. Placa de pila de combustible con varias áreas de reacción química

    OpenAIRE

    Lincheta Mesa, Eduardo; Lozano Fantoba, Antonio; Barreras Toledo, Félix; Valiño García, Luis; Mustata Oroviceanu, Radu

    2010-01-01

    La placa de pila de combustible, que se utiliza generalmente para distribuir de forma homogénea los fluidos reactantes sobre las áreas de reacción química correspondientes a las capas catalíticas (electrodos), presenta, en al menos una de las dos caras, dos o más áreas de reacción química una geometría de flujo determinada, de manera que se optimiza la producción de corriente por celda utilizando ensamblajes de membrana y electrodo del mismo tamaño, reduciendo el espacio nec...

  20. Tópicos del análisis unidimensional de estructuras Parte 2. Placas y láminas

    OpenAIRE

    Monleón, S

    1995-01-01

    En esta serie de dos artículos, se muestra cómo las tradicionales presentaciones en rigidez o transferencia del equilibrio de vigas, arcos, placas o láminas tienen un origen común y único en la adecuada formulación del problema de valores iniciales correspondiente, siempre que éste implique integrar exclusivamente ecuaciones diferenciales en una variable. Ofrece, por lo tanto, una metodología unificada para llevar a cabo la resolución de un mismo problema conceptual independientemente del con...

  1. Placas oclusais para tratamento do bruxismo do sono: revisão sistemática Cochrane

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Cristiane Rufino

    2007-01-01

    Contexto: Bruxismo do sono é uma atividade do sistema estomatognático caracterizada pelo ranger ou apertamento dos dentes durante o sono. Vários tratamentos para o bruxismo do sono têm sido propostos, entre eles o farmacológico, o psicológico e odontológico. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade das placas oclusais para o tratamento do bruxismo do sono comparada às intervenções alternativas ou ao não tratamento. Estratégia de pesquisa: Nós procuramos ensaios clínicos controlados randomizados ...

  2. Fracturas proximales de fémur. Osteosíntesis con tornillo-placa deslizante versus clavo gamma

    OpenAIRE

    Plasencia Arriba, M. A.; Juanicotena Iturralde, M.ª J.; Jativa Silvestre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio retrospectivo de noventa fracturas del fémur proximal tratados con clavo GAMMA o tornillo-placa dinámico de cadera (DHS). No encontramos diferencias en la duración de la intervención, pérdida hemática, ni estancia hospitalaria. Sin embargo, la serie con clavo GAMMA inició el apoyo más temprano, aunque en la revisión al final del seguimiento no había diferencias significativas en cuanto a la función de la cadera. El fracaso de la síntesis ocurrió en cuatro...

  3. Análisis diferencial de las condiciones de transporte de calor en un colector solar de placa plana

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Flores-Ortega; Román Bravo-Cadena; Ignacio Carvajal-Mariscal

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo expone el análisis de las condiciones de transporte de calor en un colector solar de placa plana, el colector calienta aire para emplearlo más adelante, como puede ser en la deshidratación de diferentes perecederos, entre otros. El método empleado para la transferencia térmica es por convección natural. Se desarrolla el modelado matemático para obtener las ecuaciones de transporte, identificándose las variables de posición, velocidad y momento. Se propone una solución usando la t...

  4. Estudo da causa determinante de sinistros de trânsito em cruzamentos ortogonais sinalizados com a placa R-2

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Charles Albert

    2013-01-01

    O estudo da causa determinante de sinistros de trânsito ocorridos em cruzamentos ortogonais sinalizados com a placa do tipo R-2 deve ser feito segundo um modelo que considere os comportamentos dos condutores quanto às velocidades desenvolvidas e quanto ao tipo de reação prévia à colisão. Tal modelo deve ser fundamentado na física clássica, na psicologia, na epistemologia, no direito penal e nas normas nacionais de trânsito. Após revisão da literatura brasileira, foi possível constatar a inexi...

  5. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1991-01-01

    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  6. Arizona - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  7. County Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  8. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System (SMDSS) to identify factors that make forest and game reserves vulnerable .... involve the creation of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope Settlement and ... Feature). Spatial. Analyst Tool. (Slope). Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool. Buffer Tool.

  9. El cálculo de placas de anclaje de soportes metálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Pardo, M.

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to the design calculation of anchorage plates, whose detailed behaviour is not well known. Due to the briefness of this investigation, readers are invited to amplify and complete it, and if necessary to correct it, since it is probable that a new investigation may include errors of method. The contents can be summarised as follows: 1. The classical design calculation of anchorage plates should be revised since it is based on an inaccurate idea on the actual behaviour and strength potential of mass concrete. Designers should know that this method implies a safety factor of the order of 10. This knowledge should give him confidence in cases of possible error, or when base reinforcements have been omitted, or placed after loading the structure. 2. The new calculation criterion is given in art. 54 of Code IEH-68, which authorises stresses to be increased, though still keeping them within fairly conservative limits. Since currently IEH-68 is the standard calculation code, it is advised that is should be strictly followed, and this paper should not be an invitation to anyone to go beyond the authorised limits given in this code. The purpose of this paper is not to offer a more economic formula, but to clarify ideas. 3. A metal column directly welded to a baseplate, without cross reinforcements, is always outside Code IEH-68, for normal slenderness values. However, this design can be regarded as fairly acceptable in the case of compound columns with separable extrusions (II, ] [, [ ], acceptable for simple or joined extrusions ([ ], I as can be inferred from tables 1, 2 and 3 (see the value of ɣb- 4. As a practical guidance, design calculations can generally be based on a stress of 120 kp/cm2El presente estudio intenta aportar algo al cálculo de placas de anclaje, colaborando en el enfoque de un fenómeno, en general, mal conocido. Consciente de la exigua extensión de este trabajo, impuesta por la falta de tiempo

  10. Tratamiento de agrandamiento gingival inducido por fenitoina asociado a placa bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Julia Rovira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ingesta de algunos medicamentos puede producir un sobre crecimiento de las encías. Se reportan medicamentos tales como los bloqueadores de los canales de calcio, inmunosupresores, anticonvulsivantes que producen estos efectos adversos. Múltiples casos de agrandamientos gingivales están asociados a la ingesta de Fenitoína. El tratamiento de los agrandamientos gingivales inducidos por drogas por lo general es quirúrgico, pero mantener un buen control de placa bacteriana puede evitar en muchos casos que se presente un exagerado aumento de volumen gingival. Se presenta un caso de agrandamiento gingival en paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, bajo tratamiento antiepiléptico con fenitoína. Al examen clínico se observó aumento del volumen gingival de forma generalizada, en maxilar superior e inferior, predominante en sector anterior, produciendo ardor y sangrado durante el cepillado y la ingestión de alimentos. Al sondaje presenta múltiples pseudobolsas en los diferentes cuadrantes. La radiografía panorámica reveló pérdida ósea moderada horizontal, predominante en el sector posterosuperior, posteroinferior y anteroinferior. El plan de tratamiento consistió en fase higiénica, instrucción y motivación en higiene oral a la madre, gingivectomía y gingivoplastía en ambos maxilares. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 226 - 231Abstract The importance of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete filling and sealing of the root canal to prevent the transport of contaminants to and from root canal, with materials compatible with the surrounding tissues. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement. This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures (orbital pain, inferior alveolar nerve injury, headache, etc., and infections

  11. Terapia com placa oclusal com e sem guias anteriores de desoclusão em pacientes com disfunção temporomandibular e zumbido subjetivo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de placas oclusais com guias anteriores de desoclusão e placas oclusais com contatos bilaterais e anteriores simultâneos durante os movimentos excursivos da mandíbula em pacientes com disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) e zumbido subjetivo. Foram avaliados 264 pacientes encaminhados para tratamento da DTM na FORP/USP e selecionados 32 mulheres com DTM muscular, associada ou não a DTM articular, e zumbido subjetivo que preencheram os critérios de incl...

  12. Sensibilización de placas para ensayos inmunoenzimáticos con antígenos vacunales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ochoa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un procedimiento de sensibilización de placas para ensayos inmunoenzimáticos (ELISA con antígenos vacunales. Se define como concentración óptima de sensibilización aquella donde se alcanza la mayor densidad óptica con los sueros estándares y la menor con los sueros negativos y el blanco reactivo. Como modelo se emplean ensayos indirectos correspondientes a los antígenos de captura: toxoide tetánico, diftérico y la vesícula de membrana externa de meningococo B, materia prima activa de la vacuna antimeningocócica VA-MENGOC-BC. Esta metodología permite alcanzar un mayor recubrimiento de la fase sólida, lo cual incrementa la sensibilidad de los ensayos. La ocupación de espacios libres en la placa se hizo más evidente con antígenos de menor peso molecular, como los toxoides diftérico y tetánico.

  13. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and

  14. Prevalencia y grado de gingivitis asociada a placa dentobacteriana en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucía Rocha Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las enfermedades periodontales (EPs son comunes en niños y adolescentes, y algunas son rápidamente destructivas. El consenso internacional de Periodontología de 1999, vigente hasta hoy día, incluyó a la gingivitis como parte de las EPs. Este estudio se enfocó en la gingivitis inducida por placa dentobacteriana (PDB. Estudios previos reportan porcentajes similares de prevalencia en niños Nigerianos, Polacos y Tanzaneses de alrededor del 54.4%. Sin embargo Oh TJ y col. encontró una presencia del 70% en niños Estadounidenses. En México, hay una amplia discrepacia en su prevalencia que oscila entre el 20.6% - 91.3%. Método: Estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo de niños que acudieron al Departamento de Odontopediatría de la Universidad de La Salle Bajío, A. C. Se revisó un total de 545 niños, y de ellos se reclutaron 350 niños con gingivitis de entre 3-14 años de edad, ambos sexos, clasificados sistémicamente como tipo I y II y sin capacidades diferentes. El protocolo de investigación fue revisado y aprobado por el Comité Ético Institucional. Los padres de los niños incluidos firmaron una Carta de Consentimiento Informado. A los niños se les aplicó un cuestionario de salud sistémica y uno de higiene dental, así como evaluación clínica, periodontal y de control de PDB. A los padres se les aplicó un cuestionario de hábitos higiénicos y preventivos. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, X2 y correlación múltiple. Resultados: Los niños presentaron una prevalencia de 64.2%, con una mediana grado I de gingivitis, sin embargo, se observó una tendencia a incrementarse el grado de ésta, conforme el niño tenía más edad, así como un incremento en la presencia de PDB de acuerdo con el índice de O’Leary. No se observaron diferencias en el grado de gingivitis entre sexos. Conclusión: El índice gingival en los niños estudiados es grado I, que es considerado leve y éste es independiente del

  15. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  16. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  17. Utilización de la placa palatina de memoria y desarrollo orofacial en infante con Síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los infantes con Síndrome de Down presentan en general, hipotonía de la muscular, cierre labial incompetente, lengua flácida y protruida. La placa palatina de memoria, propuesta por Castillo Morales, induce el cierre bilabial y posicionamiento correcto de la lengua. Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo evaluar el desarrollo orofacial, de una niña con Síndrome de Down, a través de terapia de estimulación precoz y utilización de placa palatina de memoria. Recibió tratamiento con placa palatina de memoria desde los 5 hasta los 15 meses y fue acompañada por un equipo multidisciplinario hasta los 6 años de edad. En el caso presentado, la terapia empleada permitió un desarrollo bucofacial adecuado, armónico y funcional. La utilización precoz de placa palatina de memoria demostró ser un complemento valioso en el programa multidisciplinario de atención a pacientes con Síndrome de Down.

  18. Diseño de placa electrónica para la monitorización de la calidad del aire

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Coronel, Edison Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en realizar una placa electrónica que permita utilizar un sensor electroquímico para medir ozono. En el se verá todo el proceso del diseño y un breve análisis de los datos recogidos.

  19. Método dos limites e a capacitância exata de um condensador com placas não paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Bertuola,A.C

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho usou-se o método dos limites para obter uma expressão analítica exata da capacitância de um condensador de placas planas não paralelas. Em seguida, o resultado obtido foi comparado com outros resultados conseguidos por meio de dois diferentes métodos publicados.

  20. Estudo comparativo entre técnicas para fixação de placa metálica em esclera de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Sandra Lucia Dias Ramos de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparação entre dois diferentes métodos para fixação escleral de placa metálica em coelhos, utilizando-se adesivo de cianoacrilato e fio de sutura Mersileneã 6.0. Métodos: Vinte e sete coelhos adultos foram operados sob anestesia geral e seus olhos foram examinados quanto à reação inflamatória ocular no 8º, 23º e 38º dia de pós-operatórios. Foi estudada a aderência da placa à esclera por meio das forças de tração tangencial e perpendicular. Resultados: Sinais clínicos de reação inflamatória estiveram presentes até o 23º dia em todos os olhos e foram levemente mais intensos nos olhos que usaram cianoacrilato. Exame microscópico mostrou reações até o 38º dia em todos os olhos. Diferentes forças de tração foram aplicadas nas placas e variavam de 20 a 80 gf. Forças de tração de 80 gf não produziram descolamento em todas as placas até o 38º dia. Conclusões: A fixação da placa metálica na esclera em coelhos pode ser obtida com a utilização do fio de sutura ou do adesivo de cianoacrilato.

  1. Sistema de supervisión y control para los enfriadores de placas y los tanques de contactos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliecer Méndez Méndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la sustitución del equipamiento obsoleto de automatización de las áreas de Enfriadores de Placas y Tanques de Contactos, por un Sistema de Supervisión y Control, formado por un PLC y el sistema SCADA. Para esto se estudió el lenguaje de programación existente en los equipos anteriores, se interpretaron los códigos, se identificó la programación de los lazos de medición y regulación existentes y se adicionaron nuevas mediciones. Se realizó el proyecto, la compra, el montaje, la programación y la puesta en marcha. El nuevo sistema mejoró el control y la supervisión y contribuyó a elevar la eficiencia tecnológica.

  2. DETERMINANTES DE LA DECISIÓN DE LOS MOTOTAXISTAS EN CARTAGENA (COLOMBIA DE INFRINGIR LA MEDIDA DE PICO Y PLACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA YÁNEZ CONTRERAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El mototaxismo es un tipo de transporte público informal que se ha tratado de controlar en la ciu - dad de Cartagena (Colombia con regulaciones como la medida de pico y placa. No obstante, esta regulación registra una alta tasa de infracción (cerca del 69% de los mototaxistas la infringen. En este documento se estiman modelos de elección binaria en los que se buscan examinar los factores que hacen más propenso a un mototaxista a infringir la regulación. Los resultados muestran que los determinantes más robustos son el número de motocicletas para trabajar y la ganancia esperada. Se concluye que la medida ha incentivado el uso de por lo menos una motocicleta adicional.

  3. Controlo da placa bacteriana em reabilitações implanto-suportadas: revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Marmelo, Catarina Filipa Dias

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho final do 5º ano com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dentária apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Introdução: A reabilitação oral com implantes tem tido uma divulgação exponencial graças aos seus resultados, estéticos e funcionais, altamente satisfatórios. A falta de motivação para a higiene oral e de destreza manual por parte do doente levam à acumulação de placa bacteriana, p...

  4. Utilización de placas de ELISA de alta y de baja avidez en la determinación de anticuerpos contra la toxina de cólera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Castañeda

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sueros de un estudio de inmunogenicidad de una vacuna oral de células enteras de Vibrio cholerae 01 más la subunidad B recombinante de la toxina (CEIsBr fueron procesados para la determinación de anticuerpos antitoxina de cólera en placas de ELlSA de alta y de baja avidez. Los títulos de anticuerpos antitoxina, de la clase IgG, de los sueros prevacunales estuvieron incrementados de 5 a 7 veces, en las placas de alta avidez, comparados con los títulos obtenidos en las placas de baja avidez. Igualmente, los títulos de los sueros post vacunales fueron 3 veces superiores cuando se realizó la misma comparación de placas. Por consiguiente, la tasa de seroconversión medida en las placas de alta avidez fue de 39%, comparada con 68% al utilizar las placas de baja avidez. El suero control de alto título de anticuerpos no detectó el problema. Se sugiere utilizar placas de baja avidez al determinar anticuerpos contra la toxina de cólera por la técnica de ELISA.

  5. Empleo de placas filtrantes cubanas en el proceso de producción de melagenina loción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Lago Mendoza

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La melagenina loción es un medicamento extraído de la placenta humana e identificado como una lipoproteína de bajo peso molecular, que ha demostrado su eficacia en la cura del vitiligo. Durante el proceso productivo de obtención de dicho extracto se emplea un sistema de placas de celulosa en la estación de filtración del Centro de Histoterapia Placentaria, Planta. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el empleo y evaluación de placas de producción nacional modelo Filtec 00 producidas en la Unión Investigación Producción Cuba 9 para la obtención del producto, para ello se evaluó el filtro teniendo en cuenta algunos criterios de operación además de los parámetros de control de la calidad del medicamento.Melagenine lotion is a drug extracted from human placenta. It is identified as a low molecular weight lipoprotein that has proven its efficiency to cure vitiligo. A system of cellulose plates is used during the productive process of obtention of this extract at the station of filtration of the Center of Placental Histotherapy. The present paper is aimed at studying the use and evaluation of plates of national production model Filtec 00 made at the Cuban 9 Union of Research and Production for obtaining the product. To this end, the filtre was evaluated taking into account some operational criteria in addition to drug quality control parameters.

  6. Simulación y experimentación de laminación plana de placas de aluminio 6063

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Robert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental methodology was generated for understanding the theoretical and practical concepts inherent to cold flat rolling. Aluminium slabs about 100 mm length, 9 mm thickness with different widths: 10 and 30 mm were rolled. A constant 0.3 mm thickness reduction step was performed in order to achieve a thickness reduction greater than 80 %. In the Abaqus® commercial software, a mathematical model was implemented in order to obtain a greater understanding concerning how the process variables affect the fields of stresses and strains that are not observed experimentally. It was found, by mathematical simulation, that a superficial hardening in the plates was produced and the deformation obtained is heterogeneous, which is corroborated physically. Keywords: Flat rolling; 6063 Aluminium; Data acquisition system; Simulation Se generó una metodología experimental para el entendimiento teórico-práctico de los conceptos del proceso de laminación plana en frío. Se laminaron placas de aluminio de aproximadamente 100 mm de longitud y 9 mm de espesor, a diferentes anchos: 10 y 30 mm. Se seleccionó una razón de reducción constante de 0.3 mm para cada paso de laminación, hasta lograr una reducción superior al 80 % en espesor. Se implementó un modelo matemático en el paquete comercial Abaqus® con el fin de obtener un mayor entendimiento sobre la influencia de las variables del proceso (fuerza aplicada y dimensiones de las probetas en los campos de esfuerzos y deformaciones que, experimentalmente, no se pueden observar. Se encontró, mediante la simulación matemática, que se produce un endurecimiento superficial en las placas y que la deformación obtenida es heterogénea, lo cual se corrobora físicamente.

  7. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  8. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnera

  9. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnera

  10. Análisis de modelos de vibraciones en lajas y placas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno González, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    serious complexities. particularly due to the dispersion problems appearing during the analysis by finite differences along the time domain and the computation of the larger number of finite elements on the spatial coordinates needed in this model.El presente trabajo se centra en el desarrollo de los modelos matemáticos precisos para simular las excitaciones y respuestas de carácter dinámico, que se introducen en los ensayos no destructivos de detección de imperfecciones. Las estructuras que se consideran se suponen constituidas por chapas de espesor delgado. Las fisuras, en estos casos, pueden ser penetrantes o de una profundidad significativa respecto de su espesor, o no penetrantes o superficiales, que afectan a la zona superficial de chapa. El primer tipo de fisura está relacionado con la seguridad de la estructura y el segundo más con su protección ambiental, al deteriorarse las pinturas de protección. Se han considerado dos tipos de modelos: uno, que intenta localizar la posición y magnitud de las imperfecciones en la estructura, en particular las fisuras, de carácter penetrante total. Para el/o se utilizan en el estudio modelos de vibraciones elásticas de estructuras delgadas como placas a flexión. El otro tipo de modelos analiza las vibraciones en lajas y en él se consideran vibraciones superficiales, como las ondas de Rayleigh. Se ha comprobado, en los modelos de estructuras pasantes, que las diferencias entre las frecuencias propias de las estructuras sanas y las fisuradas no son, en general, significativas. Por otra parte. la detección de posición de las fisuras. e. incluso. su mera presencia, mediante distintas normas de comparación entre los vectores modos propios no constituye un procedimiento fiable, ya que puede depender de la posición de la fisura (por ejemplo, cercana a un borde y del modo de vibración que la excita. El método que parece más prometedor está basado en la medida de las rotaciones (o derivadas de los modos respecto a

  11. Modelado y optimización de una placa (implante) para sujeción de injerto en la columna vertebral por el método de los elementos finitos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Sánchez, Helard Henry

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la placa (implante) a través de un modelo capaz de proporcionar valores de tensiones y desplazamientos bajo las diferentes condiciones de carga en distintos puntos de la placa que pueden son necesarios conocer. Esta información es de gran importancia, porque una cirugía persigue que la prótesis hueso del sistema este bajo un estado mecánico íntimo al hueso, promueve una estabilidad más grande y durabilidad de la placa y reduce el número de cirugías necesari...

  12. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  13. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.

  14. Caracterización térmica de placas de yeso con material de cambio de fase incorporado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the suitability of including PCM in gypsum boards to multiply their thermal energy storage capacity is demonstrated. So the thermal storage capacity of several constructive materials is evaluated and compared, whose use and application is similar to the gypsum boards: paneling of a wall and partition wall. An experimental facility has been designed and operated for the study of the new compound material, exchanging heat with air. It has been studied the influence of different parameters and system variables (working temperature, air velocity, display of the phase change materials, and location in the building…, to establish a latent heat storage system which –complemented with passive strategies (solar gains, natural ventilation– reduces the acclimatization energy consumption in buildings. So, here we demonstrate that a gypsum board including a 44.5% in weight of phase change materials (PCM is able to store –in a 1.5 cm thick- 5 times the thermal energy of a current gypsum board –with the same thickness–, and the same amount to 11.5 cm brick layer, in the comfort temperature range (20-30 ºC, maintaining the mechanical and physical properties required by the regulations in force.

    En este trabajo se demuestra la idoneidad de incorporar materiales de cambio de fase en placas de yeso para incrementar su capacidad de almacenamiento térmico. Para ello se evalúa y se compara la capacidad de almacenamiento térmico, de diferentes elementos constructivos cuyo uso y aplicación es similar a la de las placas de yeso: trasdosado y tabique separador. Se ha disenado y puesto en funcionamiento una instalación experimental que simula las condiciones de contorno que se producen en una estancia donde estén instalados los diferentes materiales y sistemas constructivos. Se ha estudiado la influencia de diferentes para´metros y variables del sistema (temperatura de trabajo, velocidad del aire, presentación de los

  15. ANÁLISIS DEL "PICO Y PLACA" COMO RESTRICCIÓN A LA CIRCULACIÓN VEHICULAR EN MEDELLÍN-BASADO EN VOLÚMENES VEHICULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN JAIRO POSADA HENAO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una breve descripción de la evolución del "Pico y Placa" en Medellín como medida para restringir la circulación vehicular, donde se expone la medida a partir de estudios anteriores a la aplicación de ésta (año 2004 y se muestra una comparación con los resultados de mediciones y aforos de flujos vehiculares en la situación posterior (años 2005 a 2008 con y sin pico y placa. Además, se presentan y analizan las limitaciones que tiene esta medida en el tiempo y la relación con la contaminación ambiental; por último se presentan recomendaciones para mejorar y evaluar la medida en el tiempo.

  16. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente Evaluación del tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por la artrodesis anterior utilizando placas asociadas con jaulas o jaulas en peec, aisladamente Evaluation of cervical degenerative disc disease treatment by anterior arthrodesis using plates associated with cages or cages in peek alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    André Rafael Hübner; Marcelo Ribeiro Mendes; Jean Carlo Frigotto Queruz; Jean Marcel Dambrós; Álvaro Diego Heredia Suárez; Leandro de Freitas Spinelli

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS...

  17. Evaluación del envejecimiento de placas neuromiorelajantes elaboradas en acrílico autopolimerizable y termopolimerizable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Jhonny Álvarez Lalvay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el envejecimiento de placas neuromiorelajantes elaboradas en acrílico autopolimerizable y termopolimerizable, mediante la técnica de termociclado in vitro. Materiales y métodos: Se elaboraron 33 muestras, divididas en 4 grupos, el 1° grupo, constituido por 10 muestras de placas neuromiorelajantes, elaboradas con una técnica de confección directa de autopolimerizado mas acetato rígido transparente, el 2° grupo estuvo constituido por 10 muestras, elaboradas con una técnica de confección no convencional, el 3° grupo estuvo constituido por 10 muestras, elaboradas con una técnica de confección indirecta en acrílico de termopolimerización, y un 4° grupo constituido por 3 muestras, con cada una de las 3 técnicas de confección, este será el grupo de control. Las 30 muestras, fueron sometidas a envejecimiento mediante termociclado, el mismo que consistió en introducir a las muestras en 2 diferentes frascos que contenían agua destilada a diferentes temperaturas (el primer frasco a 5°C, el segundo frasco a 55°C durante 15 segundos en cada frasco y por último en un tercer frasco con una sustancia colorante que para el efecto fue fuscina básica durante 24 horas. Posteriormente las muestras tratadas, fueron calificadas en un orden aleatorio por 3 observadores previamente calibrados. Resultados: De acuerdo a la prueba de chi cuadrado sí existe una relación entre el nivel de transparencia y el material empleado (técnica empleada, conformado por los valores dados por los tres observadores, con valores de significancia en los tres casos de p <0,05, y nos permiten afirmar que el acrílico de termopolimerizado es el que tiene mejores resultados posteriores al proceso de envejecimiento.

  18. Tratamiento con placa precontorneada bloqueada de fracturas desplazadas del tercio medio de la clavícula. [Precontoured locking plate treatment for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Edilio Paoletta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados de un grupo de pacientes con fracturas medio diafisarias desplazadas de clavícula tratadas con placa premoldeada bloqueada. La tasa de consolidación ósea, los resultados funcionales y las complicaciones de la serie fueron analizados. Material y métodos Cuarenta y seis fracturas de clavícula desplazadas tipo 2-B de Edimburgo fueron tratadas con placa bloqueada premoldeada. Treinta y seis fueron varones (uno con fractura bilateral y 9 mujeres. La edad promedio  fue de 33 años (rango 17-56 años. Los pacientes fueron evaluados con  radiología y  el  escore de Constant, el test rápido de dishabilidades del brazo, hombro y mano (Quick- Dash y la escala visual análoga (EVA para dolor.  Resultados El seguimiento promedio fue de 30 meses (rango 12 a 46. Cuarenta y cinco fracturas consolidaron y una no. El Constant promedio fue de 96 puntos (rango 56 a 100 y el Quick-Dash promedio de 2 puntos (rango 0 a 32. El dolor en el seguimiento fue de 0.3 puntos (rango 0 a 6. Se registraron 10 complicaciones en 9 pacientes (21%, aunque solo tres (6.5%  fueron consideradas mayores. En 7 pacientes (15% se retiró la placa por intolerancia (uno de ellos fue el paciente con mala consolidación, registrándose como segunda complicación en el mismo paciente. Conclusiones La reducción y estabilización de las fracturas desplazadas del tercio medio de la clavícula con placas premoldeadas y bloqueadas es un tratamiento efectivo con un bajo índice de complicaciones mayores relacionadas a veces con errores técnicos.

  19. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarowsky, Christina; Haddad, Slim; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of vulnerability: the initial level of wellbeing, the degree of exposure to risk, and the capacity to manage risk effectively. We stress the dynamic interactions linking material and social deprivation, poverty, powerlessness and ill health: risks or shocks and their health impacts are intimately interconnected and reinforce each other in a cycle which in the absence of effective interventions, increases vulnerability. An inductive process which does not begin with an a priori definition or measurement of 'vulnerability' and which does not assume the existence of fixed 'vulnerable groups' allowed us both to re-affirm core aspects of existing conceptual frameworks, and to engage in new ways with literature specifically addressing vulnerability and resilience at the population level as well as with literature - for example in ecology, and on the concept of frailty in research on aging - with which researchers on health and poverty in Africa may not be familiar. We invite conceptual and empirical work on vulnerability in complex systems frameworks. These perspectives emphasize contexts and nonlinear causality thus supporting analyses of vulnerability and resilience as both markers and emergent properties of dynamic interactions. We accept a working definition of vulnerability, and recognize that some definable groups of people are more likely than others to suffer harm from exposure to health risks. But we suggest that the real work - at both intellectual and policy/political levels - lies in understanding and responding to the dynamics, meanings and power relations underlying actual instances and processes of vulnerability and harm.

  20. [Homicides and social vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  1. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  2. Melqart-Herakles matando al Toro Celeste en una placa ebúrnea de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro-Gorbea, Martín

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available An ivory plaque found in the Tartessian necropolis from Medellin (Badajoz, Spain, dated about 600 B.C., shows a hero with a Phygian helmet killing a bull. The iconography of this scene can be interpreted a Phoenician-Tartessian myth of «Melqart killing de Heaven's Bull», which could be a precedent of the well-known Greek myth of «Herakles and the Cretan Bull». This ivory plaque is interesting not only for classical iconography but also to show the deep relation between the Phoenician and the Tartessian mythology.En la necrópolis tartésica orientalizante de Medellín ha aparecido una placa con una escena de tauromaquia fechada hacia el 600 a.C. con un personaje con gorro frigio que apuntilla a un toro. Su análisis iconográfico permite interpretarla como un posible mito de «Melqart dando muerte al Toro Celeste», probable precedente del mito griego de Heracles y el Toro de Creta. Además de su interés para la mitología clásica, este marfil confirma la profunda interrelación entre la mitología y las creencias tartésicas y fenicias.

  3. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  4. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  5. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  6. Vulnerability and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, David

    2016-04-01

    Although recent literature on professionalism in healthcare abounds in recommended character traits, attitudes, or behaviors, with a few exceptions, the recommendations are untethered to any serious consideration of the contours and ethical demands of the healing relationship. This article offers an approach based on the professional's commitment to trustworthiness in response to the vulnerability of those seeking professional help. Because our willingness and ability to trust health professionals or healthcare institutions are affected by our personality, culture, race, age, prior experiences with illness and healthcare, and socioeconomic and political circumstances-"the social determinants of trust"-the attitudes and behaviors that actually do gain trust are patient and context specific. Therefore, in addition to the commitment to cultivating attitudes and behaviors that embody trustworthiness, professionalism also includes the commitment to actually gaining a patient's or family's trust by learning, through individualized dialogue, which conditions would win their justified trust, given their particular history and social situation.

  7. Rescate de clavos endomedulares mediante estabilización con placas. [Intramedullary ­nail ­rescue­ with ­plate­ stabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción: La seudoartrosis de fémur es una complicación poco frecuente luego del enclavado endomedular. Existe controversia sobre el tratamiento que genera mejores resultados luego de esta complicación. En casos específicos, las no uniones femorales pueden ser correctamente tratadas mediante estabilización con placas sobre el clavo endomedular previo. Materiales ­y ­Métodos:­ Estudio retrospectivo de 16 seudoartrosis diafisarias (12 atróficas, 4 hipertróficas, asépticas de fémur tratadas inicialmente con clavo endomedular. Abordaje lateral de fémur para la osteosíntesis con placa. En todos los casos, se conservó el clavo endomedular colocado antes. En 12 pacientes, se realizó descorticación en el foco de no unión con colocación de injerto óseo autólogo; en 3 de ellos, se colocaron también factores de crecimiento. En 4 pacientes, se colocó la placa sin el agregado de injerto. Resultados:­ Todas consolidaron en 5,3 meses promedio desde la osteosíntesis con placa, sin cirugías adicionales. Un paciente sufrió una infección posquirúrgica que se curó con tratamiento antibiótico oral. Conclusiones:­ El cambio de clavo endomedular es el método de elección para la mayoría de las seudoartrosis diafisarias, asépticas de fémur, pero es más complejo de realizar en seudoartrosis metafisarias, en seudoartrosis atróficas con importante defecto óseo y cuando el clavo colocado previamente es el de mayor diámetro posible. La placa proporciona compresión y estabilidad del foco de fractura, y resulta una buena alternativa para tratar esta complicación. Recomendamos mínimo desbridamiento de partes blandas y descorticación que se limite sólo al foco de la no unión.

  8. O uso de placas de tetrapak como uma alternativa sustentável na construção civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Perrone Ferreira Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A indústria da construção civil, devido a sua grande influência nas atividades econômicas, é responsável pelo consumo dematéria-prima não renovável em grande escala sendo, portanto parte fundamental para que se consiga um desenvolvimentosustentável. Os materiais reciclados surgem como opção para a preservação destes recursos. O sistema modular também se adapta asnecessidades da construção sustentável já que seu processo construtivo resulta na racionalização da obra reduzindo perdas, custosfacilitando a inserção do material no mercado. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver um sistema construtivo modular produzido complacas de argamassa de cimento, areia e caixas recicladas tetrapak. Foi desenvolvida uma proposta de planta padrão para umaresidência com 45m2 onde as vedações e divisórias internas são moduladas e construídas por placas pré-fabricadas de dimensõespadronizadas. Estas placas foram produzidas com duas espessuras diferentes de maneira que se pudesse avaliar sua massa final eresistência a compressão. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com NBR 6136 (2008 Blocos vazados de concreto simples paraalvenaria - Requisitos. Um modelo de edificação foi construído neste sistema de maneira que se pudesse avaliar sua durabilidade,resistência as intempéries e conforto ambiental.Abstract Due to its strong influence over the economicactivities, the civil construction industry is responsible for thelarge-scale consumption of non-renewable raw materials and byconsequence being an important part of any sustainabledevelopment model. The recycled materials appear as an optionfor preservation of resources. The modular system also fits thenecessities of the sustainable construction since its operativeprocess results in a rationalization of needed man power,reducing losses, costs and facilitating the insertion of the recycledmaterials into the market. The objective of this work is todevelop a modular constructive

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN BIOLÓGICA DE VARIANTES DE PLACA DE LA CEPA VACUNAL 17D CONTRA LA FIEBRE AMARILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rojas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La vacuna colombiana 17D, contiene por lo menos cuatro fenotipos, denominados pequeño (0.3 – 1.2 mm, mediano (1.3 – 2.1 mm, grande (2.2 – 3.0 mm y extragrande (>3.1 mm. La composición y distribución porcentual de esos fenotipos, varió entre lotes y entre ampolletas de un mismo lote. Cada variante fue clonada por dilución de la vacuna y su efecto virulento fue analizado en ratones; el fenotipo de placa pequeño estuvo ligeramente sub representado en los lotes analizados y mostró una virulencia similar a la de la cepa silvestre neurotrópica Francesa (LD50 > 10-6, mientras que el fenotipo predominante y mas atenuado fue el mediano (LD50: 10-4. Los fenotipos grande y extragrande mostraron una virulencia intermedia (LD 50: 10 – 5  con relación a los anteriores. Los análisis de secuencia de las variantes sobre una región comprendida entre el extremo 3´NS5 y el inicio de 3´NCR, mostró la cercanía entre aquellas variantes con algún grado de virulencia, y entre la variante atenuada y la vacuna colombiana. La heterogeneidad de la vacuna 17D, constituye una evidencia de la estructura de quasiespecies propia de los virus RNA y señala cómo los casos de reacciones post vacunales  adversas pueden estar asociados con la aplicación de vacunas fabricadas a partir de cepas virales atenuadas.  

  10. Diseño de un colector solar de placa plana; Design of a Solar Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Rafael Rodríguez Mejía

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se integra el uso de un software de diseño mecánico y un algoritmo de simulación de la operación de un colector solar de placa plana, con el objetivo de simplificar el proceso de diseño y manufactura de este último. Se exponen los resultados de la simulación de la operación del colector solar considerando diferentes combinaciones en los parámetros de los materiales utilizados, tales como sus propiedades y características físico químicas, además de la variación de las dimensiones del sistema adiseñar. Finalmente en el artículo se evalúa la operación de un colector solar para las condiciones climatológicas típicas de la irradiancia, velocidad de viento y temperatura ambiente a partir de una serie de curvas sinusoidales, típicas de Cuba, validándose la viabilidad del algoritmo como apoyo en la etapa de diseño y selección de materiales.In this article the use of mechanical design software and an algorithm for simulating the operation of a flat plate solar collector, with the objective of simplifying the process of design and manufacture of the latter isintegrated. The simulation results of the operation of the solar collector considering different combinations in the parameters of the materials used, such as its physicochemical properties and features in addition to thevariation of the dimensions of the system design are set. The article finally evaluates the operation of a solar collector for typical climatic conditions of irradiance, wind speed and ambient temperature from a series ofsinusoidal, typical Cuba curves is evaluated, validating the feasibility of the algorithm as support in step design and material selection.

  11. Placas ósseas confeccionadas a partir de diáfise cortical equina na osteossíntese femoral em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pinheiro Milori

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A evolução tecnológica tem possibilitado o desenvolvimento e o aperfeiçoamento de novos materiais para implantes. Apesar dos fundamentais benefícios providos pelos dispositivos ortopédicos, complicações decorrentes de corrosão, degradação, infecção, além de outras podem ocorrer. O entendimento das características dos biomateriais é fundamental para a previsibilidade do seu comportamento in vivo, fornecendo subsídios para que o composto mais adequado seja escolhido na reconstrução do defeito ósseo. As placas de origem metálica são as mais utilizadas para o reparo de fraturas de ossos longos, sendo mecanicamente resistentes e biocompatíveis. No entanto, a necessidade de remoção e o enfraquecimento do osso são suas principais desvantagens. Neste trabalho, placas produzidas a partir de osso cortical equino foram empregadas experimentalmente em fêmur osteotomizado de coelhos (Grupo osso-GO, num estudo comparativo com placas de metal (Grupo metal-GM. A avaliação radiográfica foi realizada a cada 30 dias, durante 120 dias, momento em que foi então realizada análise histológica do material em estudo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos com relação à morfometria do calo ósseo e consolidação óssea em todos os momentos avaliados, sendo que ambas as placas permitiram a consolidação em todos os animais. Entretanto, observou-se que o calo ósseo foi menor no GO, em relação ao GM, em todos os momentos do estudo. Por outro lado, a maior parte dos animais do GO apresentou consolidação completa da fratura aos 90 dias, enquanto que no GM isto ocorreu aos 60 dias. Não foram evidenciadas células do tipo corpo estranho na histopatologia dos animais do GO, mas maior quantidade de tecido fibroso foi identificada, envolvendo este biomaterial. A placa confeccionada com osso equino representa uma alternativa de baixo custo e muito viável, uma vez que permitiu estabilização adequada

  12. Efecto inhibitorio en placa microbiana y propiedades antibacterianas de enjuagatorios de clorhexidina The effects of a chlorhexidine rinses on the development of plaque and antibacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Yevenes L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar en 20 voluntarios el efecto sobre el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas de enjuagatorios de clorhexidina, medir in vitro su actividad microbicida y determinar la concentración de clorhexidina. Tres enjuagatorio s comerciales fueron usados, denominados A, B y C, los dos primeros con 0,12% y el tercero con 0,1% de clorhexidina. El efecto sobre el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas se determino midiendo área de placa e índice de placa en tres estudios cruzados doble ciego. Las propiedades microbicidas fueron determinadas por un ensayo de inhibición del desarrollo del Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus y Candida albicans. La determinación de clorhexidina fue realizada por cromatografía HPLC. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la placa formada a las 24 horas después del uso de los enjuagatorios pero menos placa se desarrollo con clorhexidina al compararla con el control. Las concentraciones de clorhexidina fueron 0,1174%, 0,1168% Y0,091% para A, B y C respectivamente, valores estables después de 16 meses de elaboración. Las concentraciones en clorhexidina para A y B son valores normales mientras que el valor de C esta bajo el valor declarado. Los enjuagatorios presentan actividad microbicida contra los microorganismos usados con un tiempo de inactivación del crecimiento menor o igual a 30 segundos. Las metodologías usadas permiten confirmar la efectividad de los enjuagatorios con diferentes concentración de clorhexidina, donde los resultados claramente sugieren que 0,1% en clorhexidina es capaz de tener actividad antiplaca y antimicrobiana cuando es usada en colutorios, no siendo necesarias concentraciones mas elevadas.The purpose of this study was to measure plaque regrowth over 24 h.(in vivo and microbicidal activity (in vitro, and to determine the concentration of chlorhexidine in mouthwashes. Three commercial mouthwashes were used, A ,B, whit 0.12 % and C whit 0.10 % of

  13. Cuantificación de bacterias cultivables mediante el método de “Goteo en Placa por Sellado (o estampado Masivo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Elizabeth Morales-García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Quantification of cultivable bacteria by the “Massive Stamping Drop Plate” method Resumen: Cuando se desea cuantificar el número de bacterias presentes en múltiples muestras, los procedimientos de rutina suelen consumir mucho tiempo. En ese periodo las muestras podrían sufrir modificaciones en su población. En el presente trabajo se evaluó una metodología alternativa para cuantificar bacterias cultivables de forma masiva, rápida y económica en la que se implica el sellado, estampado o impresión de diluciones seriadas de muestras de diversa procedencia. El tiempo requerido para preparar 22 muestras para su sellado en placa es de 15 minutos. El método se basó en realizar diluciones seriadas (base 10 de las muestras líquidas originales contenidas en una placa multipozos con la ayuda de una pipeta multicanal. Después, con un replicador se tomó un volumen (aproximadamente 1,65 µl de muestra de cada pozo, que se inoculó por sellado en un medio de crecimiento gelificado de interés. Las placas se incubaron el tiempo necesario, se contó el número de colonias presentes en la dilución contable y se calculó el número de Unidades Formadoras de Colonia por mililitro (UFC/ml para cada muestra. La metodología se denominó “Goteo por Sellado en Placa Masivo” (GSPM y ha sido aplicada para cuantificar exitosamente bacterias provenientes de diferentes muestras de laboratorio, por ejemplo, de cultivos líquidos, muestras clínicas (como exudados y secreciones y bacterias presentes en la rizósfera de plantas de maíz. Sin embargo, la metodología GSPM podría aplicarse para contabilizar masivamente a bacterias de cualquier otra procedencia. Palabras clave: UFC; goteo en placa; plaqueo; vaciado en placa; GSPM. Abstract: In an attempt to quantify the number of bacteria present in a high number of samples, routine procedures are usually very time-consuming. During this period of time, bacterial population could be

  14. Desenvolvimento de compósitos poliméricos baseados em polipropileno reciclado visando o uso como placas absorvedoras de energia solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Azevedo Massulo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à crescente demanda por energias sustentáveis, gestão de resíduos e o uso de materiais recicláveis, o presente trabalho objetivou o desenvolvimento de compósitos poliméricos de matriz de polipropileno reciclado visando o uso como placas absorvedoras de energia solar. Nessa matriz polimérica adicionou-se como fase dispersa um resíduo do tabaco (pó de fumo empregando teores de 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% e 30%, em massa. Além disso, estudou-se a adição de negro de fumo junto ao pó de fumo, utilizando teores de 6% e 10% de cada fase dispersa. As formulações foram misturadas em homogeneizador de laboratório, moídas em moinhos de facas e processadas por moldagem por compressão a 180°C, obtendo-se placas com dimensões de 400x400mm e espessura de 4 mm, as quais, foram caracterizadas e avaliadas em testes de absorção de calor, tração, flexão, dureza e densidade. Os resultados indicaram potencial de aplicação no sistema de aquecimento solar de água devido aos resultados de absorção térmica. Também, a utilização do negro de fumo como fase dispersa mostrou-se uma grande contribuição para as características mecânicas do material. Outro importante resultado diz respeito a possibilidade de se estar usando um polímero reciclado e um resíduo industrial gerado em grande quantidade, tal como é o pó de fumo, na produção das placas caracterizando assim um ganho ambiental.

  15. Associação entre fluorescência vermelha emitida pela placa bacteriana e atividade de cárie: estudo in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gonçalves Bittar

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo in situ cruzado de duas fases foi avaliar a influência da presença de placa dentária fluorescente no vermelho na indução de lesões cariosas. Foram utilizados 272 blocos de esmalte bovino, que foram avaliados inicialmente em relação à microdureza superficial e quantificação da fluorescência verde com o QLF (Quantitative light-induced fluorescence). Dezessete voluntários utilizaram dispositivos palatais removíveis, com oito amostras cobertas com uma rede plástica para fa...

  16. REMOÇÃO DE PLACA BACTERIANA DENTÁRIA APÓS O USO DE ENXAGUANTES BUCAIS PRÉ-ESCOVAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Regina da Silva Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do uso de enxaguantes bucais pré-escovação na remoção da placa bacteriana por adolescentes. Foi realizado um estudo seguindo o modelo cruzado, de duplo mascaramento, com duração total de 25 dias, com 4 dias de intervalo entre as fases. O protocolo da pesquisa obteve aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em pesquisa da UFSM. Trinta e oito adolescentes (idade média de 13 anos) de uma escola estadual da cidade de Santa MariaRS, uti...

  17. Resina acrílica: relação entre tratamento superficial e retenção de placa bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Rego, Marina R. M.; Kitahara, Flávia M. F.; SANTIAGO,Luiz Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo avaliou a influência de técnicas de tratamento superficial da resina acrílica na adesão de placa bacteriana utilizando microbiota encontrado na cavidade bucal. Foram confeccionados noventa corpos de prova cilíndricos em resina acrílica autopolimerizável e divididos em nove grupos, para utilização de várias técnicas de tratamento superfi¬cial usualmente utilizadas nesse material. Os corpos-de-prova fora...

  18. Determinação de dose absorvida em feixes de elétrons utilizado câmara de ionizacão de placas paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla Roseli T.; Caldas Linda V.E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um procedimento para a determinação dos fatores de calibração e de doses absorvidas em feixes de elétrons. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados um irradiador de 60Co e um acelerador linear Varian, modelo Clinac 2100C, com feixes de fótons e de elétrons. Foram estudadas câmaras de ionização do tipo dedal e de placas paralelas. RESULTADOS: Os sistemas de medidas foram submetidos aos testes preliminares (estabilidade de resposta e corrente de ...

  19. Fragmento de placa con letras [---]VIR[---], procedente de Termes (Montejo de Tiermes, Soria). ¿Antropónimo, magistratura o indicación de tribu?

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Yanguas, Juan; Hoces de la Guardia Bermejo, Ángel Luis

    2008-01-01

    Homenaje a Ignacio Barandiarán Maestu / coord. por Javier Fernández Eraso, Juan Santos Yanguas. [ES] A partir del análisis directo de uno de los fragmentos de placas procedentes de Tiermes y depositadas en el MAN (Museo Arqueológico Nacional), se propone una triple posibilidad de lectura: un antropónimo, [II]vir, o, incluso, la abreviatura [Q]VIR(ina), y las consecuencias históricas que de cada una se derivan. [EN] The direct analysis of one of the fragments of tablets from Tierme...

  20. Desarrollo de un separador de objetos duros en el café a partir de las vibraciones producidas en placas delgadas.

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Gómez, Diego; Oliveros Tascón, Carlos Eugenio; Estrada Estrada, Jorge Hernán; Álvarez Mejía, Fernando; Sanz Uribe, Juan Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    En Cenicafé se diseñaron y construyeron prototipos electromecánicos denominados PESELOD (pescador electrónico de objetos duros) para la protección de las máquinas despulpadoras. Este nuevo módulo, localizado antes de la despulpadora, está conformado por un alimentador, un cuerpo vibrante (placa delgada o cono metálico), una compuerta, un recipiente para los objetos duros desalojados y un circuito para la detección y separación automática del objeto duro. Su principio de funcionamiento se basa...

  1. Aggregation of plaque disclosing agent in a dentifrice Incorporação de evidenciador de placa bacteriana a um dentifrício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dias da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque removal is an important issue in health promotion. Toothbrushing is one of the main methods employed for such purpose, since it can prevent dental caries by means of the fluoride present in the dentifrice. Dentifrices might contain plaque disclosing agents and thus allow dental plaque observation. The aim of this study was to assess whether utilization of a plaque disclosing agent interfered with plaque removal among adolescents, as well as the difference between utilization of erythrosine tablets and dentifrices containing plaque disclosing agent. The sample was composed of 62 students from Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, aged 12 to 14 years old, divided into 3 groups: G1 or control group (toothbrushing without plaque disclosure; G2 (plaque disclosing with an erythrosine tablet and toothbrushing and G3 (toothbrushing with dentifrice containing plaque disclosing agent. After toothbrushing, disclosure of the remaining dental plaque was performed in all groups with a fuchsin tablet and measured through the Simplified Oral Health Assessment Index (OHI-S, in two stages with a 2-month interval between them. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that there was no difference in the OHI-S index between the groups (p>0.05, however the G3 displayed a higher proportion of students with plaque reduction (23% than G2 (21%, besides the smallest difference in the mean remaining dental plaque. There was no difference between groups; however, it was suggested that the dentifrice with plaque disclosing agent had positive results in relation to the erythrosine tablet, even though the small sample size may have interfered with the results, indicating the need of complementary studies.Na promoção de saúde, a remoção da placa bacteriana é um fator importante e um dos métodos que incentivam sua remoção, é a escovação dentária, podendo-se prevenir a cárie dental através do íon flúor dos dentifrícios. Estes podem conter evidenciadores

  2. Análise da contribuição do laser de baixa intensidade como terapia de apoio no tratamento de DTM com placa oclusal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da laserterapia de baixa intensidade associada ao uso da placa oclusal, como método de contribuição para o tratamento das DTMs intraarticulares e/ou musculares, por meio de exames clínicos e instrumentais. Foram selecionados 25 pacientes entre homens e mulheres, com idade média de 33,8 anos, encaminhados para tratamento da DTM na FORP/USP. Também foram selecionados 12 sujeitos assintomáticos para DTM, para compor o grupo controle. O diagnóstico d...

  3. Aplicação do protocolo FARC de tratamento de DTM com placa oclusal e controle eletromiográfico

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A eletromiografia de superfície (EMG) pode ser considerada atualmente um instrumento muito útil, que permite a avaliação quantitativa da musculatura de pacientes com desordem temporomandibular (DTM). O propósito do presente estudo foi aplicar e analisar os efeitos do protocolo FARC de tratamento de DTM com placa oclusal e controle eletromiográfico, comparando os dados da avaliação, de 15 pacientes com DTM, classificados segundo o RDC / TMD, antes e após o tratamento; os resultados da EMG obti...

  4. Eletromiografia dos músculos temporais e masseteres em pacientes com disfunção temporomandibular tratados com placa interoclusal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Os objetivos do presente estudo foram analisar os efeitos do tratamento de pacientes com Desordem temporomandibular (DTM) articular crônica com a placa interoclusal estabilizadora modelo Michigan por meio dos índices eletromiográficos POC dos temporais, POC dos masseteres, TORS, ASSIM, Ativação, Ativação absoluta, TORQUE, Impacto, em máximo apertamento dental voluntário (MCV) em máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH) e máximo apertamento voluntário com algodão entre os dentes (MAA). Foram tamb...

  5. La colección de placas de linterna de Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco: propuesta de conservación y restauración

    OpenAIRE

    García Bustos, Irene

    2016-01-01

    La gestión de un archivo fotográfico es un tema complejo, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a su conservación, ya que son muchos los factores que pueden llegar a influir en la preservación de una colección de estas características. Todos estos aspectos quedan reflejados en este trabajo, en el que se lleva a cabo el estudio de la colección de 3.000 placas de linterna de Eduardo Hernández-Pacheco, almacenada en dos archivadores de madera, y que actualmente se encuentra en la Biblioteca Histórica ...

  6. Prevalencia de Cándida y asociación con periodontopatógenos presentes en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Ardila Medina; M.E. López Gaviria; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Pocos estudios han descrito la presencia de levaduras en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica desconociéndose las implicaciones que puede tener su presencia sobre el tratamiento periodontal. Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la prevalencia de levaduras en las bolsas periodontales, su influencia sobre los parámetros clínicos y su asociación con otros periodontopatógenos presentes en periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se examina...

  7. Avaliação bioquimica e cariogenicidade da placa dental formada na presença de sacarose ou glicose+frutose. Estudo "in situ"

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Augusta Bessa Rebelo

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a composição da placa dental formada na presença de sacarose ou glicose+frutose e sua relação com cariogenicidade. Doze voluntários adultos participaram deste estudo cruzado realizado em 03 etapas de 28 dias. Para cada fase do estudo, um dispositivo palatino de acrílico contendo 04 blocos de esmalte dental humano foi confeccionado para os voluntários. Uma solução de sacarose 20% ou glicose 10% + fiutose 10% foi gotejada sobre os blocos de esmalte 8...

  8. Evaluación de la eficacia de dos prescripciones de cepillos dentales en la remoción de placa bacteriana en pacientes ortodóncicos

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga García,D; Pastén Castro,EJ; Araya-Díaz,PA; Palomino Montenegro,H

    2012-01-01

    La aparatología empleada en los tratamientos de ortodoncia, favorece la retención de placa bacteriana y dificulta su eliminación por parte del paciente, aumentando el riesgo de desarrollar caries, manchas blancas y enfermedad periodontal. Diferentes cepillos dentales se han desarrollado para facilitar la mantención de una adecuada higiene oral en estos pacientes, sin embargo, se ha observado que los cepillos comunmente indicados (cepillo ortodóncico mas cepillo unipenacho), no siempre son bie...

  9. Prótesis de cuerpo vertebral JR: dispositivo modular, anatómico y expandible, con función de jaula y placa diseñada ad hoc para estabilizar la columna después de corpectomía Prótese do corpo vertebral JR: dispositivo modular, anatômico e expansível, com função de jaula e placa desenhada ad hoc para estabilizar a coluna depois da corpectomia JR vertebral body prosthesis: a modular, anatomical and expandable device, with cage function and plate dual designed ad hoc for spine stabilization after corpectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ramírez Jiménez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: debido a los resultados clínicos no satisfactorios con instrumentaciones posteriores en los casos de tumor vertebral y a las carencias económicas de nuestros pacientes para adquirir los sistemas disponibles en el mercado, fue diseñada una prótesis de cuerpo vertebral para estabilizar la columna después de una corpectomía. OBJETIVO: describir las características estructurales y funcionales de la prótesis JR, las pruebas biomecánicas en cadáver y la técnica quirúrgica en el paciente. MÉTODOS: primeramente fue realizado un estudio anatómico detallado de los cuerpos vertebrales. Se obtuvo el diseño de un dispositivo modular, anatómico y expandible. Sus componentes una vez ensamblados hacen un implante con función dual de jaula y placa lateral expandibles. Posteriormente se efectuó un ensayo de propiedades biomecánicas en cadáver y se implantó un dispositivo en un paciente con metástasis en cuerpo vertebral. RESULTADOS: las radiografías que le fueron tomadas al cadáver, posterior a la colocación del implante, no mostraron pérdida de la fijación. Al levantar el cadáver se generaron momentos de flexión en sentido lateral con brazos de palanca de 80 cm de largo, por lo que la prótesis fue demandada en su punto más vulnerable con una fuerza de aproximadamente 588 N. Con la rotación, flexión y extensión forzadas, la estabilidad se conservó y no se visualizó movimiento del implante. Se colocó el dispositivo en una mujer de 50 años con cáncer metastásico de tiroides que afectaba L3. El dolor mejoró en el postoperatorio inmediato, así como su función motora que le permitió caminar con una columna estable e indolora por siete años. No se observó fracaso del implante. CONCLUSIÓN: la función dual de jaula y placa integrada en la prótesis de cuerpo vertebral establece una ventaja mecánica comparada con la función de la jaula y de la placa separadamente, ya que el diseño de la prótesis permite

  10. Region 9 - Social Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Social Vulnerability Index is derived from the 2000 US Census data. The fields included are percent minority, median household income, age (under 18 and over...

  11. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  12. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  13. Vulnerability of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of

  14. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Ashiqur Rahman; Md. SarwarAlam Rasel; Asaduzzaman Noman; Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-01-01

    Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to de...

  15. Diseño de un colector solar de placa plana; Design of a solar fl at plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeovany Rafael Rodríguez Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se integra el uso de un software de dis eño mecánico y un algoritmo de simulación de la operación de un colector solar de placa plana, con el objeti vo de simplificar el proceso de diseño y manufactura de este último. Se exponen los resultados de la sim ulación de la operación del colector solar considerando diferentes combinaciones en los parámetros de los materiales utilizados, tales como sus propiedades y características físico químicas, además de la var iación de las dimensiones del sistema a diseñar. Finalmente en el artículo se evalúa la operación de un colector solar para las condiciones climatológicas típicas de la irradiancia, velocidad de viento y temperatura ambiente a partir de una serie de curvas sinusoidales, típicas de Cuba, validándose la viabilidad del algoritmo como apoyo en la etapa de diseño y selección de materiales. In this article the use of mechanical design software and an al gorithm for simulating the operation of a flat plate solar collector, with the objective of simplifying the pr ocess of design and manufacture of the latter is integrated. The simulation results of the operation of the sola r collector considering different combinations in the parameters of the materials used, such as its physicochemic al properties and features in addition to the variation of the dimensions of the system design are set. The a rticle finally evaluates the operation of a solar collector for typical climatic conditions of irradiance, wind s peed and ambient temperature from a series of sinusoidal, typical Cuba curves is evaluated, validating the fe asibility of the algorithm as support in step design and material selection.

  16. Placas de identificación de combatientes de la Guerra Civil española (1936-1937), recuperadas en exhumaciones de escenarios bélicos en el País Vasco

    OpenAIRE

    HERRASTI, L., SAMPEDRO, A.J., DIÉGUEZ, J., ETXEZARRAGA, J., IRUSTA, A., JIMÉNEZ, J., REBOLLEDO, I., SARDÓN, A., SARDÓN, E. ...

    2014-01-01

    A finales del s. XIX la preocupación por conocer la identidad de los soldados heridos o fallecidos en una batalla motivó la creación de un sistema de identificación con placas metálicas que se llevaban suspendidas del cuello o alrededor de la muñeca. Los propios soldados sentían temor de no ser identificados tras su muerte. Las placas de identificación personal cuentan con una larga tradición en todos los ejércitos, si bien su uso se generaliza en el siglo XX como consecuencia de la Primera G...

  17. Estudo do efeito da vibração no tratamento da disfunção temporomandibular através de um protótipo de placa vibratória oclusal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar uma placa oclusalcom estimulação vibratória (POV) de base, para o tratamento da dor crônica miofascial. Foram selecionados 18 pacientes com mialgia crônica facial, de acordo com os Critérios para Diagnóstico em Pesquisa RDC . Os pacientes tinham entre 18 e 65 anos de idade, pertenciam ao sexo feminino e haviam usado placa estebilizadora acrílica por mais de 6 meses, e permaneciam com dor muscular. Foram excluídos pacientes com Disfunção Temporomandibula...

  18. Enfermedad de la Peyronie: De la extirpación a la incisión de la placa de fibrosis Peyronie's disease: Incision or extirpation of the plaque

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Núñez Serrano; García Martínez, L.; E. Elena Sorando

    2008-01-01

    La Enfermedad de La Peyronie es una entidad médica bien descrita y conocida, sin embargo su tratamiento quirúrgico no siempre consigue el resultado esperado. Las técnicas habituales (Nesbitt, Horton- Devine), basadas en la extirpación de la placa fibrosa que desvía el pene eréctil, suelen conllevar acortamiento peneano y/o recidiva de la enfermedad. Presentamos una serie de 20 pacientes con Enfermedad de La Peyronie tratados con una nueva técnica basada en la incisión de la placa fibrosa e in...

  19. O homem-placa e o pixman: uma análise de duas ferramentas publicitárias que utilizam o corpo como suporte midiático

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Rodrigo Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A pesquisa aborda o homem-sanduíche e o pixman, duas ferramentas publicitárias que usam o corpo como suporte midiático. Os homens-sanduíche - homens, raras vezes mulheres andam pelas ruas dos centros comerciais das grandes cidades, espremidos entre duas placas de compensado, anunciando diversos produtos e serviços como a venda de ouro ou a compra de tíquetes-refeição ou passes de metrô. O pixman, denominado no Brasil homem-placa-digital, é um novo sistema publicitário que usa o corpo p...

  20. Análise microbiológica da placa bacteriana da doença periodontal em cães e o efeito da antibioticoterapia sobre ela

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Stella Alves da; Galera,Paula Diniz; Brito, Daiana Lima; Perecmanis,Simone; Silva,Anahí Souza; Cardoso, Larissa Borges; Marçola,Tatiana Guerrero; Drummond,Vinícius Oliveira; Pimentel,Concepta McManus

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se determinar a microbiota da placa bacteriana subgengival de cães com doença periodontal (DP) e estabelecer o efeito da antibioticoterapia. Avaliaram-se 20 cães com graus variados de DP e coletaram-se amostras da placa bacteriana subgengival antes e após antibioticoterapia. Preconizou-se antibioticoterapia distinta em dois grupos, com 10 animais cada: clindamicina (G1) e metronidazol + espiramicina (G2). Observou-se crescimento bacteriano subgengival na maioria dos cães com DP e co...

  1. Extrusão de placa escleral senil: relato de um caso Extrusion of a senile scleral plaque: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Relatar caso de extrusão parcial espontânea de placa de transluscência focal senil de esclera calcificada. Método: Relato de caso de mulher de 75 anos, encaminhada com suspeita de tumor conjuntival, apresentando lesão leucoplásica em esclera, localizada anteriormente à inserção do músculo reto medial do olho esquerdo causando sensação de corpo estranho; instituindo-se tratamento por exérese e enxerto escleral. O exame histopatológico revelou tecido conjuntivo fibroso com calcificação. Conclusão: A extrusão de placa de transluscência senil de esclera deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores epibulbares.Purpose: To present a case of spontaneous extrusion of a calcified plaque of scleral focal senile translucency. Methods: Case report of a 75-year-old female, referred because of a epibulbar tumor suspicion. She complained of foreign body sensation and had a white scleral plaque in front of the left medial rectus insertion. The lesion was exci-sed and a scleral graft performed. The histologic examination showed fibrous connective tissue, with calcification. Conclusion: Spontaneous extrusion of senile scleral plaques should be included in the differential diagnosis of epibulbar tumors.

  2. Placas and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  3. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  4. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research.

  5. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, a limbic structure important in learning and memory, is particularly sensitive to chronic stress and to glucocorticoids. While glucocorticoids are essential for an effective stress response, their oversecretion was originally hypothesized to contribute to age-related hippocampal degeneration. However, conflicting findings were reported on whether prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids endangered the hippocampus and whether the primate hippocampus even responded to glucocorticoids as the rodent hippocampus did. This review discusses the seemingly inconsistent findings about the effects of elevated and prolonged glucocorticoids on hippocampal health and proposes that a chronic stress history, which includes repeated elevation of glucocorticoids, may make the hippocampus vulnerable to potential injury. Studies are described to show that chronic stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can compromise the hippocampus by producing dendritic retraction, a reversible form of plasticity that includes dendritic restructuring without irreversible cell death. Conditions that produce dendritic retraction are hypothesized to make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic or metabolic challenges. Of particular interest is the finding that the hippocampus can recover from dendritic retraction without any noticeable cell loss. When conditions surrounding dendritic retraction are present, the potential for harm is increased because dendritic retraction may persist for weeks, months or even years, thereby broadening the window of time during which the hippocampus is vulnerable to harm, called the 'glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis'. The relevance of these findings is discussed with regard to conditions exhibiting parallels in hippocampal plasticity, including Cushing's disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  6. Higher-order risk vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Huang,Xiaoping; Stapleton, Richard Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We add an independent unfair background risk to higher-order risk-taking models in the current literature and examine its interaction with the main risk under consideration. Parallel to the well-known concept of risk vulnerability, which is defined by Gollier and Pratt (Econometrica 64:1109–1123, 1996), an agent is said to have a type of higher-order risk vulnerability if adding an independent unfair background risk to wealth raises his level of this type of higher-order risk aversion. We der...

  7. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A

    2003-01-01

    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  8. Vulnerability assessment of distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Utgés, Guifré

    2013-01-01

    In this project I have carried out a vulnerability assessment of a component of the Condor Middleware. In this assessment I have sought and found the more dangerous software vulnerabilities of this system, I have reported them to the development team such that they may be fixed, and thus improve the security of this distributed system, and the networks that use it. En este proyecto he desarrollado una evaluación de vulnerabilidades de un componente del Middleware Condor. En esta evaluación...

  9. Prefabricación y elevación de placas de hormigón armado en grandes chimeneas industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Solar Bermejo, José

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The chimneys designed and constructed during the last years, in Spain, must be considered according to the model of chimneys with a ventilated and accesible air space between the brick lining and the concrete shaft. The lining is independent of the shaft and normally is built in sections. Each brick lining section rest on reinforced concrete slabs supported by the shaft corbels. Traditionally these concrete slabs have been concreted in situ and carried out by an auxiliary work platform suspended on the top of the chimney. In the system developed by Karman and Agroman, the concrete slabs are prefabricated, one upon the other, on the floor of the chimney and afterwards lifted to the required level and placed on the shaft corbels. In this article, we try to describe our experiences in this field, as well as the results of such chimneys construction by this system.Las chimeneas proyectadas y construidas en los últimos años en España, se consideran de acuerdo al modelo de chimeneas con una cámara ventilada y accesible entre el conducto cerámico y el fuste de hormigón. El conducto se construye normalmente por tramos. Cada tramo apoya en placas de hormigón armado soportadas por ménsulas del fuste. Tradicionalmente estas placas de hormigón han sido construidas in situ con auxilio de una plataforma auxiliar suspendida de la coronación de la chimenea. En el método desarrollado por Karman y Agromán, las placas son prefabricadas, una sobre otra, en el suelo de la chimenea y después son elevadas hasta su nivel definitivo apoyándolas en las ménsulas del fuste. En este artículo se trata de describir nuestras experiencias en este campo, asi como los resultados obtenidos con este método de construcción.

  10. Placas de identificación de combatientes de la Guerra Civil española (1936-1937, recuperadas en exhumaciones de escenarios bélicos en el País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERRASTI, L., SAMPEDRO, A.J., DIÉGUEZ, J., ETXEZARRAGA, J., IRUSTA, A., JIMÉNEZ, J., REBOLLEDO, I., SARDÓN, A., SARDÓN, E. ...

    2014-01-01

    ayuda desde la perspectiva forense. Se presentan varios ejemplos en los que las placas de identificación, recuperadas en las exhumaciones realizadas en el País Vasco, han facilitado determinar la identidad de los soldados allí enterrados.

  11. Ensaio experimental para tratamento cirúrgico das fraturas transversas da falange proximal - Técnica com parafuso intramedular cônico de compressão versus placa de compressão lateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schneider Ibanez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available resumo Objetivo: Comparar os parâmetros mecânicos entre dois métodos de estabilização por com pressão: placa de compressão axial de 1,5 mm com o parafuso cônico de compressão usado como tutor intramedular. Métodos: Foram usados modelos de poliuretano (Sawbone(r que simulam a fratura da falange proximal transversa, divididos em três grupos (placa lateral, parafuso cônico, sem implante. Resultados: Há necessidade de uma maior força para resultar na fadiga da síntese com para fuso intramedular. Comprova-se, assim, a supremacia mecânica desse sobre o modelo com a placa lateral. Conclusão: A estabilização com o parafuso Acutrak(r, no tratamento das fraturas no modelo adotado neste ensaio, apresenta resultados mecânicos superiores e estatisticamente sig nificativos em comparacão com a técnica de compressão axial com o uso da placa lateral (Aptus Hand (r.

  12. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  13. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  14. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  15. Capturing agroecosystem vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Cortez-Arriola, José; Rossing, Walter A.H.; Massiotti, Ricardo D.A.; Tittonell, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible

  16. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  17. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available the customised predictive model by means of what-if scenarios • Spider graphs - Household level: comparing odds ratios of different vulnerability factors - Municipal level: comparing prevalences of different vulnerability factors Vulnerability vs Resilience...

  18. “VALORACIÓN DE PLACA BACTERIANA Y GINGIVITIS, MEDIANTE EL ÍNDICE DE PLACA DE O ́LEARY E ÍNDICE GINGIVAL DE LOE-SILNESS, POSTERIOR AL USO DE CLORHEXIDINA AL 0.12%, EN PACIENTES CON APARATOLOGIA FIJA”

    OpenAIRE

    Bucio Hernández, María Sugey

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: La búsqueda de agentes para el control de la placa bacteriana ha sido amplia, más teniendo en cuenta la importancia que ha adquirido la enfermedad periodontal en los últimos años; esto ha llevado a diversas industrias farmaceuticas a investigar en este campo. En el presente estudio se utilizo el índice Gingival de Löe y Silness (1963), por ser sencillo y valorar todas las áreas del diente, el más utilizado actualmente para medir el estado de inflamación y de salud...

  19. Estrategias tarifarias y desestimulación del uso del vehículo particular por medio del pico y placa en Medellín Fare strategies and awareness to drivers through "pico y placa" measure for not using private vehicles in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto González Calderón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para analizar el pico y placa en Medellín utilizando los métodos de preferencias declaradas (MPD, que se refieren a una familia de técnicas, las cuales consisten en el establecimiento de respuestas individuales acerca de las preferencias en diferentes opciones de transporte. Se eligió para el estudio de los MPD el barrio Laureles, ya que es uno de los barrios con mayor posesión de automóviles en la ciudad y, por lo tanto, contribuye en gran medida a la congestión de tráfico en general. Se encontró que a los usuarios del vehículo particular no les gusta la idea del pico y placa, pero al aplicarla se mejora la situación de caos del transporte en la ciudad, preferiblemente escogerían la opción de irse con otra persona en carro, si la tiene (48% por la comodidad del vehículo particular, luego escogerían la opción del bus (37%, ya que es un servicio bueno aunque con un poco de inseguridad. El 9% iría a su lugar de destino sólo en taxi por la comodidad y seguridad que se tiene y el 6% restante se iría en taxi y metro aunque eso implicara trasbordo ya que les exige desplazarse grandes distancias.A survey was conducted for analyzing "pico and placa" measure in Medellin city, using Stated Preference Methods which involve a range of techniques dealing with creation of individual responses about preferences in several transportation means. Laureles neighborhood was the area chosen for conducting the DPM study, since it is one of the areas having the biggest amount of vehicles in the city, so it makes a big contribution to general traffic congestion. It was found that private drivers are not in agreement with "pico y placa" measure, but chaotic traffic in the city is improved with its application. They would rather prefer to share a vehicle with other person (48% since a private vehicle is a much more comfortable transportation mean. Then they would choose buses (37%, since it is a good service, but lack of safety

  20. Reproducibility of pixel values for two photostimulable phosphor plates in consecutive standardized scannings Reprodutibilidade dos valores de "pixels" de duas placas de fósforo fotoestimuláveis em leituras padronizadas consecutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Freitas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the reproducibility of the pixel values obtained with the Digora system (Soredex, Finland. Exposures were standardized, with variation in exposure and scanning time of two photostimulable phosphor plates containing a stepwedge image. The smallest variation in pixel values ranged from 50 to 75%, with the widest variations being observed in less dense steps. A significant difference in pixel values was observed in terms of X-ray exposure and scanning times and between the two plates themselves (ANOVA, p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a reprodutibilidade dos valores de "pixels" obtidos com o sistema Digora (Soredex, Finlândia. As exposições foram padronizadas, com variação no tempo de exposição e leitura de duas placas de fósforo fotoestimuláveis contendo a imagem de um penetrômetro. A menor variação nos valores de "pixels" foi de 50 a 75%, sendo as maiores variações oriundas nas faixas mais claras. Uma diferença significante nos valores de "pixels" foi observada em relação ao tempo de exposição e leitura das placas e entre as duas placas (ANOVA, p < 0,01. Utilizando a presente metodologia, a reprodutibilidade dos valores de "pixels" das placas testadas do sistema Digora não foi satisfatória. Essa grande variação na digitalização pode ter sido influenciada pela quantidade de Raios X que sensibilizou as placas. Isso pode ser importante para estabelecer a reprodutibilidade dos valores de "pixels" em estudos quantitativos usando imagem digital.

  1. Estudio comparativo de flujo de fluido a través de una placa de orificio usando las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Lucía Guerra-Mazo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenta los resultados de la comparación entre las ecuaciones de Stokes y de Navier-Stokes para la simulación del flujo de agua líquida, a condiciones atmosféricas, a través de una placa orificio concéntrica. A partir de los datos experimentales que fueron tomados en el banco de fluidos, se evaluaron las simulaciones de ambas ecuaciones, usando el software libre Freefem++cs, que se basa en el método de los elementos finitos; las variables evaluadas son velocidad y presión en un intervalo de tiempo. Al analizar los resultados obtenidos con las simulaciones y comparar con los datos experimentales se encontró que las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes representan mejor el sistema que la ecuación de Stokes.

  2. Realización, análisis y aplicaciones del archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio Astronómico de La Plata

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    La observación fotográfica de asteroides y cometas se ha llevado a cabo en el Observatorio de La Plata desde la adquisición, y puesta en funcionamiento del telescopio Astrográfico en el año 1913. Este telescopio funcionó en forma ininterrumpida hasta el año 1986, proporcionando un gran número de placas fotográficas. Durante estos años de observación el Observatorio de La Plata, ha contribuido de forma significativa en la determinación precisa de las posiciones y efemérides de asteroides y com...

  3. Clavos intramedulares vs. placas de osteosíntesis para fracturas de fémur: Análisis por elementos finitos.

    OpenAIRE

    Charles-Harris, M.; Lacroix, Damien Jerome; Proubasta, I.; Planell Estany, Josep Anton

    2004-01-01

    La estabilización interna de fracturas de la diáfisis femoral se realiza mediante la implantación de clavos intramedulares o placas de osteosíntesis. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar una comparación biomecánica por elementos finitos de ambos implantes y así desarrollar una herramienta preclínica para guiar a los cirujanos en la elección del método de estabilización más adecuado para cada fractura. Se malló un fémur entero en el cual se practicó una fractura de 1mm ó 3mm en la diáfis...

  4. Aplicación de Seis Sigma en la Optimización de Velocidad de Corte de Placa en un Proceso Láser CO2

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El uso del Láser CO2 para el corte de piezas de diversas geometrías a partir de placa de acero se ha ido incrementando notablemente a partir de la década pasada, esto es gracias a que sus capacidades de procesamiento y su precisión en el corte han ido mejorando año con año [1-2], además de que esta maquinaria se encuentra completamente en línea con la filosofía de manufactura esbelta, en donde uno puede cortar lotes pequeños y hacer cambios de producto sin necesidad de invertir en herramental...

  5. Estudio Experimental y por Análisis de Elementos Finitos del Factor de Concentrador de Esfuerzo Producido por un Agujero en una Placa Plana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Roldan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se propone un método de trabajo basado en el Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA y la Validación Experimental para el estudio de esfuerzos en medios elásticos. La formulación y desarrollo del análisis de los concentradores de esfuerzos sobre una placa de espesor constante sometida a esfuerzo en sus extremos, fueron verificados mediante la teoría de la elasticidad, experimentalmente y por el análisis de elementos finitos. La utilización de los métodos numéricos se caracterizó por su eficacia en la solución del problema planteado, proporcionando información confiable sobre los esfuerzos y deformaciones rápidamente y a muy bajo costo, comparada con los métodos experimentales

  6. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor y pérdida de eficiencia en intercambiadores de calor de placas durante el enfriamiento del licor amoniacal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres-Tamayo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la planta de Recuperación de Amoniaco de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara la pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, se asocia a la incorrecta estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio; lo anterior incrementa el consumo de agua, la energía disponible en el sistema y los costos de mantenimiento. Se realizó una investigación en un intercambiador de calor de placas, con el objetivo de determinar los coeficientes de transferencia y la influencia de las incrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se determinó la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su dependencia con el Reynolds y Prandtl, para ello se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial y mediciones de los parámetros de trabajo de la instalación en función del tiempo. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientes para el cálculo del número de Nusselt, con los valores de Reynolds y Prandtl, para ambos fluidos (licor amoniacal y agua. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La comparación con resultados de otros autores muestra correspondencia con los de Thonon. Se recomienda la limpieza y mantenimiento de la instalación en un período de 27 días debido a la reducción de la eficiencia térmica hasta valores inferiores al 70 %.

  7. Design aplicado ao desenvolvimento de um software para a criação de placas de sinalização e de logradouro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Luisa da Silva Moroni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o desenvolvimento de placas de sinalização e de logradouro inicia-se com o pedido por parte da comunidade aos agentes responsáveis pelos projetos da cidade, após encaminha-se ao setor de elaboração de layout e conseguinte à produção. Todas essas etapas são acompanhadas pela supervisão de vários profissionais de conhecimentos diversificados, porém os resultados vistos, em algumas cidades que fizeram parte desta pesquisa, mostram a perda da real funcionalidade desse tipo de mobiliário urbano: a leitura adequada das informações perante o usuário. De modo a tratar este problema, aplicou-se a metodologia do design para as análises de todas as etapas que envolvem essa categoria de mobiliário urbano. Contudo, percebeu-se que o processo de produção dos setores poderia ser agilizado através da criação de um aplicativo que elaborasse as tais placas. Dessa forma, poderia se unificar conhecimentos, diminuir treinamentos e custos e oferecer um produto adequado às necessidades das pessoas. Com isso, pode-se unir o design e a tecnologia a favor do desenvolvedor e do usuário do produto, seja este dentro da área do design gráfico ou design de produtos, através da elaboração do software intitulado GERAPLACA.

  8. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  9. Efeito de ondas de choque na placa de crescimento de coelhos Effect of shock waves upon the growth plate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giusti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de ondas de choque na placa de crescimento de coelhos, variando a energia e o número de ondas aplicadas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 coelhos com idade de cinco semanas divididos em seis grupos. O aparelho gerador de ondas de choque foi o OSSATRON (HMT. Os animais foram submetidos a aplicações na placa de crescimento proximal da tíbia esquerda, variando a intensidade (14, 21,28kV e o número de ondas (1000 e 4000. A tíbia direita foi usada como controle. Os animais foram sacrificados após seis semanas e sua avaliação foi feita por meio da mensuração do comprimento das tíbias e pela análise microscópica da placa de crescimento. Os resultados de mensuração da área da placa e do comprimento das tíbias foram comparados com o grupo controle e entre os grupos, utilizando-se estudos estatísticos. RESULTADOS: Neste estudo não ocorreram alterações estatisticamente significantes nas medidas da área da placa ou do comprimento da tíbia após a aplicação de ondas de choque em nenhum dos grupos. Foi observada tendência de ocorrer uma diferença de crescimento das tíbias entre os grupos submetidos a 1.000 impulsos e os grupos submetidos a 4.000 impulsos, mas esta diferença não foi considerada significante. Foi observada também a formação de hematoma no local da aplicação nos grupos que receberam ondas com maior energia, evoluindo com regressão espontânea sem necessidade de cuidados especiais. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação de ondas de choque na região proximal da tíbia de coelhos imaturos, nas formas descritas, não teve nenhum efeito na placa de crescimento, de acordo com os métodos de avaliação usados neste estudo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of shock waves upon the growth plate in rabbits by varying the energy and number of applied waves. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six groups of five rabbits aged 5 weeks (Total: 30 were studied. OSSATRON (HMT was used to generate

  10. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  11. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  12. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS).

  13. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    Coastal vulnerability is the degree to which a coastal system is susceptible to, ... methods, indicator-based approaches, GIS-based decision support systems and ..... E 2005, 'Coastal Vulnerability and Risk Parameters', European Water, vol.

  14. Measuring Vulnerability in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari; Puupponen, Antti; Kortetmäki, Teea; Silvasti, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Food system vulnerability is an emerging concept for food security policies and food supply chain management. Hence, measuring food system vulnerability is necessary for developing appropriate food security policies and managing food supply chain vulnerabilities. In this paper, we aim to clarify the development process of food system vulnerability indicators. We conducted an abducted qualitative content analysis based on public documents of various Finnish organizations, including mi...

  15. Climate vulnerability, communities' resilience and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Boutin, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies and quantifies the causal impact of climate change vulnerability on child labour incidence and intensity. For this purpose, we create an index of vulnerability to climate change, composed of biophysical vulnerability and communities' resilience. Both, participation to economic activities and to household chores have been taken into account. We find that climate vulnerability negatively affects child labour incidence and intensity, while has no significant impact on hous...

  16. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rupali D. Kombade; Meshram, B B

    2012-01-01

    Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF). CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is diffic...

  17. Interactive Vulnerability Analysis Enhancement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    vulnerability detection. This investigation focused on making performance improvements to this technology to allow deployments of the technology in...numerous challenges with existing automated tools for this purpose. About Aspect Security Aspect’s team has focused exclusively on application...be navigated. The problem is that the crawlers just aren’t smart enough to fill out forms and navigate wizards to exercise all of the functionality

  18. Soil vulnerability for cesium transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils and the possible impacts on agriculture surrounding nuclear power plants. This article summarizes the knowledge gained after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine, on how soil parameters influence soil vulnerability for radiocesium bioavailability, discusses some potential agrochemical countermeasures, and presents some predictions of radiocesium crop concentrations for areas affected by the Fukushima accident.

  19. Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    May 1, 2006)”, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_policy/dp13.html (accessed 1 April 2009). 6 ibid 7 Hongo , Jun. “Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces,” The...Jacobs, G. Keith. "Guam Becoming US Pacific Linchpin." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter 29 (2003): 38-39. Jun, Hongo . "Japan, U.S. sign accord on forces

  20. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  1. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  2. Vulnerability Assessments in Ethical Hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman ,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques to test and bypass a system's defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security. The purpose of ethical hacking is to evaluate the security of a network or system's infrastructure. It entails finding and attempting to exploit any vulnerabilities to determine whether unauthorized access or other malicious activities are possible. Vulnerabilities tend to be found in poor or improper system configuration, known and unknown hardware or software flaws, and operational weaknesses in process or technical countermeasures. One of the first examples of ethical hacking occurred in the 1970s, when the United States government used groups of experts called "red teams" to hack its own computer systems. It has become a sizable sub-industry within the information security market and has expanded to also cover the physical and human elements of an organization's defenses. A successful test doesn't necessarily mean a network or system is 100% secure, but it should be able to withstand automated attacks and unskilled hackers.

  3. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  4. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  5. Vulnerability Analysis in Web Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ivan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyze vulnerabilities found on web based distributed applications from different perspectives. Classes of vulnerabilities types are identified in order to cope with their different characteristics that each one develops. Methods for analyzing vulnerabilities of an authentication process are developed and solutions are proposed. A model for vulnerability minimization is discussed based on an indicator built on the amount of sensitive data revealed to the end users. Risks are analyzed together with the vulnerabilities that they exploit and measures are identified to combat these pairs.

  6. Plaque removal by manual and electric toothbrushing among children Remoção de placa bacteriana pela escovação elétrica e manual em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Covolo da COSTA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plaque control performed with electric and manual toothbrushes. Fifteen children with primary dentition and 14 children with mixed dentition were divided in two groups and randomly assigned to utilize a manual or an electric toothbrush. In the first session, professional plaque removal was performed, and the children spent 24 hours without brushing their teeth. In the second session, plaque was disclosed and assessed on all facial and lingual surfaces. After that, all children brushed their teeth with the predetermined toothbrush. The next procedure was the disclosure and measurement of residual plaque. After a period of 7 days, the children switched the kind of toothbrush, and the same procedures were repeated. According to the statistical analysis of the results, there were no significant differences concerning plaque removal when the toothbrushes were utilized by children with mixed dentition. On the other hand, the electric toothbrush promoted significantly greater plaque removal on the lingual surfaces of teeth from children with primary dentition.A proposta deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da remoção de placa bacteriana pelas escovações elétrica e manual. Quinze crianças portadoras de dentadura decídua e 14 crianças portadoras de dentadura mista foram divididas em dois grupos e, aleatoriamente, designadas a utilizar a escova manual ou a escova elétrica. Na primeira sessão, foi realizada completa remoção de placa bacteriana e após, as crianças permaneceram 24 horas sem escovar os dentes. Na segunda sessão, foi feita revelação de placa bacteriana e computação de seu índice para todas as faces vestibulares e linguais dos dentes. Depois, todos os participantes escovaram os dentes com a escova predeterminada. A próxima etapa foi a revelação e medição da placa residual. Decorridos 7 dias, as crianças trocaram para a outra escova dental e os mesmos

  7. Research on security vulnerability of chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Li, Qingbao; Li, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    The 21st century is the information era. IC (Integrated Circuit) is the basis of the modern information industry. The security vulnerability or back door of IC is directly related to the entire information system security. From the perspective of information security, security vulnerability of chip is led out through the practical examples and then the importance of security vulnerability of chip is emphasized. By comparing the security vulnerability of chip with the software virus, the characteristics of the chip vulnerabilities are summed up. Moreover, this paper describes the security vulnerability models of different control logic chips, combinational and sequential logic chips models. Finally it puts forward two kinds of detecting methods of security vulnerability of chip against the two models.

  8. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Waliullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless LANs are everywhere these days from home to large enterprise corporate networks due to the ease of installation, employee convenience, avoiding wiring cost and constant mobility support. However, the greater availability of wireless LANs means increased danger from attacks and increased challenges to an organisation, IT staff and IT security professionals. This paper discusses the various security issues and vulnerabilities related to the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN encryption standard and common threats/attacks pertaining to the home and enterprise Wireless LAN system and provide overall guidelines and recommendation to the home users and organizations.

  9. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  10. Detección de Clamydia pneumoniae en placas ateroscleróticas de pacientes sometidos a procedimientos de revascularización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmar D. Patiño

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción: El reconocimiento de factores de riesgo cardiovascular ha impactado el manejo médico de la arteriosclerosis. Sin embargo, éstos sólo explican entre el 50% al 70% de la distribución mundial. Por lo que investigaciones en búsqueda de nuevos factores de riesgo han dado importancia a los agentes infecciosos en la etiología de la arteriosclerosis y en especial al papel que tiene la Clamydia pneumoniae.

    Objetivos: 1. Detectar la presencia de Clamydia pneumoniae en personas sometidas a procesos de revascularización percutánea o quirúrgico mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. 2. Determinar los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares asociados a la presencia de C. pneumoniae.

    Metodología: Se seleccionarán todos los pacientes que sean sometidos a revascularización percutánea o quirúrgica en las unidades de hemodinamia y cirugía de la Universidad de Antioquia o de la Clínica Medellín, durante doce meses, a partir de agosto de 1999. Las muestras se almacenarán a –800 C hasta su procesamiento.

    Resultados parciales: Hasta el momento se han procesado 27 muestras de las cuales 11 (40.7% son positivas para C. pneumoniae, del total de muestras 13 corresponden a placas de ateroma coronario y de ellas 6 (46% son positivas. Tres muestras de placas carot

  11. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  12. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. CSRF Vulnerabilities and Defensive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D. Kombade

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications are now part of day to day life due to their user friendly environment as well as advancement of technology to provide internet facilities, but these web applications brought lot of threats with them and these threats are continuously growing, one of the these threat is Cross Site Request Forgery(CSRF. CSRF attack is immerged as serious threat to web applications which based on the vulnerabilities present in the normal request response pattern of HTTP protocol. It is difficult to detect and hence it is present in most of the existing web applications. CSRF attack occurs when a malicious web site causes a user’s web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site. It is listed in OWASP’s top ten Web Application attacks list. In this survey paper we will study CSRF attack, CSRF vulnerabilities and its defensive measures. We have compared various defense mechanisms to analyse the best defense mechanism. This study will help us to build strong and robust CSRF protection mechanism.

  15. Efeito transversal da placa lábio-ativa aberta e fixa associada à extensão lingual de canino decíduo a primeiro molar permanente: estudo em modelos digitais

    OpenAIRE

    Lara, Tulio Silva

    2011-01-01

    Introdução: O objetivo do presente estudo clínico foi avaliar as dimensões transversais do arco dentário inferior com o uso da placa lábio-ativa aberta e fixa associada à extensão lingual de canino decíduo a primeiro molar permanente. Métodos: A amostra constou de 14 pacientes no estágio de dentadura mista e com idade média de oito anos e seis meses. Todos os pacientes realizaram expansão rápida da maxila e expansão lenta do arco inferior com a placa lábio-ativa. Modelos de gesso foram obtido...

  16. Prevalencia de Cándida y asociación con periodontopatógenos presentes en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Pocos estudios han descrito la presencia de levaduras en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica desconociéndose las implicaciones que puede tener su presencia sobre el tratamiento periodontal. Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la prevalencia de levaduras en las bolsas periodontales, su influencia sobre los parámetros clínicos y su asociación con otros periodontopatógenos presentes en periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se examinaron los parámetros clínicos (profundidad de bolsa, nivel de inserción, sangrado al sondaje, índice de placa, supuración, movilidad y compromiso de furcación y la presencia de levaduras en 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica (promedio de edad, 46±8 años en Medellín, Colombia. Las muestras subgingivales se procesaron mediante cultivo. Para determinar las diferencias de las variables clínicas con la presencia o ausencia de levaduras se utilizaron pruebas de chi cuadrado y U de Mann-Whitney. A través de un coeficiente de correlación no paramétrico (Kendal's k se expresó la asociación con otros patógenos periodontales (p< 0,05. Resultados y conclusiones: La prevalencia de levaduras en las bolsas periodontales de pacientes con periodontitis crónica fue de 13,2%. Se encontraron ocho sujetos con C. albicans y dos pacientes con especies de Candida no específicas. Se observó una correlación significativa entre la presencia de levaduras y Prevotella melaninogénica (p<0,000. El papel que desempeñan las levaduras en la periodontitis crónica no es muy claro y se requieren más estudios para dilucidar el significado clínico de su presencia.

  17. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor experimental para el enfriamiento de licor en intercambiadores de placas//Experimental heat transfer coefficients for the liquor cooling in plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres‐Tamayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, está asociada a imprecisiones en la estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio. El objetivo de la investigación es determinar los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la influencia de lasincrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se estableció la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su relación con el número de Reynolds y Prandtl. Se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientespara el cálculo del número de Nusselt en ambos fluidos. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor amoniacal son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La ecuación obtenida muestra correspondencia con el modelo de Buonapane, el error comparativo es del 3,55 %.Palabras claves: intercambiador de calor de placas, coeficientes de transferencia de calor, eficiencia térmica.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe loss of efficiency of the ammonia liquor cooling process, by means of the plate heat exchanger, is associated to the incorrect estimate of the heat transfer coefficients and the accumulation of inlays in the exchange surface. The objective of the investigation is to determine the transfer coefficients and the influence of the inlays in the efficiency loss of the installation. By means of an iterative procedure was obtained the Nusselt number equation and the relationship with the Reynolds and Prandtl number, for it was used it a design experimental multifactorial. The results predict the knowledge of the coefficients forthe calculation of the Nusselt number for both fluids. The ammonia liquor coefficients values are inferior, due to the presence of gassy

  18. Avaliação angiográfica do volume de placa e eventos cardiovasculares após implante de stents coronarianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Oliveira de Abreu-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O volume de placa (VP está relacionado a eventos cardiovasculares maiores (ECVM após o implante de stents coronarianos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre o VP antes do procedimento avaliado por angiografia e desfechos clínicos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo incluindo pacientes submetidos a implante de stents coronarianos em um centro de referência. O VP antes do implante do stent foi avaliado pela fórmula descrita por Giugliano (Am J Cardiol 2005; 95:173: VP = À X (comprimento da lesão X [(diâmetro do vaso/2² - (diâmetro luminal mínimo/2²]. Os ECVM foram registrados no seguimento clínico de um ano e análise de regressão linear múltipla foi realizada para identificar os preditores de eventos. RESULTADOS: A amostra estudada consistiu em 824 pacientes, com idade média de 60 ± 11 anos, sendo 70,0% do gênero masculino. O diabete melito estava presente em 21,0% e o comprometimento triarterial em 12,0%. O diâmetro médio de referência foi de 3,3 ± 3,2 mm, a média do comprimento da lesão foi de 10,2 ± 4,7 mm e a média da estenose residual foi de 1,0% ± 12,0%. Os pacientes com ECVM apresentaram VP maior do que aqueles sem eventos (92,84 ± 42,85 vs 85 ± 46,85; p = 0,03. Outras variáveis associadas com ECVM na análise univariada foram comprometimento triarterial, IAM, diâmetro do vaso e comprimento da lesão tratada. O VP manteve a associação significativa com ECVM após ajuste para as variáveis descritas e diabete melito. CONCLUSÃO: O volume da placa do ateroma antes do implante do stent foi maior nos pacientes que apresentaram ECVM no seguimento clínico em um ano, independentemente de outros preditores de eventos.

  19. Modelos de cinemática de placas para Antártida durante la ruptura de Gondwana: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Ghidella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia de apertura del mar de Weddell y del Oc éano Atlántico Sur es crítica para comprender la ruptura de Gondwana y la evolución geológica de Antártida desde el Jurásico temprano. La dispersión de los fragmentos gondwánicos es importante para entender la circulación oceánica del pasado, descifrar la historia de las cuencas sedimentarias ubicadas al Este de la Península Antártica y establecer posibles rutas de dispersión de flora y fauna entre los continentes australes. Desafortunadamente, la tectónica del mar de Weddell es difícil de resolver debido a la escasez de datos y a su inherente complejidad. Aunque se ha alcanzado un progreso muy grande el los últimos 20 años, con nuevos datos aeromagnéticos marinos y mapas de gravedad derivada de altimetría satelital, todavía hay varios modelos en consideración que difieren en edades corticales y esquemas de apertura. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de cuatro de esos modelos. Utilizando polos de rotación, isócronas sintéticas y líneas de flujo, se ha procedido hacia atrás en el tiempo comenzando en la anomalía magnética 34 (83,5 millones de años, porque la misma está relativamente bien definida en los océanos, y se presentan mapas de edades de corteza que muestran la trayectoria estimada del punto triple Sudamérica - Antártida - África para cada modelo. Asimismo se muestran gráficos de las reconstrucciones en cuatro épocas elegidas para todos los modelos usando la misma proyección y escala para facilitar la comparación. La variedad de suposiciones simplificadoras que debieron hacerse en cada modelo, recurriendo a fragmentación de placas para considerar las numerosas cuencas de syn-rift y períodos de extensión, son fuertes indicadores de que la tectónica de placas rígidas es un modelo demasiado simple para el presente problema.

  20. Convergencia en el margen occidental de América del Sur durante el Cenozoico: subducción de las placas de Nazca, Farallón y Aluk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somoza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan nuevos parámetros de la convergencia cretácica tardía - reciente en el margen occidental de América del Sur. La historia de la convergencia puede describirse en tres etapas: 26-0 Ma, con subducción dominante de la placa Nazca; 47-28 Ma, con subducción dominante de la placa Farallón; y 72-47 Ma, cuando habrían entrado en subducción Farallón (parte norte de la trinchera y Aluk (parte sur. Las reconstrucciones para la etapa 72-47 Ma son compatibles con una migración de la triple unión Farallón-Sudamérica-Aluk desde el norte de Chile (¿sur de Perú? hasta los Andes Patagónicos. Eventos de deformación y magmatismo en la placa superior pueden ser relacionados con la subducción de la dorsal Farallón-Aluk durante esta etapa. La etapa 47-28 Ma muestra mayor velocidad y menor oblicuidad en la convergencia que la etapa anterior, sin mostrar variaciones profundas en estos parámetros durante su transcurso. El rasgo más distintivo de la etapa más joven son la variaciones en la velocidad de convergencia, con un fuerte incremento al inicio de la etapa y una disminución importante en los últimos diez millones de años. Estas variaciones pueden ser relacionadas con eventos tectónicos registrados en la placa superior y con el ascenso de los Andes Centrales.

  1. Utilización de la placa palatina de memoria y desarrollo orofacial en infante con Síndrome de Down Use of palatal plate and orofacial development in a child with Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los infantes con Síndrome de Down presentan en general, hipotonía de la muscular, cierre labial incompetente, lengua flácida y protruida. La placa palatina de memoria, propuesta por Castillo Morales, induce el cierre bilabial y posicionamiento correcto de la lengua. Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo evaluar el desarrollo orofacial, de una niña con Síndrome de Down, a través de terapia de estimulación precoz y utilización de placa palatina de memoria. Recibió tratamiento con placa palatina de memoria desde los 5 hasta los 15 meses y fue acompañada por un equipo multidisciplinario hasta los 6 años de edad. En el caso presentado, la terapia empleada permitió un desarrollo bucofacial adecuado, armónico y funcional. La utilización precoz de placa palatina de memoria demostró ser un complemento valioso en el programa multidisciplinario de atención a pacientes con Síndrome de Down.Babies with Down Syndrome (DS present, in general, muscle hypotonia, insufficient mouth closure and protrusion of the tongue. The palatal plate therapy, submitted by Castillo Morales, induces the lip closure and the correct position of the tongue. The objective of this research was to evaluate the oral development in a girl with DS through early stimulation and use of palatal plate. She was treated with the palatal plate method from 5 to 15 months of age. She was followed-up by a multidisciplinary team until he was six years of age. In this case report, the palatal therapy allowed adequate, harmonic and functional oral development. The early treatment with palatal plate has shown to be a valuable supplement to the multidisciplinary program of care to Down's syndrome patients.

  2. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  3. An holistic view on aquifer vulnerability based on a distinction of different types of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela; Franchino, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    AN HOLISTIC VIEW ON AQUIFER VULNERABILITY BASED ON A DISTINCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VULNERABILITY D.A. De Luca1 , M. Lasagna1, E. Franchino1 1Department of Earth Sciences, University of Turin The concept of vulnerability is certainly useful in the field of groundwater protection. Nevertheless, within the scientific community, the definition of groundwater vulnerability is still debatable and not clear and conclusive. This is probably due to the fact that researchers often have very different experiences and education. A positive effect of it is a constant exchange of ideas, but there are also negative consequences and difficulties in deepening the issue. The different approaches are very important but they are usable only if the concept of vulnerability is standardized: thus, for the sake of clarity, a number of definitions should be laid down, based on the different types of vulnerability. These definitions can then provide the necessary holistic view for the aquifer vulnerability assessment. Nowadays vulnerability methods focus on the degree of vulnerability and the parameters needed for its evaluation, often neglecting to clarify what is the type of vulnerability the proposed methods are referred. The type of vulnerability, indeed, is both logically and hierarchically superior to the degree of vulnerability. More specifically the type of vulnerability represents the evaluation of the hydrogeological conditions considered in the vulnerability assessment and able to influence the way in which the contamination can take place. Currently the only distinction, based on of the type of vulnerability, is referred to intrinsic and specific vulnerability. Intrinsic vulnerability assesses the susceptibility of the receptor based on the natural properties of the land and subsurface; specific vulnerability also includes properties of the analyzed contaminant. This distinction is useful but not exhaustive. In addition to this, e.g., a distinction of vertical vulnerability

  4. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.

    1998-10-27

    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  5. Optimal redundancy against disjoint vulnerabilities in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy is commonly used to guarantee continued functionality in networked systems. However, often many nodes are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. A "backup" path is not sufficient if both paths depend on nodes which share a vulnerability.For example, if two nodes of the Internet cannot be connected without using routers belonging to a given untrusted entity, then all of their communication-regardless of the specific paths utilized-will be intercepted by the controlling entity.In this and many other cases, the vulnerabilities affecting the network are disjoint: each node has exactly one vulnerability but the same vulnerability can affect many nodes. To discover optimal redundancy in this scenario, we describe each vulnerability as a color and develop a "color-avoiding percolation" which uncovers a hidden color-avoiding connectivity. We present algorithms for color-avoiding percolation of general networks and an analytic theory for random graphs with uniformly distributed colors including critic...

  6. Secure Web Development Based on Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Daljit Kaur Dr. Parminder Kaur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an effort to develop secure web applications based on known vulnerabilities. It has been seen that in the rapid race of developing web applications in minimum time and budget, security is given least importance as consequence of which web applications are developed and hosted with number of vulnerabilities in them. And in this race, one thing is constant that attackers take advantage of weaknesses existing in technology for financial gain and theft of intellectual property. In this proposed method of secure web development, most common vulnerabilities and their occurrence in development process is discussed. Mapping vulnerabilities to the actions needed to take during development process may help developers to understand vulnerability and avoid vulnerabilities in application.

  7. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães The dental brush and thumb-stall in the removal of the dental plaque in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Berbert Ferreira Lima

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05 entre a utilização da escova dental e a dedeira.The dental plaque is the primary factor for gingivitis formation, dental calculus, oral malodor and periodontal disease. To evaluate the amount of dental plaque removed by the dental brush and thumb-stall, 60 male and female dogs of different races, age and weight were divided in two groups and studies. The index of Logan & Boyce was used to quantify the dental plaque before and after the toothbrush. Statistical difference was observed (p 0.05 between the use of the dental brush and the thumb-stall.

  8. Evaluación del comportamiento mecánico de tres clases de placas tipo sándwich de ferrocemento para la construcción de vivienda rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Guerra-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a experiencias positivas en el medio urbano, las placas tipo sándwich de ferrocemento se presentan, como una alternativa a la demanda de construcciones rápidas y de bajo costo que impone la problemática de vivienda rural en América Latina. Diversas propuestas en este sentido pueden ser evaluadas previamente a través de simulaciones. Este estudio evaluó el comportamiento mecánico de tres placas tipo sándwich de ferrocemento, para definir el sistema constructivo de una propuesta de vivienda rural, a través de una simulación con elementos finitos, por medio del software SolidWorks®. Con base en un diseño previo para vivienda rural, fueron diseñadas tres alternativas de placas tipo sándwich de ferrocemento, evaluando su resistencia a la rotura y deformación, aplicando el cálculo de esfuerzos de Von Mises. Las tres alternativas mostraron resultados satisfactorios de resistencia y deformación, optando por la combinación de dos de las tres alternativas para la definición del sistema constructivo según criterios de practicidad y costos.

  9. Vulnerability analysis of three remote voting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Enguehard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses three methods of remote voting in an uncontrolled environment: postal voting, internet voting and hybrid voting. It breaks down the voting process into different stages and compares their vulnerabilities considering criteria that must be respected in any democratic vote: confidentiality, anonymity, transparency, vote unicity and authenticity. Whether for safety or reliability, each vulnerability is quantified by three parameters: size, visibility and difficulty to achieve. The study concludes that the automatisation of treatments combined with the dematerialisation of the objects used during an election tends to substitute visible vulnerabilities of a lesser magnitude by invisible and widespread vulnerabilities.

  10. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  11. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  12. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  13. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  14. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  15. Determinação de dose absorvida em feixes de elétrons utilizado câmara de ionizacão de placas paralelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulla Roseli T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um procedimento para a determinação dos fatores de calibração e de doses absorvidas em feixes de elétrons. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados um irradiador de 60Co e um acelerador linear Varian, modelo Clinac 2100C, com feixes de fótons e de elétrons. Foram estudadas câmaras de ionização do tipo dedal e de placas paralelas. RESULTADOS: Os sistemas de medidas foram submetidos aos testes preliminares (estabilidade de resposta e corrente de fuga, com resultados muito bons. Quatro métodos de calibração de câmaras de ionização para utilização em feixes de elétrons foram testados. Para a determinação da dose absorvida em feixes de elétrons foram aplicadas três metodologias propostas pela Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica, com a obtenção de resultados concordantes em quase todos os casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maior parte das câmaras de ionização estudadas mostrou-se viável, com desempenho dentro dos limites internacionais estabelecidos.

  16. Cálculo de desplazamientos en placas de vidrio laminado sometidas a carga estática mediante el concepto de módulo de elasticidad efectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael García García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, el uso de vidrio laminado como elemento estructural se ha incrementado considerablemente en construcciones arquitectónicas, sobre todo en fachadas, cubiertas, escaleras o ventanas de seguridad. El cálculo de estos elementos tipo sándwich no es sencillo debido a la combinación de las propiedades mecánicas del vidrio (elástico-lineales con las del polímero interior (viscoelástico-lineales. Recientemente, algunos autores han propuesto el concepto de espesor efectivo para el cálculo simplificado de elementos de vidrio laminado bajo carga estática, utilizando un modelo monolítico con una rigidez equivalente igual a la del elemento laminado. Debido a la variación de propiedades del laminado con la temperatura, introducidas por el polímero viscoelástico, para cada cambio de temperatura se tiene un espesor efectivo diferente, lo que conlleva un mayor número de evaluaciones para cada una de las situaciones de trabajo del elemento laminado. En este trabajo se propone el concepto de módulo de elasticidad efectivo como una alternativa más eficiente para el cálculo con modelos de elementos finitos. La metodología propuesta se valida mediante ensayos experimentales realizados en placas de vidrio laminado sometidas a una carga uniformemente distribuida.

  17. Attack Vulnerability of Network Controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Li, Xin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Controllability of complex networks has attracted much attention, and understanding the robustness of network controllability against potential attacks and failures is of practical significance. In this paper, we systematically investigate the attack vulnerability of network controllability for the canonical model networks as well as the real-world networks subject to attacks on nodes and edges. The attack strategies are selected based on degree and betweenness centralities calculated for either the initial network or the current network during the removal, among which random failure is as a comparison. It is found that the node-based strategies are often more harmful to the network controllability than the edge-based ones, and so are the recalculated strategies than their counterparts. The Barabási-Albert scale-free model, which has a highly biased structure, proves to be the most vulnerable of the tested model networks. In contrast, the Erdős-Rényi random model, which lacks structural bias, exhibits much better robustness to both node-based and edge-based attacks. We also survey the control robustness of 25 real-world networks, and the numerical results show that most real networks are control robust to random node failures, which has not been observed in the model networks. And the recalculated betweenness-based strategy is the most efficient way to harm the controllability of real-world networks. Besides, we find that the edge degree is not a good quantity to measure the importance of an edge in terms of network controllability.

  18. Comparação de osteossíntese com placa e osteossíntese com placa associada a enxerto de proteína morfogenética óssea em fratura bilateral distal de rádio e ulna em cão - relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ishimoto Della Nina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os cuidados e dificuldades em reparação de fraturas de rádio-ulna de cães de porte pequeno são conhecidos, com a ocorrência freqüente de não-união óssea, principalmente no que tange as fraturas distais, relacionadas a características anatômicas inerentes, como pouco recobrimento de tecido muscular, canal medular de diâmetro reduzido, e pouca vascularização. Tendo em vista esta realidade, descreve-se a comparação entre o tratamento com placa e parafuso e placa e parafuso com adição de proteína morfogenética óssea em fratura completa transversa de terço distal bilateral de rádio-ulna, de semelhante apresentação em cão da raça Pinscher, atendido no Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do HOVET/USP. Avaliou-se, comparativamente, o tempo de formação de calo ósseo, por exames radiográficos, aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de pós-operatório, onde foi encontrado tempo de cicatrização de 90 dias no membro controle enquanto que, no membro tratado com a proteína morfogenética óssea, o tempo de cicatrização foi de 30 dias, demonstrando a possibilidade de incremento que o uso de fatores de crescimento podem trazer ao tratamento de fraturas em cães de pequeno porte.

  19. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MEDIANTE REACTORES ANAERÓBICOS DE PLACAS VERTICALES PARALELAS EN ACRÍLICO TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS POR REATORES ANAERÓBIOS DE PLACAS VERTICAIS PARALELAS EM ACRÍLICO WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ANAEROBIC REACTORS OF VERTICAL PARALLEL PLATES IN ACRYLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Chaux F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos filtros anaeróbicos con lecho de piedra construidos en el departamento del Cauca (Colombia, están presentando problemas de colmatación. Si se reemplaza la piedra por placas verticales paralelas, se elimina el problema de obstrucción. Este documento presenta el desarrollo y resultados de una investigación que evaluó a escala de laboratorio el potencial de los reactores anaeróbicos de placas verticales paralelas en acrílico para remover contaminantes (materia orgánica y sólidos suspendidos. El reactor anaeróbico de placas paralelas en acrílico se desempeñó como tratamiento secundario; se alimentó con agua residual efluente de un Tanque Imhoff con concentraciones medias de 156 ± 14 mg/L de DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO y 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspendidos totales. Las remociones de DQO y DB05 en el reactor sobrepasan el 50% y la remoción de sólidos suspendidos sobrepasó el 60% para tiempos de detención de 24 horas. La facilidad en la operación del reactor lo hace viable como tratamiento biológico anaeróbico de aguas residuales previamente decantadasAlguns filtros anaeróbios com recheio de pedras construída no departamento de Cauca (Colombia estão apresentando problemas de obstrução. Se a pedra é substituída por placas verticais paralelas, evita o problema da obstrução. Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento e os resultados e no estudo realizado em escala de laboratório que avaliaram o potencial de reatores anaeróbios de placas verticais paralelas em acrílico para remover os contaminantes (sólidos suspensos e matéria orgânica. 0 reator anaeróbio de placas paralelas de acrílico serviu como tratamento secundário; foi alimentado com água residuária do efluente de um tanque Imhoff com concentrações médias de 156 ± 14 mg/L DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO e 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspensos totais. A remoção de DQO e DB05 no reator são mais de 50% ea remoção de sólidos em suspensão superior a 60

  20. Estudo biomecânico da rigidez da osteossíntese com placas em ponte em tíbias de cadáveres humanos Biomechanical study of the osteosynthesis stiffness with bridging plates in cadaveric tibial models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eiji Sunada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a rigidez de três diferentes montagens de placa em ponte com a da haste intramedular bloqueada, em tíbias de cadáveres com fratura tipo C. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: vinte tíbias humanas captadas de cadáveres, submetidas à fratura do tipo C; quinze fixadas com placas em ponte, divididas em 03 grupos, de acordo com o tamanho das placas (10, 14 e 18 furos e 05 fixadas com hastes intramedulares bloqueadas. Todas as tíbias foram expostas a cargas progressivas e semelhantes. Foram medidos os deslocamentos de ambos fragmentos (proximal e distal, nos planos sagital, coronal e axial do espaço, conforme incremento gradual de carga. RESULTADOS: tíbias fixadas com placas em ponte de 18 furos apresentam um comportamento biomecânico semelhante às fixadas com haste intramedular bloqueada. CONCLUSÕES: Em fraturas do tipo C em tíbias há maior mobilidade do segmento ósseo distal no plano coronal, quando a fratura é fixada com placas em ponte de 14 e 18 furos que quando fixada com haste intramedular bloqueada sem fresagem. Apesar dessa maior mobilidade, os movimentos relativos entre os fragmentos fraturários nos GHB e GP18 tendem a ser semelhantes entre si.OBJECTIVE: To compare the stiffness of three different assemblies of bridging plates with intramedullary locking nails in cadaveric models of tibial fractures type C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cadaveric tibias subjected to type C fractures; fifteen were fixed with the bridging plate technique and divided into three groups, according to the plate size (10, 14 and 18 holes, and five were fixed with intramedullary nail. All the tibias were exposed to similar and progressive loads. Dislocation of both fragments (proximal and distal was measured on three planes (sagittal, coronal and axial, as the load was increased. RESULTS: tibias fixed with the 18 hole bridging plate have the same biomechanical behavior of tibias fixed with intramedullary locking nails. CONCLUSIONS: In type C

  1. Climate Vulnerability Assessments : An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania's Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are increasingly vulnerable to destructive weather events, floods, droughts, windstorms, or other parameters. The vulnerability is driven in part by recent extremes in climate variability but also by countries' sensitivity to events exacerbated by past practices, socioeconomic conditions, or legacy issues. The degree to which vulnerability to weather affects the countries' e...

  2. Romanian Labour Market – Vulnerable persons and vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela TODOSE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Romanian economy’s transition process began suddenly and was accompanied by disintegration of former political and economic system. In terms of GDP per capita, Romania has been one of the poorest countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Also, the Romanian economy was one of the most agrarian economies in Europe. Completely isolated from the informational point of view, Romania had a fully centralized economic system. Beginning of transition was completely chaotic, especially because of the complexity of integrating the fundamentals of democracy and market economy. Internal problems, instability, political corruption or lack of appropriate reforms have led to a difficult restructuring and privatization process.In this paper we present and analyze the tendencies and vulnerabilities on Romanian labor market between 19991 and 2009 versus EU member states. There were identified three shocks with major social impact on Romanian economy: the revolution in December 1989; the EU accession in January 2007 and the world economic crisis began in 2007. These three structural shocks have deeply influenced and still do the evolution of Romanian labor market.

  3. Uso da placa onda no tratamento das fraturas diafisárias do fêmur não consolidadas The wave plate method in non union femoral shaft fractures treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Nogueira Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se retrospectivamente 25 pacientes com fratura diafisária do fêmur não consolidadas e que foram tratados com placa onda. A consolidação ocorreu em 96% dos pacientes num tempo médio de 5,32 meses, variando entre três e sete meses. Vinte e um pacientes (84% foram considerados como resultados excelentes e bons nos critérios de avaliação final. O método de tratamento não ocasionou diferença no comprimento dos membros. Não ocorreram desvios rotacionais. O arco de movimento dos quadris e joelhos não foi acometido, embora em quatro pacientes (16% tenha-se encontrado limitação na flexão do joelho, esta era prévia ao tratamento com placa onda. Dois pacientes (8% tiveram infecção profunda durante o tratamento com a placa onda, recidiva de processo infeccioso prévio. Houve soltura da placa no nono mês de pós-operatório em um paciente (4%, embora tenha havido a consolidação óssea. Em outro paciente (4% a placa onda quebrou um ano e dois meses após a cirurgia, tendo-se trocado a primeira por outra placa onda e posterior consolidação. Mesmo assim, considerou-se falha do método. A placa onda é uma opção de tratamento das fraturas do fêmur não consolidadas pelas suas propriedades biomecânicas favoráveis à consolidação óssea, conferindo estabilidade sem prejudicar o suprimento sangüíneo, com características de síntese biológica.Twenty-five patients with non union femoral diaphyseal fractures treated with the wave plate method were retrospectively studied. Union was achieved in 24 patients (96% in an average time of 5.32 months, ranging from three to seven months. We observed excellent and good results in 21 patients (84% in the endpoint evaluation. This treatment approach didn't cause leg-length discrepancy. No rotational deviations were seen. The range of motion of hips and knees was not affected, although in four patients (16% knee flexion restraint was found, but previously to the wave plate treatment

  4. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  5. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  6. Multidimensional perfectionism and narcissism: Grandiose or vulnerable?

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Sherry, Simon B.; Logan J Nealis

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional perfectionism is related to grandiose narcissism, with other-oriented perfectionism showing the strongest, most consistent relationships. The relationships with vulnerable narcissism, however, are unclear. Our study investigated how three forms of perfectionism--self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett, 1991)--are related to narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability. A sample of 375 university students completed the Narcissistic Pe...

  7. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer (appl

  8. Towards Individualized Vulnerability in Migration Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch parliament recently pledged for separate reception centres for vulnerable asylum seekers. In a reaction, the Dutch State Secretary of Security and Justice Klaas Dijkhoff objected to this claim, arguing that placing “vulnerable groups” into separate reception centres is stigmatizing. Instea

  9. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  10. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W

    2017-02-27

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds.

  11. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  12. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability.

  13. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  14. Heat Wave Vulnerability Mapping for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez; Saha, Shubhayu; Ganguly, Partha; Mavalankar, Dileep; Madrigano, Jaime

    2017-03-30

    Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability forms the basis for planning appropriate targeted adaptation strategies. Given several recent deadly heatwaves in India, heat is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem. However, to date there has not been a country-wide assessment of heat vulnerability in India. We evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental vulnerability factors and combined district level data from several sources including the most recent census, health reports, and satellite remote sensing data. We then applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 17 normalized variables for each of the 640 districts to create a composite Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) for India. Of the total 640 districts, our analysis identified 10 and 97 districts in the very high and high risk categories (> 2SD and 2-1SD HVI) respectively. Mapping showed that the districts with higher heat vulnerability are located in the central parts of the country. On examination, these are less urbanized and have low rates of literacy, access to water and sanitation, and presence of household amenities. Therefore, we concluded that creating and mapping a heat vulnerability index is a useful first step in protecting the public from the health burden of heat. Future work should incorporate heat exposure and health outcome data to validate the index, as well as examine sub-district levels of vulnerability.

  15. Transdisciplinary knowledge integration : cases from integrated assessment and vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: climate change, integrated assessment, knowledge integration, transdisciplinary research, vulnerability, vulnerability assessment. This thesis explores how transdisciplinary knowledge integration can be facilitated in the context of integrated assessments and vulnerability assessments of

  16. Impacto do posicionamento da placa na osteotomia em cunha de fechamento lateral em cúbito varo Impact of plate positioning on the lateral closing wedge osteotomy for cubitus varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O cúbito varo é uma doença muito comum em crianças e adultos, ocasionada por fratura supracondilar. Existem vários procedimentos cirúrgicos e fixações internas para correção do cúbito varo, com diferentes desfechos, embora a fixação interna com placa e parafusos seja o mais comum. Contudo, o impacto do posicionamento da placa sobre a cirurgia raramente foi estudado até agora. MÉTODO: Em nosso estudo, 12 pacientes com cúbito varo foram divididos em dois grupos, operados pelo método de osteotomias em cunha com fechamento lateral e fixações internas com placa e parafusos. Em um grupo, as placas foram colocadas no lado póstero-lateral; no outro, as placas foram colocadas no lado lateral do úmero. RESULTADO: O período de acompanhamento foi 4,5 meses (faixa de 2 a 7 meses. Houve cinco resultados excelentes (83,3% e um bom (16,7% em cada grupo. Em todos os casos, a aparência é muito semelhante ao lado oposto; não há diferenças de amplitude de movimento (AM no cotovelo depois da cirurgia. Um paciente no grupo B teve paralisia nervosa transitória; não houve infecções nem osteomielite. CONCLUSÃO: A posição da placa de fixação interna não tem impacto sobre a osteotomia em cunha de fechamento lateral. Nivel de Evidência II, Prospectivo Comparativo.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low intensity ultrasound irradiation applied on the spinal cord, in the regeneration of the rat's sciatic nerve after a controlled crush injury, evaluating the functional results of the sciatic functional index as measured on video recorded images of the foot sole. METHODS: Eighteen rats were submitted to a controlled crush injury of the right sciatic nerve, and divided into two groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (n=9, simulated irradiation; Group 2 (n=9, effective irradiation. Low-intensity ultrasound irradiation was started on the 7th postoperative day and applied daily for 6 weeks. Images of the animals´ foot soles were

  17. In vitro bacterial plaque suppression and recolonization by S. mutans and S. sobrinus Supressão e recolonização de placa bacteriana por S. mutans e S. sobrinus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Vicente Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro study of the interactions between S. mutans and S. sobrinus is important to determine the role of these microorganisms in the formation of biofilms on dental structures and their potential to induce carious lesions. The objective of this research was to study the suppression of bacterial plaque formation and its recolonization by rifampycin-resistant S.mutans and streptomycin-resistant S. sobrinus. To study the competitive relationship between these species, previously standardized strains were incubated in media containing different fermentable carbohydrates. At determined time intervals, samples were collected from mixed cultures of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, diluted and plated on BHI-agar containing rifampycin or streptomycin to determine the number of viable cells of each species by counting colony-forming units. In order to study the bacterial colonization process and in vitro recolonization of bacterial plaque, three experiments were performed: I - co-cultivation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus; II - inoculation of bacterial plaque pre formed by S. sobrinus with S. mutans; and III - bacterial plaque pre formed by S. mutans dispersed and plated on BHI- agar containing streptomycin or rifampicin to determine the number of viable cells for each species. The results indicated a predominance of S. mutans in relation to S. sobrinus, demonstrating the capacity of S. mutans to inhibit plaque formation by S. sobrinus and recolonize the surfaces.O estudo in vitro das interações entre S. mutans e S. sobrinus pode ser importante na determinação do papel desses microrganismos na formação de biofilmes nas estruturas dentais e seu potencial em induzir lesões cariosas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi estudar a supressão da formação da placa dental e sua recolonização por S. mutans rifampicina-resistentes e S. sobrinus estreptomicina-resistentes in vitro. Para avaliar as relações de competitividade entre essas espécies, cepas

  18. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  19. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  20. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  1. Blast vulnerability assessment : challenges and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braimah, A.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Challenges related to the creation of a comprehensive blast vulnerability assessment program for Canadian buildings was presented. Many building owners are now seeking to assess the vulnerability of their structures to blast loads, and wish to increase the survivability of both occupants and structures. However, the engineering community has not yet incorporated existing physical security measures into comprehensive mitigation strategies and designs. Different institutions are currently using varying amounts of explosives in vulnerability assessments, and there is an urgent need for information on terrorist capabilities in both the present and the future. Pressure-impulse diagrams are now used by engineers to assess component responses to blasts. However, pressure-impulse diagrams are based on single modes of failure, and may not be capable of capturing all failure modes of building components, nor are they able to ensure that vulnerability assessments do not overestimate the blast load resistance of buildings.

  2. Environmental conflicts and women's vulnerability in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the linkages between environmental conflicts, women's vulnerability and .... local human rights organisations, as well as the Kenya National Commission ... ability to access resources such as safe water and services such as education and.

  3. Vulnerability of Energy Consumers - National Security Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musatescu Virgil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy providing is a complex problem, which includes both common features for all categories of consumers and particularities, which emerge from the declaration on human rights. As an index of the level of heat using the concept of 'energy poverty'. In counterbalance, this concept proposes the use of the notion of "vulnerability" for these purposes. The concept of "vulnerable consumer" point of view of energy is still defined in the 2012 electricity law in Romania. In this context, the paper examines the vulnerability characteristics indicating meanings on widening energy paradigm by replacing the phrase "energy poverty" by "energy welfare". The paper presents quantitative issues regarding the current situation in Romania with explaining the need treatment paradigm change simplistic approach to the problem of vulnerable consumers, which really is a matter of national security.

  4. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  5. Vulnerability in the South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2006-02-28

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za Categories and factors associated with vulnerability EmploymentFuel useDiseaseDisease state Cultural practicesBody burdenObesityGender Socio-economic status Background exposure FitnessRace Education...

  6. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    common causes of illness world-wide with far reaching health, ... Keywords: Enugu, Female traders, Knowledge, Prevention, Sexually transmitted infections, Vulnerability. Original ... constituted the work force, especially in developing countries.

  7. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  8. Aquifer vulnerability for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of aquifer vulnerability calculated for each 30-meter raster cell. Depth to...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-31

    Mar 31, 2012 ... reducing interest rate on loans for crop production as well as ... Keywords: Climate change, vulnerability, farming households .... tolerant and or resistant to temperature stresses as .... Coping strategy is an adjustment or self.

  10. Camana, Peru, and Tsunami Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A tsunami washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the ocean and knew a tsunami was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the tsunami hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of tsunami inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and tsunami killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to tsunami damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the tsunami-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the tsunami occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the ocean drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the Tsunami that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International Tsunami Survey Team and the USC Tsunami Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  11. Defense Against National Vulnerabilities in Public Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    governments can use to understand and make decisions based on the vulnerability of their open data footprint. An intuitive human machine interface...National Vulnerabilities in Public Data Open Data Threat Contract: W911NF-14-C-0031 Period of Performance: March 13, 2014 – January 31, 2017...unintentional disclosure of sensitive information through open data like social media. In the process of developing methods to quantify and track the

  12. Designing For- and With- Vulnerable People

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous technology, coupled with a surge in empirical research on people that engages people with multiple challenges in their lives, is increasingly revealing the potential for HCI to enrich the lives of vulnerable people. Designing for people with vulnerabilities requires an approach to participation that is sensitive to the risks of possible stigmatization and an awareness of the challenges for participant involvement. This workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners to e...

  13. Estandarización del método de centrifugación en placa para el aislamiento del virus dengue Rapid centrifugation assay standarization for dengue virus isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Palomino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estandarizó el método de centrifugación en placa, para el aislamiento del virus dengue a partir de muestras de suero humano. Se utilizó la línea celular C6/36-HT determinándose los valores óptimos de velocidad de centrifugación, volumen de inóculo, dilución de suero y tiempo de incubación. Posteriormente, 22 muestras de suero con aislamiento viral positivo y cepas referenciales de los cuatro serotipos del virus dengue, fueron procesadas simultáneamente por el método de centrifugación en placa y el método convencional de cultivo en tubo, los aislamientos fueron tipificados mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta empleando anticuerpos monoclonales. Se optimizó el método de centrifugación en placa inoculando 200 μL de diluciσn de suero 1/20, centrifugaciσn a 1600 rpm/30 min, presentando sensibilidad de 95,5% a cinco dνas postinoculación. Se concluye que el método de centrifugación en placa mejora el porcentaje de aislamiento, con significativa reducción en tiempo de aislamiento del virus dengue.The plate centrifugation assay was standardized for dengue virus isolation from serum samples. C6/36-HT cells were used determining the optimal values for centrifugation spin speed, inoculum, sera dilution, and incubation time. Then, 22 positive serum samples with viral isolation and viral strains of the four reference dengue virus serotypes were tested simultaneously by the standardized plate centrifugation method and the conventional tube culture. The isolations were typified by indirect immunofluorescent test using monoclonal antibodies. The plate centrifugation method was optimized to 200 μL of inoculum, dilution of sera 1/20, centrifugation speed at 1600 rpm/30 min, and sensitivity of 95,5% after 5 days post-inoculation. We concluded that the plate centrifugation method increased dengue virus isolation, with a significant reduction of the time of isolation for dengue virus.

  14. NIVEL DE CÁNDIDA ALBICANS EN PACIENTES DIABÉTICOS TIPO II CON ESTOMATITIS SUB PLACA Y SU RELACIÓN CON FACTORES LOCALES ASOCIADOS, HOSPITAL II ESSALUD - CAJAMARCA, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES ZAVALA, CLAUDIA KATHERINE

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como propósito determinar la relación entre el nivel de Cándida albicans en pacientes diabéticos tipo II con estomatitis sub placa y sus factores locales asociados en el Hospital II EsSalud de Cajamarca en el año 2012. El estudio descriptivo, transversal, comparativo y correlacional se desarrolló en el Programa de Control de Diabetes y en el Área de Odontología del Hospital II EsSalud Cajamarca, en una muestra de 60 individuos portadores de prótesis total superior ...

  15. Relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Macote Orosco, Lisbeth Melchora

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: En la eficacia del cepillado intervienen múltiples factores como el tiempo, zonas a cepillar y habilidades motoras de la persona. ¿El niñ@ de cinco años de edad tiene las habilidades motoras pra realizar un cepillado dental eficaz?.Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y la remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niñ@s de 5 años de edad. determinar la higiene oral antes y después del cepillado, relacionar el nivel de motricidad...

  16. Relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Macote Orosco, Lisbeth Melchora

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: En la eficacia del cepillado intervienen múltiples factores como el tiempo, zonas a cepillar y habilidades motoras de la persona. ¿El niñ@ de cinco años de edad tiene las habilidades motoras pra realizar un cepillado dental eficaz?.Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y la remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niñ@s de 5 años de edad. determinar la higiene oral antes y después del cepillado, relacionar el nivel de motricidad...

  17. Comparação entre os efeitos da massoterapia e da placa miorrelaxante de Michigan sobre a dor e o sinal eletromiográfico de pacientes bruxistas com DTM: ensaio clínico controlado e randomizado.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Daniel Ventura de

    2009-01-01

    A Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM) é uma doença com alta prevalência, de etiologia multifatorial e que constitui um dos difíceis desafios para a saúde, quanto ao diagnóstico e o tratamento. O objetivo deste ensaio clínico controlado e randomizado, foi comparar os efeitos da massoterapia, da placa de Michigan e de ambas combinadas, sobre a dor e o sinal eletromiográfico de pacientes bruxistas com disfunção temporomandibular. A amostra foi composta por 60 sujeitos, divididos em 4 grupos. Deste...

  18. Estudio de la interacción de bacterias implicadas en la formulación de placa dentro-bacteriana con superficies de titanio comercialmente puro in vitro y su asociación con la peri-implantitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Hernández, Ana Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La peri-implantitis puede poner en riesgo la integridad funcional de un implante dental, ya que dependiendo de la severidad del daño, éste puede ocasionar la pérdida irremediable del implante. Dicho padecimiento está asociado directamente con la formación de la placa dento-bacteriana sobre la superficie del implante.En este trabajo de tesis se estudiarón, por un lado las propiedades de superficie de 6 tipos diferentes de tratamientos utilizados en implantes dentales (tales como: la rugosidad,...

  19. Comparação entre fatores de calibração em termos de dose absorvida no ar para uma câmara de ionização de placas paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla,Roseli T.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma comparação entre os fatores de calibração em termos de dose absorvida no ar determinados em feixes gama (60Co) e de elétrons. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados um irradiador de 60Co e um acelerador linear Varian, modelo Clinac 2100C, com feixes de fótons e de elétrons. Foram testadas uma câmara de ionização cilíndrica e três de placas paralelas. RESULTADOS: Os sistemas de medidas foram submetidos aos testes preliminares (estabilidade de...

  20. Placas de aço inoxidável 316L aplicadas no reparo de fratura experimental diafisária do rádio e ulna de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasil F.B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de estudar a resistência à corrosão em placas de aço inoxidável 316L, com diferentes tipos de acabamento e tratamento superficial, e a possível interferência dessa reação corrosiva na consolidação óssea. Utilizaram-se placas semi-acabadas, polidas, tratadas com jatos de microesferas de vidro e passivadas, as quais foram aplicadas na epífise distal do rádio de cães. Foram utilizados 12 animais, divididos em dois grupos, nos quais, após osteotomia bilateral do rádio e ulna, foram realizadas osteossínteses do rádio, totalizando 24 procedimentos. Avaliou-se a evolução clínica e radiográfica das regiões que receberam os implantes aos 30, 60, 90, 180, 240 e 360 dias. Os animais do grupo 1 (GI foram sacrificados aos 180 dias e os do GII aos 360 dias para estudo histológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura do local da osteotomia sob a região dos implantes metálicos e para estudo da resistência à corrosão no organismo, pelos implantes metálicos, por meio de análises química e metalográfica (microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de espalhamento de energia por raios X. Os animais recuperaram a função dos membros operados 24 horas após a cirurgia. Radiograficamente, verificou-se a consolidação óssea em todos os animais. Macro e microscopicamente não foram observados sinais de corrosão nos implantes metálicos, exceto em uma placa passivada, aplicada no rádio esquerdo de um animal, na qual a corrosão foi detectada pela microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Este estudo permite concluir que as placas de aço inoxidável 316L, independente do acabamento superficial a que foram submetidas, não sofreram corrosão ou reações adversas e foram efetivas no tratamento das fraturas experimentais do rádio e ulna de cães.

  1. Fatores sociais, comportamentais e biológicos associados à presença de placa dentária na superfície oclusal de primeiros molares permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Larissa de Carvalho Santa Rita; Melo, Raquel Rossete; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; Oliveira,Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar os fatores socioeconômicos, biológicos e comportamentais associados à presença de placa bacteriana na superfície oclusal de primeiros molares permanentes de escolares. Materiais e Métodos: Por meio de um estudo transversal, foram investigados 272 pais/responsáveis e suas respectivas crianças, de 6 a 8 anos de idade, de duas escolas públicas de um município de grande porte da região Sudeste do Brasil, selecionados por conveniência. A variável dependente foi a presença de pla...

  2. Avaliação da eficácia em curto prazo do uso de placas oclusais reposicionadoras e dispositivos NTI (nociceptive trigeminal inhibitory splint) no controle de Artralgia da Articulação Temporomandibular

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi testar a hipótese de que o tratamento através de aparelhos oclusais (placas oclusais e dispositivo NTI) é benéfico na melhora dos sinais e sintomas de Artralgia da Articulação Temporomandibular (ATM) quando comparado a um grupo controle. Para isso, 60 indivíduos foram avaliados através de questionários e exames que determinaram a presença de Artralgia da ATM e sua intensidade. Essa amostra foi então dividida aleatoriamente em três grupos de 20 indivíduos cada um,...

  3. Avaliação da posição condilar em pacientes com DTM antes e após terapia com placa interoclusal estabilizadora por meio de tomografia computadorizada de feixes cônicos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a posição condilar em pacientes com DTM articular antes e após tratamento com placa interoclusal estabilizadora por meio de tomografia computadorizada de feixes cônicos. Foram avaliados e tratados 22 pacientes com algum sinal ou sintoma de DTM articular, triados nas Clínicas do Curso de Odontologia da Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão. O diagnóstico de DTM foi realizado com o Research Diagnostic Crit...

  4. Análise numérica do comportamento mecânico sob flexão de placas finas de material compósito laminado reforçado por fibras

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, Daniel; Real, Mauro de Vasconcellos; Rocha, Luiz Alberto Oliveira; Santos, Elizaldo Domingues dos; Isoldi, Liércio André

    2013-01-01

    A crescente necessidade de estruturas com propriedades mecânicas superiores impulsiona o desenvolvimento de novos tipos de materiais, dentre os quais se destacam os materiais compósitos laminados reforçados por fibras. Placas finas construídas com estes materiais possuem diversas vantagens em comparação com as fabricadas com materiais de construção mecânica convencionais como o aço: altas relações rigidez/peso e resistência/peso; alta resistência à fadiga; e excelente resistência à corrosão. ...

  5. Fracturas laterales de cadera. Cien primeros casos tratados con el sistema de estabilización con placa de compresión percutánea. [First 100 cases with the PCCP system in lateral fractures of the hip].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Gomez

    2016-08-01

    Conclusiones:  La utilización de placa PCCP para el tratamiento de las fracturas laterales inestables mostró en nuestra serie excelentes resultados, con una disminución ostensible del tiempo quirúrgico y una menor necesidad de transfusiones sanguíneas. La posibilidad de realizar una adecuada estabilización en fracturas con compromiso de la pared lateral en forma percutánea con un mínimo daño muscular y tisular, hace que este método sea probablemente el nuevo estándar de oro para este tipo de fracturas.

  6. Utilization of sharp edged orifice plates to control flows discharging to the atmosphere; Utilizacion de placas de orificio para restringir el flujo de vapor de ductos que descargan a la atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Upton, Pedro [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    The inner pipe thermodynamic behavior of steam when discharged freely to the atmosphere at the sound speed is studied in this paper. In addition, the effect of sharp edged orifice plates into pipes is shown, when they are utilized as a flow control device. In one case, it is assumed an orifice plate located at few feet distance from the pipe entrance. In other case, it is supposed that the orifice plate is fixed at the exit plane of the pipe. In all cases, it is considered that the pipe length is short enough and the flow speed too high to despise the heat transfer to the surrounding. The results were obtained through the simultaneous solution of the three fundamental equations of fluid mechanics, as well as the water equation of state and a correlation to quantify the steam choking mass flow rate. The main conclusion of the study reflects that the acoustic celerity is reached at the pipe exit plane for any of the different pipe arrangements. The speed of sound into steam was of the order of 560 m/s. It is recommended to fix the orifice plate at the exit of the pipe, in order to reduce inner erosion due to the steam flow. [Espanol] Se estudia el comportamiento termodinamico del vapor en el interior de una tuberia que descarga libremente a la atmosfera, bajo condiciones de flujo critico, y se muestra el efecto que genera una placa de orificio en esta tuberia al ser utilizada como un restringente de flujo. Se tratan dos casos: en uno la placa de orificio se instala al inicio de la tuberia y en el segundo la placa se localiza en la parte final de la misma. En todos los casos se considera que la longitud del ducto es lo suficientemente corta y que la velocidad del flujo es alta, de tal suerte que la transferencia de calor al ambiente es despreciable. Las soluciones se obtienen al resolver simultaneamente las tres ecuaciones de conservacion, en conjunto con las ecuaciones auxiliares de estado y una ecuacion desarrollada para cuantificar a los flujos criticos de vapor

  7. Relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Macote Orosco, Lisbeth Melchora

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: En la eficacia del cepillado intervienen múltiples factores como el tiempo, zonas a cepillar y habilidades motoras de la persona. ¿El niñ@ de cinco años de edad tiene las habilidades motoras pra realizar un cepillado dental eficaz?.Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y la remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niñ@s de 5 años de edad. determinar la higiene oral antes y después del cepillado, relacionar el nivel de motricidad...

  8. Relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niños

    OpenAIRE

    Macote Orosco, Lisbeth Melchora

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: En la eficacia del cepillado intervienen múltiples factores como el tiempo, zonas a cepillar y habilidades motoras de la persona. ¿El niñ@ de cinco años de edad tiene las habilidades motoras pra realizar un cepillado dental eficaz?.Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el nivel de motricidad fina y la remoción de placa bacteriana a través del cepillado manual en niñ@s de 5 años de edad. determinar la higiene oral antes y después del cepillado, relacionar el nivel de motricidad...

  9. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mavrouli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.

  10. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  11. Efeito do ultra-som terapêutico contínuo em placas epifisárias de coelhos Efectos de la ultrasonografia terapéutica continua en placas epifisarias de conejos Effect of continuous therapeutic ultrasound in rabbit growth plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido aos efeitos terapêuticos, o ultra-som tem se tornado ferramenta indispensável no tratamento fisioterapêutico de alterações causadas por lesões e em diversas doenças, porém seu uso em pacientes pediátricos é controverso por possíveis distúrbios e danos à placa epifisária. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar se o ultra-som contínuo apresenta efeitos de alteração na placa de crescimento da tíbia de coelhas. Oito coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia com dois meses de idade foram submetidas a um tratamento usando ultra-som terapêutico de forma contínua com dose de 1W/cm² na região lateral da articulação do joelho direito por 5min, durante 10 dias com dois dias de intervalo após a 5ª aplicação. A articulação do joelho esquerdo foi utilizada como controle. A análise histológica mostrou uma alteração na espessura da cartilagem epifisária, sendo que no lado tratado o tamanho foi 24,40% maior do que no controle (p Debido a los efectos terapéuticos, la ultrasonografía se ha convertido en una herramienta indispensable al tratamiento fisioterapéutico de las alteraciones causadas por lesiones y en diversas enfermedades, a pesar de esto su uso en pacientes pediátricos es controversial por los posibles disturbios y daños a la placa epifisaria. El objetivo de este estudio es verificar si la ultrasonografía continua presenta efectos de alteración en la placa de crecimiento de al tibia de conejas. Ocho conejas de la raza Nueva Zelanda con 2 meses de edad fueron sometidas a un tratamiento usando ultrasonografía terapéutica de forma continua con dosis de 1W/cm² en la región lateral de la articulación de la rodilla derecha por 5 min, durante 10 días con 2 días de intervalo después de la 5ª aplicación. La articulación de la rodilla izquierda fue utilizada como control. El análisis histológico reportó una alteración en la espesura del cartílago epifisario, en el lado tratado el tamaño fue de 24,40% mayor del

  12. La Bixa orellana L como posible sustancia reveladora de placa dentobacteriana: a potential substance for detection of dentobacterial plaque Bixa orellana L:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Lauzardo García del Prado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad las plantas naturales se han convertido en una importante fuente de elaboración de medicamentos, lo que nos ha motivado a realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre la Bixa orellana L. Este es un producto natural fácilmente asequible en nuestro medio por encontrarse ampliamente distribuido en nuestro territorio, y apoyándonos en sus ya conocidas propiedades de tinción en alimentos, surge la idea de su posible uso estomatológico como sustancia reveladora de placa dentobacteriana. Objetivo: ampliar conocimientos sobre las propiedades y uso de Bixa orellana L en los seres humanos. Método: se revisaron artículos originales y de revisión localizados mediante Pub-Med, Google, revistas internacionales y nacionales reconocidas. Conclusiones: se ha demostrado que la Bixa no provoca alteraciones patológicas en el ser humano y tiene importantes propiedades: antifúngicas, antipiréticas, antibacterianas, antiinflamatorias y antigonorreicas, entre otras, y se utiliza en la tinción de alimentos como: mantequilla, quesos y aceites. Con esta propuesta pretendemos incrementar las actividades de promoción y prevención de la caries dental y las periodontopatías, elevar el nivel de educación para la salud dental en nuestra población, disminuir los tratamientos curativos, prolongando así la salud de los dientes remanentes.At the present time natural plants become a significant drug manufacture source, thus, we made a bibliographic review on Bixa orellana L. This is a natural product easily accessible since it is fully distributed in our country, and due to its known dyeing properties in foods, arise the idea of its potential Stomatology use as a revealing substance of dentobacterial plaque. Objective: To expand our knowledges on the properties and use of Bixa orellana L in human being. Methods: We reviewed the original papers retrieved by Pub-Med, Google, and recognized international and national journals. Conclusions: It has been

  13. A knowledge integration approach to flood vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Understanding, qualifying and quantifying vulnerability is an essential need for implementing effective and efficient flood risk mitigation strategies; in particular if possible synergies between different mitigation alternatives, such as active and passive measures, should be achieved. In order to combine different risk management options it is necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to vulnerability reduction, and as a result the affected society may be willing to accept a certain degree of self-responsibility. However, due to differing mono-disciplinary approaches and regional foci undertaken until now, different aspects of vulnerability to natural hazards in general and to floods in particular remain uncovered and as a result the developed management options remain sub-optimal. Taking an even more fundamental viewpoint, the empirical vulnerability functions used in risk assessment specifically fail to capture physical principles of the damage-generating mechanisms to the build environment. The aim of this paper is to partially close this gap by discussing a balanced knowledge integration approach which can be used to resolve the multidisciplinary disorder in flood vulnerability research. Modelling techniques such as mathematical-physical modelling of the flood hazard impact to and response from the building envelope affected, and formative scenario analyses of possible consequences in terms of damage and loss are used in synergy to provide an enhanced understanding of vulnerability and to render the derived knowledge into interdisciplinary mitigation strategies. The outlined formal procedure allows for a convincing knowledge alignment of quantified, but partial, information about vulnerability as a result of the application of physical and engineering notions and valuable, but often underspecified, qualitative argumentation strings emerging from the adopted socio-economic viewpoint.

  14. VALIDACIÓN DE LA PLACA BRUXCHECKER COMO MEDIO DIAGNÓSTICO DE BRUXISMO, COMPARADA CON MODELOS DE ESTUDIO EN LA CLÍNICA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD COOPERATIVA DE COLOMBIA, SEDE BOGOTÁ, DURANTE EL PERIODO COMPRENDIDO ENTRE FEBRERO Y MAYO DEL 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Liliana Cabrera Bello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El bruxismo es un trastorno del movimiento del sistema masticatorio, caracterizado por apriete,rechinamiento y golpeteo dentario. La ausencia de un elemento diagnóstico para evaluar el patrón de contactos oclusales y diagnosticar el grado de bruxismo llevó a realizar un estudio investigativo para validar la placa bruxchecker. Objetivos: En este estudio se validó la placa bruxchecker como medio diagnóstico para valorar la presencia y ubicación de las interferencias oclusales durante los episodios de bruxismo. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas, en una población de 35 pacientes mayores de 18 años que asistieron por primera vez a la clínica de ortodoncia correctiva de la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia sede Bogotá entre febrero y mayo de  2011, se compararon las marcas en las placas Bruxchecker con los desgastes de las caras oclusales encontrados en los modelos de estudio para determinar la concordancia entre los diagnósticos. Resultados: La placa bruxchecker clasificó correctamente de cada 100 enfermos a 96 y de cada 100 sanos a 57. El valor predictivo positivo es del 96% y del 57% el valor predictivo negativo. La prevalencia de bruxismo medida con la placa  fue de 80% en la población. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la placa es una adecuada herramienta para diagnosticar bruxismo.

  15. Efeitos do uso da placa oclusal sobre o equilíbrio postural em indivíduos dentados, não reprogramados, com sinais e sintomas de desordem temporomandibular diagnosticados pelo RDC/TMD e ressonância magnética

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A desordem temporomandibular (DTM) de origem multifatorial pode estar associada a fatores oclusais e também a alterações posturais. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar os efeitos do uso da placa sobre o equilíbrio postural em indivíduos dentados, não reprogramados, com sinais e sintomas de desordem temporomandibular (DTM). Colaboraram com a pesquisa 70 pacientes (59 placa e 21 controle), entre 18e 84 anos, de ambos os gêneros, diagnosticados com DTM por meio do questionário do RDC/TMD além...

  16. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  17. Efecto de colutorio-gel de clorhexidina sobre el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas = Effect of chlorhexidine mouthrinses-gel on de novo plaque formation in 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, Tânia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio cruzado, doble ciego y randomizado, 25 alumnos de Odontologia de buena salud oral, participaron de cuatro estudios donde ellos se abtuvieron de toda limpieza mecanica oral por 24 horas, los estudios estuvieron separados entre si por 4 semanas. Durante los estudios los alumnos en un randomizado orden, se enjuagaron por una vez con uno de los siguientes colutorios: CHX 0.12% + alcohol (Oralgene®, CHX 0.12% + alcohol (Perio.Aid®, CHX 0.1% + alcohol (Dentilim® y CHX 0.1% + HMC 2.5% (Colutoriogel®, nueva formula. Despues de un dia se midio formación de placa, se completo y registro el cuestionario de parametros clinicos. Las formulaciones de CHX 0.12% + alcohol y CHX 0.1% + HMC 2.5% se mostraron eficientes en retardar el crecimiento de placa dental de novo, esto obtenido de las observaciones clinicas, y siempre superior (p < 0.05 a la formulación del colutorio de CHX 0.1%+ alcohol (Dentilim®. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran el potencial clinico de este nuevo colutorio-gel sin alcohol de CHX 0.1% + HMC 2.5% (Colutoriogel® como un efectivo agente antiplaca y con reducidas efectos secundarios registrados

  18. Una secuencia didáctica de modelización, indagación y creación del conocimiento científico en torno a la deriva continental y la tectónica de placas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Domènech Casal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una actividad de indagación sobre la Tectónica de placas. En ella, el alumnado debe reconstruir la historia geológica de un planeta imaginario integrando distintos tipos de datos (distribución geográfica de fósiles, antigüedad de orógenos, regiones sísmicas para construir un modelo de la ubicación de los límites de placa tectónica y los cambios que han sufrido los distintos continentes. A lo largo de la actividad se suceden distintas organizaciones de aula y andamios didácticos, con el objetivo de promover dinámicas de creación de conocimiento científico y la sistematización del aprendizaje y la consecución del objetivo final: realizar un breve vídeo de divulgación científica sobre la historia geológica de este planeta imaginario.

  19. Livelihood vulnerability index analysis: An approach to study vulnerability in the context of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability is the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of natural disasters. Floods add to the distressed conditions of the poor and vulnerable people in Bihar. Floods have a different impact on households depending on differences in their livelihood choices. Therefore, in order to identify the variability in vulnerability of affected households, the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI of Hahn, Riederer and Foster was modified according to the context of the study area. The LVI aims to identify sources and forms of vulnerability that are specific to the context in order to design context-specific resilience measures. However, vulnerability and resilience are not interdependent but discrete entities. The study was conducted in the seven blocks of Bhagalpur district in the state of Bihar. Naugachia was found to be the least vulnerable because of better access to basic amenities and livelihood strategies, whilst Kharik was found to be highly vulnerable in respect to other blocks because of high sensitivity and less adaptive strategy. The study also revealed that better access to resources does not necessarily mean that households are adopting resilience measures because of apathetic or indifferent attitudes.

  20. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O

    2010-07-01

    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.

  1. Efeito de um dentifrício fluoretado contendo bicarbonato de sódio na contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans, acidogenicidade e composição da placa dental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNÁCIO Rosa Fernanda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de um dentifrício contendo bicarbonato de sódio na contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans (EM, acidogenicidade e composição da placa dental. Vinte e três voluntários escovaram os dentes 3 vezes ao dia, com formulações fluoretadas (1.500 ppm F, contendo, ou sílica (SÍLICA, ou carbonato de cálcio (CARBONATO, ou carbonato de cálcio mais bicarbonato de sódio (CARB/BICAR, num delineamento duplo cego cruzado, com 3 etapas de 30 dias. No 28º dia, 8 a 12 horas após a última escovação, foi realizada a contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans na saliva (EMS. No 30º dia (após 2 dias, nos quais os voluntários bochecharam 3 vezes/dia uma suspensão do dentifrício em água, e 6 vezes/dia sacarose a 10%, analisou-se na placa dental, após 10 a 12 horas do último bochecho de dentifrício: a contagem de mutans (EMP; b polissacarídeos álcali solúveis (PSA; c flúor solúvel em ácido (FSA; d pH no tempo zero (T0, após 5 minutos de bochecho com sacarose (T5, calculando-se o DpH (T0-T5. Os resultados (média + erro padrão para SÍLICA, CARBONATO e CARB/BICAR foram respectivamente:1 EMS (x106 UFC/ml saliva = 11,43 + 7,62 A; 2,33 + 1,04 A; 2,07 + 1,10 A; 2 EMP (x106 UFC/mg placa = 0,099 + 0,095 A; 0,027 + 0,018 A; 0,007 + 0,003 A; 3 PSA (mg/mg placa = 6,89 + 0,62 AC; 8,46 + 0,80 AB; 6,11 + 0,59 C; 4 FSA ((mg/g placa = 36,67 + 10,10 A; 48,12 + 19,23 A; 52,21 + 15,12 A; 5 T0 = 6,72 + 0,12 A; 6,88 + 0,13 A; 6,65 + 0,11 A; 6 T5 = 5,61 + 0,13 A; 5,71 + 0,13 A; 5,70 + 0,12 A; 7 DpH = 1,12 + 0,11 A; 1,17 + 0,11 A; 0,95 + 0,10 A, sendo que médias seguidas por letras distintas diferem entre si ao nível de 5% de significância. Os resultados demonstram que, embora o dentifrício contendo bicarbonato de sódio tenha apresentado, coletivamente, uma tendência a influenciar positivamente nos diversos fatores relacionados à cárie dental, não diferiu significantemente dos dentifrícios contendo carbonato de cálcio ou s

  2. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  3. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  4. MAPPING REGIONAL DROUGHT VULNERABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  5. Implementing Security in a Vulnerable CRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Valentin Besciu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper work objective is to scan and analyze a web application developed in early 2013 by the author of this paperwork. The application has been improved constantly since then, but without having a security plan included. Unfortunately the application arrived at a point where the security isn’t optional anymore and it needs to be improved. In order to do this I scanned the web application files with Acunetix Web Vulnerabilities Scanner. After the analysis the results pointed which vulnerabilities the application has and how to fix them. After I had fixed the vulnerabilities I rescanned the application to see if there were any others which appeared because of the new code. After the scanning the results were good, Acunetix WVS showing only notices.

  6. Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Cain, Nicole M; Wright, Aidan G C

    2014-10-01

    This article briefly summarizes the empirical and clinical literature underlying a contemporary clinical model of pathological narcissism. Unlike the DSM Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), this clinical model identifies and differentiates between two phenotypic themes of dysfunction-narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability-that can be expressed both overtly and covertly in patients' ways of thinking, feeling, behaving, and participating in treatment. Clinical recognition that narcissistic patients can and often do present for psychotherapy in vulnerable states of depression, anxiety, shame, and even suicidality increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment planning. This article provides case examples derived from psychotherapies with narcissistic patients to demonstrate how narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability concurrently present in patients who seek treatment.

  7. Vulnerabilities in Academic E-governance Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet has become one of the most versatile sources of information and on the other way it has become source of various security threats. Various existing vulnerabilities in the web portals are compromised easily by hackers sitting at their places. There are so many vulnerabilities available in various websites in case of government sectors may be because of financial constraints or other. E-government is a new fast growing area in developing as well as in developed countries. New e-governance applications are emerging and being implemented and utilized by the common man. Providing government information and services on the web has resulted in mushrooming of websites with very little attention is paid to security issues of these websites. This paper discusses certain security issues & vulnerabilities in websites of educational institutes. The organizations taken into consideration are educational institutes of Haryana.

  8. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H

    2011-03-01

    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  9. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  10. Avaliação biomecânica da fixação da fratura supracondiliana do fêmur comparando placa-lâmina 95º com DCS Fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparingthe 95º blade plate and the dynamic condylar screw (DCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Percope Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar por meio de ensaios biomecânicos comparativos entre a placa-lâmina de 95º e o parafuso condilar dinâmico (Dynamic Condylar Screw - DCS, qual apresenta maior resistência às cargas compressivas e de flexão, bem como tentar correlacionar o tipo de falha apresentada durante os testes com cada um dos tipos de placa. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco fêmures suínos foram submetidos a osteotomia em cunha de subtração medial de um centímetro (cm, na região metafisária distal do fêmur, com o objetivo de simular fratura supracondiliana instável. Foi realizada osteossíntese dessas peças, sendo 35 fixadas com placa-lâmina 95º e 30 com placas com DCS, submetendo-as a cargas em compressão axial e flexão. Outra variável estudada foi o tipo de falha apresentada em cada grupo com a tentativa de correlacioná-la com o tipo de placa. RESULTADOS: Os resultados não mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência biomecânica entre os dois tipos de placas ou entre o tipo de falha e a placa utilizada na osteossíntese. CONCLUSÃO: Os dois tipos de placas se comportam de maneira semelhante, embora haja um indicativo de que a placa-lâmina seja, no ensaio de flexão, superior à placa DCS. Não foi observada diferença entre o tipo de falha e o tipo de placa utilizada.OBJECTIVE: to determine, by means of comparative biomechanical tests between the 95o angled blade plate and the dynamic condylar screw (DCS, the one that presents greater compressive load resistance and flexion, and to correlate the failure type presented during the tests with each type of plate. METHODS: Sixty-five porcine femurs were submitted to a 1 cm medial wedge osteotomy, in the metaphysic, to simulate an unstable supracondylar femoral fracture. Osteosynthesis of these pieces was performed: 35 were fixated with a 90o lateral blade plate, and 30 with DCS plates. Another variable studied was the failure type presented in each group, attempting

  11. Climate challenges, vulnerabilities, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret C; Ingram, Scott E; Dugmore, Andrew J; Streeter, Richard; Peeples, Matthew A; McGovern, Thomas H; Hegmon, Michelle; Arneborg, Jette; Kintigh, Keith W; Brewington, Seth; Spielmann, Katherine A; Simpson, Ian A; Strawhacker, Colleen; Comeau, Laura E L; Torvinen, Andrea; Madsen, Christian K; Hambrecht, George; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2016-01-12

    This paper identifies rare climate challenges in the long-term history of seven areas, three in the subpolar North Atlantic Islands and four in the arid-to-semiarid deserts of the US Southwest. For each case, the vulnerability to food shortage before the climate challenge is quantified based on eight variables encompassing both environmental and social domains. These data are used to evaluate the relationship between the "weight" of vulnerability before a climate challenge and the nature of social change and food security following a challenge. The outcome of this work is directly applicable to debates about disaster management policy.

  12. Earthquake vulnerability evaluation Faizabad district of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naderi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as examplehas been studied Faizabad district of Kermanshah and to reach its main purpose, which is reducing the damagecaused by the earthquake on the Faizabad district is been providedand in subsidiary purposes part the research is tried identify factors influence in vulnerability earthquakes,pay to provide the factors required; All these factors havean impact on reducing earthquake vulnerability. This data using geological data, soil texture, getting satelliteimages and layering over Arc Gis software identified and for long term periods donepredict using relation kernel PSHA also. In determining the level ofenvironmental risk is to use software crisis. Finally, by recognizing the riskzone, solutions for Faizabad district offered.

  13. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerab...

  14. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  15. Avaliação angiográfica do volume de placa e eventos cardiovasculares após implante de stents coronarianos Evaluación angiográfica del volumen de placa y eventos cardiovasculares tras implantación de stents coronarios Angiographic evaluation of plaque volume and cardiovascular events after coronary Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Oliveira de Abreu-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O volume de placa (VP está relacionado a eventos cardiovasculares maiores (ECVM após o implante de stents coronarianos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre o VP antes do procedimento avaliado por angiografia e desfechos clínicos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo incluindo pacientes submetidos a implante de stents coronarianos em um centro de referência. O VP antes do implante do stent foi avaliado pela fórmula descrita por Giugliano (Am J Cardiol 2005; 95:173: VP = À X (comprimento da lesão X [(diâmetro do vaso/2² - (diâmetro luminal mínimo/2²]. Os ECVM foram registrados no seguimento clínico de um ano e análise de regressão linear múltipla foi realizada para identificar os preditores de eventos. RESULTADOS: A amostra estudada consistiu em 824 pacientes, com idade média de 60 ± 11 anos, sendo 70,0% do gênero masculino. O diabete melito estava presente em 21,0% e o comprometimento triarterial em 12,0%. O diâmetro médio de referência foi de 3,3 ± 3,2 mm, a média do comprimento da lesão foi de 10,2 ± 4,7 mm e a média da estenose residual foi de 1,0% ± 12,0%. Os pacientes com ECVM apresentaram VP maior do que aqueles sem eventos (92,84 ± 42,85 vs 85 ± 46,85; p = 0,03. Outras variáveis associadas com ECVM na análise univariada foram comprometimento triarterial, IAM, diâmetro do vaso e comprimento da lesão tratada. O VP manteve a associação significativa com ECVM após ajuste para as variáveis descritas e diabete melito. CONCLUSÃO: O volume da placa do ateroma antes do implante do stent foi maior nos pacientes que apresentaram ECVM no seguimento clínico em um ano, independentemente de outros preditores de eventos.FUNDAMENTO: El volumen de placa (VP está relacionado a eventos cardiovasculares mayores (ECVM tras implantación de stentscoronarios. OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la asociación entre el VP antes del procedimiento evaluado por angiografía y desenlaces clínicos. MÉTODOS: Se

  16. Correlation study of plaque and gingival indexes of mothers and their children Estudo da correlação dos índices de placa e gengival em mães e filhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Durante Ramires-Romito

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the periodontal condition between plaque and gingival indexes in 30 pairs of mother and child with mixed dentition, as well as to correlate the findings with some of their social and oral hygiene habits. Mother's and child's plaque and gingival indexes were recorded during clinical examination. Periapical and bitewing radiographs were taken in order to assess the presence of any pathologic bone loss. Questionnaires answered by the mothers were used to collect information regarding the mother's and the child's habits of tooth hygiene and the mother's job, instruction level and family income. The data collected from the mothers' group and from the children's group were statistically analyzed both separately and with the two groups together. From the statistical analyses (Pearson correlation test, student test and Covariance analysis, it was possible to conclude that there was a greater correlation between the plaque and gingival indexes in the mothers' group than in the children's group. No significant correlation between plaque and gingival indexes could be found between the pairs. Also, bone loss and plaque and gingival indexes in the children did not show any correlation. The mothers' plaque indexes increased with age and decreased when they flossed everyday and when they had a job. The children's plaque indexes were lower when they had their tooth hygiene done by their mothers, when the latter had declared that they flossed their children's teeth everyday, and also when the mothers had a job. Children's gingival indexes increased with age and decreased when they brushed their teeth more often, when their mothers had a job and when their mothers declared they are used to flossing every day.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a condição periodontal em 30 pares de mães e crianças com dentição mista, através dos índices de placa e gengival, bem como verificar sua correlação com alguns aspectos sociais e h

  17. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    56 Contagion ...impoverished people that are more vulnerable to being recruited by terrorist. Insurgents are no longer seeking money, but actually have financial power to... contagion , or lagged autoregressive term, promotes terrorist attacks both temporally and spatially. Addi- tionally, it is important to note that fourteen

  18. Intracoronary Thermography: a vulnerable Plaque Detection Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. ten Have (Anna)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis were performed to answer the central question: can intracoronary thermography be used for vulnerable plaque detection? To answer this question, we have identified parameters that influence intracoronary thermography measurements, and have studied to w

  19. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; LI; Xin-jun; FANG; Xin

    2013-01-01

    Through investigating information from domestic and abroad,joint the domestic assessment experience,we present a set of physical protection system(PPS)vulnerability assessment methods for on-operating nuclear power plants and for on-designing nuclear facilities.The methods will help to strengthen and upgrade the security measures of the nuclear facilities,improve the effectiveness and

  20. Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However,

  1. Vulnerability of tanks under seismic actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.E.P.R.; Nuno, I.E.A.N.; Torres, M.A.F.T. [Electrical Research Inst., Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a simplified procedure to predict the accelerations in which some failure modes are presented and to build vulnerability curves in terms of the probability that the identified failure modes would be presented. The paper presented a procedure to examine the vulnerability of tanks under seismic load. The study considered seismic intensity, ground dynamic conditions, soil-structure interaction effects and structural dynamic behavior. Tanks were characterized by their aspect ratio and capacity. Vulnerability was defined as the probability of failure function, whose main parameter was the acceleration that led to the failure mode of interest. A part of the study focused on the description of the main failure modes, such as circumferential collapse, elastic failure and elastoplastic failure and with the determination of the corresponding accelerations and the calculation of the vulnerability curves. An example was presented. It was concluded that the collapse acceleration suit corresponding to rock condition was used to get the collapse acceleration of a tank in soft soil without and with soil-structure interaction. Errors were less than five percent. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  3. USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Bryce

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

  4. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Bruno; Fuchs, Sven; Keiler, Margreth

    2013-04-01

    The design of efficient flood risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed to flood hazard. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the intensity of the impacting water-related hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow for an estimation of the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario on the basis of a spatially explicit representation of the process patterns and the elements at risk, and improve both risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses of planned mitigation strategies. However, due to the underlying empiricism of such vulnerability functions, the physics of the damage generating mechanisms remain unveiled, and, as such, the applicability of the empirical approach for planning hazard-proof residential buildings is rather limited. Therefore, we propose a conceptual assessment scheme to close this gap. This assessment scheme comprises distinct analytical steps: (a) modelling the process intensity and (b) the impact on the element at risk exposed, (c) the physical response of the building envelope, (d) the damage accounting and (f) the economic damage valuation. This dynamic assessment supports all relevant planning activities with respect to a minimisation of flood hazard losses, and can be implemented in the operational risk assessment procedure.

  5. Consumer Vulnerability to Fraud: Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Soberon-Ferrer, Horacio

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire on market knowledge and awareness of unfair business practices was completed by 464 adults aged 18-64 and by 493 over 64. Consumers were more susceptible to fraud if they were older, poor, less educated, and/or living without spouses. Gender and race were not significant predictors of vulnerability. (SK)

  6. Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However, knowl

  7. Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

  8. Urbanising Thailand: Implications for climate vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Friend; C. Choosuk; K. Hutanuwatr; Y. Inmuong; J. Kittitornkool; B. Lambregts; B. Promphakping; T. Roachanakanan; P. Thiengburanathum; S. Siriwattanaphaiboon

    2016-01-01

    This report summarises a series of studies carried out by a multi-disciplinary team of Thai scholars. It focuses on the dynamics of urbanisation and climate change risks, and on the linkages between urbanisation, climate change and emerging patterns of urban poverty and vulnerability. It provides ne

  9. Vulnerability Assessment Tools for Complex Information Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Chi Ho, Avrom Pfeffer Harvard University Office of Sponsored Research 1350 Massachusetts Ave. Holyoke 727 Cambridge, MA 02138 - Vulnerability...security to allow network administrators to determine when a security problem exists; Identification of actual, possible, or potential areas of...domain; the identification and exploitation of architectural structures that facilitate security modeling testing and management decomposition; the

  10. Vulnerability of several conifers to air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, H

    1992-07-01

    Hydraulic properties of xylem in seven species of conifer were studied during late winter and early spring 1991. Vulnerability to cavitation and air embolism was investigated using hydraulic conductivity and acoustic techniques. Embolisms were induced in branches excised from mature trees by air-drying them in the laboratory. Both techniques gave comparable results indicating that they both assess the same phenomenon. Within a tree, vulnerability was related to the permeability of the xylem, the largest stems tended to cavitate before the smallest ones when water deficits developed in a branch. Interspecific comparisons showed large differences in the xylem water potential needed to induce significant embolism, values ranged from -2.5 MPa in Pinus sylvestris to -4 MPa in Cedrus atlantica, but these differences did not correlate with differences in the xylem permeability of the species. The vulnerability of a species to air embolism was found to be consistent with its ecophysiological behavior in the presence of water stress, drought-tolerant species being less vulnerable than drought-avoiding species.

  11. Vulnerability--A New View of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubin, Joseph; Spring, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Although descriptive and etiological approaches to psychopathology have made notable advances, they seem to have reached a plateau. After reviewing the six approaches to etiology that now preempt the field--ecological, developmental, learning, genetic, internal environment, and neurophysiological models--a second-order model, vulnerability, is…

  12. Structural vulnerability assessment of electric power grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.; Warnier, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures are the typical reasons of blackouts in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from Comp

  13. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  14. Governing for Resilience in Vulnerable Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; Restemeyer, Britta; Bakema, Melanie; van Hoven, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Governing for Resilience in Vulnerable Places provides an overview and a critical analysis of the ways in which the concept ‘resilience’ has been addressed in social sciences research. In doing so, this edited book draws together state of the art research from a variety of disciplines (i.e. spatial

  15. Urbanising Thailand: Implications for climate vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friend, R.; Choosuk, C.; Hutanuwatr, K.; Inmuong, Y.; Kittitornkool, J.; Lambregts, B.; Promphakping, B.; Roachanakanan, T.; Thiengburanathum, P.; Siriwattanaphaiboon, S.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarises a series of studies carried out by a multi-disciplinary team of Thai scholars. It focuses on the dynamics of urbanisation and climate change risks, and on the linkages between urbanisation, climate change and emerging patterns of urban poverty and vulnerability. It provides

  16. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.

    2009-01-01

    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the a

  17. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.

  18. Seismic vulnerability assessments in risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Nina; Larionov, Valery; Bonnin, Jean; Ugarov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of seismic vulnerability is a critical issue within natural and technological risk analysis. In general, there are three common types of methods used for development of vulnerability functions of different elements at risk: empirical, analytical and expert estimations. The paper addresses the empirical methods for seismic vulnerability estimation for residential buildings and industrial facilities. The results of engineering analysis of past earthquake consequences, as well as the statistical data on buildings behavior during strong earthquakes presented in the different seismic intensity scales, are used to verify the regional parameters of mathematical models in order to simulate physical and economic vulnerability for different building types classified according to seismic scale MMSK-86. Verified procedure has been used to estimate the physical and economic vulnerability of buildings and constructions against earthquakes for the Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area, which are characterized by rather high level of seismic activity and high population density. In order to estimate expected damage states to buildings and constructions in the case of the earthquakes according to the OSR-97B (return period T=1,000 years) within big cities and towns, they were divided into unit sites and their coordinates were presented as dots located in the centers of unit sites. Then the indexes obtained for each unit site were summed up. The maps of physical vulnerability zoning for Northern Caucasus Federal region of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar area includes two elements: percent of different damage states for settlements with number of inhabitants less than 1,000 and vulnerability for cities and towns with number of inhabitants more than 1,000. The hypsometric scale is used to represent both elements on the maps. Taking into account the size of oil pipe line systems located in the highly active seismic zones in

  19. DESARROLLO DE UN SEPARADOR DE OBJETOS DUROS EN EL CAFÉ A PARTIR DE LAS VIBRACIONES PRODUCIDAS EN PLACAS DELGADAS DEVELOPMENT OF A SEPARATOR IN THE COFFEE HARD OBJECTS FROM THE VIBRATIONS PRODUCED IN THIN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Agudelo Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En Cenicafé se diseñaron y construyeron prototipos electromecánicos denominados PESELOD (pescador electrónico de objetos duros para la protección de las máquinas despulpadoras. Este nuevo módulo, localizado antes de la despulpadora, está conformado por un alimentador, un cuerpo vibrante (placa delgada o cono metálico, una compuerta, un recipiente para los objetos duros desalojados y un circuito para la detección y separación automática del objeto duro. Su principio de funcionamiento se basa en la diferencia de los parámetros de amplitud y frecuencia de las vibraciones producidas en el impacto del café y de los objetos duros contra el cuerpo vibrante. Se realizó el análisis histórico en los espectros de las aceleraciones que se indujeron teniendo en cuenta variaciones del material, espesor y apoyo. En la caracterización se encontraron mejores características de separación para placas de 2,5 mm de espesor, simplemente soportada y de material acerado. Los prototipos presentaron eficacias superiores al 80% y rendimientos entre 300 y 2.000 kg h-1 de café en cereza. De igual manera se realizaron variaciones tendientes a mejorar su operabilidad, relacionada con la limpieza de las placas para lo cual se construyó otro prototipo cuyo cuerpo vibrante lo constituía un cono acerado.Electromechanical experimental models of an electronic separator of hard objects, denominated PESELOD (pescador electrónico de objetos duros, Spanish were designed and constructed in Cenicafé to protect the coffee processing machines. The module, located before the pulping machine, includes a feeder, a vibrant body (thin plate or metallic cone, a gate, a hard objects container and a circuit for both hard objects detection and automatic separation. Its principle of operation is based on the difference of amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by impact of coffee fruits and hard objects against a vibrant body. The historical analysis was made in

  20. Crecimiento guiado con placas en 8 para la corrección de deformidades angulares en pacientes esqueléticamente inmaduros. [Eight plate guided growth for angular deformity correction in skeletally immature patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tourn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción  La manipulación de la fisis permite la corrección de deformidades ónen pacientes esqueléticamente inmaduros. Recientemente, se ha propuesto el empleo de un nuevo implante (placas en 8 que presentaría algunas ventajas con sus antecesores. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los resultados radiográficos y las complicaciones de una serie consecutiva de pacientes tratados con este método. Material y Métodos Se revisaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes esqueléticamente inmaduros con deformidades angulares que se sometieron a cirugía de realineación de miembros inferiores (Rodilla o tobillo mediante crecimiento guiado con placas en 8 entre Enero de 2009 y Julio del 2013. Se evaluaron los datos demográficos, evolución radiográfica  y la tasa de complicaciones. Todos los niños fueron intervenidos en la misma institución, por tres ortopedistas infantiles. Resultados Se evaluaron 27 pacientes (47 fisis, 12 de sexo masculino, 15 sexo femenino. 38 fueron tratados por deformidades en valgo y 9 por varo. De las 47 fisis tratadas, 33 fueron en el fémur distal, 12 en la tibia proximal y 2 en la tibia distal.  La edad promedio en la que se realizó el procedimiento fue de 11.8±1.36 años (rango de edad de 8 años – 14 años. El tiempo promedio entre la colocación y el retiro fue de 10.6±3 meses (rango 7 – 26 meses. Todos los pacientes menos uno, presentaron corrección completa de la deformidad. Se presentaron 6 complicaciones postoperatorias y 2 de ellas requirieron una nueva intervención (1 efecto rebote y 1 migración del implante. Conclusión La utilización de placas en 8 para la corrección de deformidades angulares en pacientes esqueléticamente inmaduros es un método efectivo con una baja tasa de complicaciones.

  1. Enfermedad de la Peyronie: De la extirpación a la incisión de la placa de fibrosis Peyronie's disease: Incision or extirpation of the plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Núñez Serrano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad de La Peyronie es una entidad médica bien descrita y conocida, sin embargo su tratamiento quirúrgico no siempre consigue el resultado esperado. Las técnicas habituales (Nesbitt, Horton- Devine, basadas en la extirpación de la placa fibrosa que desvía el pene eréctil, suelen conllevar acortamiento peneano y/o recidiva de la enfermedad. Presentamos una serie de 20 pacientes con Enfermedad de La Peyronie tratados con una nueva técnica basada en la incisión de la placa fibrosa e interposición de injerto dérmico autólogo. Describimos indicación, procedimiento quirúrgico y resultados obtenidos en un período de seguimiento de entre 16 y 1 años último paciente incluido. La técnica supone un cambio sustancial del enfoque terapéutico; la incisión de la placa frente a su extirpación respeta el tejido peneano, protege el paquete vasculonervioso aminorando la incidencia de impotencia, no acorta la longitud peneana, disminuye la incidencia de recidivas y su ejecución quirúrgica es asequible y simple.Peyronie's disease is a well-known medical entity but its surgical treatment does not get the expected outcome all the time. Usual techniques are based on the extirpation of fibrous plaque which distorts the erectile penis. These traditional techniques can produce shortening of the penis and/or disease recidivation. We report a 20 patient series afflicted of Peyronie's disease who were treated by a new surgical procedure; it consists of the incision over the fibrotic plaque and the insertion of a dermal autologous graft. We describe indication, surgical procedure, and results achieved by us with a following time within 16 to 1 year (last patient included. This technique changes the essential therapeutic approach. Using plaque incision instead of plaque extirpation we contribute to preserve vessels, nerves and we penis length. The incidence of impotence and disease recidivation also decreases with this simple and available

  2. Influência da distribuição granulométrica na estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas de base vermelha Influence of particle size distribution on the dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. A. Prado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades do revestimento cerâmico queimado estão intrinsecamente ligadas às características da massa, dentre estas se encontram o tamanho, a distribuição, o formato e o arranjo das partículas. O efeito da distribuição granulométrica de partículas sobre a estabilidade dimensional de placas cerâmicas para revestimentos de base vermelha foi estudado em três massas, todas continham no mínimo 57% de material advindo da Formação Corumbataí. Foram estudadas duas distribuições granulométricas - uma parecida com aquelas usadas no Pólo Cerâmico de Santa Gertrudes e, outra, com uma massa de grés. De uma maneira geral, granulações mais grossas, semelhantes à massa de Santa Gertrudes, variaram menos dimensionalmente quando as placas apresentaram médias e altas porosidades (absorção de água entre 3,0 e 10,0%. Já, granulações mais finas, similares a massas de grés, foram necessárias para a produção de placas de baixa absorção (menor que 3,0%.The properties of final ceramic tiles are related with the mass characteristics, among them the size, shape, distribution and arrange of particles. The effect of particle size distribution on dimensional stability of red ceramic tiles was studied in three masses; all of them composed with, at minimum, 57% of Corumbataí Formation's materials. Two particle size distributions were investigated: the first was similar to the masses that are used in the Santa Gertrudes Ceramic Pole's factories and the other was similar to the stoneware mass. In general, masses with larger particle sizes, similar to that of Santa Gertrudes, had greater dimensional stability in the products with 3 to 10% of water absorption. On the other hand, in the manufacture of low porosity tiles (water absorption capacity < 3% it is recommended the use of smaller grain size.

  3. EFICACIA DEL CEPILLADO CON Y SIN DENTÍFRICO EN EL CONTROL DE LA PLACA BACTERIANA SUPRAGINGIVAL EN ALUMNOS DEL 1ER GRADO DEL NIVEL PRIMARIO DE LA INSTITUCIÓN EDUCATIVA JUAN MANUEL POLAR DEL DISTRITO DE JOSÉ LUIS BUSTAMANTE Y RIVERO. AREQUIPA, 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    CÁRDENAS DEL CARPIO, ROSA ELENA

    2016-01-01

    CEPILLADO OBJETIVOS FRECUENCIA DE CEPILLADO DURACIÓN DEL CEPILLADO TÉCNICAS DE CEPILLADO REQUISITOS DE UN CEPILLADO DE DIENTES SATISFACTORIO DENTÍFRICO O PASTA DENTAL PLACA BACTERIANA ÍNDICE DE HIGIENE ORAL SIMPLIFICADO ANÁLISIS DE ANTECEDENTES INVESTIGATIVOS

  4. EFICACIA DEL CEPILLADO CON Y SIN DENTÍFRICO EN EL CONTROL DE LA PLACA BACTERIANA SUPRAGINGIVAL EN ALUMNOS DEL 1ER GRADO DEL NIVEL PRIMARIO DE LA INSTITUCIÓN EDUCATIVA JUAN MANUEL POLAR DEL DISTRITO DE JOSÉ LUIS BUSTAMANTE Y RIVERO. AREQUIPA, 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    CÁRDENAS DEL CARPIO, ROSA ELENA

    2016-01-01

    CEPILLADO OBJETIVOS FRECUENCIA DE CEPILLADO DURACIÓN DEL CEPILLADO TÉCNICAS DE CEPILLADO REQUISITOS DE UN CEPILLADO DE DIENTES SATISFACTORIO DENTÍFRICO O PASTA DENTAL PLACA BACTERIANA ÍNDICE DE HIGIENE ORAL SIMPLIFICADO ANÁLISIS DE ANTECEDENTES INVESTIGATIVOS

  5. Resultados clínico-radiológicos en pacientes jóvenes con fractura articular completa de radio distal tratados con placa palmar bloqueada. [Clinical and radiological results in young patients with complete articular distal radius fractures treated with volar locked plate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Carli

    2016-02-01

    Conclusión: El tratamiento de las fracturas de radio distal tipo C en pacientes jóvenes con placa palmar bloqueada muestra resultados clínicos y radiológicos favorables con corrección de la mayoría de los escalones articulares.

  6. Completing Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Incorporating the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NatureServe and Heritage Program collaborators have developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to provide a rapid, scientifically defensible assessment of...

  7. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  8. Groundwater vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Jef; Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; Van Looy, Stijn; Vanden Boer, Dirk; Heuvelmans, Griet; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are increasingly being detected in shallow groundwater and and are one of the main causes of the poor chemical status of phreatic groundwater bodies in Flanders. There is a need for groundwater vulnerability maps in order to design monitoring strategies and land-use strategies for sensitive areas such as drinking water capture zones. This research focuses on the development of generic vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders and a tool to calculate substance-specific vulnerability maps at the scale of Flanders and at the local scale. (1) The generic vulnerability maps are constructed using an index based method in which maps of the main contributing factors in soil and saturated zone to high concentrations of pesticides in groundwater are classified and overlain. Different weights are assigned to the contributing factors according to the type of pesticide (low/high mobility, low/high persistence). Factors that are taken into account are the organic matter content and texture of soil, depth of the unsaturated zone, organic carbon and redox potential of the phreatic groundwater and thickness and conductivity of the phreatic layer. (2) Secondly a tool is developed that calculates substance-specific vulnerability maps for Flanders using a hybrid approach where a process-based leaching model GeoPEARL is combined with vulnerability indices that account for dilution in the phreatic layer. The GeoPEARL model is parameterized for Flanders in 1434 unique combinations of soil properties, climate and groundwater depth. Leaching is calculated for a 20 year period for each 50 x 50 m gridcell in Flanders. (3) At the local scale finally, a fully process-based approach is applied combining GeoPEARL leaching calculations and flowline calculations of pesticide transport in the saturated zone to define critical zones in the capture zone of a receptor such as a drinking water well or a river segment. The three approaches are explained more in detail and illustrated

  9. Bite force and sleep quality in patients with bruxism before and after using a mandibular advancement device = Força de mordida e qualidade do sono em pacientes bruxômanos antes e após o uso de placa de avanço mandibular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainieri, Vivian Chiada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a força de mordida e a qualidade do sono em pacientes com bruxismo antes e depois do uso de uma placa de avanço mandibular resiliente. Metodologia: Dezoito pacientes com bruxismo em atendimento na Clínica de Oclusão da Faculdade de Odontologia da PUCRS foram selecionados de acordo com os critérios de eligibilidade do estudo, examinados segundo o protocolo RDC/DTM e tratados com uma placa de avanço mandibular resiliente. Antes e após 30 dias de uso da placa de avanço mandibular os sujeitos foram submetidos a testes de força máxima de mordida com um transdutor de força compressiva de arco cruzado posicionado na região de primeiro molar; de qualidade do sono, de acordo com o questionário QAS da Universidade de Toronto; e de contagem do número de contrações do músculo masseter durante o sono usando-se o adesivo BiteStrip®. Os dados foram analisados por teste t de Student, teste de Wilcoxon e teste de McNemar ao nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Houve diminuição significativa (P < 0,05 dos parâmetros de bruxismo, de força de mordida e do escore total do QAS após o uso da placa de avanço mandibular por 30 dias. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que o uso da placa de avanço mandibular resiliente por um mês reduziu a força de mordida e o bruxismo e melhorou a qualidade do sono nesta amostra

  10. Relación placa bacteriana y caries en un grupo de niños escolarizados entre 5 y 14 años de la población de la Boquilla - Cartagena en el año 20041

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizelia Alfaro Zolá

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la ocurrencia de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentales y relacionarla con el tipo de lesión de caries que se presenta en niños escolares de 5 a 14 años de la Boquilla - Cartagena. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal, en el cual se seleccionó una muestra de 89 niños escolares de la población de la Boquilla a través de un muestreo aleatorio sistemático, a quienes se les evaluó el estado de higiene oral mediante el índice de placa comunitario de Corchuelo modificado y el índice de caries superficial con criterios de diagnóstico Ekstrand. Resultados: La superficie con lesiones de caries de mayor frecuencia fue la oclusal, presentándose un mayor numero de lesiones detenidas, seguido en palatino por las lesiones precavitacionales, a diferencia de las superficies vestibular y lingual donde se encontraron un mayor número de superficies sanas. En todas las superficies evaluadas predominó la presencia de placa bacteriana independientemente de la presencia de caries y no se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre estas dos variables. Conclusiones: La alta frecuencia de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentarias nos mostró el deficiente estado de higiene oral de la población, sin embargo, sigue en duda la pertinencia de los índices de placa para la predicción de la caries debido a que no se encontró relación estadística. (Duazary 2007; 2: 119 - 126

  11. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recent catastrophic flood events such as Elbe in 2002 or Rhône in 2003 have shown limits of flood management policies relying on dykes protection: worsening of flood impacts downstream, increased damage by dykes rupture. Those events, among others, contributes to radical changes on the philosophy of flood prevention, with the promotion of new orientations for mitigating flood exposition. Two new trends may have a significant impact on rural areas: floodplain restoration and vulnerability mitigation. The Rhône River program, which is an contract of objectives signed between French Government and local collectivites, is highly illustrative of these new trends and their impact on agricultural sector. In this program, it appears that areas to be concerned by floodplain restoration are agricultural ones, because their supposed vulnerability to flood is expected to be less important to urban areas. As a consequence, agricultural sector is particularly concerned by planned actions on mitigation of assets vulnerability, an important part of the program (financial support of European Union of 7.5 Million euros). Mitigation of agricultural assets vulnerability reveals particularly interesting for two following reasons. Firstly, it is a way to maintain agricultural activities in floodplains yet existing, without promoting flood protection. Secondly, in case of floodplain restoration, vulnerability mitigation is a way for local authorities to compensate over-flooding impacts. In practice, local authorities may financially support farmers for implementing measures to mitigate their farm vulnerability. On the Rhône River, an important work has already been done to identify farm vulnerability to flooding, and propose measures to mitigate it. More than 3 000 farms exposed to flood risk have been identified representing 88 690 ha of agricultural areas which is estimated to generate damage between 400 and 800 Million euros depending on the season of occurrence for a catastrophic

  12. Estudio clínico comparativo entre colutorio de p-clorofenol y peróxido de hidrógeno con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12% en el crecimiento de placa microbiana y gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaña,PD; Yévenes,LI; Rivera,AS

    2010-01-01

    Se formuló un colutorio a base de p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno, y considerando que no se disponían de antecedentes de eficacia y seguridad del colutorio, se realizó un ensayo clínico para medirlas utilizando un modelo de formación de placa microbiana y gingivitis en un período de cuatro días, como control positivo se uso un colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12%. Participaron 26 sujetos en un estudio doble ciego cruzado y con distribución aleatoria. El colutorio en base a p-cl...

  13. Queimadura de terceiro grau na região da placa eletrocirúrgica durante artroscopia de ombro: relato de caso Third-degree burn in the region of the electrosurgical pad during shoulder arthroscopy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cardoso Gomide

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O número de artroscopias de ombro está aumentando e, por causa disso, a frequência de complicações relacionadas também aumenta. O presente caso relata uma queimadura de terceiro grau na região da placa eletrocirúrgica durante esta cirurgia e alerta sobre possíveis causas e como tentar prevenir esta rara, mas possível complicação.The number of shoulder arthroscopy procedures is increasing and, because of this, the frequency of related complications is also increasing. This report presents a case of third-degree burn from an electrosurgical pad during this procedure and serves as an alert regarding the possible causes and how to try to prevent this rare, but possible complication.

  14. Características energéticas de una placa fotovoltaica, por variación de ángulo de inclinación, frente a la radiación solar en Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alfredo Mora Trujillo

    2015-11-01

    Igualmente se implementara un sistema de control de la producción diaria de energía (Kw/h y el ahorro de emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera, con el fin de hacer las comparaciones del uso de energía renovable frente a la convencional, lo que permitirá estimar el beneficio económico y ambiental. Esta investigación, permitirá registrar información precisa para diseñar instalaciones solares fotovoltaicas teniendo en cuenta la incidencia de la radiación solar en una placa fotovoltaica por variación de ángulo de inclinación frente al sol y determinar el ahorro de emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera.

  15. Efecto comparativo de nuevo colutorio-gel de clorhexidina con colutorios comerciales en el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas Comparative effect again mouthrinses-gel of chlorhexidine with commercial mouthrinses in the growth of plaque in 24 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rivera

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las soluciones de clorhexidina (CHX, estándares en prevención de formación de placa presentan algunos efectos indeseados como el dolor por alcohol. Objetivos. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la eficacia clínica de colutorio-gel acuoso de clorhexidina al 0,1% y compararla con colutorios al 0,12% y 0,1% con alcohol, evaluando el crecimiento de placa bacteriana. Materiales y métodos. En un estudio cruzado, doble ciego y randomizado, 25 alumnos de buena salud oral, participaron de cuatro estudios con abstención de limpieza oral por 24 horas, separados entre si por 4 semanas. Los alumnos se enjuagaron por una vez con uno de los siguientes colutorios: CHX 0,12% + alcohol (Oralgene®, CHX 0,12% + alcohol (Perio.Aid®, CHX 0,1%+ alcohol (Dentilim® y CHX 0,1% + HMC 2,5% (Colutoriogel®, acuoso nueva formula. Después de un día se midió formación de placa, se completo y registro el cuestionario de parámetros clínicos Resultados. Las formulaciones de CHX 0,12% + alcohol y CHX 0,1% + HMC 2,5% se mostraron eficientes en retardar el crecimiento de placa dental de novo, esto obtenido de las mediciones clínicas, y siempre superior (pThe chlorhexidine solutions (CHX standars in prevention of plaque formation present some undesired effects like the pain by alcohol. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of Colutoriogel® (new formulation of chlorhexidine to the 0,1% and to compare with mouthrinses to the 0,12% and 0,1% with alcohol being evaluated growth of bacterial plaque. In double-blind, randomised, cross-over study, 25 young dental students with a healthy periodontium, abolished all means of mechanical plaque control during 4 experimental periods of 1 day (separated from each other by a washout period of 4 weeks. During each experimental period, they rinsed 1 daily with one of the following mouthrinses in a randomised order: CHX 0,12% + alcohol (Oralgene ®, CHX 0,12% + alcohol (Perio

  16. Complicações determinadas por placas de cloreto de polivinila (PVC) na estabilização da porção cervical caudal da coluna vertebral de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Mônica Vicky Bahr; Matera, Júlia Maria; Reis,Antônio Carlos Faria dos; IDERIHA, Nilce Marzolla

    2003-01-01

    Em 10 cães com peso médio de 14,6kg, as vértebras cervicais 5 e 6 foram cirurgicamente desestabilizadas através da secção do disco intervertebral e, em seguida, estabilizadas com placas ortopédicas confeccionadas com PVC de 2mm de espessura, para após 180 dias, proceder-se ao estudo histológico do tecido ósseo e conjuntivo circunvizinho. Constatou-se que o PVC causou alterações ósseas que podem ter favorecido o afrouxamento dos parafusos e a falha do implante. O material induziu ainda à forma...

  17. Red Team Operations to Assess Information Technology Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.; Parker, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    All Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems have vulnerabilities. Weaknesses in these systems are introduced either during the specification, implementation or operational phase. Leaving aside these introduced vulnerabilities are intentional or unintentional, the fact remains that the

  18. Cognitive vulnerability to depression : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores cognitive vulnerability to depression and the interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Cognitive vulnerability to depression is characterized by negative patterns of information processing. One aspect is cognitive reactivity - the tendency to respond with maladapt

  19. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: Groundwater, Vulnerability, Pollution, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... natural groundwater vulnerability: net recharge, soil properties, unsaturated zone ... such as dispersion, oxidation, natural attenuation, sorption etc. A low depth to ...

  20. Climate change vulnerability in Ethiopia : disaggregation of Tigray Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidey Gebrehiwot, T.; Gidey, T.G.; van der Veen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and variability severely affect rural livelihoods and agricultural productivity, yet they are causes of stress vulnerable rural households have to cope with. This paper investigated farming communities' vulnerability to climate change and climate variability across 34

  1. Identifying institutional vulnerability : The importance of language, and system boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Finch, John; McMaster, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Taking the idea that institutional reproduction is not obvious and that institutions are vulnerable has significant conceptual implications. Institutional vulnerability can arise through communication between actors in a common language. To apprehend this requires an elaboration of John Searle's (19

  2. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability self... Self-Assessment Risk Module (TMSARM), developed to support the United States Coast Guard's...

  3. Identifying institutional vulnerability : The importance of language, and system boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Finch, John; McMaster, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Taking the idea that institutional reproduction is not obvious and that institutions are vulnerable has significant conceptual implications. Institutional vulnerability can arise through communication between actors in a common language. To apprehend this requires an elaboration of John Searle's

  4. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  5. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  6. Effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients Efeito do gel de clorexidina a 0,5% em microrganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de portadores de necessidades especiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Mendes Pannuti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine (CHX gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients. Thirty inmates from the institution "Casas André Luiz" were assigned to either test group (CHX gel, n = 15 or control group (placebo gel, n = 15. The gel was administered over a period of 8 weeks. Supragingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, after gel use (8 weeks and 16 weeks after baseline. The presence of Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and yeasts was evaluated. No significant growth of any superinfecting microorganism was observed in the CHX group, when compared to the placebo group. The results indicated that the 0.5% chlorhexidine gel did not produce an undesirable shift in these bacterial populations.Foi conduzido um ensaio clínico aleatório com objetivo de investigar o efeito do gel de clorexidina (CHX a 0,5% sobre microorganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de pacientes especiais. Trinta internos da instituição "Casas André Luiz" foram aleatoriamente divididos em grupo teste (gel de CHX, n = 15 e controle (gel placebo, n = 15. O gel foi utilizado por oito semanas. Amostras de placa supragengival foram coletadas no início do estudo, após o uso do gel (oito semanas e 16 semanas após o início do estudo. Foi avaliada a presença de bacilos entéricos Gram-negativos, Staphylococcus e leveduras. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à presença desses microorganismos em qualquer momento do estudo. Os resultados indicam que o gel de CHX não provocou mudanças significativas na composição desses microorganismos.

  7. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud

    Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted...... IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book...... explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences...

  8. Vulnerability, diversity and scarcity: on universal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan Stanley; Dumas, Alex

    2013-11-01

    This article makes a contribution to the on-going debates about universalism and cultural relativism from the perspective of sociology. We argue that bioethics has a universal range because it relates to three shared human characteristics,--human vulnerability, institutional precariousness and scarcity of resources. These three components of our argument provide support for a related notion of 'weak foundationalism' that emphasizes the universality and interrelatedness of human experience, rather than their cultural differences. After presenting a theoretical position on vulnerability and human rights, we draw on recent criticism of this approach in order to paint a more nuanced picture. We conclude that the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism has some conceptual merit, but it also has obvious limitations when we consider the political economy of health and its impact on social inequality.

  9. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... of the present study was both to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 22 and 12 item scales and of three new scales. The main study sample was a community sample comprising more than 6,000 men and women. In this sample the coefficients of homogeneity were all over 0.30 for the three new scales, but below...

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  11. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted...... explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences...... IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book...

  12. [The Helsinki Declaration: relativism and vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Corrêa, M

    2001-01-01

    The Helsinki Declaration is a crucial ethical landmark for clinical research involving human beings. Since the Declaration was issued, a series of revisions and modifications have been introduced into the original text, but they have not altered its humanist approach or its international force for regulating clinical research. A proposal for an extensive revision of the Declaration's underlying ethical principles has been debated for the past four years. If the proposal is approved, international clinical research involving human beings will be modified, further increasing the vulnerability of certain social groups. This article discusses the historical process involved in passing the Helsinki Declaration and the most recent debate on the new draft. The article analyzes the new text's social implications for underdeveloped countries, arguing for a political approach to the vulnerability concept.

  13. Resilience and Vulnerability: Complementary or Conflicting Concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Downing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience and vulnerability represent two related yet different approaches to understanding the response of systems and actors to change; to shocks and surprises, as well as slow creeping changes. Their respective origins in ecological and social theory largely explain the continuing differences in approach to social-ecological dimensions of change. However, there are many areas of strong convergence. This paper explores the emerging linkages and complementarities between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability to identify areas of synergy. We do this with regard to theory, methodology, and application. The paper seeks to go beyond just recognizing the complementarities between the two approaches to demonstrate how researchers are actively engaging with each field to coproduce new knowledge, and to suggest promising areas of complementarity that are likely to further research and action in the field.

  14. Techniques for Finding Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Sandulescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trend is to move everything on the Internet. Because a lot of companies store sensitive user information, security has become mandatory. Usually, software developers don’t follow some basic practices in order to secure their applications. This paper will present in the second chapter, the white-box, black-box and gray-box methods which can be used in order to test applications for possible vulnerabilities. It focuses on fuzz testing, which is a black-box testing method, presented in the third chapter. The fourth chapter presents the stages of a fuzzing test and in the final chapter, we show a basic practical example on how to use the Burp Suite[8] fuzzer to find a vulnerability.

  15. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted...... IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book...... explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences...

  16. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...... structuring and enriching the taxonomies of society’s critical functions and threats, which form an important part of the model. Creating terminological ontologies is a time consuming work, and therefore there is a need for automatic tools for extraction of terms, concept relations and characteristics...

  17. Mental vulnerability as a risk factor for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ditte; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold;

    2012-01-01

    Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression.......Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression....

  18. Supply Chain Vulnerability in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Pejicic, Jerko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study is the empirical analysis of theelements affecting supply chain vulnerability with a focus on theautomotive industry. Methodology: This research is based on a deductive approach. In order to fulfilthe purpose of the study, the authors stated three hypotheseswhich were tested with help of quantitative data. Moreover, thesurvey strategy was used while using questioning in order to gatherinformation from subjects. With the help of a web-based questionn...

  19. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  20. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  1. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  2. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  3. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Peterdina; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  4. Resultados clínicos e radiológicos en serie de artrodesis cervical anterior con caja de fusión intersomática y placa Resultados clínicos e radiológicos em série de artrodese cervical anterior com dispositivo de fusão intersomática e placa Clinical and radiologica outcomes in series of anterior cervical fusion with intersomatic cage and plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyonel Beaulieu Lalanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar los resultados clínicos e radiológicos de una serie de pacientes sometidos a artrodesis cervical anterior con caja de fusión intersomática (CAGE y placa. MÉTODOS: Análisis retrospectivo de serie de pacientes sometidos a artrodesis cervical anterior con caja de fusión intersomática y placa entre los años 2004 y 2009. Revisión de fichas clínicas y radiografías, registro de edad, sexo, diagnósticos, nivel operado, complicaciones, evolución clínica y radiológica. Técnica quirúrgica de Smith-Robinson. Las cajas de fusión intersomática fueron llenadas con sustitutos de huesos. Deambulación 12 horas después de la cirugía, alta a las 48 horas, collar cervical intermitente por 2 semanas. Evaluación clínica mediante criterios de Odom. Seguimiento 17 a 78 meses. RESULTADOS: Diagnósticos: Hernia del núcleo pulposo (HNP cervical, 44 (71%, mielopatía, 11 (17,7%, fracturas, 7 (11,3%. Nivel 1: 44 (71%, Nivel 2: 15 (24,2%, Nivel 3: (4,8%. El nivel C5-C6 incluyó 92% de los casos. Alivio del dolor radicular: 60 (97%. Recuperación del déficit neurológico: 59 (95,2%. Alivio de la mielopatía: 8/11 pacientes (73%. Alivio del dolor cervical: 56 (90%. Resultados clínicos: 91,9% excelentes y buenos. Complicaciones (12,9%: 4 disfagias transitorias (6,5%, 1 disfagia permanente (1,6%, 2 disfonías transitorias (3,3%, 1 subcidencia con aflojamiento del implante y fractura asintomática de placa (1,6%. No hubo pseudoartrosis. CONCLUSIONES: Esta serie presenta buenos resultados clínicos, com alivio del dolor y recuperación neurológica comparables con los hallazgos en la literatura. El uso de la caja de fusión intersomática evita complicaciones de la zona dadora y, cuando es asociado a placa cervical anterior permite fijación intersomática inmediata, dando soporte estructural adecuado, con buenos resultados y sin complicaciones a largo plazo.OBJETIVOS: Analisar os resultados clínicos e radiológicos de uma série de

  5. Avaliação do tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical pela artrodese via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em peek isoladamente Evaluación del tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por la artrodesis anterior utilizando placas asociadas con jaulas o jaulas en peec, aisladamente Evaluation of cervical degenerative disc disease treatment by anterior arthrodesis using plates associated with cages or cages in peek alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rafael Hübner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar comparativamente o tratamento da discopatia degenerativa cervical por discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior utilizando placas associadas a cages ou cages em PEEK isoladamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo comparativo entre dois grupos de pacientes operados pela técnica de discectomia e artrodese cervical via anterior. Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 70 pacientes, 35 operados com o método de fixação com placas associadas a cages - denominado Grupo I - e 35 com o cage em PEEK isoladamente - Grupo II. Realizou-se anamnese, exame físico, escores de dor (escala visual e analógica da dor e função (critérios de Odom's, SF-36, Indice de incapacidade do pescoço o pré e pós-operatório e exames de imagem. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância de pacientes do sexo feminino em ambos os grupos, com média de idade de 55 anos no Grupo I e 47 no Grupo II. Ambos os grupos apresentaram distribuição semelhante quanto ao número de níveis operados, assim como nas complicações encontradas e escores de dor, cervicalgia e SF36 no pré e pós-operatório. Houve 97.1% de fusão com 94.3% de bons resultados no Grupo I e 100% de fusão, com 97 % de bons resultados no Grupo II. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo comparativo da utilização de placas com cages e cages em PEEK isoladamente apresentou resultados semelhantes e satisfatórios para os grupos estudados, não se constatando superioridade ou inferioridade de um método com relação ao outro.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar comparativamente el tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa del disco cervical por discectomía y artrodesis cervical vía anterior, utilizando placas asociadas con el uso de jaulas o estas en PEEK [Poliéster-Éter-Éter-Cetona], aisladamente. MÉTODOS: fue realizado un estudio retrospectivo comparativo de dos grupos de pacientes tratados con la técnica de discectomía y artrodesis cervical vía anterior. Se seleccionaron al azar 70 pacientes, 35 operados

  6. Web Vulnerability Scanner (WVS: A Tool for detecting Web Application Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Swarup

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In recent years, internet applications have became enormously well-liked, and today they're habitually employed in security-critical environments, like medical, financial, and military systems. Because the use of internet applications has increased, the amount and class of attacks against these applications have also matured. Moreover, the research community primarily targeted on detecting vulnerabilities, which results from insecure information flow in internet applications like cross-site scripting and SQL injection have also increased. Injection Attacks exploit vulnerabilities of websites by inserting and executing malicious code (e.g., information query, JavaScript functions in unsuspecting users, computing surroundings or on a web server. Such attacks compromise user’s information, system resources and cause a significant threat to private and business assets. We tend to investigate and develop a tool Web Vulnerability Scanner (WVS which queries the vulnerable fragments of applications (written in query and application languages and are then identified and analyzed offline (statically. Results show the effectiveness of our Tool, compared to the present ones in dimensions alike, it has been observed that vulnerabilities go undetected once the existing ways of area unit used; it makes offline analysis of applications time efficient; and finally, it reduces the runtime observation overhead.

  7. Dynamic Assessment on Ecosystem Vulnerability in Dashanbao Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the ecosystem vulnerability of Dashanbao wetland.[Method] The evaluation index system of ecosystem vulnerability of Dashanbao wetland was constructed by using analytic hierarchy process(AHP),and the ecosystem vulnerability of Dashanbao wetland from 2002 to 2008 was assessed based on vulnerable degree of ecosystem.[Result] The vulnerable degree of ecosystem of Dashanbao wetland from 2002 to 2008 was 0.560 0,0.513 7,0.516 4,0.465 4,0.476 0,0.449 2 and 0.400 6 respectively,tha...

  8. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-19

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  9. Unified Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. T.; Loh, P. K. K.

    2008-11-01

    Web vulnerabilities in web-based applications may be detected, classified and documented. Several Web scanners exist for vulnerabilities in Web applications implemented via different technologies. However, none of them provides the technology-independent, generic coverage of possible vulnerabilities. In this project that is funded by Mindef Singapore, we propose a new approach for Web application security and vulnerability analysis. The design addresses the categorization of scanner results with a generic data model and the design of a language-independent rule-based engine that detects, analyses and reports suspected vulnerabilities in web-based applications.

  10. Artrodese cervical anterior em três e quatro níveis com dispositivo intersomático não associado à placa cervical Artrodesis cervical anterior en tres y cuatro niveles con dispositivo intersomático no asociado a placa cervical Anterior cervical arthrodesis for three and four levels using stand-alone interbody cages without cervical plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Luiz Benato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a taxa de consolidação em pacientes submetidos à artrodese cervical anterior de três e quatro níveis utilizando dispositivo intersomático não associado à placa cervical no sexto mês de pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: no período de Novembro de 2005 a Julho de 2008, 20 pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico proposto. Os critérios de inclusão foram: diagnóstico clínico e por imagem de doença discal degenerativa cervical em três ou quatro níveis; dor axial e/ou irradiada com, no mínimo, seis meses de pós-operatório. O critério de exclusão foi a presença de instabilidade cervical traumática. Foram avaliadas as taxas de consolidação, a presença de sintomas, a taxa de complicações e a posição dos dispositivos intersomáticos (subsidence após seis meses. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes obtiveram consolidação em três meses, porém, dois pacientes apresentaram fenômeno de subsidence, ou seja, migração com consolidação em cifose, sem alterar os resultados clínicos e a consolidação da artrodese após seis meses de pós-operatório. Os pacientes tiveram melhora da dor pré-operatória e apenas três (15% apresentaram dor residual. Não houve complicações maiores. O tempo de hospitalização foi de dois dias. Não foi utilizada imobilização rígida no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: obteve-se consolidação com esta técnica em todos os casos. A técnica se mostrou segura e promoveu bons resultados radiológicos e clínicos.evaluar la tasa de consolidación en pacientes sometidos a la artrodesis cervical anterior, de tres y cuatro niveles utilizando dispositivo intersomático no asociado a la placa cervical, después de seis meses de postoperatorio. MÉTODOS: en el período de Noviembre de 2005 a Julio de 2008, 20 pacientes fueron sometidos al tratamiento quirúrgico propuesto. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: diagnóstico clínico y por imagen de enfermedad discal degenerativa cervical

  11. Corpectomia cervical anterior e fixação com placa: análise retrospectiva Corporectomía cervical anterior y fijación con placa: un análisis retrospectivo Anterior cervical corpectomy and plate fixation: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Sonagli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos e radiográficos de pacientes submetidos à corpectomia e fixação com placa cervical, com seguimento de dois anos. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 2003 a 2009. Avaliaram-se o tipo de fratura (classificação AO, o grau de déficit neurológico (inicial e após dois anos - escala de Frankel, a taxa de complicações e a taxa de incorporação do enxerto ósseo (de acordo com radiografias dois anos depois da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um pacientes foram avaliados. De acordo com a classificação AO, 14 eram grupo A, 3 B e 4 C. Ao todo, sete pacientes apresentaram déficit neurológico inicial completo (Frankel A e permaneceram com o déficit neurológico completo após dois anos. Dos seis pacientes que apresentaram déficit neurológico inicial incompleto (Frankel B, C e D, 33% (2 de 6 apresentaram melhora de um nível na escala de Frankel e 50% (3 de 6 deles evoluíram para recuperação completa (Frankel E. Os oito pacientes que não apresentaram lesão neurológica inicial (Frankel E permaneceram sem déficit neurológico após dois anos. Três complicações clínicas foram verificadas: uma fístula esofágica, uma soltura asséptica do implante e uma infecção no sítio doador de enxerto. Todos os pacientes obtiveram consolidação do enxerto ósseo. CONCLUSÃO: A corpectomia cervical no tratamento da fratura-explosão permite a recuperação neurológica nos pacientes com lesão neurológica incompleta e apresenta baixos índices de complicações.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los resultados clínicos y radiográficos de los pacientes sometidos a corporectomía y fijación con placa cervical con dos años de seguimiento. MÉTODOS: Análisis retrospectivo desde 2003 hasta 2009. Se evaluó el tipo de fractura (Clasificación AO, el grado de déficit neurológico (inicial y después de 2 años - escala de Frankel, la tasa de complicaciones y la tasa de incorporación del injerto óseo (de acuerdo a los

  12. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  13. Karst morphology and groundwater vulnerability of high alpine karst plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Lukas; Decker, Kurt; Faber, Robert; Wagreich, Michael; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    High alpine karst plateaus are recharge areas for major drinking water resources in the Alps and many other regions. Well-established methods for the vulnerability mapping of groundwater to contamination have not been applied to such areas yet. The paper characterises this karst type and shows that two common vulnerability assessment methods (COP and PI) classify most of the areas with high vulnerability classes. In the test site on the Hochschwab plateau (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria), overlying layers are mostly absent, not protective or even enhance point recharge, where they have aquiclude character. The COP method classifies 82% of the area as highly or extremely vulnerable. The resulting maps are reasonable, but do not differentiate vulnerabilities to the extent that the results can be used for protective measures. An extension for the upper end of the vulnerability scale is presented that allows identifying ultra vulnerable areas. The proposed enhancement of the conventional approach points out that infiltration conditions are of key importance for vulnerability. The method accounts for karst genetical and hydrologic processes using qualitative and quantitative properties of karst depressions and sinking streams including parameters calculated from digital elevations models. The method is tested on the Hochschwab plateau where 1.7% of the area is delineated as ultra vulnerable. This differentiation could not be reached by the COP and PI methods. The resulting vulnerability map highlights spots of maximum vulnerability and the combination with a hazard map enables protective measures for a manageable area and number of sites.

  14. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  15. Aren't we all vulnerable: why do vulnerability analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, Marcus

    2011-11-15

    The idea of 'vulnerability' is widely-used shorthand for the disproportionate impacts that climate change will have on high-risk groups and fragile ecosystems. Decision makers increasingly want to target adaptation funding to those people and environments most affected by climate change. They must also be able to monitor the effectiveness of their investments. Vulnerability analysis is sometimes presented as the solution to these wants and needs — but existing approaches are often of little use: at best, they reiterate what we already know; at worst, they are used to justify entrenched agendas. To be truly useful as a basis for dialogue, action and accountability, the meaning of 'vulnerability' must be clarified and the methods for analysing it greatly strengthened. This means establishing standard, replicable approaches that differentiate between the roles and exposure of stakeholders, systems and institutions.

  16. Integrated flash flood vulnerability assessment: Insights from East Attica, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of flood risk assessment, vulnerability is a key concept to assess the susceptibility of elements at risk. Besides the increasing amount of studies on flash floods available, in-depth information on vulnerability in Mediterranean countries was missing so far. Moreover, current approaches in vulnerability research are driven by a divide between social scientists who tend to view vulnerability as representing a set of socio-economic factors, and natural scientists who view vulnerability in terms of the degree of loss to an element at risk. Further, vulnerability studies in response to flash flood processes are rarely answered in the literature. In order to close this gap, this paper implemented an integrated vulnerability approach focusing on residential buildings exposed to flash floods in Greece. In general, both physical and social vulnerability was comparable low, which is interpreted as a result from (a) specific building regulations in Greece as well as general design principles leading to less structural susceptibility of elements at risk exposed, and (b) relatively low economic losses leading to less social vulnerability of citizens exposed. The population show high risk awareness and coping capacity to response to natural hazards event and in the same time the impact of the events are quite low, because of the already high use of local protection measures. The low vulnerability score for East Attica can be attributed especially to the low physical vulnerability and the moderate socio-economic well-being of the area. The consequence is to focus risk management strategies mainly in the reduction of the social vulnerability. By analysing both physical and social vulnerability an attempt was made to bridge the gap between scholars from sciences and humanities, and to integrate the results of the analysis into the broader vulnerability context.

  17. 通用Web漏洞库%Common Web Vulnerability Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊星; 孙应飞

    2013-01-01

    Based on the research of Web vulnerability database and the situation of vulnerability database construction at home and aboard, the paper designed and implemented a vulnerability database focused on Web vulnerabilities. In consideration of both the features of Web vulnerability and the differences with traditional vulnerability, the paper designed the Web vulnerability database description model, enriched the ways of Web vulnerability collection, redefined the Web vulnerability scoring attributes and added the Web vulnerability reproduce function. The Web vulnerability database guarantees the comprehensive collection of Web vulnerability information and the standard release of Web vulnerability information, helps analyze the Web vulnerability information and data better, and provides a powerful technical support to Web security.%本文研究了国内外Web漏洞库及建设的现状,设计并实现了一个专注于Web漏洞发布的Web漏洞数据库。文中兼顾了Web漏洞的固有特点及其与传统漏洞的属性差别,设计了Web漏洞库描述模型,丰富了Web漏洞的收集方法,定义了Web漏洞的漏洞评价属性标准,并在Web漏洞库中添加了Web漏洞重现模块。我们所设计的Web漏洞库确保了全面的Web漏洞信息收集和Web漏洞信息发布的标准化,可更好地对Web漏洞信息和数据进行分析研究,也为Web安全提供了有力的技术支撑。

  18. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E.; Essington, Timothy E.; Kaplan, Isaac C.

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill–Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod–Limacina helicina, pink shrimp–Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab–Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake–Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species’ vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate. PMID:27416031

  19. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Hodgson

    Full Text Available Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1 the maximum stage vulnerability and (2 a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  20. Reproducibilidad en la lectura de un set de placas de citología cérvico-uterinas en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín, Antioquia / Reproducibility of reading a set of cervical cytology smears in four specialized centers in Medellin, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Guevara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el grado de reproducibilidad en la lectura de placas de citología cérvico-uterina entre cuatro centros de lectura especializados de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Metodología: 181 placas de citología cérvico-uterina provenientes de un estudio de prevalencia de anormalidades citológicas en Pueblorrico, Antioquia, se sometieron a lectura en cuatro centros especializados de Medellín. Se le pidió a cada centro que realizara una lectura rutinaria manteniendo el estudio en ciego por medio de recodificación de las placas, evitando que se filtrara información entre centros. Se calculó la concordancia general y el índice kappa de Fleiss. Resultados: de las 181 placas, sólo en 55 placas los 4 centros concordaron en el resultado, obteniéndose un porcentaje de concordancia global del 30% y un índice kappa global de 0,31. Según la escala de Fleiss, se observó una baja reproducibilidad en la lectura de las placas citológicas entre los cuatro centros involucrados en el estudio. La concordancia por pares de centros presentó índices de kappa entre 0,3 a 0,7. Discusión: existe una alta variabilidad en la interpretación de los resultados citológicos entre los centros estudiados. Es necesario implementar procesos de entrenamiento y unificación de criterios de lecturas de la citología cervical en nuestro medio Objective: to assess the degree of reproducibility in the reading of cervical cytology smears among four specialized reading centers at Medellin, Colombia. Methodology: 181 cervical cytology smears from a study on the prevalence of cytological abnormalities in Pueblorrico, a town located in the southwestern region of the state of Antioquia in Colombia, were re-read by four specialized centers in Medellin. Each center was asked to conduct a blind routine reading of the smears to avoid disclosure of information between centers. The reproducibility was measured by percentage agreement and kappa. Results: of 181 smears

  1. Aquifer Vulnerability maps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela

    2017-04-01

    The aquifer vulnerability maps to contamination are used worldwide by environmental agencies and water-resource managers with the aim of preserving the water resources and of evaluating the most suitable areas where to locate new settlements. In the parametric methods, more used to assess the groundwater contamination vulnerability, e.g. the DRASTIC and the AVI methods, an important role is played by the protective capacity of cover layers to the introduction and transport of contaminants into the aquifer. Therefore, these methods point out the importance of the "Depth to water" parameter, which represents, where the aquifer is unconfined, the depth of the piezometric level and, where the aquifer is confined, the top of the aquifer. This parameter is rarely variable in confined aquifers and in deep unconfined aquifers, as karst aquifers, where the piezometric oscillations are low, compared with the depth of the water table. On the contrary, in shallow aquifers of flat areas, where in addition a large number of human activities are practiced and the contamination risk is high, the piezometric level varies suddenly with the rainfall, and it is very sensitive to drought periods and climatic changes. This affects noticeably the "Depth to water" parameter and consequently the vulnerability maps (e.g. 3 m of piezometric lowering can produce a change in the DRASTIC index from 10 to 7…). To validate this hypothesis, the DRASTC and AVI methods have been applied on a shallow aquifer located in a flat area in Campania (Italy,) considering data corresponding to an average rainfall period and to a drought period.

  2. Mechanical model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Haijun; ZHANG; Mei; ZHANG; Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque is the main trigger of acute cardiovascular events, but the mechanism of plaque rupture is still unknown. We have constructed a model describing the motion of the fibrous cap of the plaque using the theory of elastic mechanics and studied the stability of the plaque theoretically. It has shown that plaque rupture is the result of a dynamic interplay between factors intrinsic to the plaque itself and extrinsic factors. We have proposed a new mechanism of plaque rupture, given a new explanation about the nonlinear dynamic progress of atherosclerosis and suggested a method to identify the vulnerable plaques to manage atherosclerosis.

  3. Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki.

  4. Comparação entre os métodos rápidos SimplateR TPC- CI e PetrifilmR AC e os métodos convencionais de contagem em placas para a enumeração de aeróbios mesófilos em sorvetes Comparasion of SimplateR test and Petrifilm with plate count agar method for detection and enumeration of bacteria in ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson de Souza Sant'ana; Caetano da Conceição; Denise Rosane Perdomo Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    A contagem de aeróbios mesófilos ou contagem padrão em placas em um produto alimentício reflete a qualidade da matéria-prima, bem como as condições de processamento, manuseio e estocagem. O método de contagem em placas tradicionais requer 48h de incubação para a posterior leitura dos resultados. Comparou-se dois métodos que parecem ser uma boa alternativa para a contagem padrão em placas: SimplateR TPC-CI e PetrifilmR AC. Também avaliou-se a capacidade inibitória do 2, 3, 5 cloreto de trifeni...

  5. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  6. Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Coastal Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, P. S.; Moritz, H. R.; White, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure can be highly vulnerable to changing climate, including increasing sea levels and altered frequency and intensity of coastal storms. Existing coastal infrastructure may be of a sufficient age that it is already experiencing noticeable impacts from global sea level rise, and require a variety of potential preparedness and resilience measures to adapt to changing climate. Methods to determine vulnerability to changing sea level and support planning of potential future adaptation measures are needed for application to projects having multiple purposes (e.g., navigation, coastal risk reduction). Here we describe a potential framework for assessing projects with several components typical of existing coastal infrastructure spanning a range of engineering disciplines (e.g., hydrology, geotechnical, structural, electrical, and mechanical). The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Climate Preparedness and Resilience Register (CPRR) framework is currently under development. It takes a tiered approach as described in earlier USACE guidance (Engineer Technical Letter 1100-2-1) using the three scenarios prescribed by Engineer Regulation ER 1100-2-8162. Level 1 is a qualitative assessment defining the major sea level change-related impacts and ranks them in order of soonest occurrence. Level 2 is a quantitative evaluation that analyzes current and future performance of individual project components, including electrical, mechanical and structural components and functions using the sea level change scenarios prescribed by ER 1100-2-8162. Level 3 proposes adaptation measures per ETL 1100-2-1 and evaluates changes in sea level change-related impacts.

  7. Contract gangs: race, gender and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Goodall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While violence directed at Indian students in Australian cities has been highlighted in the Indian and Australian press, far less attention has been paid to the violence directed at Indians in rural areas. This has most often involved Indians employed in contract labour in seasonal industries like fruit or vegetable picking. This article reviews various media accounts, both urban and rural, of violence directed at Indians from 2009 to 2012. It draws attention to the far longer history of labour exploitation which has taken place in rural and urban Australia in contract labour conditions and the particular invisibility of rural settings for such violence. Racial minorities, like Aboriginal and Chinese workers, and women in agriculture and domestic work, have seldom had adequate power to respond industrially or politically. This means that in the past, these groups been particularly vulnerable to such structural exploitation. The paper concludes by calling for greater attention not only to the particular vulnerability of Indians in rural settings but to the wider presence of racialised and gendered exploitation enabled by contract labour structures.

  8. [Neuroethics and Human Vulnerability in Philosophical Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to assess the potentials and limits of neuroethics. It argues that neuroscience and ethics should collaborate each other with mutual respect and preservation of their respective identities, scientific in the first case and philosophical in the second one ( neuroethics as cooperation). The text develops also a criticism in front of any attempt to replace the philosophical ethics by the neurosciences ( neuroethics as substitution). Consequently, the most appropriate ontological and anthropological foundations are explored to develop a cooperative neuroethics. These foundations refer to the Aristotelian hylomorphic conception of the substances. On such foundations it is possible to develop a collaborative neuroethics which includes two aspects: on the one hand, we have an ethics of neuroscience and, on the other one, a neuroscience of ethics. The first one shows us how to conduct neuroscience while preserving human dignity. The second one teaches us about the neurobiological basis of our moral agency. These bases enable our moral behavior without determining it. By studying them our vulnerability as moral agents emerges as evidence. This vulnerability, which is rooted in the very human nature, must be, as it is argued along the last pages of the text, recognized as well as mitigated.

  9. The assessment of radio vulnerability in agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Viana, Aline G.; Conti, Claudio C.; Rochedo, Elaine R.; Vivone, Ronaldo J. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: angelica@ird.gov.br; Bartoly, Flavia; Perez, Daniel V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos

    2005-07-01

    A soil specific sequential extraction protocol, associated to soil to plant transfer factors (TF) data is proposed in this work as a methodology able to detect vulnerability of agro-ecosystems to the contamination with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. The objective is to provide parameters for environmental assessment models and to optimize emergency response planning for the main Brazilian agro-ecosystems and to other Countries with similar soil conditions. Transfer factor values were determined for reference plants, cultivated in Ferralsol, Nitisol and Acrisol that constitute great part in the national agricultural soil. The preliminary results of geochemical partition for these radionuclides were coherent with soil to plant transfer factors (TF) data. And with some soil properties recognized by the specialized literature as related with mechanisms of sorption to Cs (e.g. exchangeable K, organic matter and iron oxides content) and Sr (e.g. exchangeable Ca). Nitisol, showed lower TF for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs compared with the other studied soil. In the Nitisol, it is possible that reduction in {sup 137}Cs transfer be also associated with fixation in the internal faces of 2:1 clay mineral type. The integration of experimental methods results obtained in the laboratory with results obtained in field experiments seems to confirm the vulnerability of some Brazilian soil to the radioactivity contamination. (author)0.

  10. Addressing the vulnerabilities of pass-thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Danko, Amanda S.

    2016-05-01

    As biometrics become increasingly pervasive, consumer electronics are reaping the benefits of improved authentication methods. Leveraging the physical characteristics of a user reduces the burden of setting and remembering complex passwords, while enabling stronger security. Multi-factor systems lend further credence to this model, increasing security via multiple passive data points. In recent years, brainwaves have been shown to be another feasible source for biometric authentication. Physically unique to an individual in certain circumstances, the signals can also be changed by the user at will, making them more robust than static physical characteristics. No paradigm is impervious however, and even well-established medical technologies have deficiencies. In this work, a system for biometric authentication via brainwaves is constructed with electroencephalography (EEG). The efficacy of EEG biometrics via existing consumer electronics is evaluated, and vulnerabilities of such a system are enumerated. Impersonation attacks are performed to expose the extent to which the system is vulnerable. Finally, a multimodal system combining EEG with additional factors is recommended and outlined.

  11. Vulnerabilities to misinformation in online pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2013-05-01

    Given the large percentage of Internet users who search for health information online, pharmaceutical companies have invested significantly in online marketing of their products. Although online pharmaceutical marketing can potentially benefit both physicians and patients, it can also harm these groups by misleading them. Indeed, some pharmaceutical companies have been guilty of undue influence, which has threatened public health and trust. We conducted a review of the available literature on online pharmaceutical marketing, undue influence and the psychology of decision-making, in order to identify factors that contribute to Internet users' vulnerability to online pharmaceutical misinformation. We find five converging factors: Internet dependence, excessive trust in the veracity of online information, unawareness of pharmaceutical company influence, social isolation and detail fixation. As the Internet continues to change, it is important that regulators keep in mind not only misinformation that surrounds new web technologies and their contents, but also the factors that make Internet users vulnerable to misinformation in the first place. Psychological components are a critical, although often neglected, risk factor for Internet users becoming misinformed upon exposure to online pharmaceutical marketing. Awareness of these psychological factors may help Internet users attentively and safely navigate an evolving web terrain.

  12. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  13. Regionalisation of global insights into dryland vulnerability: Better reflecting smallholders' vulnerability in Northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Global analyses of vulnerability reveal generic insights into the relation between socio-ecological systems and the stress impacting upon them including climate and market variability. They thus provide a valuable basis for better understanding and comparing the evolution of socio-ecological systems

  14. Regionalisation of global insights into dryland vulnerability: Better reflecting smallholders' vulnerability in Northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Global analyses of vulnerability reveal generic insights into the relation between socio-ecological systems and the stress impacting upon them including climate and market variability. They thus provide a valuable basis for better understanding and comparing the evolution of socio-ecological systems

  15. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  16. Captura de lipossomas pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos após administração oral Uptake of liposomes by Peyer´s patches following per os administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Andrade Ramaldes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi marcar uma proteína utilizada como modelo, a soro albumina bovina (SAB, com 99mTecnécio (99mTc, encapsular a rroteína marcada (99mTc-SAB em lipossomas e empregar este marcador para quantificar a 99m c-SAB capturada pelas placas de Peyer de camundongos Balb/c após administração oral. A 99mTc-SAB (taxa de marcação=94,9±2,4%; n=25 foi encapsulada em lipossomas multilamelar (MLV, unilamelar de pequeno tamanho (SUV ou unilamelar de grande tamanho (LUV compostos de fosfatidilcolina de soja (PC; PC e colesterol (CH (razão molar 8/2; PC, CH e fosfatidilglicerol (PG (razão molar 7/2/1 ou distearoilfosfatidilcolina (DSPC, CH e PG (razão molar 7/2/1. Utilizando eletroforese em gel de agarose e imunoeletroforese contra uma imunoglobulina anti-SAB específica, foi verificado que a SAB não sofreu degradação após ter sido marcada com 99mTc e encapsulada em lipossomas. 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em SUV compostos por PC/CH/PG ou DSPC/CH/ PG foi preferencialmente capturada pelas placas de Peyer. A captura de 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em LUV foi reduzida quando comparada com aquela observada para SUV com a mesma composição em lipídios. 99mTc-SAB encapsulada em MLV compostos por PC/CH/PG ou DSPC/CH/PG e em SUV compostos de PC ou PC/CH não foi capturada pelas placas de Peyer. Os resultados indicam que SUV pode ser um carreador para antígenos instáveis no trato gastrintestinal, tornando-os potencialmente capazes de induzir a resposta imunológica das mucosas.The aim of this study was to employ a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (SAB, radiolabelled with 99mTechnetium (99mTc (99mTc-SAB and encapsulated into liposomes, in order to determine the amount de 99mTc-SAB taken up by Peyer´s patches following per os administration in mice Balb/c. The 99mTc-SAB, labelling yield of 94.9±2.4 % (n=25, was encapsulated within multilamellar large vesicles (MLV, small unilamellar vesicles (SUV or large unilamellar vesicles (LUV

  17. Avaliação da técnica de epifisiodese temporária com o uso das placas de Sherman: resultados preliminares Evaluation of the temporary epiphysiodesis procedure using the sherman plate: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados preliminares da técnica de epifisiodese temporária utilizando-se as placas de Sherman no tratamento de distúrbios e deformidades dos membros inferiores. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, 27 pacientes submetidos à epifisiodese temporária do fêmur distal ou tíbia proximal com as placas de Sherman, em um total de 28 procedimentos. A idade média no momento da cirurgia foi de 11,2 anos (3-15 anos. Os implantes de dois furos eram confeccionados em liga de aço e apresentavam um orifício central para ser utilizado como guia. A fixação foi feita com dois parafusos canulados de 3,5mm. As indicações para o tratamento foram os desvios angulares dos membros inferiores em valgo (n = 10, varo (n = 2 e mistos (n = 1; discrepância do comprimento dos membros (n = 9; e contratura em flexo do joelho (n = 5. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 11,78 meses (±4,07. Observamos apenas um evento adverso (migração do implante em um paciente submetido à epifisiodese anterior do fêmur distal para correção de flexo de joelho. Não houve nenhum caso de quebra do material ou fechamento fisário prematuro. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de epifisiodese temporária com o uso das placas de Sherman mostrou ser de fácil execução e esteve envolvida com um baixo índice de complicações e custo inferior aos implantes similares em titânio. Por ser um procedimento de baixa morbidade, pode ser indicado em uma ampla faixa etária e para uma grande variedade de distúrbios do esqueleto imaturo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preliminary results of a technique using temporary epiphysiodesis plates using a Sherman plate in the treatment of disorders and deformities of the lower limbs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients who underwent temporary epiphysiodesis of the distal femur or proximal tibia with Sherman plates, comprising 28 procedures. The mean age at surgery was 11.2 years (3-15 years. The two

  18. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Godoy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival y bajo este (subgingival tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por lo tanto, al remover los microorganismos que se ubican supragingivalmente sería posible encontrar cambios en el medio subgingival al no existir un intercambio entre los ambientes aerobios (supragingival y anaerobios (subgingival una vez desorganizada la placa bacteriana supragingival. Para demostrar esta relación se seleccionaron 7 individuos con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica moderada y severa a los cuales se les realizó un destartraje supragingival de boca completa para lograr desorganizar la placa bacteriana supragingival. A su vez se tomaron muestras microbiológicas de los sacos periodontales más profundos de cada cuadrante de estos individuos, siendo la primera muestra tomada previo al destartraje supragingival considerada como muestra basal (día 0, luego se tomaron a las 24 horas, a los 7 y 21 días de removida la placa bacteriana supragingival. De los resultados del presente estudio pudimos concluir que al desorganizar el biofilm supragingival se observa una disminución en la cantidad total de microorganismos subgingivales, así como también disminuye de manera considerable la proporción de Porphyoromona gingivalis presente en el medio subgingival. Lo cual permitiría establecer la existencia de una relación directa y dependiente entre los microorganismos que habitan el medio supragingival y subgingival.One of the fields of interest in the study of the microbiology periodontal for many investigators has been to identify if it is

  19. Tratamento das fraturas femorais subtrocantéricas com placas de bloqueio lateral da parte proximal do fêmur The treatment of femoral subtrochanteric fractures with the proximal lateral femur locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Jun Hu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o desfecho de fraturas subtrocantéricas de quadril tratadas com placa de bloqueio lateral da parte proximal do fêmur. MÉTODO: Revisamos retrospectivamente os resultados clínicos de 48 casos de fraturas subtrocantéricas tratadas com placas de bloqueio lateral da parte proximal do fêmur de janeiro de 2008 a maio de 2010. Registrou-se o progresso da consolidação da fratura, assim como a ocorrência de complicações. A função da articulação do quadril foi avaliada pelo índice social de Harris e o escore de mobilidade de Parker-Palmer, um ano após a cirurgia. RESULTADO: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram acompanhados até a união da fratura ou a revisão da cirurgia. Entre os 45 pacientes, 43 atingiram a união da fratura sem outra intervenção. Trinta e oito fraturas consolidaram sem perda da posição no acompanhamento de um ano. Não houve casos de perfuração da cabeça do fêmur pelo parafuso. O escore médio do índice social de Harris foi 86,5 ± 9,8 (73 ~95. A média do escore de mobilidade de Parker e Palmer foi 7,4 ± 2,1 (3~ 9. CONCLUSÃO: A placa de bloqueio lateral da parte proximal do fêmur é o tipo de fixação interna estável e efetiva para tratar as fraturas subtrocantéricas de quadril e tem a vantagem de fixação estável, em especial em fratura da parede lateral do fêmur. Nível de evidência IV, Série de Casos.OBJECTIVE: To study the outcome of subtrochanteric hip fractures treated by using a proximal lateral femur locking plate. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical results of 48 cases of femoral subtrochanteric fractures treated with proximal lateral femur locking plates from Jan 2008 to May 2010. The progress of fracture healing, as well as the occurrence of complications, was recorded. The function of the hip joint was evaluated by Harris social index and the Parker and Palmer mobility score at 1 year after the operation. RESULT: 45 patients were followed up until fracture

  20. Mecânica e microbiologia de placas produzidas a partir de osso cortical bovino, conservadas em diferentes meios Mechanic and microbiology of plates produced from bovine cortical bone, conserved in several means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Vilela de Melo Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a resistência mecânica de placas ósseas produzidas a partir de osso cortical bovino, conservadas em diferentes meios, e a eficiência desses meios em inibir o crescimento de microrganismos. Foram utilizadas 168 placas confeccionadas a partir de tíbia bovina e conservadas em glicerina a 98%, solução salina a 150%, solução de açúcar a 300%, líquido de Dakin, congeladas em N2L a -196°C, ou esterilizadas em óxido de etileno. Após reidratação em solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% por seis horas, elas foram submetidas a ensaios mecânicos de tração, compressão, flexão e torção. Foi realizada avaliação microbiológica das placas anterior e imediatamente após a reidratação, com ou sem adição de enrofloxacina a 0,5%. Não se observou diferença significativa (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical strength of bone plates yielded from bovine cortical bone, conserved in different solutions, and the efficiency of these solutions in the inhibition of microorganism's growth. A hundred and sixty eight plates yielded from bovine tibiae were conserved in 98% glycerin, 150% saline solution, 300% sugar solution, Dakin solution, frozen in N2L at - 196°C, or sterilized in ethylene oxide gas. After rehydration in NaCl 0.9% solution for six hours, plates were subjected to tensile, compression, bending and twisting testing. The microbiological evaluation of bone plates was s carried out before and immediately after rehydration, with or without enrofloxacin 0.5% addition. There was no significant difference (P<0.01% on resistance to the rupture point in plates conserved in different solutions, frozen-thawed or sterilized. Microorganisms were isolated from plates conserved in satured salt solution, sugar satured solution, Dakin solution or frozen in N2L, before and after rehydraion However, after the use of NaCl 0.9% solution added of enrofloxacin 0.5%, microorganisms were not

  1. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  2. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  3. Relación placa bacteriana y caries en un grupo de niños escolarizados entre 5 y 14 años de la población de la Boquilla - Cartagena en el año 20041

    OpenAIRE

    Lizelia Alfaro Zolá; Claudia Nieto Sánchez; Farith González Martínez

    2013-01-01

    ResumenObjetivo: Describir la ocurrencia de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentales y relacionarla con el tipo de lesión de caries que se presenta en niños escolares de 5 a 14 años de la Boquilla - Cartagena. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal, en el cual se seleccionó una muestra de 89 niños escolares de la población de la Boquilla a través de un muestreo aleatorio sistemático, a quienes se les evaluó el estado de higiene oral mediante el índice de placa co...

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii) e seus constituintes, e avaliação do bioproduto obtido na inibição de bactérias da placa dental de cães

    OpenAIRE

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    A doença periodontal acomete cerca de 85% dos cães com mais de quatro anos de idade e é causada pelo acúmulo de placa bacteriana na superfície dos dentes e pela reação do organismo a esta. O óleo de copaíba apresentou, anteriormente, resultados positivos na inibição da placa dental em cães, entretanto faltam estudos que identifiquem esta atividade sobre as bactérias oriundas de cães in vitro e que estabeleçam as substâncias ativas do óleo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a atividade...

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: a prospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae e placa aterosclerótica sintomática de carótida: um estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens J. Gagliardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible link between symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque and Chlamydia pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Recently, several studies have demonstrated that there may be a possible link between Chlamydia pneumonia and carotid atherosclerosis, however the real role of Chlamydia pneumoniae is not completely understood. METHOD: This is a prospective study with a total of 52 patients analyzed. All patients had been submitted to endarterectomy, and had suffered thrombotic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack up to 60 days prior to the surgery. Every patient presented carotid stenosis over 70%. The plaque was removed during the surgery and the laboratory exams were immediately done. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The PCR analyses of all 52 patients were negative for Chlamydia pneumoniae. CONCLUSION: These initial results do not show a relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível relação entre placa sintomática de carótidas e Chlamydia pneumoniae. INTRODUÇÃO: Vários estudos têm demonstrado uma possível relação entre Chlamydia pneumonia e aterosclerose carotídea, entretanto o papel definitivo da bactéria não é totalmente conhecido. Há muita especulação: poderia iniciar o processo aterosclerótico, agravá-lo ou desestabilizá-lo. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com um total de 52 pacientes, endarterectomizados e previamente acometidos de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico ou crise isquêmica transitória, em até 60 dias antes da cirurgia. Todos os pacientes apresentavam estenose carotídea superior a 70%. Os testes laboratoriais foram realizados imediatamente após a endarterectomia. A Chlamydia pneumoniae foi pesquisada através de exame de DNA com reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR. RESULTADOS: O PCR dos 52 pacientes foram negativos para Chlamydia

  6. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  7. Mental vulnerability as a predictor of early mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Jørgensen, Torben; Birket-Smith, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    pressure, lipid levels), and lifestyle factors. We determined vital status of the study sample through linkage to the Civil Registration System until 2001 and to the Cause of Death Registry until 1998. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 years for analysis of total mortality and 13.6 years for analysis...... of mortality as the result of natural causes. The association between mental vulnerability and survival was examined using Kaplan-Meir plots and Cox proportional-hazard models adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: With respect to mental vulnerability, 79% of the sample was classified...... as not vulnerable, 13% as moderately vulnerable, and 8% as highly vulnerable. Compared with the nonvulnerable group, highly vulnerable persons showed increased total mortality (hazard ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval = 1.3-1.9) and increased mortality from natural causes (1.6; 1.2-2.0). The inclusion...

  8. Analysis of Zero-Day Vulnerabilities in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Popa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The zero-day vulnerability is a security lack of the computer system that is unknown to software vendor. This kind of vulnerability permits building attack strategies for gaining the access to the resources and data of a computer system. The main issue of the topic is how a computer system can be protected by zero-day vulnerabilities using the actual security procedures and tools for identifying the potential attacks that exploit the vulnerabilities unknown to computer users and software providers. The paper highlights the main features of such kind of vulnerabilities, some exploitation methods and examples of them for Java zero-day vulnerabilities and how protection strategies can be built on intelligence extracted from attack anatomy analysis.

  9. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  10. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  11. Quantifying social vulnerability for flood disasters of insurance company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Social vulnerability assessments are largely ignored when compared with biophysical vulnerability assessments. This is mainly due to the fact that there are more difficulties in quantifying them. Aiming at several pitfalls still existing in the Hoovering approach which is widely accepted, a suitable modified model is provided. In this modified model, the integrated vulnerability is made an analogy to the elasticity coefficient of a spring, and an objective evaluation criterion is established. With the evalu...

  12. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Mazzorana; S. Simoni; Scherer, C.; B. Gems; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenar...

  13. A physical approach on flood risk vulnerability of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Mazzorana; S. Simoni; Scherer, C.; B. Gems; Fuchs, S.; Keiler, Margreth

    2014-01-01

    The design of efficient hydrological risk mitigation strategies and their subsequent implementation relies on a careful vulnerability analysis of the elements exposed. Recently, extensive research efforts were undertaken to develop and refine empirical relationships linking the structural vulnerability of buildings to the impact forces of the hazard processes. These empirical vulnerability functions allow estimating the expected direct losses as a result of the hazard scenario based on spatia...

  14. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may ...

  15. Sense in Sensitivity: Assessing Species Vulnerability to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdougall, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the impact of future climate change upon species vulnerability. Reports of shifts in species distributions are already numerous, but the pattern of change is not fully understood. This thesis looks to predict which species are likely to be most at risk under climate change and why? This thesis takes the equation; Vulnerability= Sensitivity + Exposure to better discover which species are most vulnerable to climate change. Additionally, this research explores how mitiga...

  16. Characterization of gold and nickel coating on AISI 304 stainless steel for use in the fabrication of current collector plates for fuel cells; Caracterizacion de recubrimientos de oro y niquel realizados sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304 para su empleo en la fabricacion de placas colectoras de corriente para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Aguilar Gama, M. Tulio [UNAM. Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises; Albarran, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Olvera, J. Carlos; Orozco, German [CIDETEQ, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Among the different components that compose fuel cell technology (MEA, bipolar plates, seals, etc.) current collector plates play an important role in the good performance of fuel cells, since they collect all of the current generated and distribute it to the external circuit. Therefore, the most important properties that the current collector plates should have are excellent conductivity and good resistance to the corrosive conditions present in the fuel cell. This document presents results obtained during the nickel and gold electrodeposition process on AISI 304 stainless steel and the morphology and thickness of each coating, their adhesion, hardness and conductivity values. Finally, results obtained during some of the electrochemical tests performed on the coatings are shown. [Spanish] De los diferentes componentes que integran la tecnologia de celdas de combustible (MEA's, placas bipolares, sellos, etc.), las placas colectoras de corriente tienen un importante rol en el buen desempeno de la celdas de combustibles, ya que en estas placas se colecta toda la corriente generada y se distribuye al circuito externo. Debido a esto, las propiedades mas importantes que deben tener las placas colectaras de corriente son: excelente conductividad y buena resistencia a las condiciones corrosivas presentes en la celda de combustible. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de electrodeposicion de niquel y oro sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304, asi como la morfologia y el espesor de cada recubrimiento, sus valores de adherencia, dureza y conductividad. Finalmente se muestran tambien los resultados obtenidos de algunas pruebas electroquimicas a los que fueron sometidos los recubrimientos.

  17. Studies on prevalence of Strongyloides infection in Holambra and Maceió, Brazil, by the agar plate faecal culture method Estudos sobre a prevalência da infecção por Strongyloides em Holambra e em Maceió, Brasil, pelo método de cultura de fezes em placa de ágar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in three areas of Brazil was surveyed by a recently developed faecal culture method (an agar plate culture. The Strongyloides infection was confirmed in 11.3% of 432 subjects examined. The diagnostic efficacy of the agar plate culture was as high as 93.9% compared to only 28.5% and 26.5% by the Harada-Mori filter paper culture and faecal concentration methods, when faecal samples were examined simultaneously by these three methods. Among the 49 positive samples, about 60% were confirmed to be positive only by the agar plate culture. These results indicate that the agar plate culture is a sensitive new tool for the correct diagnosis of chronic Strongyloides infection.Foi feito levantamento sobre a prevalência da infecção por Strongyloides stercoralis em três áreas do Brasil, através do desenvolvimento de método de cultura de fezes (cultura em placa de ágar. A infecção por Strongyloides foi confirmada em 11,3% de 432 pacientes examinados. A eficácia do diagnóstico pela cultura em placa de ágar foi de 93,9% comparado com apenas 28,5% e 26,5% pelo método de Harada-Mori de cultura em papel de filtro e método de concentração de fezes, quando amostras de fezes foram examinadas simultaneamente por estes três métodos. Entre as 49 amostras positivas, aproximadamente 60% foram confirmadas como positivas somente pela cultura em placa de ágar. Estes resultados indicam que a cultura em placa de ágar é um novo método sensível para o diagnóstico correto da infecção crônica pelo Strongyloides.

  18. Mapping disaster vulnerability in India using analytical hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheema Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are the coincidences between hazardous events, elements at risk, and conditions of vulnerability. Vulnerability integrates social and environmental systems to reduce the intensity and frequency of these risks. By categorizing regions according to their level of vulnerability, one can examine and assess the possible impacts of developmental and environmental degradation processes. This study is an attempt to map the sub-national areas (districts in India that are vulnerable to natural and climate-induced disasters. The assessment is considered under the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change definition of vulnerability. Using analytical hierarchy process as a multi-criteria decision-mapping method, vulnerability is measured in terms of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Based on this mapping assessment, districts in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal are the most vulnerable regions; while districts in the state of Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka are among the least vulnerable regions. The results of this study can serve as the basis for targeting prioritization efforts, emergency response measures, and policy interventions at district level for mitigating disaster vulnerability in the country.

  19. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  20. Human Rights and Vulnerability. Examples of Sexism and Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª DEL CARMEN BARRANCO AVILÉS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A human rights based approach applied to the idea of ‘vulnerable group’ connects vulnerability and structural discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability provides some elements that allow to state that we are facing a new paradigm in the International Human Rights Law. One of the keys for the understanding of this new framework is the assumption of the disadvantage related to vulnerability as, at least in a part, socially built and ideologically justified. Sexism and ageism are examples of how ideologies reinforce vulnerability of women, children and aged persons transforming them in groups which members are in risk of discrimination.

  1. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  2. Vulnerable Subjects: Why Does Informed Consent Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michele

    2016-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal Law, Medicine & Ethics takes up the concern of informed consent, particularly in times of controversy. The dominant moral dilemmas that frame traditional bioethical concerns address medical experimentation on vulnerable subjects; physicians assisting their patients in suicide or euthanasia; scarce resource allocation and medical futility; human trials to develop drugs; organ and tissue donation; cloning; xenotransplantation; abortion; human enhancement; mandatory vaccination; and much more. The term "bioethics" provides a lens, language, and guideposts to the study of medical ethics. It is worth noting, however, that medical experimentation is neither new nor exclusive to one country. Authors in this issue address thorny subjects that span borders and patients: from matters dealing with children and vaccination to the language and perception of consent.

  3. Method and tool for network vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Phillips, Cynthia A.

    2006-03-14

    A computer system analysis tool and method that will allow for qualitative and quantitative assessment of security attributes and vulnerabilities in systems including computer networks. The invention is based on generation of attack graphs wherein each node represents a possible attack state and each edge represents a change in state caused by a single action taken by an attacker or unwitting assistant. Edges are weighted using metrics such as attacker effort, likelihood of attack success, or time to succeed. Generation of an attack graph is accomplished by matching information about attack requirements (specified in "attack templates") to information about computer system configuration (contained in a configuration file that can be updated to reflect system changes occurring during the course of an attack) and assumed attacker capabilities (reflected in "attacker profiles"). High risk attack paths, which correspond to those considered suited to application of attack countermeasures given limited resources for applying countermeasures, are identified by finding "epsilon optimal paths."

  4. Protection of vulnerable adults: an interdisciplinary workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Bantry-White, Eleanor; Glavin, Pauline

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on the development, delivery, content and student evaluation of a comprehensive elder abuse and self-neglect workshop for public health nursing and social work students.The workshop provided an interdisciplinary shared learning experience for the students to prepare them for their critical role in safeguarding vulnerable adults. The aim of the workshop was to increase knowledge, awareness and understanding of roles and responsibilities and critical practice problems in the prevention and management of elder abuse and self-neglect. The shared learning approach provided clarity on roles and responsibility, valuing and respecting the contribution of each team member. The importance of building communication and trust with team members and clients was seen as critical. Through case studies and group discussion, assessment and practice skills were developed and awareness heightened on the complexity of the critical practice problems and ethical issues.

  5. Scheduler Vulnerabilities and Attacks in Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Fangfei; Desnoyers, Peter; Sundaram, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In hardware virtualization a hypervisor provides multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single physical system, each executing a separate operating system instance. The hypervisor schedules execution of these VMs much as the scheduler in an operating system does, balancing factors such as fairness and I/O performance. As in an operating system, the scheduler may be vulnerable to malicious behavior on the part of users seeking to deny service to others or maximize their own resource usage. Recently, publically available cloud computing services such as Amazon EC2 have used virtualization to provide customers with virtual machines running on the provider's hardware, typically charging by wall clock time rather than resources consumed. Under this business model, manipulation of the scheduler may allow theft of service at the expense of other customers, rather than merely reallocating resources within the same administrative domain. We describe a flaw in the Xen scheduler allowing virtual machines to consume almost...

  6. Hierarchical model of vulnerabilities for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peter J; Mehta, Paras D

    2007-01-01

    Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model of anxiety and depression has had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the dispositional variables underlying emotional disorders. More recently, calls have been made to examine not simply the influence of negative affectivity (NA) but also mediating factors that might better explain how NA influences anxious and depressive syndromes (e.g. Taylor, 1998; Watson, 2005). Extending preliminary projects, this study evaluated two hierarchical models of NA, mediating factors of anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty, and specific emotional manifestations. Data provided a very good fit to a model elaborated from preliminary studies, lending further support to hierarchical models of emotional vulnerabilities. Implications for classification and diagnosis are discussed.

  7. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions.

  8. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha

    2013-01-01

    can be obtained. We provide a link between the objective probability measure and the range of potential risk-neutral measures, which has an intuitive economic meaning. We also provide tight pricing bounds for European calls and show how to extend the call formula to pricing other financial products......We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...... a new restriction in the arbitrage free model by setting upper bounds on the Sharpe ratios (SRs) of the assets. The potential prices that are eliminated represent unreasonably good deals. The constraint on the SR translates into a constraint on the stochastic discount factor. Thus, tight pricing bounds...

  9. Avaliação térmica de placas de argamassa de cimento e casca de arroz aquecidas por resistência elétrica Thermal evaluation of rice husk and cement mortar boards warmed by electric resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se uma proposta alternativa para o sistema de aquecimento de piso por resistência elétrica em granjas de aves e suínos. Após o dimensionamento do sistema, foram confeccionadas placas com argamassa de cimento, areia e casca de arroz, com diferentes traços, a fim de avaliar esse material alternativo de construção, sendo construído um controlador eletrônico de temperatura para dar mais autonomia ao sistema de aquecimento. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente no controle da temperatura da placa. Dentre os traços analisados, aquele com a placa mista de argamassa convencional e casca de arroz demonstrou melhor desempenho.An alternative proposal for floor heating system by means of electric resistance for both chick and piggy installation is presented in this work. Several formulations of rice husk and cement mortar boards were used. An electronic device controlled all board temperature. This system presented a good efficiency design. The conventional cement mortar mixed with rice husk showed a better performance.

  10. [Clinical trials: vulnerability and ethical relativism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Research in human beings is an important chapter of medical ethics. In recent years, investigation has been taken over by profit driven corporations that must guarantee the medical and commercial application of results. This new model of investigation has generated conflicts of interest in doctor-patient, researcher-subject relationship. The inevitable debate and media reaction has led. These trials of controversial design to regions of the globe where the vulnerability of the populations continues to allow their undertaking. This article includes a historical perspective on experimentation in human beings and the conditions that led to its regulation: the Nuremberg CODE, followed by the Helsinky Declaration in its different versions, and the Belmont Report, that defend the subject according to the ethic of principles used in western medicine. There is then a review of the attempts to change international regulation to reintroduce clinical trials with placebo--which since 1996 is only permitted where there are no therapeutic or diagnostic methods--on populations that would otherwise have no access to treatment. This then leads on to the issue of double standards in medical investigation defended by many investigators and some official entities. The article concludes that it may be prudent to allow local ethical commissions to approve deviation from the established norm if such is necessary to resolve urgent questions of health in the country, but it is unacceptable that any such emergency is used as a reason to reduce the ethical prerequisites, in clinical trials. It also concludes that true urgency is in making available to all who need it the effective products already in existence. Furthermore, that the acceptance of ethical relativism can result in the exploitation of vulnerable third world populations for research programmes that cannot be undertaken in their sponsoring countries due to the ethical restrictions in place.

  11. Vulnerability of Ukrainian Forests to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Shvidenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is a country of the Mid-Latitude ecotone—a transition zone between forest zone and forestless dry lands. Availability of water defines distribution of the country’s forests and decreases their productivity towards the south. Climate change generates a particular threat for Ukrainian forests and stability of agroforestry landscapes. This paper considers the impacts of expected climate change on vulnerability of Ukrainian forests using ensembles of global and regional climatic models (RCM based on Scenarios B1, A2, A1B of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, and a “dry and warm” scenario A1B+T−P (increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation. The spatially explicit assessment was provided by RCM for the WMO standard period (1961–1990, “recent” (1991–2010 and three future periods: 2011–2030, 2031–2050 and 2081–2100. Forest-climate model by Vorobjov and model of amplitude of flora’s tolerance to climate change by Didukh, as well as a number of specialized climatic indicators, were used in the assessment. Different approaches lead to rather consistent conclusions. Water stress is the major limitation factor of distribution and resilience of flatland Ukrainian forests. Within Scenario A1B, the area with unsuitable growth conditions for major forest forming species will substantially increase by end of the century occupying major part of Ukraine. Scenario A1B+T−P projects even a more dramatic decline of the country’s forests. It is expected that the boundary of conditions that are favorable for forests will shift to north and northwest, and forests of the xeric belt will be the most vulnerable. Consistent policies of adaptation and mitigation might reduce climate-induced risks for Ukrainian forests.

  12. Global trends and vulnerabilities of mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Castaneda, E.; Roy Chowdhury, R.

    2015-12-01

    Mangrove forests are located along Earth's coastlines and estuaries within tropical and subtropical latitudes. They provide numerous services functioning as an extraordinary carbon sequestration system and serving as habitat and nursery for fish, crustaceans and amphibians. To coastal populations, they provide livelihood, food, lumber and act as an effective protection against tsunamis, storm surges and hurricanes. Their vulnerability to sea level rise is strongly related to their extraordinary ability to accumulate soils, which is in part related to their productivity and therefore canopy structure. As a first step to understand their vulnerability, we seek to understand mangrove dependencies on environmental and geophysical setting. To achieve this, we mapped mangrove canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) at the Global scale. To identify mangrove forests, existing maps derived from a collection of Landsat data around the 2000 era were used. Using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data collected in February of 2000, we produced a Global map of mangrove canopy height. The estimated heights were validated with the ICESat/Geoscience Altimeter System (GLAS) and in situ field data. Most importantly, field data were also used to derive relationships between canopy height and AGB. While the geographical coverage of in situ data is limited, ICESat/GLAS data provided extensive geographical coverage with independent estimates of maximum canopy height. These estimates were used to calibrate SRTM-estimates of height at the Global scale. We found the difference between GLAS RH100 and SRTM resulted from several sources of uncertainty that are difficult to isolate. These include natural variations of canopy structure with time, system errors from GLAS and SRTM, geo-location errors and discrepancies in spatial resolution. The Global canopy height map was trnasormed into AGB using the field-derived allometry. Depending on the scale of analysis and geographical

  13. Assessing Hydro-Ecological Vulnerability from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Ines, A.

    2015-12-01

    The main driver of economic growth in East Africa is agriculture. However, climate change and the resulting intensification of the hydrologic cycle will increase water limitation in this already drought-burdened region, and the challenge of ensuring food security is bound to become critical. Efforts must, therefore, be made to develop appropriate adaptation strategies for agriculture in such regions. Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change can advance management and decision support systems that would improve food security and economic development. The current study uses a plethora of multi-year remote sensing earth observations to study the hydro-ecological vulnerability of the various ecosystems in the water-stressed East African region to droughts. More specifically, we assess the hydrologic sensitivity and resilience of soil moisture and vegetation water content (derived from NRL's WindSat radiometer), during dry spells, for different dry-period durations, and for various vegetation categories. Spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of the response of the two aforementioned variables to sustained precipitation deficits (derived from TRMM 3B42 V7), as well as their persistence in maintaining their stability are identified. We also assess changes, in space and time, in the normalized radar surface-backscattering cross-sections from NASA's QuikSCAT Scatterometer, to obtain information on the vegetation regimes, as well as changes in vegetation phenometrics using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from MODIS. Quantifying the response and characterizing the resilience of the two aforementioned major hydrological attributes using various remote sensing techniques that complement each other, can provide critical insight into the region's vulnerability and adaptive capacity with respect to rainfall variability.

  14. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  15. An Integrated Approach for Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, H. S.; Yücemen, M. S.; Kalaycioglu, H. S.

    2009-04-01

    The earthquake risk for an urban area has increased over the years due to the increasing complexities in urban environments. The main reasons are the location of major cities in hazard prone areas, growth in urbanization and population and rising wealth measures. In recent years physical examples of these factors are observed through the growing costs of major disasters in urban areas which have stimulated a demand for in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to manage the large scale damaging effects of earthquakes. Understanding and formulation of urban earthquake risk requires consideration of a wide range of risk aspects, which can be handled by developing an integrated approach. In such an integrated approach, an interdisciplinary view should be incorporated into the risk assessment. Risk assessment for an urban area requires prediction of vulnerabilities related to elements at risk in the urban area and integration of individual vulnerability assessments. However, due to complex nature of an urban environment, estimating vulnerabilities and integrating them necessities development of integrated approaches in which vulnerabilities of social, economical, structural (building stock and infrastructure), cultural and historical heritage are estimated for a given urban area over a given time period. In this study an integrated urban earthquake vulnerability assessment framework, which considers vulnerability of urban environment in a holistic manner and performs the vulnerability assessment for the smallest administrative unit, namely at neighborhood scale, is proposed. The main motivation behind this approach is the inability to implement existing vulnerability assessment methodologies for countries like Turkey, where the required data are usually missing or inadequate and decision makers seek for prioritization of their limited resources in risk reduction in the administrative districts from which they are responsible. The methodology integrates socio

  16. Placas máculonoduliformes hiperpigmentadas pruriginosas en niño de dos años de edad Nodular, brownish macules and pruriginous patches in a two years old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AD Pérez-Elizondo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se atiende a paciente masculino de dos años de edad, con numerosas placas máculonoduliformes discretamente sobreelevadas, de tinte marronáceo bien definidas, ovaladas e irregulares, muy pruriginosas, localizadas en tronco involucrando especialmente dorso. Tiempo de evolución: desde los seis meses de vida. Se refieren molestas agudizaciones y remisiones parciales, sin desaparición lesional completa a intervalos variables. Se observan episodios ampollosos y de urticación ocasionales, durante la exposición solar y baño corporal con agua caliente. La presentación clínica característica correlacionada con los hallazgos histopatológicos, confirma el diagnóstico de urticaria pigmentosa.A 2-year old male patient with multiple nodular and brownish itchy macules and patches, located at the back of the trunk was received medical attention at a children´s hospital. Frequent flares and incomplete remissions with blister and weal outbreaks after sun exposure and hot water baths were the rule. The distinctive cutaneous lesions as well as histopathological findings confirm urticaria pigmentosa.

  17. Placa fibrosa de la frente o del cuero cabelludo: Un marcador cutáneo temprano del complejo de la esclerosis tuberosa Forehead or scalp fibrous plaque: An earley cutaneous marker in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Saponaro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El complejo de la Esclerosis tuberosa es una afección hereditaria, que se transmite en forma autosómica dominante. Se caracteriza por convulsiones, retraso mental y manifestaciones en diversos órganos. Los signos cutáneos suelen ser determinantes para el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Entre éstos se destaca la placa fibrosa, la que se localiza más frecuentemente en la frente, pero puede observarse en cualquier área del cuero cabelludo. Cuando está presente, suele ser el signo cutáneo inicial de la enfermedad, como ocurrió en nuestro paciente, subdiagnosticado. Su importancia radica entonces en reconocerlo como un marcador precoz y patognomónico de la enfermedad.The complex of tuberous sclerosis is an hereditary disease that passes in the autosomal dominant way. It is characterized by convulsions, mental retardation and manifestations in different organs. The cutaneous signs are used to be determinant for the diagnosis of the illness. Among these, it is important the fibrous plaque, which is usually localized in the forehead, but it can also be observed in any area of the scalp.When it is presented, it is used to be the first cutaneous sign of the illness, and like it happened in our patient, underdiagnosed. So, the importance of the fibrous plaque lies in recognizing it as an early cutaneous marker and pathognomonic of the disease.

  18. Uso de placas de ácido poli-L-láctico en reconstrucción de pared torácica Use of poly-L-lactic plates in chest wall reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vilà Poyatos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de la pared torácica exige un amplio conocimiento de las técnicas reconstructivas y un buen plan operatorio. Por una parte es necesario mantener la estabilidad de la caja torácica y por otro proporcionar una buena base para la cobertura dérmica o musculocutánea que confiera buenos resultados funcionales y plásticos. En este trabajo describimos 2 casos clínicos en los que la reconstrucción de la pared torácica anterior se realizó con placas de ácido poli-L-láctico sobre las que se colocaron sendos colgajos musculocutáneos.Chest wall reconstruction requires an extensive knowledge of reconstructive techniques and a good surgical plan. On one hand, it is necessary to maintain stability of the rib cage and, on the other, provide a good foundation for dermal coverage or musculocutaneous flaps which confers good functional and plastic results. In this article we describe 2 cases in which anterior chest wall reconstruction was performed with plates of poly-L-lactic acid, on which were placed the musculocutaneous flaps.

  19. Investigación de la unión soldada entre el vástago y las placas de las cuchillas calzadas // Investigation of the welded joint between plates and tipped single-point lathe tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacas Cabrera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido al incremento de los niveles de producción y calidad, específicamente en la línea defabricación de cuchillas calzadas para torno en el centro fabril “Miguel Saavedra” HERRAMIX.En este caso se realizó un análisis para la sustitución de las pastillas de soldar, fabricadas por CIME por nuevastrimetálicas.En el mismo se determinaron los tiempos de calentamiento necesarios para realizar la soldadura, en las máquinas deinducción (TBCHE, así como los valores de resistencia al cizallamiento de los calzos una vez soldados.Palabras claves: Cuchillas de punta, calzos metalo-ceramicos, placas trimetálicas_____________________________________________________________________Abstract:The present work is directed to increase the production and quality levels of tipped single-point lathe tools at “MiguelSaavedra” plant HERRAMIX.This work deals with a study about the substitution of brazing-pads made by CIME for tri-metallic new ones.The induction brazing heating time’s necessaries at induction machines (TBCHE as well as shear-stress values at the tips afterwelding are determined.Key words: tip single point lathe tool, metal ceramic plate, trimetallic pads.

  20. Irreversibility analysis of non isothermal flat plate solar collectors for air heating with a dimensionless model; Analisis de las irreversibilidades en colectores solares de placas planas no isotermicos para calentamiento de aire utilizando un modelo adimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracamonte-Baran, Johane Hans; Baritto-Loreto, Miguel Leonardo [Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)]. E-mails: johanehb@gmail.com; johane.bracamonte@ucv.ve; miguel.baritto@ucv.ve

    2013-04-15

    The dimensionless model developed and validated by Baritto and Bracamonte (2012) for the thermal behavior of flat plate solar collector without glass cover is improved by adding the entropy balance equation in a dimensionless form. The model is solved for a wide range of aspect ratios and mass flow numbers. A parametric study is developed and the distribution of internal irreversibilities along the collector is analyzed. The influence of the design parameters on the entropy generation by fluid friction and heat transfer is analyzed and it is found that for certain combinations of these parameters optimal thermodynamic operation can be achieved. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, el modelo adimensional desarrollado y validado por Baritto y Bracamonte (2012) para describir el comportamiento termico de colectores solares de placas planas sin cubierta transparente, se complementa con la ecuacion adimensional de balance de entropia para un elemento diferencial de colector solar. El modelo se resuelve para un amplio rango de valores de relaciones de aspecto y numero de flujo de masa. A partir de los resultados del modelo se desarrolla un analisis detallado de la influencia de estos parametros sobre la distribucion de irreversibilidades internas a lo largo del colector. Adicionalmente se estudia la influencia de estos parametros sobre los numeros de generacion de entropia por friccion viscosa, por transferencia de calor y total. Se encuentra que existen combinaciones de los parametros antes mencionados, para los cuales, la operacion del colector es termodinamicamente optima para numeros de flujo de masa elevados.

  1. Avaliação da porosidade e placa férrica de raízes de arroz cultivado em hipoxia Evaluation of porosity and iron plaque on rice roots grown under hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquel Jonas Holzschuh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A alta difusividade do oxigênio em diversos materiais dificulta a criação e, ou, manutenção de um ambiente livre de O2. As técnicas utilizadas são pouco eficientes na exclusão do O2 e, portanto, não expressam a condição do solo alagado. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver um método para obtenção de raízes em condição de hipoxia e avaliar a placa férrica e a formação de aerênquima no arroz. Foi criada uma condição de hipoxia semelhante à do solo alagado em tanques de 50 L, explorando a capacidade de difusão do O2 por meio do vinil em contato com solo reduzido. Cada tanque preenchido com solo (Gleissolo háplico recebeu cinco sacos de vinil e foi mantido alagado. Plantas dos genótipos IRGA 423 e IRGA 424 previamente cultivadas em campo foram coletadas, tendo as raízes cortadas junto ao colo, lavadas e um terço da lâmina foliar removido. Cada saco de vinil recebeu 12 plantas de cada genótipo e solução nutritiva. Após sete dias, as novas raízes adventícias formadas foram utilizadas na determinação da porosidade e a da placa férrica em segmentos de 0-2, 2-4 e 4-6 cm a partir da ponta da raiz. As raízes foram colocadas em contato com a solução de um solo em processo de redução por 4 h e a placa férrica determinada após a extração do Fe com HCl 0,5 mol L-1. A porosidade foi determinada pela aplicação de ciclos de vácuo, com auxílio de seringas. A diferença de peso antes e depois do tratamento com vácuo e entrada de água foi assumida como sendo a estimativa da magnitude do aerênquima ao longo da raiz. A eficácia do método foi testada com a produção de raízes adventícias em saco de vinil com aeração e hipoxia. A porosidade nas raízes foi maior em ambiente hipóxico, comparado à aeração. A porosidade foi maior na proximidade da base da planta e, à medida que a porosidade aumentou, houve aumento do conteúdo de Fe na superfície das raízes, indicando que a placa férrica pode

  2. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Stanturf

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  3. Avaliação eletromiográfica da influência da placa oclusal sobre o orbicular da boca em indivíduos portadores de próteses totais com disfunção temporomandicular e dor orofacial = Electromyography evaluation of occlusal splint influence on orbicularis oris in denture-wearing subjects with temporomandibular dysfunction and orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Silva, Almenara de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A placa oclusal constitui um recurso freqüentemente utilizado no tratamento das disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM e dores orofaciais, inclusive em pacientes portadores de próteses totais. Considerando a participação ativa dos lábios nas funções do sistema estomatognático, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das placas oclusais na atividade eletromiográfica (EMG das duas porções – superior (OBS e inferior (OBI do músculo orbicular da boca, durante sucção de iogurte. A EMG foi realizada antes e 70 dias após o uso destes aparelhos, em 8 pacientes edêntulos, portadores de prótese total e que apresentavam sinais e sintomas de DTM. O sinal mioelétrico foi coletado por um eletromiógrafo (*Lynx Eletronics, com filtro tipo Butterworth (20-500 Hz com ganho de 100 vezes e placa conversora A/D. Os sinais foram captados por eletrodos de superfície de Ag/AgCl (Medi Trace e registrados por meio do software Aqdados instalado em um computador Ibm-pc 486 DX2. O sinal EMG foi processado pelo software Matlab® e as médias das amplitudes não normalizadas (ANN foram testadas estatisticamente pelo teste Mann-Whitney (p < 0,05. Os valores encontrados das ANN no prétratamento foram de 60,11 ± 4. 28 e 86,15 ± 6. 15 µV e no pós-tratamento de 106,0 ± 4. 80 e 103,71 ± 3. 83 µV para as porções OBS e OBI, respectivamente. A diferença estatística verificada foi altamente significativa (p < 0,0001 quando comparada à mesma porção muscular antes e após o uso das placas. Os resultados deste estudo, nas condições experimentais utilizadas, permitem concluir que o uso das placas oclusais promoveu um aumento significativo da atividade elétrica do orbicular da boca

  4. Scenario-based Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment of Catanduanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.

    2015-12-01

    After the devastating storm surge effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the public recognized an improved communication about risks, vulnerabilities and what is threatened by storm surge. This can be provided by vulnerability maps which allow better visual presentations and understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities. Local implementers can direct the resources needed for protection of these areas. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are relevant in all phases of disaster management designed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction Council (NDRRMC) - disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and response and recovery and rehabilitation. This paper aims to analyze the vulnerability of Catanduanes, a coastal province in the Philippines, to storm surges in terms of four parameters: population, built environment, natural environment and agricultural production. The vulnerability study relies on the storm surge inundation maps based on the Department of Science and Technology Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards' (DOST-Project NOAH) proposed four Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) scenarios (1-2, 3, 4, and 5 meters) for predicting storm surge heights. To determine total percent affected for each parameter elements, an overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS Desktop. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are generated as a final output and a tool for visualizing the impacts of storm surge event at different surge heights. The result of this study would help the selected province to know their present condition and adapt strategies to strengthen areas where they are found to be most vulnerable in order to prepare better for the future.

  5. Climate change vulnerability in Ethiopia : disaggregation of Tigray Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrehiwot, T.G.; Veen, van der A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and variability severely affect rural livelihoods and agricultural productivity, yet they are causes of stress vulnerable rural households have to cope with. This paper investigated farming communities' vulnerability to climate change and climate variability across 34 agricultural-bas

  6. Categorisation of typical vulnerability patterns in global drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Lûdeke, M.K.B.; Walther, C.

    2011-01-01

    Drylands display specific vulnerability-creating mechanisms which threaten ecosystems and human well-being. The upscaling of successful interventions to reduce vulnerability arises as an important, but challenging aim, since drylands are not homogenous. To support this aim, we present the first atte

  7. Cocoa farming households' vulnerability to climate variability in Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRO OKOJIE

    the degree of vulnerability of cocoa farmers in Ekiti State to climate variability hazards using the. Integrated Vulnerability ... All efforts should be in put in place by all relevant agencies to promote integrated ... internal processes within the climate system. (internal .... four Local Government Areas from each zone. This was ...

  8. Methodology for identifying vulnerable sections in a National Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tampere, C.M.J.; Stada, J.; Immers, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Under the authority of the Flemish Traffic Centre a study was carried out aiming at the identification of road sections that are vulnerable to major incidents. The primary objective of the study was to develop a methodology capable of rapidly scanning a large network for the most vulnerable sections

  9. Assessment of food fraud vulnerability in the spices chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, I.C.J.; Ruth, van S.M.; Fels, van der Ine; Luning, P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent scandals have increased the need to strengthen companies’ ability to combat fraud within their own organizations and across their supply chain. Vulnerability assessments are a first step towards the inventory of fraud vulnerability and fraud mitigation plans. Spices are reported frequently

  10. Assessing local vulnerability to climate change in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario Andres; Bucaram, Santiago J; Renteria, Willington

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability assessments have become necessary to increase the understanding of climate-sensitive systems and inform resource allocation in developing countries. Challenges arise when poor economic and social development combines with heterogeneous climatic conditions. Thus, finding and harmonizing good-quality data at local scale may be a significant hurdle for vulnerability research. In this paper we assess vulnerability to climate change at a local level in Ecuador. We take Ecuador as a case study as socioeconomic data are readily available. To incorporate the spatial and temporal pattern of the climatic variables we use reanalysis datasets and empirical orthogonal functions. Our assessment strategy relies on the statistical behavior of climatic and socioeconomic indicators for the weighting and aggregation mechanism into a composite vulnerability indicator. Rather than assuming equal contribution to the formation of the composite indicator, we assume that the weights of the indicators vary inversely as the variance over the cantons (administrative division of Ecuador). This approach captures the multi-dimensionality of vulnerability in a comprehensive form. We find that the least vulnerable cantons concentrate around Ecuador's largest cities (e.g. Quito and Guayaquil); however, approximately 20 % of the national population lives in other cantons that are categorized as highly and very highly vulnerable to climate change. Results also show that the main determinants of high vulnerability are the lack of land tenure in agricultural areas and the nonexistence of government-funded programs directed to environmental and climate change management.

  11. Vulnerability Assessment Models to Drought: Toward a Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiumars Zarafshani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is regarded as a slow-onset natural disaster that causes inevitable damage to water resources and to farm life. Currently, crisis management is the basis of drought mitigation plans, however, thus far studies indicate that effective drought management strategies are based on risk management. As a primary tool in mitigating the impact of drought, vulnerability assessment can be used as a benchmark in drought mitigation plans and to enhance farmers’ ability to cope with drought. Moreover, literature pertaining to drought has focused extensively on its impact, only awarding limited attention to vulnerability assessment as a tool. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for designing a vulnerability model in order to assess farmers’ level of vulnerability before, during and after the onset of drought. Use of this developed drought vulnerability model would aid disaster relief workers by enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers when facing the impacts of drought. The paper starts with the definition of vulnerability and outlines different frameworks on vulnerability developed thus far. It then identifies various approaches of vulnerability assessment and finally offers the most appropriate model. The paper concludes that the introduced model can guide drought mitigation programs in countries that are impacted the most by drought.

  12. Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodriguez y Silva; Juan Ramon Molina; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Miguel Angel Herrera Machuca

    2012-01-01

    The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is...

  13. Landslide vulnerability criteria: a case study from Umbria, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Mirco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the vulnerability to landslides, despite landslides causing frequent and widespread damage to the population and the built-up environment in many areas of the world. Lack of information about vulnerability to landslides limits our ability to determine landslide risk. This paper provides information on the vulnerability of buildings and roads to landslides in Umbria, central Italy. Information on 103 landslides of the slide and slide-earth flow types that have resulted in damage to buildings and roads at 90 sites in Umbria is used to establish dependencies between the area of the landslide and the vulnerability to landslides. The dependencies obtained are applied in the hills surrounding the town of Collazzone, in central Umbria, an area for which a detailed landslide inventory map is available. By exploiting the landslide inventory and the established vulnerability curves, the geographical distribution of the vulnerability to landslides is mapped and statistics of the expected damage are calculated. Reliability and limits of the vulnerability thresholds and of the obtained vulnerability assessment are discussed.

  14. Households' vulnerability and responses to shocks: evidence from rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndirangu, L.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Vulnerability, HIV/AIDS, weather shocks, risk management, coping strategies, rural households, gender.   Empirical investigation on household’s responses to sources of vulnerability is important for designing and implementation of social policies. The design of an effective re

  15. Vulnerabilities and responsibilities: dealing with monsters in computer security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Consoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze information security assessment in terms of cultural categories and virtue ethics, in order to explain the cultural origin of certain types of security vulnerabilities, as well as to enable a proactive attitude towards preventing such vulnerabilities

  16. Direction Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit

  17. Direction: happiness : improving well-being of vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, Laura Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people wit

  18. How Leaders Communicate Their Vulnerability: Implications for Trust Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Frauke; Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of vulnerability underlies relationships of trust. Trust between leaders and staff is needed to solve concerns that hinder equity and excellence in teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how leaders show vulnerability by disclosing own possible contributions to concerns they try to resolve.…

  19. Categorisation of typical vulnerability patterns in global drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietz, D.; Lûdeke, M.K.B.; Walther, C.

    2011-01-01

    Drylands display specific vulnerability-creating mechanisms which threaten ecosystems and human well-being. The upscaling of successful interventions to reduce vulnerability arises as an important, but challenging aim, since drylands are not homogenous. To support this aim, we present the first atte

  20. Households' vulnerability and responses to shocks: evidence from rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndirangu, L.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Vulnerability, HIV/AIDS, weather shocks, risk management, coping strategies, rural households, gender.   Empirical investigation on household’s responses to sources of vulnerability is important for designing and implementation of social policies. The design of an effective

  1. A Formal Classification of Internet Banking Attacks and Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Peotta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formal classification of attacks and vulnerabilities that affect current internet banking systems is presented along with two attacks which demonstrate the insecurity of such systems. Based ona thoroughanalysis of current security models, we propose a guidelines for designing secure internet banking systems which are not affected by the presented attacks and vulnerabilities.

  2. Using vulnerability performance indicators to attain food supply chain robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Lokven, van S.W.M.; Haijema, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    High effectiveness and leanness of modern supply chains (SCs) increase their vulnerability, i.e. susceptibility to disturbances reflected in non-robust SC performances. Both the SC management literature and SC professionals indicate the need for the development of SC vulnerability assessment tools.

  3. Workplace support after breast cancer treatment: recognition of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Donceel, Peter; de Rijk, Angelique

    2015-01-01

    Support from the workplace seems to be a key element in addressing the poor return-to-work (RTW) rate of employees with breast cancer. We aim to acquire an in-depth understanding of how Flemish employees experience their RTW after breast cancer and the support from the workplace. Fourteen in-depth interviews of women who experienced breast cancer and returned to work (high school graduates, age range 42-55 years, mean age 48 at time of surgery) were analysed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL), based on a Grounded Theory approach. The key experiences were feeling vulnerable, feeling able to work and need for support. Although little diversity in RTW experiences was found, the background of the vulnerability varied. Women experienced support (which could be emotional or practical) only as adequate if it addressed their specific vulnerability. Employees felt particularly vulnerable. Vulnerability is not the same as low-work ability and as such it should be added as theoretical concept in RTW research. Adequate workplace support addresses the specific vulnerability of an individual woman. Our study offers a nuanced insight into the RTW process of breast cancer survivors. Upon actual return-to-work (RTW) after breast cancer treatment, women feel vulnerable but able to work and, hence, have a high need for workplace support. Support from the workplace during RTW after breast cancer treatment is experienced as adequate when it expresses genuine recognition of the individual woman's vulnerability.

  4. Vulnerability to Poverty in select Central Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghbendra Jha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the extant literature either income or consumption expenditures as measured over short periods of time have been regarded as a proxy for the material well-being of households. However, economists have long recognized that a household's sense of well-being depends not just on its average income or expenditures, but also on the risks it faces and its ability to deal with these risks. Hence vulnerability is a more satisfactory measure of welfare. In this study we used the concept of vulnerability as expected poverty to assess the household vulnerability to poverty in four Central Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Except for Tajikistan, headcount poverty and vulnerability rates are significantly different. We also find that vulnerability differs significantly across households by location and selected household characteristics. In this paper we use a simple empirical measurement that allows estimating the headcount vulnerability to poverty using cross-section data. This measurement is based on the strong assumption that households have the same conditional distribution of consumption in a stationary environment. While this approach cannot capture all dimensions of vulnerability, it at least begins to raise the policy issue that vulnerability should be considered alongside poverty.

  5. Vulnerability analysis for design of bridge health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. M.; Yu, G.

    2010-03-01

    The recent engineering implementation of health monitoring system for long span bridges show difficulties for precisely assessing structural physical condition as well as for accurately alarming on structural damages, although hundreds of sensors were installed on a structure and a great amount of data were collected from the monitoring system. The allocation of sensors and the alarming algorithm are still two of the most important tasks to be considered when designing the structural health monitoring system. Vulnerability, in its original meaning, is the system susceptibility to local damage. For a structural system, the vulnerability can thus be regarded as structural performance susceptibility to local damage of structure. The purpose of this study is to propose concepts and methods of structural vulnerability for determining monitoring components which are more vulnerable than others and the corresponding warning threshold once the damages occur. The structural vulnerability performances to various damage scenarios depend upon structural geometrical topology, loading pattern on the structure and the degradation of component performance. A two-parameters structural vulnerability evaluation method is proposed in this paper. The parameters are the damage consequence and the relative magnitude of the damage scenarios to the structural system, respectively. Structural vulnerability to various damage scenarios can be regarded as the tradeoff between the two parameters. Based on the results of structural vulnerability analysis, the limited structural information from health monitoring can be utilized efficiently. The approach of the design of bridge health monitoring system is illustrated for a cable-stayed bridge.

  6. Transplanting supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqing Zhou

    Full Text Available One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of "supersite transplants", capable of binding (and potentially eliciting antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2 on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3 on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ∼ 25 Env residues, can be

  7. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  8. Study on Sustainable Development in Vulnerable Eco-areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Juntao; Li Jin

    2004-01-01

    The vulnerable eco-area is one of the important research targets in the field of sustainable development. It is the requirement of building a welloff society in an all-round way that we should study more on the vulnerable eco-areas, deal with the relationship between environmental protection and economic development, speed up the economic development in these areas and increase the living standard of the local people. This paper puts forward the countermeasures of environment-economy coordination, on the basis of the recognition of ecoenvironment features and social economic conditions in the vulnerable eco-areas of China, in view of the progress in sustainable development studies of the vulnerable ones, taking the transitional areas of farming and pasturing in northeast China as an example to study the regional environment vulnerability.

  9. [Assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-rong; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Hui-zhi; Zhang, Li-hua; Zheng, Hua

    2009-03-01

    Based on the assessment method of environmental vulnerability constructed by SOPAC and UNEP, this paper constructed an indicator system from three sub-themes including hazard, resistance, and damage to assess the eco-environmental vulnerability of Hainan Island. The results showed that Hainan Island was suffering a middling level eco-environmental hazard, and the main hazards came from some intensive human activities such as intensive agriculture, mass tourism, mining, and a mass of solid wastes thrown by islanders and tourists. Some geographical characters such as larger land area, larger altitude range, integrated geographical form, and abundant habitat types endowed Hainan Island higher resistance to environmental hazards. However, disturbed by historical accumulative artificial and natural hazards, the Island ecosystem had showed serious ecological damage, such as soil degradation and biodiversity loss. Comprehensively considered hazard, resistance, damage, and degradation, the comprehensive environmental vulnerability of the Island was at a middling level. Some indicators showed lower vulnerability, but some showed higher vulnerability.

  10. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Vulnerable Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    . The Directive’s Article 5(3) concerning vulnerable consumers protects only—and to a limited extent—groups who are vulnerable due to mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity. Even though consumers make many good choices, all consumers are vulnerable in certain situations—often due to time constraints......, cognitive limitations, and/or bounded rationality as convincingly demonstrated in behavioural economics. Those consumers who are vulnerable in the light of the Directive are those who are at risk of having their economic behaviour distorted by lawful commercial practices. In the article, the author suggests...... how the directive’s protection of vulnerable consumers may be improved through interpretation, revision, and new initiatives. It is not possible to protect all consumers from bad consumption, but welfare loss originating from certain commercial practices may be reduced....

  11. The Vulnerability of Some Networks including Cycles via Domination Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Turaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V(G,E(G be an undirected simple connected graph. A network is usually represented by an undirected simple graph where vertices represent processors and edges represent links between processors. Finding the vulnerability values of communication networks modeled by graphs is important for network designers. The vulnerability value of a communication network shows the resistance of the network after the disruption of some centers or connection lines until a communication breakdown. The domination number and its variations are the most important vulnerability parameters for network vulnerability. Some variations of domination numbers are the 2-domination number, the bondage number, the reinforcement number, the average lower domination number, the average lower 2-domination number, and so forth. In this paper, we study the vulnerability of cycles and related graphs, namely, fans, k-pyramids, and n-gon books, via domination parameters. Then, exact solutions of the domination parameters are obtained for the above-mentioned graphs.

  12. Psychological Vulnerability and Subjective Happiness: The Mediating Role of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Uysal, Recep

    2017-04-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of hopelessness on the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. It was anticipated that hopelessness may act as a mediator in the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. Two hundred sixty-nine (150 women and 119 men) university students completed the Psychological Vulnerability Scale, the Subjective Happiness Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Data have been collected in the 2013-2014 academic year. The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Correlational results indicated that psychological vulnerability and hopelessness were significantly negatively associated with subjective happiness. Results using structural equation modelling showed that hopelessness fully mediated the relationship between psychological vulnerability and subjective happiness. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation.

  14. Identifying Vulnerabilities and Hardening Attack Graphs for Networked Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sudip; Vullinati, Anil K.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2016-09-15

    We investigate efficient security control methods for protecting against vulnerabilities in networked systems. A large number of interdependent vulnerabilities typically exist in the computing nodes of a cyber-system; as vulnerabilities get exploited, starting from low level ones, they open up the doors to more critical vulnerabilities. These cannot be understood just by a topological analysis of the network, and we use the attack graph abstraction of Dewri et al. to study these problems. In contrast to earlier approaches based on heuristics and evolutionary algorithms, we study rigorous methods for quantifying the inherent vulnerability and hardening cost for the system. We develop algorithms with provable approximation guarantees, and evaluate them for real and synthetic attack graphs.

  15. Relational vulnerabilities of incarcerated and reentry mothers: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few-Demo, April L; Arditti, Joyce A

    2014-11-01

    A qualitative study involving a follow-up interview with 10 incarcerated and reentry mothers in rural southwest and central Virginia was conducted to explore the influence that women's close relationships have on their reentry experiences with their families. The Vulnerability Conceptual Model (VCM) was used to sensitize an examination of how incarcerated and reentry mothers negotiate relational vulnerabilities in the context of varying situational vulnerability. Grounded theory analysis revealed three themes that characterized relational vulnerabilities. Given our focus on close relationships and the potential of the VCM to identify opportunities for resilience and vulnerability, we highlighted the influence of ambiguous and ambivalent relationships and unresolved loss and grief due to relationship dissolution or the death of a parent, sibling, child, or intimate partner in the reentry process. The data revealed two types of reentry mothers with divergent trajectories for social reintegration. Implications of these types for therapeutic treatment approaches for reentry women are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; McDonald, Shelley R; Bales, Connie W

    2015-06-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course.

  17. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman

    2012-08-01

    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  18. Lived experience of vulnerability from a Gypsy Roma Traveller perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Vanessa; Hean, Sarah; Parker, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    To describe the lived experience of vulnerability of individuals within a Gypsy Roma Travelling community. People experience vulnerability whenever their health or usual functioning is compromised. This may increase when they enter unfamiliar surroundings, situations or relationships. One's experience of vulnerability can also be heightened through interactions between the individual and the society within which they live. Gypsy Roma Travellers are often identified as vulnerable owing to increased morbidity and mortality as well as their marginalised status within society. Yet little is known of the experiences of vulnerability by the individuals themselves. Without their stories and experiences, health professionals cannot effectively develop services that meet their needs. This descriptive phenomenological study sought to explore the lived experience of vulnerability in a Gypsy Roma Travelling community. Seventeen Gypsy Roma Travellers were interviewed in 2013-2014 about their experiences of feeling vulnerable. This paper reports on the findings from the depth phase in which 13 individuals were interviewed. The interviews were conducted and analysed using Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological approach. Six constituents of the phenomenon of vulnerability were identified as feeling: defined and homogenised as a group; pressurised to conform to live in a particular way; split in one's identity; a loss of one's heritage; discriminated, persecuted and threatened; and powerlessness. There is a wealth of evidence that Gypsy Roma Travellers experience high levels of morbidity and mortality, which has led to them being identified by health professionals and policy makers as a vulnerable community. Exploring their lived experience of vulnerability presents a different perspective regarding this concept and can help explain why they may experience poorer levels of physical and mental health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The vulnerability of Australian rural communities to climate variability and change: Part I—Conceptualising and measuring vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, R.; Kokic, P.; Crimp, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Howden, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerability is a term frequently used to describe the potential threat to rural communities posed by climate variability and change. Despite growing use of the term, analytical measures of vulnerability that are useful for prioritising and evaluating policy responses are yet to evolve. Demand for

  20. Vulnerability of particularly valuable areas. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report is part of the scientific basis for the management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report focuses on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas to petroleum activities, maritime transport, fisheries, land-based and coastal activities and long-range transboundary pollution. A working group with representatives from many different government agencies, headed by the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Nature Management, has been responsible for drawing up the present report on behalf of the Expert Group for the North Sea and Skagerrak. The present report considers the 12 areas that were identified as particularly valuable during an earlier stage of the management plan process on the environment, natural resources and pollution. There are nine areas along the coast and three open sea areas in the North Sea that were identified according to the same predefined criteria as used for the management plans for the Barents Sea: Lofoten area and the Norwegian Sea. The most important criteria for particularly valuable areas are importance for biological production and importance for biodiversity.(Author)

  1. Vulnerable Plaques, Inflammation and Newer Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, inflammation is considered to be the central player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It leads to the formation of multiple plaques in the arterial beds including coronary vasculature. Recent studies using the latest imaging techniques have shown that in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS multiple plaques are ruptured and have thrombus formation on them. Various factors make these plaques unstable, these include structural components of plaque like thin fibrous cap, high lipid content of the plaque core and inflammation, both localized and generalized. It has been shown that most of the ACS are caused by plaques causing non-critical stenosis as seen on traditional X-ray angiography. Also, the phenomenon of remodelling makes angiography a poor technique for plaque visualization. Hence newer modalities are required to identify these 'vulnerable plaques'. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS, thermography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are a few such promising techniques. Here we review the invasive and non-invasive modalities that can be helpful in the identification of these plaques before they become unstable and cause ACS, and also the available therapies to stabilize these plaques.

  2. Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security.

  3. Tracking Nile Delta vulnerability to Holocene change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Marriner

    Full Text Available Understanding deltaic resilience in the face of Holocene climate change and human impacts is an important challenge for the earth sciences in characterizing the full range of present and future wetland responses to global warming. Here, we report an 8000-year mass balance record from the Nile Delta to reconstruct when and how this sedimentary basin has responded to past hydrological shifts. In a global Holocene context, the long-term decrease in Nile Delta accretion rates is consistent with insolation-driven changes in the 'monsoon pacemaker', attested throughout the mid-latitude tropics. Following the early to mid-Holocene growth of the Nile's deltaic plain, sediment losses and pronounced erosion are first recorded after ~4000 years ago, the corollaries of falling sediment supply and an intensification of anthropogenic impacts from the Pharaonic period onwards. Against the backcloth of the Saharan 'depeopling', reduced river flow underpinned by a weakening of monsoonal precipitation appears to have been particularly conducive to the expansion of human activities on the delta by exposing productive floodplain lands for occupation and irrigation agriculture. The reconstruction suggests that the Nile Delta has a particularly long history of vulnerability to extreme events (e.g. floods and storms and sea-level rise, although the present sediment-starved system does not have a direct Holocene analogue. This study highlights the importance of the world's deltas as sensitive archives to investigate Holocene geosystem responses to climate change, risks and hazards, and societal interaction.

  4. An integrated approach to vulnerability assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Jurado, Sariah Ruth (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2005-03-01

    How might the quality of a city's delivered water be compromised through natural or malevolent causes? What are the consequences of a contamination event? What water utility assets are at greatest risk to compromise? Utility managers have been scrambling to find answers to these questions since the events of 9/11. However, even before this date utility mangers were concerned with the potential for system contamination through natural or accidental causes. Unfortunately, an integrated tool for assessing both the threat of attack/failure and the subsequent consequence is lacking. To help with this problem we combine Markov Latent Effects modeling for performing threat assessment calculations with the widely used pipe hydraulics/transport code, EPANET, for consequences analysis. Together information from these models defines the risk posed to the public due to natural or malevolent contamination of a water utility system. Here, this risk assessment framework is introduced and demonstrated within the context of vulnerability assessment for water distribution systems.

  5. Bridging the digital divide: reaching vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty L; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S Scott; Houston, Thomas K; Kreps, Gary L; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P Zoe

    2004-01-01

    The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled "Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations" convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders.

  6. Quantum key distribution: vulnerable if imperfectly implemented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchs, G.

    2013-10-01

    We report several vulnerabilities found in Clavis2, the flagship quantum key distribution (QKD) system from ID Quantique. We show the hacking of a calibration sequence run by Clavis2 to synchronize the Alice and Bob devices before performing the secret key exchange. This hack induces a temporal detection efficiency mismatch in Bob that can allow Eve to break the security of the cryptosystem using faked states. We also experimentally investigate the superlinear behaviour in the single-photon detectors (SPDs) used by Bob. Due to this superlinearity, the SPDs feature an actual multi-photon detection probability which is generally higher than the theoretically-modelled value. We show how this increases the risk of detector control attacks on QKD systems (including Clavis2) employing such SPDs. Finally, we review the experimental feasibility of Trojan-horse attacks. In the case of Clavis2, the objective is to read Bob's phase modulator to acquire knowledge of his basis choice as this information suffices for constructing the raw key in the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) protocol. We work in close collaboration with ID Quantique and for all these loopholes, we notified them in advance. Wherever possible, we or ID Quantique proposed countermeasures and they implemented suitable patches and upgrade their systems.

  7. Carotid ultrasound phenotypes in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence J David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers of carotid atherosclerosis range from those that are widely available and relatively simple to measure such as serum cholesterol levels, and B-mode Ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness (IMT to those that are more complex and technologically demanding but perhaps potentially more sensitive and specific to disease such as total plaque volume and total plaque area measured from 3-dimensional ultrasound images. In this study we measured and compared intima media thickness (IMT, total plaque volume (TPV and total plaque area (TPA in two separate populations, both vulnerable to carotid atherosclerosis. Methods In total, 88 subjects (mean age 72.8 with carotid stenosis of at least 60%, based on a peak Doppler flow, and 82 subjects (mean age 60.9 with diabetic nephropathy were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Conventional atherosclerotic risk factors were examined and the associations and correlations between these and carotid ultrasound phenotypes measured from B-mode and 3-dimensional ultrasound images were assessed. Results IMT and TPV were only modestly correlated in the two separate populations (r = .6, p Conclusion IMT and TPV were modestly correlated in a diabetic patient population and only TPV was associated with diabetes and the presence of plaque ulcerations in a diabetic population and carotid stenosis group. The 3-dimensional information provided by TPV can be critically important in unmasking association with risk factors not observed with less complex single-dimension assessments of carotid atherosclerosis such as those provided by IMT.

  8. VULNERABILITIES IN ACHIEVING AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TEODOR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fund of Romania represents a huge potential for agriculture. The potential has proved difficult to achieve, and among the main vulnerabilities researched lately, we have identified the decline in consumption of vegetable crops, fruit and meat, determined by the declining purchasing power in Romania and the European Union's common market. Therefore the degree of achievement of the agricultural potential is directly influenced by economic developments in Romania and EU Member States. The technical endowment of Romanian farmers is an old and still unresolved problem. Even though Romania has benefited from EU pre-accession funds and still benefits from it, they proved to be a poor solution for Romanian farmers with farm machinery equipment. Indicator analysis of the evolution of the number of tractors in Romania in the post-accession period, reveals that the actual number of tractors in the period under review increased overall, but even if the total number of tractors in Romania increased from 2007 until 2012, UAA (ha per a tractor is almost constant.

  9. Assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Australia is vulnerable to the impacts of tsunamis and exposure along the SE coast of New South Wales is especially high. Significantly, this is the same area reported to have been affected by repeated large magnitude tsunamis during the Holocene. Efforts are under way to complete probabilistic risk assessments for the region but local government planners and emergency risk managers need information now about building vulnerability in order to develop appropriate risk management strategies. We use the newly revised PTVA-3 Model (Dall'Osso et al., 2009 to assess the relative vulnerability of buildings to damage from a "worst case tsunami" defined by our latest understanding of regional risk – something never before undertaken in Australia. We present selected results from an investigation of building vulnerability within the local government area of Manly – an iconic coastal area of Sydney. We show that a significant proportion of buildings (in particular, residential structures are classified as having "High" and "Very High" Relative Vulnerability Index scores. Furthermore, other important buildings (e.g., schools, nursing homes and transport structures are also vulnerable to damage. Our results have serious implications for immediate emergency risk management, longer-term land-use zoning and development, and building design and construction standards. Based on the work undertaken here, we recommend further detailed assessment of the vulnerability of coastal buildings in at risk areas, development of appropriate risk management strategies and a detailed program of community engagement to increase overall resilience.

  10. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table (D), net recharge (R), aquifer media (A), soil media (S), topography or slope (T), impact of vadose zone (I) and hydraulic Conductivity(C)] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  11. Population vulnerability to storm surge flooding in coastal Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to assess the vulnerability of populations to storm surge flooding in 12 coastal localities of Virginia, USA. Population vulnerability is assessed by way of 3 physical factors (elevation, slope, and storm surge category), 3 built-up components (road availability, access to hospitals, and access to shelters), and 3 household conditions (storm preparedness, financial constraints to recovering from severe weather events, and health fragility). Fuzzy analysis is used to generate maps illustrating variation in several types of population vulnerability across the region. When considering physical factors and household conditions, the most vulnerable neighborhoods to sea level rise and storm surge flooding are largely found in urban areas. However, when considering access to critical infrastructure, we find rural residents to be more vulnerable than nonrural residents. These detailed assessments can inform both local and state governments in catastrophic planning. In addition, the methodology may be generalized to assess vulnerability in other coastal corridors and communities. The originality is highlighted by evaluating socioeconomic conditions at refined scale, incorporating a broader range of human perceptions and predispositions, and employing a geoinformatics approach combining physical, built-up, and socioeconomic conditions for population vulnerability assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:500-509. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

  13. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. CURRENT COORDINATES OF ROMANIAN VULNERABLE GROUPS IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Often, in European Union and Romanian legal documents or in research reports, the term ‘vulnerable group’ is used similarly to disadvantaged, marginalized, excluded or risk group; all these concepts are related to the broader phenomenon of poverty. The common sense for vulnerability is ‘weakness’, ‘lack of defense’, ‘lack of means’. Vulnerable groups are groups without support, which are often in a chronic state of poverty, being unable to take advantage of opportunities or to defend themselves against problems that may arise. This paper presents a brief analysis of the structure and size of vulnerable groups in the European Union and an analysis of their particularities for Romania. The paper also proposes a systematic treatment, but not of all the consequences of the global crisis on Romanian vulnerable groups. The main features of the Roma minority and vulnerable women from Romania, their demographic profile and spatial distribution, the employment policies for these vulnerable groups are highlighted.

  15. Educational disparities in the prevalence and consequence of physical vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel O; Stump, Timothy E; Miller, Douglas K; Long, J Scott

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate educational differences in the prevalence and mortality consequence of physical vulnerability among older adults in the United States. Data came from the 1998 and 2000 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of community-based adults aged 65 and older. We created a physical vulnerability score from age, gender, and self-reported disability measures and measured socioeconomic status via educational attainment. Mortality data came from the National Death Index. In the 1998 cohort, high physical vulnerability was more than 3 times more prevalent in individuals with less than 12 years of education compared to those with 16 or more years of education. Although less educated older adults had a higher probability of death overall, evidence of educational differences in the mortality consequence of high physical vulnerability was limited. In 2000, 2.16 million older adults had high physical vulnerability, and more than one half (53%) of these adults had less than 12 years of education. In persons 65 years of age or older, educational differences are more apparent in the prevalence of physical vulnerability than in the mortality consequence of that vulnerability.

  16. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  17. Volcanic risk assessment: Quantifying physical vulnerability in the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S. F.; Spence, R. J. S.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.; Solidum, R. U.; Wilson, T. M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents structured and cost-effective methods for assessing the physical vulnerability of at-risk communities to the range of volcanic hazards, developed as part of the MIA-VITA project (2009-2012). An initial assessment of building and infrastructure vulnerability has been carried out for a set of broadly defined building types and infrastructure categories, with the likelihood of damage considered separately for projectile impact, ash fall loading, pyroclastic density current dynamic pressure and earthquake ground shaking intensities. In refining these estimates for two case study areas: Kanlaon volcano in the Philippines and Fogo volcano in Cape Verde, we have developed guidelines and methodologies for carrying out physical vulnerability assessments in the field. These include identifying primary building characteristics, such as construction material and method, as well as subsidiary characteristics, for example the size and prevalence of openings, that may be important in assessing eruption impacts. At-risk buildings around Kanlaon were found to be dominated by timber frame buildings that exhibit a high vulnerability to pyroclastic density currents, but a low vulnerability to failure from seismic shaking. Around Fogo, the predominance of unreinforced masonry buildings with reinforced concrete slab roofs suggests a high vulnerability to volcanic earthquake but a low vulnerability to ash fall loading. Given the importance of agriculture for local livelihoods around Kanlaon and Fogo, we discuss the potential impact of infrastructure vulnerability for local agricultural economies, with implications for volcanic areas worldwide. These methodologies and tools go some way towards offering a standardised approach to carrying out future vulnerability assessments for populated volcanic areas.

  18. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Picano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque, iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque, and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque. Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging

  19. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  20. Migration in Vulnerable Deltas: A Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, C.; Nicholls, R. J.; Allan, A.

    2015-12-01

    C. Hutton1, & R. J. Nicholls1, , 1 University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO17 1BJ. cwh@geodata. soton.ac.ukAbstractGlobally, deltas contain 500 million people and with rising sea levels often linked to large number of forced migrants are expected in the coming century. However, migration is already a major process in deltas, such as the growth of major cities such as Dhaka and Kolkata. Climate and environmental change interacts with a range of catchment and delta level drivers, which encompass a nexus of sea-level rise, storms, freshwater and sediment supply from the catchment, land degradation, subsidence, agricultural loss and socio-economic stresses. DECCMA (Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation/CARRIA) is investigating migration in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), Mahanadi and Volta Deltas, including the influence of climate change. The research will explore migration from a range of perspectives including governance and stakeholder analysis, demographic analysis, household surveys of sending and receiving areas, macro-economic analysis, and hazards and hotspot analysis both historically and into the future. Migration under climate change will depend on other adaptation in the deltas and this will be examined. Collectively, integrated analysis will be developed to examine migration, other adaptation and development pathways with a particular focus on the implications for the poorest. This will require the development of input scenarios, including expert-derived exogenous scenarios (e.g., climate change) and endogenous scenarios of the delta developed in a participatory manner. This applied research will facilitate decision support methods for the development of deltas under climate change, with a focus on migration and other adaptation strategies.