WorldWideScience

Sample records for pl-1 language

  1. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  2. PL1 fusion gene: a novel visual selectable marker gene that confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Li, Shu; Dang, Lijie; Chai, Wenting; Li, Pengli; Wang, Ning Ning

    2012-10-01

    Visual selectable markers, including the purple color caused by the accumulation of anthocyanins, have been proposed for use as antibiotic-free alternatives. However, the excessive accumulation of anthocyanins seriously inhibits the growth and development of transgenic plants. In our study, the AtDWF4 promoter from Arabidopsis and the tomato LeANT1 gene, encoding a MYB transcription factor, were used to construct the PL1 fusion gene to test whether it could be used as a visual selectable marker gene for tomato transformation. All the PL1 transgenic shoots exhibited intense purple color on shoot induction medium. In the transgenic tomato plants, PL1 was highly expressed in the cotyledons, but expressed only slightly in the true leaves and other organs. The expression of PL1 had no significantly adverse effects on the growth or development of the transgenic tomato plants, and conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in them. With the “cut off green shoots” method, multiple independent 35S::GFP transgenic tomato lines were successfully obtained using PL1 as the selectable marker gene. These results suggest that PL1 has potential application of visual selectable marker gene for tomato transformation.

  3. A wheat R2R3-MYB protein PURPLE PLANT1 (TaPL1) functions as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Myoung-Goo; Kang, Chon-Sik; Park, Chul-Soo; Choi, Sang-Bong; Park, Youn-Il

    2016-01-15

    Transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in vegetative tissues of monocotyledonous plants is mediated by cooperative activity of one component from each of the following two transcription factor families: MYB encoded by PURPLE PLANT1/COLORED ALEURONE1 (PL1/C1), and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoded by RED/BOOSTER (R1/B1). In the present study, putative PL cDNA was cloned from the wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Iksan370, which preferentially expresses anthocyanins in coleoptiles. Phylogenetic tree analysis of deduced amino acid sequences showed that a putative TaPL1 is highly homologous to barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvPL1, but is distinct from wheat TaC1. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana stably expressing putative TaPL1 accumulated anthocyanin pigments in leaves and up-regulated structural genes involved in both early and late anthocyanin biosynthesis steps. TaPL1 transcript levels in Iksan370 were more prominent in vegetative tissues such as young coleoptiles than in reproductive tissues such as spikelets. TaPL1 expression was significantly up-regulated by environmental stresses including cold, salt, and light, which are known to induce anthocyanin accumulation. These combined results suggest that TaPL1 is an active positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat coleoptiles.

  4. Clinical and microbiological aspects of the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strains in proctological patients with symptoms of chronic proctitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka-Kiciak, K; Strus, M; Pietrzak, P; Wawiernia, K; Mikołajczyk, D; Gałęcka, M; Heczko, P; Tarnowski, W

    2017-06-30

    Recurrent proctitis and the symptoms associated therewith pose significant clinical problem in proctological patients. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain on the clinical presentation and composition of intestinal microbiota in patients with symptoms of proctitis in the course of hemorrhoidal disease and diverticulosis. Material consisted of 24 patients in whom no complete clinical improvement could be obtained after the treatment of the underlying disease. Subject to the assessment was the presence and the intensity of clinical symptoms as well as qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of bacterial flora detected in the stool before, during and after a 9-week supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain. In the entire study group, the intensity of pain after 12 weeks was significantly lower (p=0,.011) compared to baseline; the intensity of flatulence and abdominal discomfort was reduced significantly as early as after 3 weeks, with the difference reaching a highly significant level after 12 weeks (pP<0,.0001). No significant difference was observed in the frequency of the reported episodes of diarrhea, constipation, as well as itching and burning in the anal region. As early as after 3 weeks of supplementation with the probiotic L. rhamnosus PL1 strain, significant qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in the composition of intestinal microbiota; the changes differed depending on the underlying disease. An increase in the total counts of the bacteria of Lactobacillus genus, particularly L. rhamnosus PL1 strain was observed regardless of the underlying disease. Tthe probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain appears to be useful in restoring appropriate ratios of bacterial populations in patients presenting with symptoms of proctitis in the course of the treatment of certain diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  6. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  7. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  8. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  9. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  10. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  11. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  12. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  13. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is twof

  14. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  15. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  16. Japanese Language, Standard Language, National Language: Rethinking Language and Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka CULIBERG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between language and nation through the historical process by which the modern Japanese language came to exist and proposes a tentative answer as to what this says about the nature of phenomena such as language and nation themselves. The paper suggests that if language is understood as an actually existing natural and definable object, it must indeed be claimed that the Japanese language is no more than a hundred years old.

  17. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  18. Community Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, John

    2001-01-01

    Presents historical and political contexts for discussing language maintenance and development in Scotland, explaining that research findings rarely have an impact on policy. While good practice exists in the maintenance of Gaelic and British Sign Language, these is a significant lack of support for other languages, and provision for all community…

  19. Learning Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  20. Instinctive Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  1. Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, John A.

    1974-01-01

    It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

  2. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  4. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication......Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  6. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  7. Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  8. LANGUAGE DILEMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Linguists and the government hope to preserve the diversity of China’s languages When Xu Shixuan, a linguist from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, returned to a southwestern county bordering Myanmar in 2002 to study the local language after a nine

  9. Teaching Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Laura F.

    1986-01-01

    The article details on three classroom projects using computers and synthesized speech software to foster expressive language and facilitate language comprehension in severely visually handicapped preschoolers and in preschool- and school-age Downs syndrome children. Computer use with a cerebral palsied child for story comprehension and…

  10. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  11. Language Change and Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present diachronic changes in terms of the conditions of first language acquisition. Grammars, seen as mental organs, may change between two generations. A change is initiated when (a population of learners converge on a grammatical system which differs in at least one parameter value from the system internalized by the speakers of the previous generation. Learnability issues then connect to both language acquisition and language change, and understanding language changes depends on understanding how children acquire their native language. Acquisition is a process in which Universal Grammar (UG interacts with a context-specific set of Primary Linguistic Data (PLD: the linguistic input to the child-learner and uses these PLD as the source for triggers or cues that map the innate (preexperience knowledge to a mature grammar. If a certain phenomenon has survived through many generations, it must have been reflected clearly in the PLD. Then, if we note that it has changed, something in the language performance of the previous generation must have changed, and thereby paved the way for a new interpretation. Innovation leading to linguistic variation in the PLD and gradual changes in PLD play a central role in the explanation here: the immediate cause of a grammar change must lie in some alternation in the PLD. We will look at how the language spoken in a certain community (E-language may gradually become different from the language that originally served as the triggering experience. These changes in the E-language also mean changes in the input available to the child-learners of the next generation and a motivation for a different parameter setting has arisen.

  12. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  13. Language acquisition and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Critical language awareness and English language teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋灵

    2007-01-01

    Critical Language Awareness (CLA) is an approach to language teaching based on a critical sociocultural theory of language and critical discourse analysis. CLA has a great relationship with English language teaching, but there are few articles talking about it. So the author here will present her understanding of the relationship between CLA and English language.

  15. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    The Danish language debate is dominated by two key concepts: ‘domain loss' and its opposite, ‘parallel languages' (parallelsproglighed). The under­stood reference is to the relationship between Danish and English - i.e. the spread of English at the expense of Danish vs. the coexistence of Danish...... and English within relevant ‘domains' of Danish society. In this article I am going to argue that the concept of ‘domain loss' is not theoretically tenable - its usual depiction ranging from the vague to the nonsensical - which is not to say that the relationship between English and Danish within Danish...... society is everywhere unproblematic. A case in point is Higher Education. I will also argue that the recently proposed solution to ‘domain loss' - Danish and English used ‘in parallel', ‘parallel languages' - because it is unrealistic as well as undesirable as a consistent principle - should be replaced...

  16. Language pedagogy: foreign language teachers’ professional skills

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  17. LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY: FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Коряковцева, Н.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks into foreign language teacher education in plurilingual and pluricultural context; defines the notion and focuses on the characteristics of skills in language pedagogy as part of foreign language teacher professional competence.

  18. A Stroke of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  19. Difference in Second Language and Foreign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nongxin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Second language (L2), in a broad sense, is a language learned or acquired after the native language.The term has a narrow sense when it contrasts to the term"foreign language"(FL), in which second language"functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their mother tongue", and the foreign language"plays no major role in the community and is primarily learnt only in the classroom."[1]Ignorance of the differences will result in confusion in the practice of language learning, teaching and research work.

  20. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  1. Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)

  2. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  3. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility of local

  4. language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to job@rosey.ch

  5. On language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, S

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Steven Pinker is a professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, and in 1994 will become director of its McDonnell-Pew Center for Cognitive Neuroscience. He received his B.K from McGill University in 1976 and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1979, both in experimental psychology, and taught at Harvard and Stanford before joining the faculty of MIT in 1982. He has done research in visual cognition and the psychology of language, and is the author of Language Learnability and Language Development (1984) and Learnability and Cognition (1989) and the editor of Visual Cognition (1985), Connections and Symbol (1988, with Jacques Mehler), and Lexical and Conceptual Semantics (1992, with Beth Levin). He was the recipient of the Early Career Award in 1984 and the Boyd McCandless Award in 1986 from the American Psychological Association, a Graduate Teaching Award from MIT in 1986, and the Troland Research Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 1993. His newest book, The Language Instinct, will be published by William Morrow & Company in January 1994.

  6. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  7. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  8. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ya-rong; Ma Ya-li

    2014-01-01

    In traditional language classroom, learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language, rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use, it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  9. On Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Ya-rong; Ma; Ya-li

    2014-01-01

    In traditional language classroom,learners are taught mainly about language and its rules.They learn facts about language,rather than how to use it communicatively and how to cooperate with others.To help learners put language into active use,it’s recognized communicative language teaching is needed in language learning and teaching.

  10. Language Acquisition Is Language Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition…

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our ...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research.......This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  12. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type,while,for attracting readers,writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports.This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis,using examples to understand and comment on it.

  13. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type, while, for attracting readers, writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports. This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis, using examples to understand and comment on it.

  14. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  15. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  16. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  17. Endangered Languages--guard the language diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍明

    2013-01-01

    Language as an important human activity, is not only a communication tool, but also reflects the society and culture. However, in recent years, many minority languages are disappearing and under disappearing. In this paper, firstly, I study the existing state of languages and the existing crisis of many smal categories of languages:Linguists estimate that the amount is more than 6,000. However, at present, 95 percent of languages are used only by 4 percent of the population and 2 kinds of languages disappear in a month. Secondly, I analyze the reason of the disappearing categories of languages:Linguists estimate that at least half the world’s languages died out in the last 500-year period. A variety of factors, such as social origin, historical origin, and so on, contributed to this trend of language extinction. And at the end, I suggested the significance of language preservation and some means to protect linguistic diversity.

  18. Using Language Consultants in Communicative Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki, Yamamoto; Makoto, Izumisawa; Graduate School, Meiji University

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a teaching technique using language consultants in communicative language teaching. Language consultant is a role in which a student pays attention to a group member's language use during activities, and provides him/her with corrective and positive feedback after the activities, referring to dictionaries. Its effectiveness in terms of second language (L2) learning and motivation was investigated by using it with 42 English learners at a Japane...

  19. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  20. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  1. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  2. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  3. Sign Language Diglossia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C., Jr.

    Charles A. Ferguson's concept of "diglossia" (1959, 1964) is used in analyzing sign language. As in Haitian Creole or Swiss German, "two or more varieties" of sign language are "used by the same speakers under different conditions"--these are here called "High" (H) sign language and "Low" (L) sign language. H sign language is formally taught…

  4. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  5. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  6. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  7. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching"…

  8. Foreign Language Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees; Weltens, Bert

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research on language maintenance and language loss, focusing on the loss of a second language in a first language environment, the linguistic aspects of loss, and relearning a "lost" language. An annotated bibliography discusses nine important works in the field. (43 references) (MDM)

  9. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio);…

  10. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  11. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  12. Language Corner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dear Readers,It’s December once more, and time for the Language Corner annual "examination. " Questions have been taken from column exercises throughout the year. The test will give you an idea of your progress in Chinese, and also help us to see what changes could be made to improve the column. So give it a try!There will be one super prize, two first prizes, five second prizes, and ten third prizes.We appreciate your participation, and wish you success.-Ed.Please mail your answers to the following address by the end of February 2003:News Center, China Today24 Baiwanzhuang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China 100037

  13. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  14. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  15. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  16. Language Planning Theories and Language Planning In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许楠

    2006-01-01

    The specialized study of language policies and planning as a part of sociolinguistics is originated in the 1960's. The theories about language planning may give some guidance to the language planning in China. Of course, China's language policy makers should make decisions according to the specific language situation in China. Chinese language is the national language, and there are more than 120 ethnic minority languages. Therefore, language planning in China involves the Chinese language planning and minority languages planning.

  17. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  18. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  19. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  20. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  1. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  2. Revisiting Plain Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

  3. Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  4. performance and language learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, an individual interview using a structured interview schedule and observation in the teaching and learning environment. ... the target language group as defmed by other language groups.

  5. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E

    1991-01-01

    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  6. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. English language learning flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若卿

    2009-01-01

    @@ Vocational school students a sense of the prevalence of language problems, the so-called sense of language learners of language refers to a kind of sensitive information and rich understanding of automation of the aware-hess activities.

  8. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  9. Gender Difference in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒婧

    2014-01-01

    All languages, the systems of arbitrary symbols, are equally good. Language which is the linguistic behaviour is used for human communication. Therefore, the rules for conversing are determined by certain social requirements. This essay lays empha⁃sis on gender difference in language vocabulary and in using of language so as to reveal the relatedness between language and soci⁃ety and to explore the language development along with social change.

  10. Languages and Language Varieties in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Maltese, the national language of Malta, is, without doubt, the dominant language of most Maltese in most domains of language use in Malta. It however shares official status with English, which is also in regular use. Most Maltese can, in fact, be said to be bilingual to differing degrees. This article begins by providing some background…

  11. On Learning Language Form and Language Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    An observable feature of learner language, linguistic variability, is described and used as the basis for speculating about an aspect of the process of second language learning. It is hypothesized that variation in correct use of target language forms varies as a function of the demands placed on the learner to produce these forms. Three groups of…

  12. Discussion: Imagining the Languaged Worker's Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    What people perceive as "a language"--a named entity--is abstracted from practices and notions about those practices. People take for granted that language is somehow a "thing," an objectively distinct and bounded entity. How languages come to be thus imagined indexes the conditions under which they are imagined. The articles…

  13. Language Learner Strategies in Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying

    2014-01-01

    Language learner strategies, which are closely associated with second language teaching, have experienced great devel-opment in the fields of theory-building and instructional practices since the 1970s. By reviewing previous research, pedagogical enlightenments can be drawn to the current English language teaching.

  14. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  15. Language Processes and Second-Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Larry Lloyd

    A review of the literature and research concerning the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and an analysis of the findings regarding the characteristics of these processes and their relationship to the second-language learner led to the following conclusions: (1) the circumstances under which the first language is…

  16. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  17. From language identification to language distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamallo, Pablo; Pichel, José Ramom; Alegria, Iñaki

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we define two quantitative distances to measure how far apart two languages are. The distance measure that we have identified as more accurate is based on the perplexity of n-gram models extracted from text corpora. An experiment to compare forty-four European languages has been performed. For this purpose, we computed the distances for all the possible language pairs and built a network whose nodes are languages and edges are distances. The network we have built on the basis of linguistic distances represents the current map of similarities and divergences among the main languages of Europe.

  18. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  19. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  20. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...

  1. On Explaining Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenneberg, Eric H.

    1969-01-01

    The author's purpose in this article is to discuss the aspects of language (especially the development of language in children) to which biological concepts are most appropriately applied. While results of past studies would seem to show that language development is contingent on specific language training, it is important to distinguish between…

  2. Language, Perception, Culture & Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.

  3. Feminist Language Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist language planning is an active engagement with the ways in which language represents and reproduces gender. It is not specifically concerned with the ways in which language presents women, although this is a major focus, but rather how language positions both males and females and how it enters into the social practices that gender people…

  4. Language and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云龙

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction If one asks about the relation between thought and language, people expect the issue to concern such matters as whether we think in language, whether creatures without language can "think", and the way language shapes our concepts. In my opinion, there is a much deeper question, which concerns the nature of linguistic communication.

  5. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the w

  6. Judgments in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Charles Alderson

    2009-01-01

    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.

  7. if language learning easy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦清

    2002-01-01

    " Learning a language is as easy as ABC. Even a child can do it. " Most stu-dents who are learning a foreign language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a foreign language, eg. English,is a very difficult task. They need thousands of hours to study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every language learner.

  8. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  9. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  10. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it...

  11. First Language and Target Language in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, William; Yu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, foreign language teaching has been dominated by the principle that teachers should use only the target language (TL) and avoid using the mother tongue (L1) except as a last resort. However, reports show that teachers make extensive use of the L1. This paper illustrates this discrepancy and considers some main reasons for it. It…

  12. Language Management x 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...... into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...... from the international management discipline, appear to have taken an interest in language as a variable in business and corporate management. It is also common to refer to this research field as language management. This conceptual article offers a theoretically based comparison of the three...

  13. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence......This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... is shifted from viewing the individual's language competence as a mental linguistic or communicative property, to viewing language as a series of social and spatial practices. Looking at data from the research project Tegn på Sprog (in the following referred to as Signs of Language), which examines...

  14. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...

  15. LANGUAGE OF POWER: LANGUAGE OF PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Arkonaç, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The language of psychology is the language of power which is well hidden, powerful, transformative and productive in understandings. As a hidden language of power, psychology determines the individuals as “normal” and “abnormal” by using its scientific character and according to these statutes, individuals act in their social world. Their psychologically appropriate practices are transformed into psychological knowledge and also knowledge of power in turn. But the indi...

  16. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  17. Teaching language arts to English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

  18. Local languages as the languages of internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    on offering programs rather in English than the local language. At Copenhagen Business School, 56.4% of the students at MA level followed courses in English in 2009. Many students come to Denmark from abroad, follow the English language programs offered, but are motivated to learn Danish, the local language...... if no English courses are available.......International (or more properly, according to Hannerz (1996), transnational) communication can happen in many languages. Focus has recently been mostly on English as the ‘lingua franca of the world’, but maybe unduly so; since there are alternatives. Especially when it comes to transnational...

  19. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  20. Language Policy and Planning: Fundamental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental issues in language policy and planning are discussed: language death, language survival, language change, language revival, language shift and expansion, language contact and pidginization or creolization, and literacy development. (Contains 21 references.) (LB)

  1. PLENARY LECTURES-PL1 Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S TSUDA; I SATO; N SAITO; K OAMI; JIN YH4

    2006-01-01

    @@ Persistent perfluorinated organic compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are used in a variety of industrial applications. They are very stable in the environment, distribute widely in the global environment and in wild life, and are detected in human sera.

  2. Bel Canto(霸道)PL-1Audio多功能播放器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    美国的音响产品容易让人想到西部牛仔般的粗犷,彪悍,如麦景图,盟主等好多Hi-End厂家,来自美国的Bel Canto同样如此,它有个很牛的中文名字——霸道!

  3. Language and imagery: effects of language modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P; Woolfe, Tyron; Dye, Matthew W G; Woll, Bencie

    2005-09-07

    Across spoken languages, properties of wordforms (e.g. the sounds in the word hammer) do not generally evoke mental images associated to meanings. However, across signed languages, many signforms readily evoke mental images (e.g. the sign HAMMER resembles the motion involved in hammering). Here we assess the relationship between language and imagery, comparing the performance of English speakers and British sign language (BSL) signers in meaning similarity judgement tasks. In experiment 1, we found that BSL signers used these imagistic properties in making meaning similarity judgements, in contrast with English speakers. In experiment 2, we found that English speakers behaved more like BSL signers when asked to develop mental images for the words before performing the same task. These findings show that language differences can bias users to attend more to those aspects of the world encoded in their language than to those that are not; and that language modality (spoken versus signed) can affect the degree to which imagery is involved in language.

  4. Language Policy and Language Planning in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjioannou, Xenia; Tsiplakou, Stavroula; Kappler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the…

  5. Languages contact and geopolitics of Romance languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Jean Calvet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we first conceive the contact between languages from different configurations to, secondly, analyze the geopolitics of the Romance languages, represented by the three great linguistic groups, that is, the French-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking groups.---Original in French.

  6. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  7. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  8. First Language Use in Second Language Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulisse, Nanda; Bongaerts, Theo

    1994-01-01

    In a study of bilingual speech production, data were collected from 771 unintentional language switches by 45 Dutch learners of English at 3 different proficiency levels. One finding was that the occurrence of language switch was related to learner proficiency in English. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/LB)

  9. The language policy of the language teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Risager

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Language policy has to do with how far and how one is to act in relation to this complexity. Language policy does not only take place at the macro-level: in international organisations, transnational companies, states, etc., but also at the micro-level; in the interaction between people.

  10. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  11. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  12. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership......This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  13. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  14. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary of recommendations HEIs are encouraged, within the framework of their own societal context, mission, vision and strategies, to develop the aims and objectives of a Higher Education Language Policy (HELP) that allows them to implement these strategies. In this process, they may want......: As the first step in a Higher Education Language Policy, HEIs should determine the relative status and use of the languages employed in the institution, taking into consideration the answers to the following questions:  What is/are the official language(s) of the HEI?  What is/are the language...... and the level of internationalisation the HEI has or wants to have, and as a direct implication of that, what are the language proficiency levels expected from the graduates of these programme?  Given the profile of the HEI and its educational strategies, which language components are to be offered within...

  15. Language teaching strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  16. Preschool Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skills. Good language skills help with learning, behavior, self- esteem, and social skills. Here are some possible treatment ... Language Pathologists Students Faculty Contact Us The ASHA Action Center welcomes questions and requests for information from ...

  17. The Rudiments of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  18. The Rudiments of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, John V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

  19. Language: Functionalism versus Authenticity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    help us to relate the languages we learn and speak to our own experiences or to ... economic environment surrounding English language teaching and learning has ... operations and human motivations of an industrial and commercial society.

  20. LANGUAGE TEACHING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  1. Rethinking Japanese Language Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Phyllis

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of Seiichi Makino, a scholar of Japanese, noting that his work in establishing the Japanese proficiency guidelines helped make it appear that Japanese language teaching was part of mainstream American language teaching. (Author/VWL)

  2. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    analysis the World Cup nations Brazil, Netherlands, Italy and England are analysed to illustrate different dialects within football. Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View From the Right Side of the Brain. Berlin: Springer Schein, E. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco......The language of football: A cultural analysis of selected World Cup nations. This essay describes how actions on the football field relate to the nations’ different cultural understanding of football and how these actions become spoken dialects within a language of football. Saussure reasoned...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...

  3. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  4. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  5. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language Development ... child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and language ...

  6. Do Software Languages Engineers Evaluate their Languages?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Pedro; Amaral, Vasco

    2011-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) can contribute to increment productivity, while reducing the required maintenance and programming expertise. We hypothesize that Software Languages Engineering (SLE) developers consistently skip, or relax, Language Evaluation. Based on the experience of engineering other types of software products, we assume that this may potentially lead to the deployment of inadequate languages. The fact that the languages already deal with concepts from the problem domain, and not the solution domain, is not enough to validate several issues at stake, such as its expressiveness, usability, effectiveness, maintainability, or even the domain expert's productivity while using them. We present a systematic review on articles published in top ranked venues, from 2001 to 2008, which report DSLs' construction, to characterize the common practice. This work con?rms our initial hypothesis and lays the ground for the discussion on how to include a systematic approach to DSL evaluation in the SLE proc...

  7. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    ŠMIT, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  8. Automatic sign language identification

    OpenAIRE

    Gebre, B.G.; Wittenburg, P.; Heskes, T.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Random-Forest based sign language identification system. The system uses low-level visual features and is based on the hypothesis that sign languages have varying distributions of phonemes (hand-shapes, locations and movements). We evaluated the system on two sign languages -- British SL and Greek SL, both taken from a publicly available corpus, called Dicta Sign Corpus. Achieved average F1 scores are about 95% - indicating that sign languages can be identified with high accuracy...

  9. Second Language at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    The articles in this publication discuss theoretical issues in relation to the teaching/learning of a second language in the workplace and present practical experiences from workplace language programmes for immigrant workers carried out in a number of European countries.......The articles in this publication discuss theoretical issues in relation to the teaching/learning of a second language in the workplace and present practical experiences from workplace language programmes for immigrant workers carried out in a number of European countries....

  10. Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    included popular classical high-level imperative programming languages (C/C++, Java) [16, 25, 11], hardware description languages ( Verilog ) [13], C-to...hardware languages (System-C) [14] and existing quantum programming languages (QCL) [23]. • Variant of C and Verilog : Scaffold syntax was chosen to be...very similar to C (and to some extent Verilog HDL.) This reflects our belief that expressing computations in terms of familiar iterative and imperative

  11. Language Acquisition in Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Belzner, Megan; Colin-Ellerin, Sean; Roman, Jorge H.

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the nature of language acquisition in computers, guided by techniques similar to those used in children. While existing natural language processing methods are limited in scope and understanding, our system aims to gain an understanding of language from first principles and hence minimal initial input. The first portion of our system was implemented in Java and is focused on understanding the morphology of language using bigrams. We use frequency distributions and differ...

  12. Creativity in language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Jack C Richards

    2014-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in learners – particularly those involving studentcentred, interaction-based, and open-ended elements. Drawing on teacher narratives and co...

  13. Language, games, and minds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Language has often been compared to the game of Chess. In this article, I claim that a productive analogy for linguistic interaction would be the Asian board game GO. I further explore common aspects of language use and creative play that we find in improvised ensemble music-making.  What is said about language and games, and language and improvised music-making is then related to a discussion of linguistic interaction as constitutive of thought and mind.

  14. Languages and Employability

    OpenAIRE

    DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA; DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; FLISI SARA; SOTO CALVO ELENA

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews evidence regarding the foreign language competences of European citizens and presents new findings about the relationship between foreign language skills and the likelihood of being in employment. In view of providing research evidence that can inform European Union (EU) policy initiatives, it reviews studies that frame knowledge of languages as a form of human capital, presents descriptive statistics about language knowledge and investigates whether this knowledge is rela...

  15. The Language Teacher, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Malcolm, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

    These issues of "The Language Teacher" examine second language learning issues in Japan, focusing on such topics as the following: language educators and labor law; using videofeedback to nurture self-monitoring skills; learning diaries in learner training; English for special learners; developing listening subskills with trivia;…

  16. Language: a social mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁钰

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and gender studies have experienced a long history in the field of linguistics.Sociolinguists did various kinds of research concerning gender-differentiated use of language.The differences between man’s and woman’s language has long been noticed by anthropologists,historians and linguistics.Then there gradually emerged great gap between male and

  17. Cassirer's View of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  18. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela JIREGHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the idea of an effective communication between teacher and students aiming to prove that classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. The emphasis lies on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing rather than form (correctness of language and language structure.

  19. Language and Sexism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chun-ying

    2001-01-01

    Our Language is bound up with our humanity. A language cannot be either good or bad, it is affected by the views and values of society. This is very apparent when we look at home the sexism in society is reflected in our languge. Language cannot be sexist in itself but its use may be for good or bad.

  20. Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  1. British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jim; Woll, Bencie

    1981-01-01

    The author reports on the use of British Sign Language in the United Kingdom and dispels some myths that surround the language. It is pointed out that there is a low level of interest in deaf people and their method of communication. Research needs in the area of sign language systems are briefly considered. (SB)

  2. Motivation in language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骊

    2008-01-01

    Motivation is one of the key affective factors in language learning, which has been highly regarded and widely researched by both linguists and language teachers. It is very necessary for language teachers and learners to be aware of the influence of the motivation.

  3. Graphical Modeling Language Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumnit, M.

    2003-01-01

    The group of the faculty EE-Math-CS of the University of Twente is developing a graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software design. This graphical modeling language has a mathematical background based on the theorie of CSP. This language contains the power to create trustworth

  4. The Rascal Language Workbench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2011-01-01

    Rascal is a programming language for source code analysis and transformation. This means that typically the input of a Rascal program is a program in some programming language, and the output is often yet another program. So Rascal is a meta programming language. Source code is thus primary object o

  5. Orwell and Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Commemorating the end of George Orwell's year, 1984, the majority of articles in this journal issue are devoted to some aspect of language. The first article alerts teachers to the need for a critical examination of Orwell's underlying assumptions about language change in "Politics and the English Language." The next five articles deal…

  6. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  7. How arbitrary is language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Qi

    2012-01-01

      To a large degree,language is arbitrary. But there are exceptions to prove that language is not always arbitrary. However,non-arbitrariness is itself inevitably arbitrary. In fact,arbitrariness and non-arbitrariness work together to complete a language. It seems that they contradict to each other, but they actually coexist as a whole in the same unity.

  8. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home affect my child’s language and speech?The brain has to work harder to interpret and use 2 languages, so it may take longer for children to start using either one or both of the languages they’re learning. It’s not unusual for a bilingual child to ...

  9. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  10. Language Trends 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a survey of secondary schools carried out during the autumn term of 2010 by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, with support from the Association for Language Learning and the Independent Schools' Modern Language Association. It is based on responses to a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of…

  11. Interaction and Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on Long's Interaction Hypothesis (IH), the paper examines the aspects of interaction that might facilitate natu-ralistic language development and goes further to propose features of interaction that could encourage classroom second lan-guage acquisition, in the hope that improved classroom interation will enhance teaching effectiveness in language classroom.

  12. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  13. Searle on Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses J. R. Searle's theories about language, based on three works dating from 1969-95. Looks at the distinction made between constitutive rules and regulative rules of language use, his approach to analyzing speech acts, the view of language as a means of stating facts, and the role that our conception of science plays in Searle's theorizing.…

  14. Research in Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Since its inception in 1990, the Language Testing Research Centre (LTRC) at the University of Melbourne has earned an international reputation for its work in the areas of language assessment and testing as well as program evaluation. The mission of the centre is: (1) to carry out and promote research and development in language testing; (2) to…

  15. Bourdieu, Language, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on the work of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu with a special focus on issues of language, education and literacy. The essay sketches out Bourdieu's main theoretical ideas with respect to language, and raises a number of issues on classroom language and academic discourse. Bourdieu's approach is considered…

  16. Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…

  17. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  18. Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  19. Research in Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Ute

    2017-01-01

    Since its inception in 1990, the Language Testing Research Centre (LTRC) at the University of Melbourne has earned an international reputation for its work in the areas of language assessment and testing as well as program evaluation. The mission of the centre is: (1) to carry out and promote research and development in language testing; (2) to…

  20. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  1. Second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.J.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Starren, M.B.P.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of second language acquisition research from a psycholinguistic perspective. The overview is mainly focused on cross-language interactions during word and sentence production and comprehension at different points in the second-language acquisition process. The

  2. Languages for Dublin Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on languages for the Dublin Core, examines the experience of some related ways to seek semantic interoperability through simplicity: planned languages, interlingua constructs, and pidgins. Also defines the conceptual and organizational problem of maintaining a metadata standard in multiple languages. (AEF)

  3. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    A child with language disorder may have one or two of the symptoms listed below, or many of the symptoms. Symptoms ... Parents who are concerned that their child's speech or language is ... to a speech and language therapist. Children who are diagnosed ...

  4. English as a Forgotten Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Graeme

    1999-01-01

    Examined how living outside native-language environments, and subsequent language attrition, affected the language model provided by native speakers teaching English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) in Spain. Surveys indicated that the first language was a changeable system susceptible to the pervasive influence of the second language and to the…

  5. LANGUAGE TRAVEL SUPPLY: LANGUAGE TOURISM PRODUCT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.

  6. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  7. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  8. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  9. Local languages as the languages of internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    student mobility, the local language of the host university can become the language of internationalization. As a starting point, I distinguish with Beck (2000) between globalization as a historical process and its result, viz. the ever changing degree of globality in world society, and from the ideology...... that is both the result and the bearer of globalization, viz. globalism. English has reached a degree of globality unprecedented by any language, but it is rather a part of the ideology of globalism to claim that it is everywhere. Still, most universities focus in their internationalization strategy heavily...

  10. Chaos and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, W Garrett; Nowak, Martin A

    2004-04-01

    Human language is a complex communication system with unlimited expressibility. Children spontaneously develop a native language by exposure to linguistic data from their speech community. Over historical time, languages change dramatically and unpredictably by accumulation of small changes and by interaction with other languages. We have previously developed a mathematical model for the acquisition and evolution of language in heterogeneous populations of speakers. This model is based on game dynamical equations with learning. Here, we show that simple examples of such equations can display complex limit cycles and chaos. Hence, language dynamical equations mimic complicated and unpredictable changes of languages over time. In terms of evolutionary game theory, we note that imperfect learning can induce chaotic switching among strict Nash equilibria.

  11. Maximally Atomic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Brzozowski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

  12. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  13. Language Acquisition in Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Belzner, Megan; Roman, Jorge H

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the nature of language acquisition in computers, guided by techniques similar to those used in children. While existing natural language processing methods are limited in scope and understanding, our system aims to gain an understanding of language from first principles and hence minimal initial input. The first portion of our system was implemented in Java and is focused on understanding the morphology of language using bigrams. We use frequency distributions and differences between them to define and distinguish languages. English and French texts were analyzed to determine a difference threshold of 55 before the texts are considered to be in different languages, and this threshold was verified using Spanish texts. The second portion of our system focuses on gaining an understanding of the syntax of a language using a recursive method. The program uses one of two possible methods to analyze given sentences based on either sentence patterns or surrounding words. Both methods have been i...

  14. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts transfer from either language for individual words, whereas an accumulation account predicts cumulative transfer from both languages. To compare these accounts, twenty English-German bilingual adults were taught an artificial language containing 48 novel written words that varied orthogonally in English and German wordlikeness (neighborhood size and orthotactic probability). Wordlikeness in each language improved word production accuracy, and similarity to one language provided the same benefit as dual-language overlap. In addition, participants' memory for novel words was affected by the statistical distributions of letters in the novel language. Results indicate that bilinguals utilize both languages during third language acquisition, supporting a scaffolding learning model.

  15. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Tragant

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the more recent research-based proposals of integrating some degree of focus on form in meaning-based curricula. Following Ellis (1998, four macro-options of focus-on-form interventions and their theoretical motivations are presented, followed by recent research evidence: input processing, input enhancement, formfocused output and negative feedback. The last section of the paper deals with two related pedagogical issues: the choice of linguistic forms in focused instruction and its benefits depending on individual factors and the learning context.

  16. Language Death, Language Genesis, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Frances; Crosby, Alfred W.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that linguistics has great potential value for historians. Contends that the pidgin and creole languages of the former colonies of European nations provide avenues for examining the histories of "people without history." (CFR)

  17. Communicative Language Teaching in Second Language Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Juan

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionReturn the class to the students and let the students be the masters of the class.This is what I have changed during the last three years in my class.I have been using Communicative Language Teaching method instead of Grammar Translation method.In the Grammar Translation method, students only study grammar and learn lists of words and then translate what they have learned into Chinese.In the classroom,the teacher uses the students' first language to explain the grammar and vocabulary in the text and then helps the students to translate it.This method is based on the idea that language is made up of words and that language changes according to the grammar rules.

  18. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its spread around the world. At the same time, the Russian Government has approved a number of relevant documents, established the Council on the Russian language under the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as established the Council on the Russian language under the President of the Russian Federation. The large-scale package of measures aimed at promotion of the Russian language as an official language and as a language of international communication, as well as at supporting the Russian language abroad, has been implemented in the framework of the three federal target Russian language programs. However, the analysis of implementation of the mentioned above programs, as well as received social effects and current practice does not provide relevant solutions for the major problems and does not always correspond to the rapidly changing realities.Practical significance. The perspective directions of the state language policy in the field of the Russian language and literature are specified and formulated: the analysis of the programs and projects aimed at the development, distribution and support of the Russian language; providing coordination of actions of executive authorities in the presented study; improvement of the Russian language studying quality in schools in accordance with features of the general education in the national republics; professional level improvement of teachers of the Russian language; preservation of national languages of

  19. English Classroom Language and Teaching Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文波

    2008-01-01

    @@ Classroom language is an extremely important form of talk.In a foreign language classroom,the teacher has to organize language teaching by using the target language.Therefore,classroom language in foreign language teaching seems more important.

  20. The Influence of Second Language Attrition on Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臻

    2012-01-01

    Besides the sessions of teaching and learning in language learning activities,language attrition,as the concomitant product of language acquisition,exerts significant impact on language teaching,especially on foreign language teaching.By exploring this phenomenon,some effective ways against language attrition can be found in order to maximize foreign language teaching.This paper is about to illustrate the relevant theories from scholars at home and abroad,and providing some ways to help foreign language learners maintain the language proficiency.

  1. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  2. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  3. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  4. Language Ideologies of Arizona Voters, Language Managers, and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Doolan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…

  5. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts…

  6. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  7. Perspectives on Europe: Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Muller, Karis, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Language Issues and Language Planning in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat and Karis Muller); "Language and National Identity" (Peter M. Hill); "Language Planning, Linguistic Diversity and Democracy in Europe" (Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Language Competition in European…

  8. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts…

  9. Ambiguity in language networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, Ricard V

    2014-01-01

    Human language defines the most complex outcomes of evolution. The emergence of such an elaborated form of communication allowed humans to create extremely structured societies and manage symbols at different levels including, among others, semantics. All linguistic levels have to deal with an astronomic combinatorial potential that stems from the recursive nature of languages. This recursiveness is indeed a key defining trait. However, not all words are equally combined nor frequent. In breaking the symmetry between less and more often used and between less and more meaning-bearing units, universal scaling laws arise. Such laws, common to all human languages, appear on different stages from word inventories to networks of interacting words. Among these seemingly universal traits exhibited by language networks, ambiguity appears to be a specially relevant component. Ambiguity is avoided in most computational approaches to language processing, and yet it seems to be a crucial element of language architecture. ...

  10. Social understanding and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    امین یزدی امین یزدی

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction requires the ability to understand people’s mental states (their intentions, desires and believes. The ability for attributing mental states is called “theory of mind.” Theory of mind leads the person to explain and predict behavior. Researchers showed a great interest in the relation of language and mind/language and thought. Some researchers focused on methodological concerns and explain how language influences children’s performance in the area of theory of mind. Others argue that language plays a causal role on developing mental theory reasoning. The writer of this article has discussed the theories and researches done in the area of language abilities and mental theory reasoning. Keywords: Language, mental theory, false belief

  11. Language as skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...

  12. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2008-01-01

    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  13. Do First Language Writing and Second Language Reading Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An Assessment Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    FNIGNUMBE SDo First Language Writing and Second Language ReadingLn Equal Second Language Reading Comprehension? An _ Assessment Dilemma ~ -6. AUTHOR...young writer knows about writing in the first language forms the basis of new hypotheses rather than interferes with writing in another language" (1982, p...Jones and Tetroe (1987) interpret this finding as "strong, direct data for the transfer of first - language skill to the second language" (p. 55). Like

  14. Avionics Architecture Modelling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alana, Elena; Naranjo, Hector; Valencia, Raul; Medina, Alberto; Honvault, Christophe; Rugina, Ana; Panunzia, Marco; Dellandrea, Brice; Garcia, Gerald

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the ESA AAML (Avionics Architecture Modelling Language) study, which aimed at advancing the avionics engineering practices towards a model-based approach by (i) identifying and prioritising the avionics-relevant analyses, (ii) specifying the modelling language features necessary to support the identified analyses, and (iii) recommending/prototyping software tooling to demonstrate the automation of the selected analyses based on a modelling language and compliant with the defined specification.

  15. How Languages Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸禺

    2009-01-01

    @@ Languages are shaped and changed inmany ways.New words are brought to acountry through trade(商贸),war,orsettlers(移民)from a foreign land.When theRomans conquered(控制)the nations ofwestern and southern Europe,the languages of the conquered landswere replaced(取代)by the Latin of the Romans.Spanish became themajor language of South America because most of the original(最初的)conquerors and settlers came from Spain.

  16. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  17. Language and Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Markus; Meurers, Detmar

    2012-01-01

    Language and Computers introduces students to the fundamentals of how computers are used to represent, process, and organize textual and spoken information. Concepts are grounded in real-world examples familiar to students’ experiences of using language and computers in everyday life. A real-world introduction to the fundamentals of how computers process language, written specifically for the undergraduate audience, introducing key concepts from computational linguistics. Offers a comprehensive explanation of the problems computers face in handling natural language Covers a broad spectru

  18. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  19. The evolutionary language game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M A; Plotkin, J B; Krakauer, D C

    1999-09-21

    We explore how evolutionary game dynamics have to be modified to accomodate a mathematical framework for the evolution of language. In particular, we are interested in the evolution of vocabulary, that is associations between signals and objects. We assume that successful communication contributes to biological fitness: individuals who communicate well leave more offspring. Children inherit from their parents a strategy for language learning (a language acquisition device). We consider three mechanisms whereby language is passed from one generation to the next: (i) parental learning: children learn the language of their parents; (ii) role model learning: children learn the language of individuals with a high payoff; and (iii) random learning: children learn the language of randomly chosen individuals. We show that parental and role model learning outperform random learning. Then we introduce mistakes in language learning and study how this process changes language over time. Mistakes increase the overall efficacy of parental and role model learning: in a world with errors evolutionary adaptation is more efficient. Our model also provides a simple explanation why homonomy is common while synonymy is rare. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Usability of XML Query Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaumans, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language which enables re-use of information. Specific query languages for XML are developed to facilitate this. There are large differences between history, design goal, and syntax of the XML query languages. However, in practice these languages are

  1. Language and the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  2. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  3. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  4. On Language Anxiety and Countermeasures in University Spoken Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2013-01-01

    Language anxiety is the anxiety or disconcerted feeling felt by language learners when they need to express in foreign languages or second foreign language. Anxiety is very important emotional barrier in language learning, and it has important im⁃pact on language learning, especially on spoken language learning. The general lack of spoken language capacity in university stu⁃dents is an incontrovertible fact, and language anxiety is one of the important reasons that cause the imperfect effect of spoken lan⁃guage teaching. This article generally talks about the main reasons for language anxiety, which include the barrier by self-esteem, risk-taking, competitiveness to spoken language learning of university students. This article also discusses a series of countermea⁃sure to ease the language anxiety, so as to reduce the anxiety effectively to promote the teaching of university spoken English.

  5. Covert Translation, Language Contact and Language Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliane House

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports on a project which applies the model of translation evaluation designed by the present author to the question of whether the English language in its role as a global lingua franca changes textual norms in other European languages over and above the massive, well-known lexical import from English into other languages.Following a description of the project's background, design and corpus, the qualitative analytical procedure is outlined, a few exemplary qualitative comparative analyses in two genres (popular science and economic texts) as well as the results of validating qualitative analyses examining translations from English into other languages (French, Spanish) are discussed. The qualitative analyses are then supplemented by quantitative diachronic analyses of a number of linguistic elements expressing "subjectivity" and "addressee orientation", as these were found to be primarily affected by the influence of the English language. The paper closes with a brief outlook on the present project phase, where a new cycle of qualitative analyses is conducted, in which those "vulnerable" linguistic forms found to have markedly changed in frequency in the corpus over time (such as personal pronouns, markers of modality or co-ordinate conjunctions) are re-contextualized and investigated in aligned subcorpora in terms of the translation relation and the co-occurrences holding for each individual form in the English and German texts.

  6. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children.

  7. Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Hismanoglu

    2010-01-01

    @@ This paper aims at emphasizing the importance of language learning strategies in foreign language learning and teaching. It summarizes the background of language learning strategies, defines the concept of a language learning strategy, and outlines the taxonomy of language learning strategies proposed by several researchers. It also takes into account the teacher's role in strategy training and poses questions for further research on language learning strategies.

  8. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu; 竹内, 理

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (ⅰ) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ⅱ) the variables affecting the use of language learning str...

  9. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  10. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  11. Culture Transmission in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-qun

    2003-01-01

    Culture and language have close relation and are combined together . So teaching language is a process of teaching cultural knowledge . And teaching language is not perfect without teaching the factors of culture.

  12. Language extinction and linguistic fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-05-06

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction-diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data.

  13. INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE IMPLEMENTATION AND NATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    language teaching and use in the early child education stages can enhance nation building. .... Experience. 48 the second language learners (L2) and a multilingual nation. Is it ... banish the indigenous cultures and languages, but to erect a ...

  14. Language and Culture: Nigerian Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking was first proposed by .... spoken to. Children will grow up learning only to speak when an adult addresses .... Implications for Language Teaching and Language Policy in Nigeria.

  15. Late Blooming or Language Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Than One Language Adult Speech and Language Child Speech and Language Swallowing and Feeding Self-Help Groups Find a Professional Advertising Disclaimer Advertise with us About Us The American ...

  16. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  17. Moodling English Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  18. The Spoofax language workbench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Spoofax is a language workbench for efficient, agile development of textual domain-specific languages with state-of-the-art IDE support. It provides a comprehensive environment that integrates syntax definition, program transformation, code generation, and declarative specification of IDE

  19. Language and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first article is a condensation of an essay and lesson plan focusing on racism in the English language. All language transmits and reinforces societal values. Through a discussion of color symbolism, politics and terminology, "loaded" words and the syndrome of "blaming the victim", this article shows how subtle--and not so subtle--racism…

  20. The Study of Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the study of language based on two aspects: structure and meaning.The paper first gives definition of language.Secondly,the paper summarizes the basic contents of phonology,morphology,syntax,semantics,and pragmatics.Then it focuses on the cooperative principle and the reasons why people violate the maxims and the functions of conversational implicature.

  1. Foreign Language Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkmaier, Emma; Lange, Dale

    1967-01-01

    This review of research in foreign language instruction summarizes and interprets selected studies produced during the period 1963-66. Topics covered include the psychology of learning, comparisons o f methods, language skills, visual-auditory relationships, vocabulary, grammar, and FLES, as well as programed instruction, technological media,…

  2. Urban Wall Languaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. Normann

    2008-01-01

    Graffiti constitutes a medium through which the youth express opposition to authorities, as well as desires, dreams, and hopes. Graffiti shows many of the linguistic characteristics of youth language, including playfulness and, first and foremost, polylingual languaging. Graffiti in almost every city, at least in Europe, uses English and one or…

  3. Sheltered Initiation Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bar-Lev, Zev

    1993-01-01

    A multilanguage project for development of a foreign-language curriculum is reported along with the teaching method that has evolved from it. The method is represented primarily in a set of "mini-courses," each being a short introduction to a given language. (Contains 34 references.) (Author/LB)

  4. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  5. Philosophy and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyum, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore different ways of picturing language learning in philosophy, all of them inspired by Wittgenstein and all of them concerned about scepticism of meaning. I start by outlining the two pictures of children and language learning that emerge from Kripke's famous reading of Wittgenstein. Next, I explore how social-pragmatic…

  6. Reflections on Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

    The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

  7. Language and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  8. The Spoofax language workbench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Spoofax is a language workbench for efficient, agile development of textual domain-specific languages with state-of-the-art IDE support. It provides a comprehensive environment that integrates syntax definition, program transformation, code generation, and declarative specification of IDE components

  9. Signed languages and globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf people who form part of a Deaf community communicate using a shared sign language. When meeting people from another language community, they can fall back on a flexible and highly context-dependent form of communication called international sign, in which shared elements from their own sign

  10. The Lozanov Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In Sofia, Bulgaria, at the Institute of Suggestology headed by Dr. Georgi Lozanov, yoga relaxation has been combined with the Mauger oral method to produce a unique system of foreign language teaching: Suggestopedia. In a pleasant classroom, 12 students sit in specail chairs in front of a teacher individually trained in the foreign language and in…

  11. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  12. Literary and Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Gives a broad overview of developments in using literary texts in language teaching. Describes both language-based and stylistic approaches to the use of literary texts and draws particular attention to the way in which non-literary genres draw on literary devices for their effects. (Author/VWL)

  13. Languages of Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rutten

    2014-01-01

    Digital Russia provides a comprehensive analysis of the ways in which new media technologies have shaped language and communication in contemporary Russia. It traces the development of the Russian-language internet, explores the evolution of web-based communication practices, showing how they have b

  14. Conceptualizing Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Songren

    1993-01-01

    Discusses both Canale's and Bachman's theoretical frameworks of language proficiency (LP). These theories share the same standpoint: language use for communication is dynamic; LP is both knowledge and skills; and LP includes at least grammatical competence, discourse/textual competence, and sociolinguistic competence. (Contains 38 references.) (JP)

  15. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  16. Pathways of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    Prepared by teachers for teachers, this practical classroom guide offers a process of monitoring language development and planning for development within a whole language framework, supported by a compendium of appropriate practice to be drawn on when needed. The guide (1) emphasizes the interdependence of reading, writing, talking, and listening;…

  17. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  18. The Language of Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of learning the language of mathematics including vocabulary and grammar, the origins of the vocabulary, the pronunciation problem, and translation of English phrases and sentences into mathematical language accompanied by conceptual understanding of the process being described. Gives suggestions for teachers in class and…

  19. Technology in Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquith, Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    In this special issue on technology in language teaching, major articles include: "Sociocultural Aspects of Second Language Acquisition" (David Nunan); "The Need for Multi-Media ESL Teaching Methods: A Psychological Investigation into Learning Styles" (Don W. Hinkelman, Jay M. Pysock); "Can Japanese Children Learn English?" (David Paul);…

  20. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  1. Second Language at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    The articles in this publication discuss theoretical issues in relation to the teaching/learning of a second language in the workplace and present practical experiences from workplace language programmes for immigrant workers carried out in a number of European countries....

  2. Quantum programming languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    After giving a bird's view of some existing quantum programming languages,this paper reports the recent results made by the quantum computation group of the State Key Laboratory for Novel Software Technology and the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Nanjing University,i.e.,the quantum programming languages NDQJava,NDQFP and their processing systems.

  3. Learning Another Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first modern school in Tibet practices bilingual education to enhance students’language-speaking skills Tashi Tsehi is in the sixth grade at the Experimental Primary School of Qamdo Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region. Besides Tibetan, the native language of her ethnic group, the 14-year-old

  4. Language and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the effects of aging on language usage focusing on three areas of exploration: (1) changes in language in relation to changes in other cognitive abilities, (2) the linguistic consequences of normal aging versus those of dementia and aphasia, and (3) age-group differences in patterns of conversational interaction. (67 references) (GLR)

  5. Technologies for Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Jill; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current and developing technology uses that are relevant to language assessment and discusses examples of recent linguistic applications from the laboratory at the Educational Testing Service. The processes of language test development are described and the functions they serve from the perspective of a large testing organization are…

  6. GRAMMAR IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Nongxin

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Definition of grammar Grammar is the science dealing with the systematic rules of a language, its forms, inflections, syntax, and the art of using them correctly. It is summarized from language use and practice, and reflects the logic of thinking in people's speech or writing.

  7. The 'language' problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    When we talk metaphorically of language as a ‘thing' or a ‘structure', we are using a ‘systematically misleading expression' [Ryle, G., 1951. Systematically Misleading Expressions. In: Flew, A. (Ed.), Essays on Logic and Language (I). Basil Blackwell, Oxford]. The term makes us think of...

  8. Online Estonian Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  9. Constitutionalising Language: A Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    , South Africa, the states parties of the Nordic Language Convention and the United States. While most of the paper is a detailed analysis of US constitutional decisions, the treatment of the other countries seems to be highly relevant to the constitutional accommodation of languages in the new state...

  10. Global Language Contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hamans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, three recent morphological processes are studied, i.e. blending, libfixing and clipping. These processes have only just recently become productive in the prestigious global languages of English and/or French. As a result, the speakers of less prestigious and distant languages have bor

  11. Two Functions of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  12. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pann Yu Mon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly needed, especially when more and more Web sites are coming up with localized content in multiple languages. In this study, the design and the architecture of language specific search engine for Myanmar language is proposed. The main feature of the system are, (1 it can search the multiple encodings of the Myanmar Web page, (2 the system is designed to comply with the specific features of the Myanmar language. Finally the experiment has been done to prove whether it meets the design requirements.

  13. Two Functions of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  14. Translation between representation languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  15. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  16. Language Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  17. Early Dual Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genesee, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

  18. Learning a Third Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiste, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Reports on three investigations concerning the acquisition of a third language in bilingual immigrant students in Germany and Sweden. The results suggest that immigrant students who always use Swedish at home but have passive knowledge of their first language clearly perform better in English than do Swedish monolingual students. (SL)

  19. Integrating Language and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  20. Controversy within Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    1987-01-01

    A review of problems with using such manual communication systems as cued speech, fingerspelling, Signed or Manual English, American Sign Language, and Pidgin Sign provides a rationale for using a combination of American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign and a few markers from Signed English for a Total Communication system. (CB)

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of life are the most crucial to a child’s development of language skills, and even the early months of life ... about communication options. Parents can then start their child’s language learning process during this important early stage of development. What research is being done on ASL and ...

  2. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  3. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  4. Features of Women's language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何延凌

    2008-01-01

    Language is a means of verbal communication.People use language to communicate with each other.In the society,no two speakers are exactly alike in the way of speaking.Some differences are due to age,gender,statue and personality. Above all,gender is one of the obvious reasons.The writer of this paper tries to describe the features of women's language from these perspectives: pronunciation,intonation,diction,subjects,grammar and discourse.From the discussion of the features of women's language,more attention should be paid to language use in social context.What's more,the linguistic phenomena in a speaking community can be understood more thoroughly.

  5. Creativity in language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C Richards

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in learners – particularly those involving studentcentred, interaction-based, and open-ended elements. Drawing on teacher narratives and conversations with teachers, the notion of creativity in language teaching is explored from three different perspectives: 1. the qualities creative teachers possess. 2. how teachers apply creativity in their teaching. 3. how creativity can be supported in the school. Examples illustrate how creative teachers’ conceptualize their approaches to teaching.

  6. Language universals at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A H; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-04-22

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2-5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition.

  7. The language growth of spanish-speaking English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raúl; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples (6,516 Spanish; 5,732 English) produced by 1,723 ELLs during the first 3 years of formal schooling (M age at first observation = 5 years 7 months). Results indicated distinct trajectories of language growth over time for each language differentially impacted by summer vacation and gender, significant intra- and interindividual differences in initial status and growth rates across both languages, and language-specific relations between language growth and initial status. Implications of ELLs' language growth are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    CERN Document Server

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezhil and a few example programs are reported here, from the initial proof-of-concept implementation using the Python programming language1. To the best of our knowledge, Ezhil language is the first freely available Tamil programming language.

  9. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  10. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  11. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  12. Language and Gender in English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Murni

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the impact of gender differences in English Language Teaching. It explores students' learning styles as affected by the notions about men and women differences in communication. The data collected in 2008 from 20 males and 20 females' English students of the State University of Makassar. It is to reveal their attitudes…

  13. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  14. First Language Status and Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of growing numbers in high schools and colleges, US-resident adolescent bilingual learners, sometimes termed "English as a second language" (ESL) or "Generation 1.5," are not succeeding academically in proportion to their monolingual English-speaking peers. This achievement gap is evident in their writing as they enter…

  15. Languages of Immigrants as Modern Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans H.; Pornbacher, Ulrike

    Policy and planning concerning the minority languages of immigrants are discussed, focusing on three countries receiving many immigrants: England, France, and Germany. First, similarities and differences in the immigration histories of the three countries, and in their policies concerning education of immigrants, are examined. Then policy…

  16. Smart Cities and Languages: The Language Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gobbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze the potential of smart cities from a linguistic perspective, with particular attention towards aspects such as second language acquisition (SLA, social inclusion and innovation, but also positive influences on sectors such as tourism and commerce. After an introduction of the theoretical foundations, the possible developing scenarios will be taken into consideration and analyzed more in detail.

  17. Critical language awareness in foreign language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farias

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a panoramic description of the ways in which the so-called Critical Language Awareness (CLA, can contribute to the teaching and learning of English as a global language, which increasingly involves a wide range of visual, verbal, and digitally-delivered media and modes of communication. The overview presented begins with the concept of Language Awareness, and goes into more depth with respect to that of Critical Language Awareness, establishing a parallel with Paulo Freire´s conception based on the notions of social justice, identity, power and inequality. Finally, the history of the teaching of foreign languages in Chile is presented, and a broader sense of the concept of discourse is outlined, that of multimedia discourseEste trabajo ofrece una descripción panorámica de las formas en que la Conciencia Crítica de la Lengua puede contribuir en la enseñanza y aprendizaje del Inglés como lengua global, lo cual incluye un conjunto de medios digitales y modalidades de comunicación visuales y verbales. La panorámica ofrecida comienza con el concepto de Conciencia de la Lengua, se detiene en mayor profundidad en el de Conciencia Crítica de la Lengua y establece un paralelo con el impacto de Paulo Freire y su concepción basada en las nociones de justicia social, identidad, poder e inequidad. Finalmente, se presenta el desarrollo histórico en contexto de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras en Chile y se detalla el sentido más amplio en que el discurso está siendo definido, aquel de "discurso multimedia"

  18. 75 FR 13751 - Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Office of English Language Acquisition; Overview Information; Language Enhancement, and Academic... Deputy Secretary and Director for the Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic...

  19. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Formulaic speech in disorders of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sidtis

    2014-04-01

    Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.

  1. Dutch gender in specific language impairment and second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orgassa, A.; Weerman, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we compare five groups of learners acquiring Dutch gender as marked on determiners and adjectival inflection. Groups of L1 (first language) children and L1-SLI (first-language specific-language-impairment) children are compared to three Turkish-Dutch L2 (second language) groups: adul

  2. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  3. Language Impairments in Sign Language: Breakthroughs and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gary; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment has previously solely been documented for children acquiring spoken languages, despite informal reports of deaf children with possible sign language disorder. The paper reports the case of a deaf child exposed to British Sign Language (BSL) from birth, who has significant developmental deficits in the…

  4. First language acquisition and first language attrition : parallels and divergences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2010-01-01

    Linguists have always been interested in studying imperfect language systems, such as child language or the grammar of second language learners, because it is only when 'things are not quite right' that we can see how language must be organized in the brain. In more recent years, studies have tried

  5. Language Ideology, Language Theory, and the Regulation of Linguistic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seargeant, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between entrenched beliefs about language ("language ideologies") and the linguistic system, and considers how conflicts between propositional and procedural knowledge about language have an effect upon the way in which language is regulated within society. It examines the epistemological foundations for…

  6. Exploring Language Awareness through Students' Engagement in Language Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores Korean students' demonstration of language awareness through their engagement in language play. Grounded in the understanding of the relationship between language play and an "engagement with language" (EWL) perspective, this ethnographic and discourse analytic study investigates how Korean students aged 11-15…

  7. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  8. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  9. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  10. The Role of Language Laboratory in English Language Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdelaziz

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at determining the relationship between language labs and the effective ways of mastering better performance of English language. The study raised two questions. They are "Is language laboratory useful in teaching English to Saudi students?" And "How do language labs help in improving students' performance?"…

  11. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  12. Developing Children's Language Awareness: Switching Codes in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoll, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how learning an additional language can positively affect children's opinions and feelings about languages and how this process can be enriched when different languages--namely, the additional language and the children's L1s--are present and used in the classroom in an informed way. It is hypothesised that this will benefit…

  13. Ethics and Revitalization of Dormant Languages: The Mutsun Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Warner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Language revitalization (either increasing the use of an endangered language or bringing back a language with no speakers brings up many ethical issues, beginning with whether it is even legitimate to attempt such revitalization. Language communities and linguists must address these issues if revitalization is to succeed in any of its goals. In this paper, we discuss the ethical issues we have encountered and the choices we have made about them during revitalization work with the Mutsun language (a dormant Costanoan language of California. We argue that language revitalization is a useful and legitimate application of linguistic knowledge.

  14. Language in Web Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Having taught and carried out research in LSP and business communication for many years, I have come across, again and again, the problems arising from the inferior status of language in the business environment. Being convinced that it does not have to be so, instead of going on trying to convin...... non-linguistically trained colleagues of the importance of language via the usual arguments, I suggest that we let them experience the problems arising from the non-recognition of the importance of language via a Web communication crash course, inspired by a course taught to BA students...

  15. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  16. On Advertisement Language Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-lu

    2015-01-01

    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  17. Communicative Language Teaching: The Cornerstone of Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Fischback, Sierra

    2012-01-01

    This portfolio is comprised of a compilation of papers written by the author while completing the Master of Second Language Teaching (MSLT) program at Utah State University. The focus of the portfolio is a teaching philosophy outlining the author’s beliefs on how to foster effective language teaching in the university foreign language classroom. Included as well are artifacts addressing coping with culture shock, effective forms of language learning, and reading in foreign language literature...

  18. A Study on Language Attrition : Applicability to English Language Education

    OpenAIRE

    深沢, 清治

    1984-01-01

    Vast amount of time, energy and funding have been invested to the development of curriculum, materials, and methodology to further second language learning. With the recent trend of growing concern to the study of second language acquisition, we know quite a lot about its process: how people learn languages. Utilizing the research results of second language acquisition, we tend to consider second language learning solely as a process of acquiring a competence. By contrast, little attentio...

  19. Theoretical Study of First Language Transfer in Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱达希

    2015-01-01

    The role and impact offirst language knowledge and how it affects Chinese learners' learning process are significant issues in second language learning.In discussing the role of first language transfer in second language learning,the theoretical understanding of first language transfer will be considered.The next section will go into further detail in the implications and suggestions for teaching and learning English writing and finally conclusions will be drawn from the reading and discussions within this paper.

  20. Theoretical Study of First Language Transfer in Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱达希

    2015-01-01

    The role and impact of first language knowledge and how it affects Chinese learners’ learning process are significant issues in second language learning.In discussing the role of first language transfer in second language learning,the theoretical understanding of first language transfer will be considered.The next section will go into further detail in the implications and suggestions for teaching and learning English writing and finally conclusions will be drawn from the reading and discussions within this paper.

  1. The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise. PMID:21076645

  2. Another Language Is Another Soul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    For many language learners, studying a foreign language is a compulsory, high-stakes activity. It is perhaps for this reason that positive feelings about language learning are rarely mentioned in the literature on language learning. The focus is predominantly on negative feelings: the anxiety caused by being asked to speak in the foreign language…

  3. First and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海燕

    2007-01-01

    Though there are similarities between child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition,this paper explores the differences between these two processes from several aspects and gives the suggestions that how we language teachers teach L2 students well in language teaching.

  4. Swaziland's Language Policy for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordaunt, Owen G.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Swaziland's language policy for schools and efforts to promote siSwati as a national language capable of fostering cultural pride and national unity. Quotes government circulars on language instruction. Suggests that English is a co-official language because it aids education and is necessary for international communication in science,…

  5. A Leaner, Meaner Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium developed and released a simpler form of markup language, Extensible Markup Language (XML), combining the flexibility of standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Web suitability of HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Reviews SGML and discusses XML's suitability for journal…

  6. Foreign and Second Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…

  7. A Temporal Web Ontology Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Milea (Viorel); F. Frasincar (Flavius); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe Web Ontology Language (OWL) is the most expressive standard language for modeling ontologies on the Semantic Web. In this paper, we present a temporal extension of the very expressive fragment SHIN(D) of the OWL-DL language resulting in the tOWL language. Through a layered approach w

  8. Indexed Languages and Unification Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Burheim, T

    1995-01-01

    Indexed languages are interesting in computational linguistics because they are the least class of languages in the Chomsky hierarchy that has not been shown not to be adequate to describe the string set of natural language sentences. We here define a class of unification grammars that exactly describe the class of indexed languages.

  9. The Language Situation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terborg, Roland; Landa, Laura Garcia; Moore, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    This monograph will cover the language situation in Mexico; a linguistically very complex country with 62 recognised indigenous languages, the "de facto" official language, Spanish, and some immigrant languages of lesser importance. Throughout the monograph, we will concentrate on three distinct challenges which we consider relevant for…

  10. Language Teaching=Linguistic Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism is the expansion of a small number of privileged languages at the cost of a large number of others. The language teaching profession needs to address the ecological impact of language teaching and focus on the well-being of the inhabitants of a language ecology rather than on the economic benefits of the teaching…

  11. Language as a biological entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒音

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nowadays, the metaphor of "languageas abiological entity"claimed by some linguists being used widely has become a hot issue. Language and biological entity indeed share a lot of similarities,specifically,the life cycle of languages and the process of the language evolution and the spread of languages.

  12. English as an African Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  13. Recent Research on Language Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, MaryEllen

    2003-01-01

    Describes recent research on language maintenance to provide broad, worldwide coverage of different language contact situations. Surveys various countries in which research within ethnic and minority language communities illuminates language maintenance or shift, or revitalization, for that group. (Author/VWL)

  14. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  15. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  16. Television Exposure and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnow, Gary W.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

    1982-01-01

    A language sample and television viewing log were collected from 93 preschool children to explore the relationship between viewing habits and spoken language. Findings showed a negative inverse relationship between language sophistication levels and television exposure, and suggested support for an environmentalist theory of language development.…

  17. Parallel context-free languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1974-01-01

    The relation between the family of context-free languages and the family of parallel context-free languages is examined in this paper. It is proved that the families are incomparable. Finally we prove that the family of languages of finite index is contained in the family of parallel context......-free languages....

  18. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  19. Language and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君

    2011-01-01

    As the carrier of culture,language is considered as the main expressional form of culture which develops with nation,country and society’s development.Language is a part of a nation’s culture.The different nations own their unique cultures,his-tory,manners and customs and so on.However,various cultural characteristics can be displayed in the form of language.This ar-ticle,by analyzing the influence and the difference of historical culture,regional culture and custom culture,mainly reveals the relationship between language and culture which is interdependent and interactive.What’s more,a better comprehension of this relationship prevents us from misunderstanding in cross-culture communication.

  20. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    and of its crucial notion of habit with the so-called “extended mind hypothesis” and ii) the application of such a framework on cognitive linguistic conceptions of language. This was necessary to develop a sound conceptual reflection on how social and intersubjective linguistic activities put to play......The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... by bodily structures and activities as well as by social and intersubjective dynamics of coordination. The current investigation adds to the picture the role of language using theoretical analysis, corpus linguistics and experimental behavioural techniques. The aim was indeed to develop a framework...

  1. Nursing's language barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Davin

    2017-08-02

    There should be no compromise on the English language test for overseas nurses. Their skill level is not in question, but it is no good if they cannot understand what patients are saying, or patients cannot understand them.

  2. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... As they grow older, children with SLI will struggle to learn new words and make conversation. Having ... studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers ...

  3. Language and Group Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Explores the tension between the manner in which intergroup language differences are used to symbolize group membership and the manner in which they mirror and reinforce social class and power distinctions. (EKN)

  4. Handbook for Language Detectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryanne, Ulla; Bruntt, Karen Scheel Lassen

    Handbook for Language Detectives gives a thorough presentation of English grammar and discusses how to teach grammar. The book unveils to the readers, who will be working as grammar detectives, the fascinating world of language. It does not only deal with "traditional grammar" but also discusses...... what different grammatical structures mean (semantics) and how they influence the level of style (pragmatics). Grammar should not be taught as a separate discipline; it can and should be integrated in communicative language teaching. The book gives you innovative and valuable ideas of how this can...... be done. The book serves a double purpose: - English grammar and language usage at bachelor level from a functional linguistic point of view. - How to teach English grammar within a communicative approach. The book is mainly intended for Danish student teachers of English, but anyone else interested...

  5. Language and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Reviews recent applied linguistic research on science and language, especially studies conducted during the period between 1990 and 1998. Outlines major changes that have taken place in this area since van Naerssen and Kaplan's 1987 review. (Author/VWL)

  6. Developing Bigraphical Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer

    , a prototype tool for experimenting with bigraphical reactive systems. In a second line of work, we study bigraphical reactive systems as a vehicle for developing a language to model biochemical reactions at the level of cells and proteins. We discuss and isolate B,R-calculi, a family of bigraphical reactive......In this dissertation, we study bigraphical languages—languages based on the theory for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems developed by Milner and coworkers. We begin by examining algebraic theory for binding bigraphs. We give a term language for binding bigraphs and develop a complete...... systems that we deem sufficient for the language. We develop a self-contained presentation of the syntax and operational semantics for B,R-calculi that exploits the restrictions we have made on the family. We also treat how one may extend certain bigraphical reaction rules to include negative contextual...

  7. Language, Subject, Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A. Ivanov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s  discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology. 

  8. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment. Many children are identified as having a speech or language impairment after they enter the public school system. A teacher may notice difficulties in a child’s speech or communication skills and refer the child for ...

  9. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  10. Language attitudes in the second language situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Roos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van akkulturasie word behandel, asook die invloed daarvan op die motivering van Engels Tweede Taal-leerders. Die skrywer onderskei verder tussen integrerende en instmmentale motivering. Die onderwysers se houding teenoor die taal word ook bespreek, asook die gevare van bevooroordeeldheid en stereotipering. Veranderinge in houdings word ontleed, en vera! die rol wat die onderwyser speel om die veranderinge teweeg te bring.

  11. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  12. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Animal Bites - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Library of Medicine Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  13. Automatic Language Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Phonology . A "phoneme" is an underlying men- THIS WORK WAS SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT tal representation of a phonological unit in a lan- OF DEFENSE...34 is a realization of an acoustic- FORCE. phonetic unit or segment. It is the actual sound 106 ACOUSTIC AND LANGUAGE MODEL LIBRARY AFRIKAANS...LID. HMM-based language identification phonetic transcription (sequence of symbols representing was first proposed by House and Neuburg [17]. Savic

  14. Language Training in MIBOLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    without outside 3 instruction, particularly regarding pronunciation . While the Army has an array of language curriculums available, including...a basic knowledge of Pashto or Dari could teach basic language skills to their subordinates or peers, exponentially expanding the long term benefits...would be preferred to have a teacher who speaks Dari or Pashto come in to teach the classes, there is no one qualified at Fort Huachuca. The best

  15. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  16. Second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Indefrey, P; Davidson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neurocognitive evidence on second language (L2) processing at speech sound, word, and sentence levels. Hemodynamic (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) data suggest that L2s are implemented in the same brain structures as the native language but with quantitative differences in the strength of activation that are modulated by age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency. Electrophysiological data show a more complex pattern of first and L2 ...

  17. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  18. Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    GRENFELL, MICHAEL JAMES

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Paper #5: Bridging Classroom Language Ethnography, New Literacy Studies and Bourdieu?s Social Philosophy: Principles and Practice The purpose of this paper is to analyze and synthesize the various ways that classroom language ethnography, NLS, and Bourdieu?s social philosophy, were integrated. The goal of the analysis and synthesis is to provide a fresh perspective and fruitful insights on literacy in all its manifestations that provides the foundations for a more robust...

  19. Second language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Indefrey, P.; Davidson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neurocognitive evidence on second language (L2) processing at speech sound, word, and sentence levels. Hemodynamic (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) data suggest that L2s are implemented in the same brain structures as the native language but with quantitative differences in the strength of activation that are modulated by age of L2 acquisition and L2 proficiency. Electrophysiological data show a more complex pattern of first and L2 ...

  20. Language Games in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖

    2012-01-01

      Games are an indispensible part of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). They not only reduce EFL learners’ stress and increase their learning motivation, but also improve their communication competence and promote fluency. It is advo⁃cated that games should be implemented by EFL teachers in CLT, meanwhile paying attention to the communicative characteris⁃tics of games in the application and design of games.

  1. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  2. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  3. Robots with language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Parisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Trying to understand human language by constructing robots that have language necessarily implies an embodied view of language, where the meaning of linguistic expressions is derived from the physical interactions of the organism with the environment. The paper describes a neural model of language according to which the robot’s behaviour is controlled by a neural network composed of two sub-networks, one dedicated to the non-linguistic interactions of the robot with the environment and the other one to processing linguistic input and producing linguistic output. We present the results of a number of simulations using the model and we suggest how the model can be used to account for various language-related phenomena such as disambiguation, the metaphorical use of words, the pervasive idiomaticity of multi-word expressions, and mental life as talking to oneself.. The model implies a view of the meaning of words and multi-word expressions as a temporal process that takes place in the entire brain and has no clearly defined boundaries. The model can also be extended to emotional words if we assume that an embodied view of language includes not only the interactions of the robot’s brain with the external environment but also the interactions of the brain with what is inside the body.

  4. Assessments of adolescent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1995-02-01

    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  5. Language and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry

    2011-04-01

    What are the relative contributions of language and physical practice to practical understanding? The resolution of a series of puzzles depends upon the answer. I argue that language is, and must be, more central than physical practice in individual acquisition of practical understanding. Only this makes it possible for there to be a sociology of scientific knowledge, for there to be scientific specialities, for there to be a division of labour in society and for there to be a society that is more than a set of narrow and isolated worlds. Physical practice remains central to human culture but its influence is at the collective level at which languages are formed, rather than the individual level at which practical abilities are acquired. Domain languages 'contain' practices, and it is from these that individuals draw much, usually most, of their practical understanding. Because the individual level and the domain level have not previously been distinguished, certain philosophical problems have been wrongly cast and mistakes have been made. Domains of practice/language are embedded within one another in fractal-like relationships, and this is how we can make sense of higher levels of coordinated action. The ideas of 'special interactional expert', 'practice language' and 'methodological interactionalism' are introduced.

  6. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  7. Language Change in Social Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈迎迎

    2016-01-01

    Language changes with the advancement of society. Language in use gets a further development because of the social revolution, the scientific and technological improvement, and the political and economic booming. Throughout the communication of politics, cultures and economy among different countries, language has been being made more abundant and more perfect. This paper gives some examples to show how English language in use changes and points out the trend of language.

  8. Ezhil: A Tamil Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai, Muthiah

    2009-01-01

    Ezhil is a Tamil language based interpreted procedural programming language. Tamil keywords and grammar are chosen to make the native Tamil speaker write programs in the Ezhil system. Ezhil allows easy representation of computer program closer to the Tamil language logical constructs equivalent to the conditional, branch and loop statements in modern English based programming languages. Ezhil is a compact programming language aimed towards Tamil speaking novice computer users. Grammar for Ezh...

  9. The Problem of Private Language

    OpenAIRE

    M.A Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    The issue of private language entered in the scope of philosophy by Wittgenstein. In his important book, Philosophical Investigations (1953), he argues that the private language is impossible. According to him, the pervious systems of philosophy like Rationalism, Empiricism, Idealism and even Logical Atomism explain the raise of knowledge so that it entails private language. Private language, Wittgenstein defines, is a language whose individual words refer to what can only be known to the spe...

  10. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  11. Differences in Language Skills: Heritage Language Learner Subgroups and Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2005-01-01

    Using both proficiency tests and self-assessment measures, this study investigated (a) whether 3 subgroups of Japanese heritage language (JHL) learners would demonstrate language behaviors distinctively different from those of traditional Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) learners, and (b) which domains of language use and skills would…

  12. The Weaker Language in Early Child Bilingualism: Acquiring a First Language as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jurgen M.

    2007-01-01

    Past research demonstrates that first language (L1)-like competence in each language can be attained in simultaneous acquisition of bilingualism by mere exposure to the target languages. The question is whether this is also true for the "weaker" language (WL). The WL hypothesis claims that the WL differs fundamentally from monolingual L1 and…

  13. Social Network Development, Language Use, and Language Acquisition during Study Abroad: Arabic Language Learners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.; Belnap, R. Kirk; Hillstrom, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Language learners and educators have subscribed to the belief that those who go abroad will have many opportunities to use the target language and will naturally become proficient. They also assume that language learners will develop relationships with native speakers allowing them to use the language and become more fluent, an assumption…

  14. Language Policing: Micro-Level Language Policy-in-Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Alia; Musk, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines what we call "micro-level language policy-in-process"--that is, how a target--language-only policy emerges "in situ" in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of "language policing", the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the…

  15. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  16. Positive Transfer of Native Language in S econd Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼

    2014-01-01

    Language transfer can be divided into two types:positive transfer and negative transfer.Previous study always thinks that nega-tive transfer of native language should be taken seriously because it plays an important role in second language acquisition.However,as a matter of factor,positive transfer also has great influence on second language acquisition.This paper will give a detailed analysis of positive transfer from two aspects:syntactic transfer and phrase transfer.The paper also offers some methods in dealing with language transfer in second language acquisition.

  17. Preschool language interventions for latino dual language learners with language disorders: what, in what language, and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    About a quarter of young children in the United States are dual language learners. The large majority are Latino children who are exposed to Spanish in their homes. The language needs of Latino dual language preschoolers are different from the needs of monolingual English-speaking children. As a group, they are likely to live in environments that put them at risk of delays in language development. This situation is direr for dual language preschoolers with language impairment. Recent findings from studies on interventions for Spanish-English preschoolers with language impairment suggest that a bilingual approach does not delay English vocabulary and oral language learning and promotes Spanish maintenance. Targets and strategies for different language domains are described. The effects of pullout versus push-in interventions for this population are preliminarily explored. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The Evolution of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Krakauer, David C.

    1999-07-01

    The emergence of language was a defining moment in the evolution of modern humans. It was an innovation that changed radically the character of human society. Here, we provide an approach to language evolution based on evolutionary game theory. We explore the ways in which protolanguages can evolve in a nonlinguistic society and how specific signals can become associated with specific objects. We assume that early in the evolution of language, errors in signaling and perception would be common. We model the probability of misunderstanding a signal and show that this limits the number of objects that can be described by a protolanguage. This "error limit" is not overcome by employing more sounds but by combining a small set of more easily distinguishable sounds into words. The process of "word formation" enables a language to encode an essentially unlimited number of objects. Next, we analyze how words can be combined into sentences and specify the conditions for the evolution of very simple grammatical rules. We argue that grammar originated as a simplified rule system that evolved by natural selection to reduce mistakes in communication. Our theory provides a systematic approach for thinking about the origin and evolution of human language.

  19. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2016-12-16

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  1. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  2. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  3. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    by bodily structures and activities as well as by social and intersubjective dynamics of coordination. The current investigation adds to the picture the role of language using theoretical analysis, corpus linguistics and experimental behavioural techniques. The aim was indeed to develop a framework...... – inspired by Peirce’s pragmatist semiotics – that would enable the conceptual and empirical investigation of the ways in which language can be used as a tool of social and cognitive coordination. Chapter 1 The first part of the dissertation dealt with: i) a critical integration of Peirce’s pragmatism...... and habits and thus for the shared or social management of further possibilities of perception, action and cognition. In order to show the productivity of this pragmatist conception, the second part of the dissertation dealt with an empirical and critical re-assessment of the role of social uses of language...

  4. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  5. Language policy from below:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    internationalisation, and English is accordingly promoted as the ‘obvious’ language of instruction for international education in many university policies. This article argues that the idea that university internationalisation should equal the exclusive use of English as a lingua franca is essentially misguided...... groups at an international study programme in Denmark were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis shows that although there is a quantitative preference for English in the three groups which matches the general pro-English language ideology at the programme, the groups have nevertheless......, to varying degrees, developed practice-based language policies ‘from below’ that allow for alternating and sometimes syncretic use of English and Danish....

  6. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  7. Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Trish; Pinal, America; Latzke, Marcia; Canaday, Dana

    2002-10-01

    The traditional approach to the education of language minority students separates English language development from content instruction because it is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject matter learning. The authors of this article take the alternate view that the integration of inquiry science and language acquisition enhances learning in both domains. The report describes a conceptual framework for science-language integration and the development of a five-level rubric to assess teachers' understanding of curricular integration. The science-language integration rubric describes the growth of teacher expertise as a continuum from a view of science and language as discreet unrelated domains to the recognition of the superordinate processes that create a synergistic relationship between inquiry science and language development. Examples from teacher interviews are used to illustrate teacher thinking at each level.

  8. Formulaic Language in Second Language Acquisition:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xia

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues for the need of the reappraisal of the formulaic aspect of language in second language acquisition by drawing insights from recent development in applied linguistics, psycholinguistics and corpus linguistics. This library study begins by reviewing the dual-nature view of language in relation to formulaic aspect of language. Then, a brief survey of evidence from corpus linguistics is provided to demonstrate the formulaicity of language. What follows is the discussion of rehearsal and implicit learning vis-a-vis memory from the perspective of psycholinguistics. After that, the role of formulaic language in second lan⁃guage acquisition is examined by taking stock of empirical findings that have accumulated in this area. Finally, by way of conclu⁃sion, how the formulaicity of language can shed light on second/foreign language teaching theory is illustrated.

  9. Language Learning as Linguistic Entrepreneurship: Implications for Language Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Costa, Peter; Park, Joseph; Wee, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    .... To bring out the implications of neoliberalism on language education, we explore how language learning is increasingly constructed as a form of linguistic entrepreneurship, or an act of aligning...

  10. Two key concepts of language endangerment : language obsolescence and language death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary context of world-wide language endangerment, of linguistic imperialism and regression of minority languages, it is of vital importance to take initiatives for the maintenance and protection of linguistic biodiversity.  Languages that become extinct are a major loss, not only for the communities concerned but also for humanity in general. The role of linguists should not be confined to documentation and recording of threatened languages, but should be extended to policies  aimed at the revitalization of languages in the process of obsolescence and extinction, and to programs for stimulating language awareness and language cult. Although practical work and immediate political interventions remain the most urgent tasks, there is also need for a theoretical discussion on the value of language maintenance and preservation. It is important to define adequately the basic concepts to be used in discussions, as well as in scholarly and "bureaucratic" writings in the field of language endangerment. The aim of the present paper has been to clarify the concepts of 'language obsolescence' and 'language death', with an eye at offering a general characterization and typology of both phenomena. Accurate information on the causes and contextual factors involved in language obsolescence and language death can help to elaborate a theoretically coherent frame for construing open-minded language policies and for arousing a widespread feeling of respect for the linguistic rights of speech communities, however small and unprotected they may be.

  11. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  12. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement... accelerates ELs' acquisition of language, literacy, and content knowledge. Definition: The following... Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students...

  13. The Language Question in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  14. LANGUAGE AND GENDER IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murni Mahmud

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the impact of gender differences in English Language Teaching. It explores students’ learning styles as affected by the notions about men and women differences in communication. The data collected in 2008 from 20 males and 20 females’ English students of the State University of Makassar. It is to reveal their attitudes towards speaking to different sex, strategy to express opinion, group work preferences, activeness/passiveness, and their perception to increase English skills dealing with sex difference. It is revealed that female than male students were reluctant to speak to different sex; females preferred the direct way to express opinions (writing, work with the same sex, and tended to be passive in class. In addition, females saw the high possibility to increase their English skills by working with the same sex but the reverse is true for males. These different styles of female and male students in learning English were affected by the notions of women’s language.

  15. Language teaching and its contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Byram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title of this new journal provides opportunity to review the many contexts which need to be taken into account in reflecting upon foreign language teaching. These contexts include the educational, the fact that much language teaching takes place within general educational and often compulsory educational settings and institutions. Learners thus encounter foreign languages alongside other languages – their language of the home, the official language of the country, languages of minorities and others – and this needs to be part of the thinking about learning and teaching. Furthermore, since language is the tool for learning throughout life and especially in educational institutions, where the languages of other subjects are languages in themselves which learners have to learn if they are to be successful in education, teachers of all subjects need to be aware of language as the tool of learning. Yet another issue is the relationship of language teaching with citizenship education and the development of ‘intercultural citizenship’. The title of the journal also refers to ‘research’ and here too there is potential for reflection on the modes and paradigms of research which are relevant to investigating language teaching and learning. Distinctions of quantitative and qualitative research are misleading and need to be reviewed. The higher order distinctions are between research which seeks explanation, that which seeks understanding and that which involves advocacy.

  16. RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE AND LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alcón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.

  17. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested. General-purpose testing techniques and test case generation methods fall short in providing a low-threshold solution for test-driven language development. In this paper we introduce the notion of ...

  18. Language acquisition and implication for language change: A computational model.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Robert A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer modeling techniques, when applied to language acquisition problems, give an often unrealized insight into the diachronic change that occurs in language over successive generations. This paper shows that using assumptions about language acquisition to model successive generations of learners in a computer simulation, can have a drastic effect on the long term changes that occur in a language. More importantly, it shows that slight changes in the acquisition ...

  19. Introduction. A New Look at Language Contact in Amerindian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Chamoreau, Claudine; Estrada Fernández, Zarina; Lastra, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains nine chapters, each of them investigating distinct aspects of the linguistic consequences of language contact, among them those that result from the differences in the typology of the languages involved. The central scientific question that inspires the authors is: Are there particular constraints in regard to the different structures that can be transferred from one language to another when the donor and recipient languages differ considerably in their typology?

  20. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  1. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  2. [Medical and surgical language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Pérez, Josep; Villalba-Ferrer, Francisco; Roig-Vila, José V

    2008-07-01

    Medical language contains many faults. One of them is the use of cultured and elegant words without knowing its proper significance. A second error is the recourse to using foreign words or phrases (foreignisms), particularly Anglicisms, both in their original spelling (raw foreignisms) and Hispanicised (adapted word); an overlapping mode of foreignism are so-called "calques" or loan translations. Thirdly, there is the use of words that do not exist in Spanish, palabros. Finally, the words are not correctly pronounced. In this article some examples of these errors are demonstrated and it is directed towards the appropriate use of language.

  3. An Ever Evolving Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    In Beijing,everyone speaks Mandarin,but elsewhere in China people speak a variety of regional dialects.Generally speaking,everyone can read and write Chinese.China is a linguistically conservative country.In fact,up until the beginning of the 20th century,Chinese was written the same way as it had been from the 7th to 10th centuries during the Tang Dynasty.Moreover,Tang officials wrote a language that differed from their spoken language.These courtiers wcre the educated elite,while over 90 percent of the population was illiterate.

  4. The programming language EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  5. Instant Cassandra query language

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amresh

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. It's an Instant Starter guide.Instant Cassandra Query Language is great for those who are working with Cassandra databases and who want to either learn CQL to check data from the console or build serious applications using CQL. If you're looking for something that helps you get started with CQL in record time and you hate the idea of learning a new language syntax, then this book is for you.

  6. There is no language instinct There is no language instinct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Sampson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Steve Pinker’s arguments for the existence of a language instinct encoded in the genes of human beings as an explanation for the human language capacity. The analysis covers Pinker’s own arguments as well as those by Chomsky and by other authors in the nineties. All arguments in favour of a biologically-governed language capacity are refuted to show that, according to available evidence, there is no language instinct. The alternative view, namely, that language is a cultural artefact learned on the basis of a general capacity to formulate and test hypotheses, must be thus the best approach to understand language acquisition. This paper examines Steve Pinker’s arguments for the existence of a language instinct encoded in the genes of human beings as an explanation for the human language capacity. The analysis covers Pinker’s own arguments as well as those by Chomsky and by other authors in the nineties. All arguments in favour of a biologically-governed language capacity are refuted to show that, according to available evidence, there is no language instinct. The alternative view, namely, that language is a cultural artefact learned on the basis of a general capacity to formulate and test hypotheses, must be thus the best approach to understand language acquisition.

  7. Language-parametric Techniques for Language-Specific Editors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop techniques that simplify the implementation of tool support for new languages. More specifically, we focus on language-parametric solutions for the implementation of language-specific editor support. In the first part of this dissertation we investigate ge

  8. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  9. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  10. Framing Indigenous Languages as Secondary to Matrix Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Barbra A.; Messing, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Reversing language shift has proven to be difficult for many reasons. Although much of the literature has focused on educational practices, little research has attended to the visual presentation of language used in educational texts aimed at reversing shift. In this article, we compare language materials developed for two different language…

  11. Effective Foreign Language Teaching: Perceptions of Prospective English Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroz, Hakan; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted so far have mainly focused on investigating the characteristics of effective foreign language teachers to understand the role of teacher effectiveness in the process of language learning, while there is scarcity of studies focusing on the perceptions of the characteristics of effective foreign language teaching of the students of…

  12. Narrative Language Pedagogy and the Stabilization of Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warford, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses recent trends in language pedagogy that emphasize movement from a psycholinguistic to a more sociocultural view of language teaching and learning. Nourished primarily by sociocultural theory and Hinton's (2002, 2003) efforts to promote the stabilization of indigenous languages, the author presents Narrative Language…

  13. The Effects of Language on English Language Learners' Music Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pei-Ying Lin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of songs in different languages on English language learners' (ELLs) music preferences. The participants (N = 62) were Chinese graduate students from a state university in the Midwestern United States. The survey contained nine excerpts from popular songs in three languages: Chinese (the…

  14. Lamenting Language Loss at the Modern Language Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, John Hunt, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his Dakota ancestry. Here, he also talks about "Lamenting Dakota Language Loss," a paper he delivered at the 2004 Modern Language Association (MLA) convention. At the convention, he raised several questions regarding the revitalization of endangered Native American languages. Among other things, he points…

  15. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  16. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufwene, Salikoko S.

    This book explores the development of creoles and other new languages, highlighting conceptual and methodological issues for genetic linguistics and discussing the significance of ecologies that influence language evolution. It presents examples of changes in the structure, function, and vitality of languages, suggesting that similar ecologies…

  17. Profiling Language Skills. Trialing the Languages Profile in the ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) National Professional Development Program helped language teachers familiarize themselves with the Languages Profile and collect and annotate work samples using the Profile. Their experiences become the basis for disseminating information among ACT language teachers. The paper presents recurrent issues raised…

  18. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Vos; R. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western w

  19. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested.

  20. Framing Indigenous Languages as Secondary to Matrix Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Barbra A.; Messing, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Reversing language shift has proven to be difficult for many reasons. Although much of the literature has focused on educational practices, little research has attended to the visual presentation of language used in educational texts aimed at reversing shift. In this article, we compare language materials developed for two different language…

  1. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872370

  2. Language learning, language use and the evolution of linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny; Perfors, Amy; Fehér, Olga; Samara, Anna; Swoboda, Kate; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-01-05

    Linguistic universals arise from the interaction between the processes of language learning and language use. A test case for the relationship between these factors is linguistic variation, which tends to be conditioned on linguistic or sociolinguistic criteria. How can we explain the scarcity of unpredictable variation in natural language, and to what extent is this property of language a straightforward reflection of biases in statistical learning? We review three strands of experimental work exploring these questions, and introduce a Bayesian model of the learning and transmission of linguistic variation along with a closely matched artificial language learning experiment with adult participants. Our results show that while the biases of language learners can potentially play a role in shaping linguistic systems, the relationship between biases of learners and the structure of languages is not straightforward. Weak biases can have strong effects on language structure as they accumulate over repeated transmission. But the opposite can also be true: strong biases can have weak or no effects. Furthermore, the use of language during interaction can reshape linguistic systems. Combining data and insights from studies of learning, transmission and use is therefore essential if we are to understand how biases in statistical learning interact with language transmission and language use to shape the structural properties of language.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'.

  3. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  4. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  5. Integrated Language Definition Testing: Enabling Test-Driven Language Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Vermaas, R.; Visser, E.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of compilers, interpreters, and development environments for programming languages is essential for effective software development and maintenance. They are often tested only as an afterthought. Languages with a smaller scope, such as domain-specific languages, often remain untested.

  6. Optimizing the Defense Language Institute English Language Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Student Feedback ...prior to entry to basic training ECL English comprehension level EFL English as a foreign language ELT English language training ELTP English language...who are about to start FOT, emphasizing those skills that FOT instructors have repeatedly identified as lacking among DLIELC students. Feedback from

  7. The Effects of Foreign Language Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Miao-ru

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language motivation is regarded as one source of individual differences in second language acquisition. Learn-ing motivation is a dynamic mechanism which gives rise to learning activities. Learners ’motivation is a decisive factor for the suc-cess of second language acquisition.

  8. Addressing Cultural and Native Language Interference in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniele; Bourdeau, Jacqueline; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cultural and native language interference in second/foreign language acquisition. More specifically, it examines issues of interference that can be traced to a student's native language and that also have a cultural component. To this effect, an understanding of what actually comprises both interference and…

  9. THE U.S. FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEFICIT, LANGUAGE ENTERPRISE, AND LANGUAGES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stein-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is a gap between the need for foreign language skills and their availability in the U.S. marketplace, resulting in a monolingual American in a multilingual global workplace. The Language Enterprise, a partnership of government, academia, and the private sector, can collaborate to effectively address the U.S. foreign language deficit and to close the gap between the availability of foreign languages skills and the need for them in the U.S. workplace. High profile partnerships, such as the “Many Languages One World” (MLOW Essay Contest and Global Youth Forum, and advocacy initiatives such as the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF Commission on Advocacy, the National Organization of Business Language Educators (NOBLE, the Joint National Committee for Languages and the National Committee on Languages and International Studies (JNCL-NCLIS will be described. This article will also examine career opportunities as language specialists and other careers enhanced by foreign language skills, as well as the importance of creating a sustainable framework for motivation in order to empower U.S. students studying foreign languages to achieve the level of foreign language proficiency needed in the workplace. In order to bring about the needed paradigm shift, a sustainable framework for successful foreign language learning would also require pre-professional and career-oriented programs in foreign languages included under the umbrella of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP and Business Language Studies (BLS. The recommendations of the Modern Language Association report, “Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World,” with its proposed transformation of the traditional 2-tier system into an “integrative approach with multiple pathways to the major, clearly demonstrate the importance of programs in Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP and Business Language Studies (BLS. Conclusions and future

  10. Language Approaches to Beginning Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Ideas which apply language concepts to the study of algebra are presented. Discussed are algebraic notation, vocabulary, vocalization, and written assignments. The careful use of algebraic language in mathematics classes is emphasized. (CW)

  11. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  12. Language Anxiety in English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.

  13. Teacher Learning In Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春; 林红

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a field of educational research called teacher learning as it applies to the teaching of second languages. Untilrecently, the study of second language teacher education is focused mainly on the knowledge base and teaching skills of t

  14. Language-Based Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later, when language demands are greater, experience lowered self-esteem due to their previous academic frustrations and failures. ... Language Pathologists Students Faculty Contact Us The ASHA Action Center welcomes questions and requests for information from ...

  15. The Research of Java Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Bei-bei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the origin of the Java language, then introduce the basic ideas and principles of Java programming language, and then briefly describes the implementation process and application development Java language are involved in the main technology applications, followed by more detailed the analysis of the characteristics of the Java language and its advantage compared with other programming languages, finally introduces its application in network security management and embedded systems, and future prospects of the Java language development direction and trends. Java language with its multi-threading, cross-platform, object-oriented features to obtain a wide range of applications and has been a computer programmer and industry recognition.I believe that with the development of computer technology, Java language will make a greater contribution to computer technology.

  16. Bigraphical Languages and their Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Espen

    for practical formal languages. However, while direct models of many process calculi have been constructed, it is unclear how suitable bigraphs are for more practical formal languages. Also, the generality of bigraphs comes at a price of complexity in the theory and simulation of bigraphical models is non......We study bigraphs as a foundation for practical formal languages and the problem of simulating such bigraphical languages. The theory of bigraphs is a foundational, graphical model of concurrent systems focusing on mobility and connectivity. It is a meta-model in the sense that it is parametrized......-trivial. A key problem is that of matching: deciding if and how a reaction rule applies to a bigraph. In this dissertation, we study bigraphs and their simulation for two types of practical formal languages: programming languages and languages for cell biology. First, we study programming languages and binding...

  17. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  18. Anxiety and Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍铃; 王劼

    2012-01-01

      Anxiety is one of the affective factors which are connected with second language learning. It has negative affects in learning language. It is necessary to know why it happens and how to solve it.

  19. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Your ... At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

  20. Language Planning and Monolingual Dictionaries:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    General dictionaries are the standard dictionaries for particular languages, assumed to be .... elaborating the various features of the language and the implementation of these plans ... also as repositories of a particular people's culture. Béjoint ...

  1. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴均霞

    2013-01-01

      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  2. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  3. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Speech-Language Therapy A ... with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech disorder refers ...

  4. Language and Literacy in Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Janet, Ed.

    Readings on language and literacy within their social context include: "The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages" (Bronislaw Malinowski); "Toward Ethnographies of Communication" (Dell Hymes); "Language as Social Semiotic" (M. A. K. Halliday); "Language and Ideology" (V. N. Volosinov); "Family…

  5. An Annotated Bibliography on Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes representative literature in second language acquisition and learning. Writings by the major theorists and researchers were...Summaries of the articles are provided. Second language acquisition , Retention, Foreign language, Language. Interlanguage,

  6. Some Future Challenges for Languages in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future challenges for languages in Australia. Discusses the place of language in policy, the place of languages in the curriculum, the role of professional associations, and redeveloping a constituency for languages. (Author/VWL)

  7. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Society of America Huntington's Disease Youth Organization Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Typical Speech and Language Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech and Language Child Speech and Language Swallowing ...

  8. A Unified Format for Language Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Lämmel, R.; Brand, M.G.J. van den; Malloy, B.; Staab, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed a substantial number of language documentation artifacts, including language standards, language specifications, language reference manuals, as well as internal documents of standardization bodies. We have reverse-engineered their intended internal structure, and compared th

  9. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  10. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  11. Language from a biological perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohinish Shukla

    2005-02-01

    The faculty of language is unique to the human species. This implies that there are human-specific biological changes that lie at the basis of human language. However, it is not clear what the nature of such changes are, and how they could be shaped by evolution. In this paper, emphasis is laid on describing language in a Chomskyan manner, as a mental object. This serves as a standpoint to speculate about the biological basis of the emergence and evolution of language.

  12. A Foundation for Embedded Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...... be answered affirmatively for an idealized Haskell-like language and discuss to which extent Haskell can be used as a meta-language....

  13. A Foundation for Embedded Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...... be answered affirmatively for an idealized Haskell-like language and discuss to which extent Haskell can be used as a meta-language....

  14. English and Chinese language ambiguity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海

    2009-01-01

    This article from the Voice of Ambiguity,Lexical Ambiguity and Ambiguity in the three aspects of the grammatical structure of English and Chinese languages are compared ambiguity And analysis.Ambiguity in English and Chinese language through the comparison,resulted in two languages to explore the reasons for ambiguity;analysis of the characteristics of English language ambiguities;Research Should not be some ambiguity on how to avoid the emergence of the phenomenon.

  15. Community Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DianeLarsen-Freeman

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The method we will examine in this chapter advises teachers to consider their students as “whole persons.” Whole-person learning means that teachers consider not only their students' intellect,but also have some understanding of the relationship among students' feelings, physical reactions,instinctive protective reactions,and desire to learn.The Community Language Learning Method takes its principles from more general Counseling-Learning approach developed by Charles A.Curran.Curran studied adult learning for many years.He was also influenced by Carl Rogers' humanistic psychology (Rogers 1951;Brown 1994),and he found that adults often feel threatened by a new learning situation.They are threatened by the change inherent in learning and by the fear that they will appear foolish.Curran believed that a way to deal with the fears of students is for teachers to become “language counselors.” A language counselor does not mean someone trained in psychology;it means someone who is a skillful understander of the struggle students face as they attempt to internalize another language.The teacher who can “understand” can indicate his acceptance of the student.By understanding students' fears and being sensitive to them,he can help students overcome their negative feelings and turn them into positive energy to further their learning.

  16. Failing American Indian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the mediating role of scholarly expectations and the unexpected in the management--and transcendence--of failure/success as these concepts relate to language revitalization. Deloria remarks that, "expectations tend to assume a status quo defined around failure, the result of some innate limitation on the part of…

  17. First Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface: The Acquisition of Celtic Languages" (Jeffrey L. Kallen); "The Development of Finiteness in Early Welsh" (Robert D. Borsley and Bob Morris Jones); "Acquiring Subject and Object Relatives; Evidence from Irish" (Helen Goodluck, Eithne Guilfoyle, and Sile…

  18. Liminality in Language Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    with respect to the transformative, temporal significance in interaction. Secondly I explored further the conversation analytic concepts such as formulation and reformulation as a viable analytical tool for a dialogical perspective. Lastly, I addressed the issue of interaction in institutional settings......-fertilisation between dialogism and other sibling perspectives concerning language use, communication, social action and discourse- and narrative-based analyses....

  19. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  20. Language Planning and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive overview of the "economics of language". This field of research, which is grounded in the discipline of economics, displays a strong interdisciplinary orientation, which places it on the fringes of mainstream economics. It studies the ways in which linguistic and economic processes influence one another. It is…

  1. Flemish Sign Language Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf…

  2. Coordination models and languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, G.A.; Arbab, F.

    1998-01-01

    A new class of models, formalisms and mechanisms has recently evolved for describing concurrent and distributed computations based on the concept of ``coordination''. The purpose of a coordination model and associated language is to provide a means of integrating a number of possibly heterogeneous c

  3. Researching Language and Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung; Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    This special issue aims to develop a research agenda that brings language to the centre of our inquiry and critique of neoliberalism. Based on empirical case studies from across diverse contexts in Europe, North America, and East Asia, contributors to this special issue address two issues: (1) What can be said about the nature of neoliberalism…

  4. Sign Language Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes Sign in Education, a pilot program in the United Kingdom that integrated Deaf children and hearing children in a hearing classroom with a culturally Deaf teacher who taught the national curriculum in British Sign Language one afternoon a week. Explores the advantage to the Deaf community, as well as the majority culture of adopting such…

  5. Language and Empiricism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines Willard Van Orman Quine's theory of language in the generation of empirical knowledge, gleaned from two works from his voluminous ouvre. Draws connections between Quine's theory and that of Richard Rorty, the American pragmatist philosopher. Sketches how this theoretical perspective can be applied in the technical communication classroom…

  6. Language in trouble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice; Wagner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We examine the language and multimodal character of ’warnings’ in moments of potential ‘trouble’ in tasks for mobile collaborative work. The participants are forklift truck drivers moving objects from one place to another at a training and certification site (a simulated warehouse scene). Our dat......: Language and the Body in Motion. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Nevile, 2004. Beyond the Black Box: Talk-in-Interaction in the Airline Cockpit. Series: Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.......We examine the language and multimodal character of ’warnings’ in moments of potential ‘trouble’ in tasks for mobile collaborative work. The participants are forklift truck drivers moving objects from one place to another at a training and certification site (a simulated warehouse scene). Our data...... to such moments: a driver warns by announcing his/her presence, movement, or activity, to another driver who then responds. We analyse warnings’ form and occurrence in the order and progress of routine task performance, to consider language as part of multimodal conduct, and relative to the physical surround (e...

  7. First language attrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers who live in an L2 environment for an extended period of time often experience change in the way in which they use their L1, a process referred to as L1 attrition. This article provides an overview of language attrition phenomena at various linguistic levels. However, attrition cannot be

  8. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  9. Language and pain expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddie, N A

    1996-05-01

    This paper arose during work for a BSc(Hons) dissertation, and considers the theoretical approach of Wittgenstein to pain analysis. This paper seeks to discuss one aspect of the research undertaken representing some of the findings which illustrate the association between pain and language.

  10. Antifunctionality in language change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Seuren; C. Hamans

    2010-01-01

    The main thesis of the article is that language change is only partially subject to criteria of functionality and that, as a rule, opposing forces are also at work which often correlate directly with psychological and sociopsychological parameters reflecting themselves in all areas of linguistic com

  11. Language As Social Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  12. Language, Power and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  13. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    . The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  14. Limits of Language?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    The present study examines how two Danish manufacturing companies – Grundfos and ECCO – communicate corporate information to blue-collar employees located in foreign production units. Blue-collar employees have been found to have lower foreign language skills than white-collar employees (e.g. Bar...

  15. RELATIVIZATION IN KAINGANG LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira TABOSA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper it´s about the description and analysis of relative clauses of kaingang language, which belongs to the linguistic family Ge, trunk Macro-Ge. The theoretical framework adopted to investigate the relative clauses of that language is based on authors who address their thinking under the functional perspective, such as Givón (1979, Keenan (1985, Keenan and Comrie (1997, Payne (1997 and Andrews (2007. According to these authors, the relative clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a modifier of the core of a noun phrase. The analysis and description of relative clauses aim to see how these clauses are manifested into those parameters that distinguish the relative clauses in languages . The corpus consists of data collected with indigenous informants from Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, located in the city of Tamarana-PR. The analysis indicates that the kaingang language does not present a formal relativization, in other words, with the use of any relativizing, the subordination of phrases on the main clause occurs in semantic terms. Although there are no grammatical marks in the relativized noun phrase, relative clause fulfills its role of modifier, giving communicative purposes to phrases.

  16. Teaching the Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian

    1981-01-01

    Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…

  17. Natural Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    name Paris, and a photograph of the Eiffel Tower . Available modalities: maps, spoken and written language, pictures, tables, graphs, ordered lists. The...parallel. 64 [ _ Coordinates Name Photograph Information JJ_48N 2E Paris E iffel Tower Dimensionality double single single Volume I little singular

  18. The Second Language Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert Keith, Ed.

    The aim of this collection is to present "state of the art" papers in language curriculum studies by writers who have been actively involved in shaping theory in the field and who, between them, have applied that theory in almost every part of the world and in a variety of contexts. Papers include the following: "A Decision-Making Framework for…

  19. The Language of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederwitzer, Fredda J.; Berman, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Presents concrete time-teaching models to teach about making connections to fractions and measurement in which students literally measure time by using Cuisenaire rods on a form of number line to discover the meaning of the language used to describe the passing of time. (ASK)

  20. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  1. Space between Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Michele I.

    2008-01-01

    What aspects of spatial relations influence speakers' choice of locative? This article presents a study of static spatial descriptions from 24 languages. The study reveals two kinds of spatial terms evident cross-linguistically: specific spatial terms and general spatial terms (GSTs). Whereas specific spatial terms--including English…

  2. The evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2009-03-01

    Language, whether spoken or signed, can be viewed as a gestural system, evolving from the so-called mirror system in the primate brain. In nonhuman primates the gestural system is well developed for the productions and perception of manual action, especially transitive acts involving the grasping of objects. The emergence of bipedalism in the hominins freed the hands for the adaptation of the mirror system for intransitive acts for communication, initially through the miming of events. With the emergence of the genus Homo from some 2 million years ago, pressures for more complex communication and increased vocabulary size led to the conventionalization of gestures, the loss of iconic representation, and a gradual shift to vocal gestures replacing manual ones-although signed languages are still composed of manual and facial gestures. In parallel with the conventionalization of symbols, languages gained grammatical complexity, perhaps driven by the evolution of episodic memory and mental time travel, which involve combinations of familiar elements--Who did what to whom, when, where, and why? Language is thus adapted to allow us to share episodic structures, whether past, planned, or fictional, and so increase survival fitness.

  3. Understanding Tonal Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    level in both char/syllable; include syllable level; include phoneme level Accent Divided into 8 dialect regions All speakers from Shanghai Non...with MFCC features. Also the “best” segment intervals for Mandarin feature calculations are somewhat longer than for English . 15. SUBJECT TERMS...and FINALs and all legal combinations ...................................... 5 Table 2: Language modeling for English and Chinese

  4. Teaching the Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian

    1981-01-01

    Issues involved in teaching and assessing communicative competence are identified and applied to adolescent native English speakers with low levels of academic achievement. A distinction is drawn between transactional versus interactional speech, short versus long speaking turns, and spoken language influenced or not influenced by written…

  5. Overcoming Language Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buda, Yvonne

    1976-01-01

    Many family physicians in Canada experience language and cultural barriers between themselves and their patients. Several aspects of the ensuing problems are described and some practical suggestions for solutions are made. The importance of health education for new Canadians in the family physician's office as well as through the media and community projects is stressed. Imagesp68-ap68-bp70-a PMID:21308059

  6. Language grounding in robots

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Covers all aspects of language interaction with robots, from embodiment, action and perception to conceptualization and grammar in a single volume Discusses several significant innovations, such as robotic embodiment, evolutionary derivation of neural controllers, embodied cognitive semantics and fluid construction grammar Presents the new humanoid robot platform, Myon, used by an increasing number of research laboratories

  7. Cross-language psycholinguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research can be of valaue to psycholinguistics by allowing tests of hypotheses the testing of which would be severely confounded in a single language, and by providing simple and readily available control conditions. For a long time the resources of this kind of research were virtu

  8. Learning language that matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Courses for migrants in Europe are mostly aimed at literacy in western languages as a means for participation in society. These curricula are not suitable for migrants without previous basic education, which leaves groups of migrants vulnerable to alienation and without support for

  9. First Language Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Monika S.

    2016-01-01

    Language attrition research has developed in several clearly delimited phases spanning, roughly, each of the three decades between 1982 and 2012 (see Kopke & Schmid 2004 for a more detailed overview and analysis). The first phase was an era of stocktaking, with a number of symposia, collected volumes and special issues of journals. All of…

  10. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Second language reading acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Literacy is a lifelong, context-bound set of practices that can vary with time, place, and an individual's needs. One can thus speak of multiple literacies and the importance of language policies that foster cultural diversity. Research has also shown the functional literacy practices via which indi

  12. Database Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Database Programming Languages (DBPL 2007), held in Vienna, Austria, on September 23-24, 2007. DBPL 2007 was one of 15 meetings co-located with VLBD (the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases). DBPL continues...

  13. The Story of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ruth Kearney

    A variety of creative activities to stimulate elementary school children's curiosity and interest in the substance and structure of American English are listed in this paper. Over half of the 37 suggested activities refer to "Words, Words, Words" by Mary O'Neill and "The Language Book" by Franklyn Folsom. The other suggestions utilize additional…

  14. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  15. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  16. Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  17. Thinking and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

  18. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  19. Promoting ESP language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineeva, S. A.

    2003-10-01

    The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

  20. Second Language Teaching & Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of this volume is to provide a contemporary portrait of second language learning and teaching, to identify major trends and issues, to show where these trends and issues have come from, and to illustrate ways teachers can incorporate these ideas in their own teaching practice. The book is a personal account, tracing the author's…