WorldWideScience

Sample records for pixel sensors maps

  1. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  2. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  4. Radiation Tolerance of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with Self-Biased Pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, M; Besson, A; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dorokhov, M; Dritsa, C; Dulinski, W; Fröhlich, I; Goffe, M; Grandjean, D; Heini, S; Himmi, A; Hu, C; Jaaskelainen, K; Müntz, C; Shabetai, A; Stroth, J; Szelezniak, M; Valin, I; Winter, M

    2009-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are proposed as a technology for various vertex detectors in nuclear and particle physics. We discuss the mechanisms of ionizing radiation damage on MAPS hosting the the dead time free, so-called self bias pixel. Moreover, we discuss radiation hardened sensor designs which allow operating detectors after exposing them to irradiation doses above 1 Mrad

  5. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  6. WFC3 Pixel Area Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dressel, L.; Fruchter, A.; Hack, W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Mack, J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the pixel area maps (PAMs) for the WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR detectors, and discuss the normalization of these images. HST processed flt images suffer from geometric distortion and therefore have pixel areas that vary on the sky. The counts (electrons) measured for a source on these images depends on the position of the source on the detector, an effect that is implicitly corrected when these images are multidrizzled into drz files. The flt images can be multiplied by the PAMs to yield correct and uniform counts for a given source irrespective of its location on the image. To ensure consistency between the count rate measured for sources in drz images and near the center of flt images, we set the normalization of the PAMs to unity at a reference pixel near the center of the UVIS mosaic and IR detector, and set the SCALE in the IDCTAB equal to the square root of the area of this reference pixel. The implications of this choice for photometric measurements are discussed.

  7. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2014-04-01

    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  8. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  9. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  10. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  11. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  12. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  13. On-chip Phase Locked Loop (PLL) design for clock multiplier in CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS)

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Q; Valin, I; Claus, G; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Yu

    2009-01-01

    In a detector system, clock distribution to sensors must be controlled at a level allowing proper synchronisation. In order to reach theses requirements for the HFT (Heavy Flavor Tracker) upgrade at STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC), we have proposed to distribute a low frequency clock at 10 MHz which will be multiplied to 160 MHz in each sensor by a PLL. A PLL has been designed for period jitter less than 20 ps rms, low power consumption and manufactured in a 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  14. Intrinsic Pixel Size Variation in an LSST Prototype Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) have motivated a search for new and unexpected sources of systematic error in the LSST camera. Flat-field images are a rich source of data on sensor anomalies, although such effects are typically dwarfed by shot noise in a single flat field. After combining many ($\\sim 500$) such images into `ultraflats' to reduce the impact of shot noise, we perform photon transfer analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis and observe no spatial structure in pixel linearity or gain at light levels of 100 ke$^-$ and below. At 125 ke$^-$, a columnar structure is observed in the gain map--we attribute this to a flux-dependent charge transfer inefficiency. We also probe small-scale variations in effective pixel size by analyzing pixel-neighbor correlations in ultraflat images, where we observe clear evidence of intrinsic variation in effective pixel size in an LSST prototype sensor near the $\\sim .3\\%$ level.

  15. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  16. Noise in a CMOS digital pixel sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chi; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    Based on the study of noise performance in CMOS digital pixel sensor (DPS),a mathematical model of noise is established with the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) principle.Compared with traditional CMOS image sensors,the integration time is different and A/D conversion is implemented in each PWM DPS pixel.Then,the quantitative calculating formula of system noise is derived.It is found that dark current shot noise is the dominant noise source in low light region while photodiode shot noise becomes significantly important in the bright region.In this model,photodiode shot noise does not vary with luminance,but dark current shot noise does.According to increasing photodiode capacitance and the comparator's reference voltage or optimizing the mismatch in the comparator,the total noise can be reduced.These results serve as a guideline for the design of PWM DPS.

  17. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  18. Characterisation of pixel sensor prototypes for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix [CERN (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    ALICE is preparing a major upgrade of its experimental apparatus to be installed in the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in the years 2018-2019. A key element of the upgrade is the replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) deploying Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have a reduced material budget while increasing the pixel density and readout rate capabilities. The novel design leads to higher pointing and momentum resolution as well as a p{sub T} acceptance extended to lower values. The corresponding sensor prototypes were qualified in laboratory measurements and beam tests with respect to their radiation tolerance and detection efficiency. This talk summarises recent results on the characterisation of prototypes belonging to the ALPIDE family.

  19. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  20. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  1. Sub-pixel mapping of water boundaries using pixel swapping algorithm (case study: Tagliamento River, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad; Vitti, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Taking the advantages of remotely sensed data for mapping and monitoring of water boundaries is of particular importance in many different management and conservation activities. Imagery data are classified using automatic techniques to produce maps entering the water bodies' analysis chain in several and different points. Very commonly, medium or coarse spatial resolution imagery is used in studies of large water bodies. Data of this kind is affected by the presence of mixed pixels leading to very outstanding problems, in particular when dealing with boundary pixels. A considerable amount of uncertainty inescapably occurs when conventional hard classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood) are applied on mixed pixels. In this study, Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM) is used to estimate the proportion of water in boundary pixels. Firstly by applying an unsupervised clustering, the water body is identified approximately and a buffer area considered ensuring the selection of entire boundary pixels. Then LSMM is applied on this buffer region to estimate the fractional maps. However, resultant output of LSMM does not provide a sub-pixel map corresponding to water abundances. To tackle with this problem, Pixel Swapping (PS) algorithm is used to allocate sub-pixels within mixed pixels in such a way to maximize the spatial proximity of sub-pixels and pixels in the neighborhood. The water area of two segments of Tagliamento River (Italy) are mapped in sub-pixel resolution (10m) using a 30m Landsat image. To evaluate the proficiency of the proposed approach for sub-pixel boundary mapping, the image is also classified using a conventional hard classifier. A high resolution image of the same area is also classified and used as a reference for accuracy assessment. According to the results, sub-pixel map shows in average about 8 percent higher overall accuracy than hard classification and fits very well in the boundaries with the reference map.

  2. CMOS monolithic pixel sensors research and development at LBNL

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Contarato; J-M Bussat; P Denes; L Griender; T Kim; T Stezeberger; H Weiman; M Battaglia; B Hooberman; L Tompkins

    2007-12-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in the design and characterization of CMOS pixel sensors at LBNL. Results of lab tests, beam tests and radiation hardness tests carried out at LBNL on a test structure with pixels of various sizes are reported. The first results of the characterization of back-thinned CMOS pixel sensors are also reported, and future plans and activities are discussed.

  3. Development of radiation hardened pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Koziel, Michal

    2014-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are being developed since a few years to equip vertex detectors for future high-energy physics experiments with the crucial advantages of a low material budget and low production costs. The features simultaneously required are a short readout time, high granularity and high tolerance to radiation. This thesis mainly focuses on the radiation tolerance studies. To achieve the targeted readout time (tens of microseconds), the sensor pixel readout was organized in parallel columns restricting in addition the readout to pixels that had collected the signal charge. The pixels became then more complex, and consequently more sensitive to radiation. Different in-pixel architectures were studied and it was concluded that the tolerance to ionizing radiation was limited to 300 krad with the 0.35- m fabrication process currently used, while the targeted value was several Mrad. Improving this situation calls for implementation of the sensors in processes with a smaller feature size which naturally imp...

  4. A neighbor pixel communication filtering structure for Dynamic Vision Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Shiqi; Lu, Hehui; Zhang, Zilong

    2017-02-01

    For Dynamic Vision Sensors (DVS), thermal noise and junction leakage current induced Background Activity (BA) is the major cause of the deterioration of images quality. Inspired by the smoothing filtering principle of horizontal cells in vertebrate retina, A DVS pixel with Neighbor Pixel Communication (NPC) filtering structure is proposed to solve this issue. The NPC structure is designed to judge the validity of pixel's activity through the communication between its 4 adjacent pixels. The pixel's outputs will be suppressed if its activities are determined not real. The proposed pixel's area is 23.76×24.71μm2 and only 3ns output latency is introduced. In order to validate the effectiveness of the structure, a 5×5 pixel array has been implemented in SMIC 0.13μm CIS process. 3 test cases of array's behavioral model show that the NPC-DVS have an ability of filtering the BA.

  5. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  6. Small pitch pixel sensors\\\\ for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  7. Planar Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade: Beam Tests results

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; Beimforde, M; Benoit, M; Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Gallrapp, C; George, M; Gibson, S; Grinstein, S; Janoska, Z; Jentzsch, J; Jinnouchi, O; Kishida, T; La Rosa, A; Libov, V; Macchiolo, A; Marchiori, G; Münstermann, D; Nagai, R; Piacquadio, G; Ristic, B; Rubinskiy, I; Rummler, A; Takubo, Y; Troska, G; Tsiskaridtze, S; Tsurin, I; Unno, Y; Weigel, P; Wittig, T

    2012-01-01

    Results of beam tests with planar silicon pixel sensors aimed towards the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include spatial resolution, charge collection performance and charge sharing between neighbouring cells as a function of track incidence angle for different bulk materials. Measurements of n-in-n pixel sensors are presented as a function of fluence for different irradiations. Furthermore p-type silicon sensors from several vendors with slightly differing layouts were tested. All tested sensors were connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. We show that both n-type and p-type tested planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after integrated fluences expected at HL-LHC.

  8. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 μm CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 μm2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 μm2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  9. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bomben, Marco; Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; D'Eramo, Louis; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola; Rummler, Andre; Weingarten, Jens

    2017-01-01

    this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  10. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  11. Design and test of pixel sensors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Rott, C; Roy, A; Kwan, S; Chien, C Y; Cho, H; Gobbi, B; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a silicon pixel detector as its innermost tracking device. The pixel system will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype sensors have been designed to meet the specifications of the CMS experiment. The sensors are n/sup +/-n devices to allow partial depletion operation after bulk type inversion. The isolation of the n/sup +/ pixels is provided through a novel double open p-ring design that allows sensor testing before bump bonding and flip chipping. The prototype wafers contain a variety of p-stop designs and are fabricated by two vendors on different bulk substrates including oxygenated silicon. A study of the static measurement of the prototype sensors before irradiation is presented. (2 refs).

  12. Two-dimensional pixel array image sensor for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuville, E.; Beche, J.-F.; Cork, C. [and others

    1996-07-01

    A 2D pixel array image sensor module has been designed for time resolved Protein Crystallography. This smart pixels detector significantly enhances time resolved Laue Protein crystallography by two to three orders of magnitude compared to existing sensors like films or phosphor screens coupled to CCDs. The resolution in time and dynamic range of this type of detector will allow one to study the evolution of structural changes that occur within the protein as a function of time. This detector will also considerably accelerate data collection in static Laue or monochromatic crystallography and make better use of the intense beam delivered by synchrotron light sources. The event driven pixel array detectors, based on the column Architecture, can provide multiparameter information (energy discrimination, time), with sparse and frameless readout without significant dead time. The prototype module consists of a 16x16 pixel diode array bump-bonded to the integrated circuit. The detection area is 150x150 square microns.

  13. Image Restoration After Pixel Binning in Image Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao; ZHANG Hui; GUO Xiaolian; HU Guangshu

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed to restore degraded images to some extent after the pixel binning pro-cess in image sensors to improve the resolution. A pixel binning model was used to approximate the original un-binned image. Then, the least squares error criterion was used as a constraint to reconstruct the re-stored pixel values from the binning model. The technique achieves about a one-decibel increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio compared with the odginal estimated image. The technique has good detail pre-servation performance as well as low computation load. Thus, this restoration technique provides valuable improvements in practical, real time image processing.

  14. Scaling and Pixel Crosstalk Considerations for CMOS Image Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiang-liang; CHEN Jie(member,IEEE); QIU Yu-lin

    2003-01-01

    With the scaling development of the minimum lithographic size,the scaling trend of CMOS imager pixel size and fill factor has been computed according to the Moore rule.When the CMOS minimum lithographic feature scales down to 0.35 μm,the CCD image pixel size is not so easy to be reduced and but the CMOS image pixel size benefits from the scaling minimum lithographic feature. However, when the CMOS technology is downscaled to or under 0.35 μm,the fabrication of CMOS image sensors will be limited by the standard CMOS process in both ways of shallow trench isolation and source/drain junction,which results in pixel crosstalk.The impact of the crosstalk on the active pixel CMOS image sensor is analyzed based on the technology scaling.Some suppressed crosstalk methods have been reviewed.The best way is that combining the advantages of CMOS and SOI technology to fabricate the image sensors will reduce the pixel crosstalk.

  15. Sub-pixel mapping method based on BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiao; WANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ye; GU Yan-feng

    2009-01-01

    A new sub-pixel mapping method based on BP neural network is proposed in order to determine the spatial distribution of class components in each mixed pixel. The network was used to train a model that describes the relationship between spatial distribution of target components in mixed pixel and its neighboring information. Then the sub-pixel scaled target could be predicted by the trained model. In order to improve the performance of BP network, BP learning algorithm with momentum was employed. The experiments were conducted both on synthetic images and on hyperspectral imagery (HSI). The results prove that this method is capable of estimating land covers fairly accurately and has a great superiority over some other sub-pixel mapping methods in terms of computational complexity.

  16. Possibilities of MERIS for sub-pixel regional land cover mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurita Milla, R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS, on board of ENVISAT-1 fulfils the information gap between the current high and low spatial resolution sensors. In this respect, the use of MERIS full resolution data (300 m pixel size) has a great potential for regional and global land cover mapping

  17. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  18. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-01-01

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia. PMID:23959239

  19. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs. To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  20. Digital pixel sensor array with logarithmic delta-sigma architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-08-16

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  1. A low light level sensor with dark current compensating pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Mitchell; Baxter, Patrick; Raynor, Jeffrey M.; Renshaw, David

    2008-09-01

    In ultra-low light conditions the presence of dark current becomes a major source of noise for a CMOS sensor. Standard dark current compensation techniques, such as using a dark reference frame, bring significant improvements to dark noise in typical applications. However, applications requiring long integration times mean that such techniques cannot always be used. This paper presents a differential dark current compensating pixel. The pixel is made up of a differential amplifier and two photodiodes: one light shielded photodiode connected to the non-inverting input of the opamp and a light detecting photodiode connected to the inverting input of the opamp. An integrating capacitor is used in the feedback loop to convert photocurrent to voltage, and a switched capacitor network is present in parallel with the light shielded pixel, which is used to satisfy the output equation to compensate the dark current. The pixel uses 150 μm x 150 μm photodiodes and is fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm, 6M1P, CMOS process. The results show that the pixel is light sensitive and has a linear output as expected. However, the dark current is not predictably controlled. Further work will be carried out on the pixel design, and particularly the switched capacitor circuit, to determine the cause of the non-predictability of the pixel output.

  2. Silicon Avalanche Pixel Sensor for High Precision Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ascenzo, N; Moon, C S; Morsani, F; Ratti, L; Saveliev, V; Navarro, A Savoy; Xie, Q

    2013-01-01

    The development of an innovative position sensitive pixelated sensor to detect and measure with high precision the coordinates of the ionizing particles is proposed. The silicon avalanche pixel sensors (APiX) is based on the vertical integration of avalanche pixels connected in pairs and operated in coincidence in fully digital mode and with the processing electronics embedded on the chip. The APiX sensor addresses the need to minimize the material budget and related multiple scattering effects in tracking systems requiring a high spatial resolution in the presence of a large occupancy. The expected operation of the new sensor features: low noise, low power consumption and suitable radiation tolerance. The APiX device provides on-chip digital information on the position of the coordinate of the impinging charged particle and can be seen as the building block of a modular system of pixelated arrays, implementing a sparsified readout. The technological challenges are the 3D integration of the device under CMOS ...

  3. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2014-11-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget ( 0.3 %X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity ( 20 μm × 20 μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1-5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  4. Gauss-Legendre Sky Pixelization (glesp) for CMB Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Verkhodanov, O. V.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    A new scheme of sky pixelization is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done.

  5. Gauss--Legendre Sky Pixelization (GLESP) for CMB maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, A G; Verkhodanov, O V; Novikov, D I; Turchaninov, V I; Novikov, I D; Christensen, P R

    2003-01-01

    A new scheme of sky pixelization is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss--Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done.

  6. A CMOS active pixel sensor for retinal stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prydderch, Mark L.; French, Marcus J.; Mathieson, Keith; Adams, Christopher; Gunning, Deborah; Laudanski, Jonathan; Morrison, James D.; Moodie, Alan R.; Sinclair, James

    2006-02-01

    Degenerative photoreceptor diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, are the most common causes of blindness in the western world. A potential cure is to use a microelectronic retinal prosthesis to provide electrical stimulation to the remaining healthy retinal cells. We describe a prototype CMOS Active Pixel Sensor capable of detecting a visual scene and translating it into a train of electrical pulses for stimulation of the retina. The sensor consists of a 10 x 10 array of 100 micron square pixels fabricated on a 0.35 micron CMOS process. Light incident upon each pixel is converted into output current pulse trains with a frequency related to the light intensity. These outputs are connected to a biocompatible microelectrode array for contact to the retinal cells. The flexible design allows experimentation with signal amplitudes and frequencies in order to determine the most appropriate stimulus for the retina. Neural processing in the retina can be studied by using the sensor in conjunction with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programmed to behave as a neural network. The sensor has been integrated into a test system designed for studying retinal response. We present the most recent results obtained from this sensor.

  7. Improving Charge-Collection Efficiency of Kyoto's SOI Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Ito, Makoto; Ohmura, Syunichi; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takenaka, Ryota; Kohmura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing X-ray SOIPIXs for next-generation satellites for X-ray astronomy. Their high time resolution ($\\sim10~\\mu$s) and event-trigger-output function enable us to read out without pile-ups and to use anti-coincidence systems. Their performance in imaging spectroscopy is comparable to that in the CCDs. A problem in our previous model was degradation of charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. We measured the response in the sub-pixel scale, using finely collimated X-ray beams at $10~\\mu$m\\Phi$ at SPring-8, and investigated the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields shows that the isolated pixel-circuitry outside the BPW creates local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers. Thus, a part of signal charge is trapped there and is not collecte...

  8. Development of Active Pixel Photodiode Sensors for Gamma Camera Application

    CERN Document Server

    Salahuddin, Nur Sultan; Heruseto, Brahmantyo; Parmentier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    We designed new photodiodes sensors including current mirror amplifiers. These photodiodes have been fabricated using a CMOS 0.6 micrometers process from Austria Micro System (AMS). The Photodiode areas are respectiveley 1mm x 1mm and 0.4mm x 0.4mm with fill factor 98 % and total chip area is 2 square millimetres. The sensor pixels show a logarithmic response in illumination and are capable of detecting very low blue light (less than 0.5 lux) . These results allow to use our sensor in new Gamma Camera solid-state concept.

  9. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, P; Sandaker, H; Korolkov, I; Barrera, C; Wermes, N; Borri, M; Grinstein, S; Troyano, I; Grenier, P; Devetak, E; Fleta, C; Kenney, C; Tsybychev, D; Nellist, C; Chmeissan, M; Su, D; DeWilde, B; Silverstein, D; Dorholt, O; Tsung, J; Sjoebaek, K; Stupak, J; Slaviec, T; Micelli, A; Helle, K; Bolle, E; Huegging, F; Kocian, M; Fazio, S; Balbuena, J; Dalla Betta, G F; La Rosa, A; Rivero, F; Mastroberardino, A; Hasi, J; Darbo, G; Boscardin, M; Da Via, C; Nordahl, P; Giordani, M; Jackson, P; Rohne, O; Gemme, C; Young, C

    2011-01-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50 x 400 mu m(2). Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, P., E-mail: phansson@cern.c [University of Oslo (Norway); Balbuena, J.; Barrera, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Bolle, E. [University of Oslo (Norway); Borri, M. [Torino University (Italy); Boscardin, M. [FBK Trento (Italy); Chmeissan, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita di Trento and INFN Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Su, D. [SLAC (United States); Dorholt, O. [University of Oslo (Norway); Fazio, S. [Calabria University (Italy); Fleta, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [INFN Genova (Italy); Giordani, M. [University of Udine and INFN Udine (Italy); Gjersdal, H. [University of Oslo (Norway); Grenier, P. [SLAC (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50x400{mu}m{sup 2}. Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison.

  11. New Active Digital Pixel Circuit for CMOS Image Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new active digital pixel circuit for CMOS image sensor is designed consisting of four components: a photo-transducer, a preamplifier, a sample & hold (S & H) circuit and an A/D converter with an inverter. It is optimized by simulation and adjustment based on 2μm standard CMOS process. Each circuit of the components is designed with specific parameters. The simulation results of the whole pixel circuits show that the circuit has such advantages as low distortion, low power consumption, and improvement of the output performances by using an inverter.

  12. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C; Giubilato, P; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Marin Tobon, C A; Martinengo, P; Mattiazzo, S; Mugnier, H; Musa, L; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Reidt, F; Riedler, P; Snoeys, W; Van Hoorne, J W; Yang, P

    2014-01-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~0.3%X0~0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (View the MathML source~20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity View the MathML source(ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge c...

  13. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  14. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  15. Radiation hardness studies on CMOS monolithic pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Marco [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bisello, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Contarato, Devis, E-mail: DContarato@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giubilato, Piero [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sung Kim, Tae [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mattiazzo, Serena [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zalusky, Sarah [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    This paper presents irradiation studies performed on a CMOS monolithic pixel sensor prototype implementing different optimizations of the pixel cell aimed at a superior radiation tolerance. Irradiations with 200 keV electrons up to a total dose of 1.1 Mrad have been performed in view of the utilization of such a design in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) applications. Comparative irradiations were performed with 29 MeV protons up to a 2 Mrad total dose and with 1-14 MeV neutrons up to fluences in excess of 10{sup 13} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2}. Experimental results show an improved performance of pixels designed with Enclosed Layout Transistor (ELT) rules and an optimized layout of the charge collecting diodes.

  16. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    OpenAIRE

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to ch...

  17. Optimisation of ROB mapping for SCT and Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, S

    1999-01-01

    A simple object-oriented program has been written to simulate the SCT and Pixel detectors in order to determine the suitability of various ROB mapping schemes in the context of the Level 2 trigger. Layer and tower mappings have been investigated separately for the SCT barrel and endcap and for the Pixel barrel and endcap. Events containing one RoI were fired at each detector part and the number of ROBs hit determined. As a result, plots of ROB output data rates and ROB hit frequency as a function of ROB ID were obtained. In general it was found that layer mapping schemes might result in unacceptably high data rates and frequencies. This result would have to be confirmed with more detailed modelling. The tower mappings investigated, in general produced acceptable rates.

  18. A Beam Monitor Using Silicon Pixel Sensors for Hadron Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$}, as the anode array. \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 $\\mu$m technology. Each \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor has $72\\times72$ pixels. Each pixel size is about $83\\times83$ $\\mu$m$^2$. In our design the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which provides a carbon ion beam. Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incident angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m, angular resolution about 0.5$^\\circ$ and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2$\\%$.

  19. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II-, as the anode array. Topmetal-II- is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology. Each Topmetal-II- sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 μm2. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 μm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  20. Silicon sensors development for the CMS pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Kirk; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Horisberger, R P; Rohe, T; Roy, Amitava; Son Seung Hee

    2003-01-01

    The CMS experiment will operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hybrid pixel detector located close to the interaction region of the colliding beams will provide high resolution tracking and vertex identification which will be crucial for b quark identification. Because of the radiation environment of the LHC, the performance of the sensors must be carefully evaluated up to a fluence of 6 multiplied by 10**1**4n//e//qcm **-**2. We expect that the sensors will be operated partially depleted during their operation at the LHC and we have implemented an n**+ on n sensor design. We have irradiated prototype sensors to a dose of 1 multiplied by 10 **1**5n //e//qcm**-**2. We present the results of our testing before and after irradiation.

  1. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  2. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-An; ZHANG Dong-Wei; HE Jin; SU Yan-Mei; WANG Cheng; CHEN Qin; LIANG Hai-Lang; YE Yun

    2012-01-01

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed,By switching the photosensing pinned diode,resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus,the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition,the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line,leading to a very high fill factor.The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail.The functionality of the proposed 1 T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology.

  3. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigas, M.; Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  4. Developing a beta source based setup for pixel sensor characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Schouwenberg, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to provide mono-energetic minimum ionizing electrons from a $^{90}$Sr source using a magnetic monochromator, and thus provide a useful tool for in-lab sensor characterization. The monochromator is calibrated using a setup, with a heavy inorganic scintillator and a PMT, which has been calibrated with a $^{22}$Na gamma source. The average energy of the electrons as a function of the current in the monochromator coil is found to be $1.38\\pm0.01$ keV/mA, taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the signal of the PMT. For integration into the pixel sensor test bench, scintillator-counters (a plastic scintillator connected to a PMT) are used. Their response to the electron energies is observed to follow a saturation curve, which leads to a more identical response for high energetic electrons. A preliminary pixel sensor test bench has been set up and properties such as voltage and discriminator settings have been studied as well as count rates for coincidence cou...

  5. A CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for Charged Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, Howard S.; Bieser, Fred; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans George; Singh, Kunal; Wurzel, Samuel E.; Wieman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-12-02

    Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology has shown promise for next-generation vertex detectors. This paper discusses the design and testing of two generations of APS chips. Both are arrays of 128 by 128 pixels, each 20 by 20 {micro}m. Each array is divided into sub-arrays in which different sensor structures (4 in the first version and 16 in the second) and/or readout circuits are employed. Measurements of several of these structures under Fe{sup 55} exposure are reported. The sensors have also been irradiated by 55 MeV protons to test for radiation damage. The radiation increased the noise and reduced the signal. The noise can be explained by shot noise from the increased leakage current and the reduction in signal is due to charge being trapped in the epi layer. Nevertheless, the radiation effect is small for the expected exposures at RHIC and RHIC II. Finally, we describe our concept for mechanically supporting a thin silicon wafer in an actual detector.

  6. Development of radiation tolerant monolithic active pixel sensors with fast column parallel read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziel, M.; Dorokhov, A.; Fontaine, J.-C.; De Masi, R.; Winter, M.

    2010-12-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) [1] (Turchetta et al., 2001) are being developed at IPHC—Strasbourg to equip the EUDET telescope [2] (Haas, 2006) and vertex detectors for future high energy physics experiments, including the STAR upgrade at RHIC [3] (T.S. Collaboration, 2005) and the CBM experiment at FAIR/GSI [4] (Heuser, 2006). High granularity, low material budget and high read-out speed are systematically required for most applications, complemented, for some of them, with high radiation tolerance. A specific column-parallel architecture, implemented in the MIMOSA-22 sensor, was developed to achieve fast read-out MAPS. Previous studies of the front-end architecture integrated in this sensor, which includes in-pixel amplification, have shown that the fixed pattern noise increase consecutive to ionizing radiation can be controlled by means of a negative feedback [5] (Hu-Guo et al., 2008). However, an unexpected rise of the temporal noise was observed. A second version of this chip (MIMOSA-22bis) was produced in order to search for possible improvements of the radiation tolerance, regarding this type of noise. In this prototype, the feedback transistor was tuned in order to mitigate the sensitivity of the pixel to ionizing radiation. The performances of the pixels after irradiation were investigated for two types of feedback transistors: enclosed layout transistor (ELT) [6] (Snoeys et al., 2000) and "standard" transistor with either large or small transconductance. The noise performance of all test structures was studied in various conditions (expected in future experiments) regarding temperature, integration time and ionizing radiation dose. Test results are presented in this paper. Based on these observations, ideas for further improvement of the radiation tolerance of column parallel MAPS are derived.

  7. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Degerli, Y. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hu, Y., E-mail: yann.hu@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-03-11

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  8. Pixel-by-pixel VIS/NIR and LIR sensor fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Evan; Zhang, James S.; Song, Vivian W.; Chin, Ken P.; Hu, Gelbert

    2003-01-01

    Visible (VIS) camera (such as CCD) or Near Infrared (NIR) camera (such as low light level CCD or image intensifier) has high resolution and is easy to distinguish enemy and foe, but it cannot see through thin fog/cloud, heavy smoke/dust, foliage, camouflage, and darkness. The Long Infrared (LIR) imager can overcome above problems, but the resolution is too low and it cannot see the NIR aiming light from enemy. The best solution is to fuse the VIS/NIR and LIR sensors to overcome their shortcomings and take advantages of both sensors. In order to see the same target without parallax, the fusio system must have a common optical aperature. In this paper, three common optical apertures are designed: common reflective objective lens, common beam splitter, and common transmissive objective lens. The first one has very small field of view and the second one needs two heads, so the best choice is the third one, but we must find suitable optical materials and correct the color aberrations from 0.6 to 12 μ. It is a tough job. By choosing ZnSe as the first common piece of the objective lens and using glass for NIR and Ge (or IR glass) for LIR as rest pieces, we only need to and are able to correct the aberrations from 0.6 to 1.0 μ for NIR and from 8 to 12 μ for LIR. Finally, a common reflective objective lens and the common beam splitter are also successfully designed. Five application examples are given. In the digital signal processing, we use only one Altera chip. After inserting data, scaling the image size, and adjusting the signal level, the LIR will have the same format and same pixel number of the VIS/NIR, so real-time pixel-by-pixel sensor fusion is realized. The digital output can be used for further image processing and automatic target recognition, such as if we overlap the LIR image on the VIS/NIR image for missile guidance or rifle sight we don't need to worry about the time and the environment again. A gum-size wireless transmitter is also designed that is

  9. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  10. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  11. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  12. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, A.; Pérez, A. Pérez; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G.; Goffe, M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R & D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  13. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G.; Goffe, M.; Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  14. Geo-processing workflow driven wildfire hot pixel detection under sensor web environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Di, Liping; Yu, Genong; Gong, Jianya

    2010-03-01

    Integrating Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) services with Geo-Processing Workflows (GPW) has become a bottleneck for Sensor Web-based applications, especially remote-sensing observations. This paper presents a common GPW framework for Sensor Web data service as part of the NASA Sensor Web project. This abstract framework includes abstract GPW model construction, GPW chains from service combination, and data retrieval components. The concrete framework consists of a data service node, a data processing node, a data presentation node, a Catalogue Service node, and a BPEL engine. An abstract model designer is used to design the top level GPW model, a model instantiation service is used to generate the concrete Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), and the BPEL execution engine is adopted. This framework is used to generate several kinds of data: raw data from live sensors, coverage or feature data, geospatial products, or sensor maps. A prototype, including a model designer, model instantiation service, and GPW engine-BPELPower is presented. A scenario for an EO-1 Sensor Web data service for wildfire hot pixel detection is used to test the feasibility of the proposed framework. The execution time and influences of the EO-1 live Hyperion data wildfire classification service framework are evaluated. The benefits and high performance of the proposed framework are discussed. The experiments of EO-1 live Hyperion data wildfire classification service show that this framework can improve the quality of services for sensor data retrieval and processing.

  15. High voltage monolithic active pixel sensors for the PANDA luminosity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tobias; Feldbauer, Florian; Jasinski, Prometeusz; Leithoff, Heinrich; Motzko, Christof; Fritsch, Miriam [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz and Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA-Experiment will be part of the new FAIR accelerator center at Darmstadt, Germany. It is a fixed target experiment using a antiproton beam with very high resolution for precision measurements. For a variety of measurements like energy-scans the precise determination of the luminosity is needed. The luminosity detector will determine the luminosity by measuring the angular distribution of elastically scattered antiprotons very close to the beam axis (3-8 mrad). To reconstruct antiproton tracks four layers of thinned silicon sensors with smart pixel readout on chip (HV-MAPS) will be used. Those sensors are currently under development by the Mu3e-collaboration. In the talk the concept of the luminosity measurement is shortly introduced before a summary of the status of HV-MAP prototypes and recent test beam results are presented.

  16. Microlens performance limits in sub-2mum pixel CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yijie; Fesenmaier, Christian C; Catrysse, Peter B

    2010-03-15

    CMOS image sensors with smaller pixels are expected to enable digital imaging systems with better resolution. When pixel size scales below 2 mum, however, diffraction affects the optical performance of the pixel and its microlens, in particular. We present a first-principles electromagnetic analysis of microlens behavior during the lateral scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels. We establish for a three-metal-layer pixel that diffraction prevents the microlens from acting as a focusing element when pixels become smaller than 1.4 microm. This severely degrades performance for on and off-axis pixels in red, green and blue color channels. We predict that one-metal-layer or backside-illuminated pixels are required to extend the functionality of microlenses beyond the 1.4 microm pixel node.

  17. Active pixel sensors: the sensor of choice for future space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijtens, J.; Theuwissen, A.; Rao, P.R.; Wang, X.; Xie, N.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have

  18. A 4096-pixel MAPS device with on-chip data sparsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A. [Universita di Bologna and INFN-Bologna Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.gabrielli@bo.infn.it; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Cenci, R.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, INFN-Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore (Italy); Andreoli, C.; Gaioni, L.; Pozzati, E. [Universita degli Studi di Pavia and INFN-Pavia (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    A prototype of a mixed-mode ASIC composed of a fast readout architecture that interfaces with a matrix of 4096 Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) was fabricated via STM 130 nm CMOS technology. Groups of 4x4 pixels form a macro-pixel (MP). The readout architecture is parallel and could overcome the readout speed limit of big matrices. As the output port can only accept one-hit information at a time, an internal queuing system has been provided to face high hit-rate conditions. The ASIC can work in two different manners as it can be connected to an actual full-custom matrix of MAPS or to a digital matrix emulator composed of standard cells, for testing facilities. For both operating modes a slow-control phase is required to load the chip configuration. Previous versions of similar ASICs were designed and tested. The work is aimed at improving the design of MAPS detectors with an on-chip fast sparsification system, for particle tracking, to match the requirements of future high-energy physics experiments. The readout architecture implemented is data driven extending the flexibility of the system to be also used in first level triggers on tracks in vertex detectors. Preliminary simulations and tests indicate that the readout system can cope with an average hit-rate up to 100 MHz/cm{sup 2} if a master clock of 80 MHz is used, while maintaining an overall efficiency over 99%.

  19. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Eber, R. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Eichorn, T. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (Germany); Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Lalwani, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Messineo, A. [Universita di Pisa & INFN sez. di Pisa (Italy); Palomo, F.R. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Printz, M. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Ranjan, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Villa, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Hidalgo, S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  20. Improvement to the signaling interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Feng, Chong [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Dalian Minzu University, No.18 Liaohe West Road, 116600 Dalian (China); Cai, Hong [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China)

    2016-10-01

    The development of the readout speed of CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) is motivated by the demanding requirements of future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. As the interface between CPS and the data acquisition (DAQ) system, which inputs clock from the DAQ system and outputs data from CPS, the signaling interface should also be improved in terms of data rates. Meanwhile, the power consumption of the signaling interface should be maintained as low as possible. Consequently, a reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) driver was adopted instead of a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) driver to transmit data from CPS to the DAQ system. In order to increase the capability of data rates, a serial source termination technique was employed. A LVDS/RSDS receiver was employed for transmitting clock from the DAQ system to CPS. A new method of generating hysteresis and a special current comparator were used to achieve a higher speed with lower power consumption. The signaling interface was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18 µm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Measurement results indicate that the RSDS driver and the LVDS receiver can operate correctly at a data rate of 2 Gb/s with a power consumption of 19.1 mW.

  1. Improvement to the signaling interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Tang, Zhenan; Feng, Chong; Cai, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The development of the readout speed of CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) is motivated by the demanding requirements of future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. As the interface between CPS and the data acquisition (DAQ) system, which inputs clock from the DAQ system and outputs data from CPS, the signaling interface should also be improved in terms of data rates. Meanwhile, the power consumption of the signaling interface should be maintained as low as possible. Consequently, a reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) driver was adopted instead of a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) driver to transmit data from CPS to the DAQ system. In order to increase the capability of data rates, a serial source termination technique was employed. A LVDS/RSDS receiver was employed for transmitting clock from the DAQ system to CPS. A new method of generating hysteresis and a special current comparator were used to achieve a higher speed with lower power consumption. The signaling interface was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Measurement results indicate that the RSDS driver and the LVDS receiver can operate correctly at a data rate of 2 Gb/s with a power consumption of 19.1 mW.

  2. A novel source–drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C., E-mail: chaosong.gao@mails.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Huang, G., E-mail: gmhuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Junique, A.; Keil, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mugnier, H. [Mind, Archamps (France); Musa, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Lee, S. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reidt, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rousset, J. [Mind, Archamps (France); Sielewicz, K.M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    2016-09-21

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/C{sub eff} or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance C{sub eff} because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source–drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to C{sub eff}. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to C{sub eff}, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a {sup 55}Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from −1 V to −6 V reduces C{sub eff} by 38% and the equivalent noise charge

  3. Transfer Function and Fluorescence Measurements on New CMOS Pixel Sensor for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kaemingk, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of pixel sensors is being designed for the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk). These pixel sensors are being tested to ensure that they meet the demands of the ATLAS detector. As a summer student, I was involved in some of the measurements taken for this purpose.

  4. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  5. DMAPS: a fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor - analog performance characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, Miroslav; Krüger, Hans; Fu, Yunan; Germic, Leonard; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Obermann, Theresa; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed since the late 1990s based on silicon substrates with a thin epitaxial layer (thickness of 10-15 $\\mu$m) in which charge is collected on an electrode, albeit by disordered and slow diffusion rather than by drift in a directed electric field. As a consequence, the signal is small ($\\approx$ 1000 e$^-$) and the radiation tolerance is much below the LHC requirements by factors of 100 to 1000. In this paper we present the development of a fully Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) based on a high resistivity substrate allowing the creation of a fully depleted detection volume. This concept overcomes the inherent limitations of charge collection by diffusion in the standard MAPS designs. We present results from a test chip EPCB01 designed in a commercial 150 nm CMOS technology. The technology provides a thin (50 $\\mu$m) high resistivity n-type silicon substrate as well as an additional deep p-well which allows to integrate full CMOS circuitry i...

  6. 4T CMOS Active Pixel Sensors under Ionizing Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ionizing radiation effects on 4T pixels and the elementary in-pixel test devices with regard to the electrical performance and the optical performance. In addition to an analysis of the macroscopic pixel parameter degradation, the radiation-induced degradation mechanisms

  7. Hyperspectral Data for Mangrove Species Mapping: A Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual image interpretation and digital image classification have been used to map and monitor mangrove extent and composition for decades. The presence of a high-spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor can potentially improve our ability to differentiate mangrove species. However, little research has explored the use of pixel-based and object-based approaches on high-spatial hyperspectral datasets for this purpose. This study assessed the ability of CASI-2 data for mangrove species mapping using pixel-based and object-based approaches at the mouth of the Brisbane River area, southeast Queensland, Australia. Three mapping techniques used in this study: spectral angle mapper (SAM and linear spectral unmixing (LSU for the pixel-based approaches, and multi-scale segmentation for the object-based image analysis (OBIA. The endmembers for the pixel-based approach were collected based on existing vegetation community map. Nine targeted classes were mapped in the study area from each approach, including three mangrove species: Avicennia marina, Rhizophora stylosa, and Ceriops australis. The mapping results showed that SAM produced accurate class polygons with only few unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 69%, Kappa 0.57, the LSU resulted in a patchy polygon pattern with many unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 56%, Kappa 0.41, and the object-based mapping produced the most accurate results (overall accuracy 76%, Kappa 0.67. Our results demonstrated that the object-based approach, which combined a rule-based and nearest-neighbor classification method, was the best classifier to map mangrove species and its adjacent environments.

  8. Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Analog-To-Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Mendis, Sunetra K.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nixon, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed single-chip integrated-circuit image sensor contains 128 x 128 array of active pixel sensors at 50-micrometer pitch. Output terminals of all pixels in each given column connected to analog-to-digital (A/D) converter located at bottom of column. Pixels scanned in semiparallel fashion, one row at time; during time allocated to scanning row, outputs of all active pixel sensors in row fed to respective A/D converters. Design of chip based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and individual circuit elements fabricated according to 2-micrometer CMOS design rules. Active pixel sensors designed to operate at video rate of 30 frames/second, even at low light levels. A/D scheme based on first-order Sigma-Delta modulation.

  9. ALPIDE: the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuljić, M.

    2016-11-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of ~10 m2, thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The ALPIDE chip, based on TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process, is being developed for this purpose. A particular process feature, the deep p-well, is exploited so the full CMOS logic can be implemented over the active sensor area without impinging on the deposited charge collection. ALPIDE is implemented on silicon wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. A single chip measures 15 mm by 30 mm and contains half a million pixels distributed in 512 rows and 1024 columns. In-pixel circuitry features amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout is hit driven i.e. only addresses of hit pixels are sent to the periphery. The upgrade of the ITS presents two different sets of requirements for sensors of the inner and of the outer layers due to the significantly different track density, radiation level and active detector surface. The ALPIDE chip fulfils the stringent requirements in both cases. The detection efficiency is higher than 99%, fake-hit probability is orders of magnitude lower than the required 10-6 and spatial resolution within the required 5 μm. This performance is to be maintained even after a total ionising does (TID) of 2.7 Mrad and a non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) fluence of 1.7 × 1013 1 MeV neq/cm2, which is above what is expected during the detector lifetime. Readout rate of 100 kHz is provided and the power density of ALPIDE is less than 40 mW/cm2. This contribution will provide a summary of the ALPIDE features and main test results.

  10. Effect and suppression of parasitic surface damage in neutron irradiated CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, M; Scharrer, P; Stroth, J

    2016-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) were chosen as sensor technology for the vertex detectors of STAR, CBM and the upgraded ALICE-ITS. They also constitute a valuable option for tracking devices at future e+e- colliders. Those applications require a substantial tolerance to both, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. To allow for a focused optimization of the radiation tolerance, prototypes are tested by irradiating the devices either with purely ionizing radiation (e.g. soft X-rays) or the most pure sources of non-ionizing radiation available (e.g. reactor neutrons). In the second case, it is typically assumed that the impact of the parasitic $\\gamma$-rays found in the neutron beams is negligible. We checked this assumption by irradiating MAPS with $\\gamma$-rays and comparing the radiation damage generated with the one in neutron irradiated sensors. We conclude that the parasitic radiation doses may cause non-negligible radiation damage. Based on the results we propose a procedure to recognize and to ...

  11. A data parallel digitizer for a time-based simulation of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with FairRoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzmann, P.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Doering, D.; Deveaux, M.; Fröhlich, I.; Koziel, M.; Krebs, E.; Linnik, B.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Li, Q.; Stroth, J.; Tischler, T.

    2014-06-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) demonstrated excellent performances in the field of charged particle tracking. They feature an excellent single point resolution of few μm, a light material budget of 0.05% Xo in combination with a good radiation tolerance and time resolution. This makes the sensors a valuable technology for micro vertex detectors (MVD) of various experiments in heavy ion and particle physics like STAR and CBM. State of the art MAPS are equipped with a rolling shutter readout. Therefore, the data of one individual event is typically found in more than one data train generated by the sensor. This paper presents a concept to introduce this feature in both simulation and data analysis, taking profit of the sensor topology of the MVD. This topology allows to use for massive parallel data streaming and handling strategies within the FairRoot framework.

  12. Electrical characterization of irradiated prototype silicon pixel sensors for BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Rita Coluccia et al.

    2002-11-13

    The pixel detector in the BteV experiment at the Tevatron (Fermi Laboratory) is an important detector component for high-resolution tracking and vertex identification. For this task the hybrid pixel detector has to work in a very harsh radiation environment with up to 10{sup 14} minimum ionizing particles/cm{sup 2}/year. Radiation hardness of prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors has been investigated. We present Electrical characterization curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment. We tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation techniques: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on irradiation with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Planar n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5x10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2} at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n{sup +}-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  14. A High-Speed CMOS Image Sensor with Global Electronic Shutter Pixels Using Pinned Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Tamura, Toshihiro; Furuta, Masanori; Itoh, Shinya; Kawahito, Shoji

    This paper describes a high-speed CMOS image sensor with a new type of global electronic shutter pixel. A global electronic shutter is necessary for imaging fast-moving objects without motion blur or distortion. The proposed pixel has two potential wells with pinned diode structure for two-stage charge transfer that enables a global electronic shuttering and reset noise canceling. A prototype high-speed image sensor fabricated in 0.18μm standard CMOS image sensor process consists of the proposed pixel array, 12-bit column-parallel cyclic ADC arrays and 192-channel digital outputs. The sensor achieves a good linearity at low-light intensity, demonstrating the perfect charge transfer between two pinned diodes. The input referred noise of the proposed pixel is measured to be 6.3 e-.

  15. A counting pixel chip and sensor system for X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Helmich, A.; Lindner, M.; Wermes, N. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Blanquart, L. [CNRS, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique des Particules

    1999-08-01

    Results obtained with a (photon) counting pixel imaging chip connected to a silicon pixel sensor using the bump and flip-chip technology are presented. The performance of the chip electronics is characterized by an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 135 e and a threshold spread of less than 35 e after individual threshold adjust, both measured with a sensor attached. First results on the imaging performance are also reported.

  16. Comparing three spaceborne optical sensors via fine scale pixel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User @

    Pixel-based Urban Land Cover Classification Products ... operational VHR spaceborne measurement systems such as those envisaged under ...... zone correlated vegetation stratification in the Kruger National Park, South Africa', Physics and.

  17. A study of a matching pixel by pixel (MPP) algorithm to establish an empirical model of water quality mapping, as based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Linear regression models are a popular choice for the relationships between water quality parameters and bands (or band ratios) of remote sensing data. However, this research regards the phenomena of mixed pixels, specular reflection, and water fluidity as the challenges to establish a robust regression model. Based on the data of measurements in situ and remote sensing data, this study presents an enumeration-based algorithm, called matching pixel by pixel (MPP), and tests its performance in an empirical model of water quality mapping. Four small reservoirs, which cover a mere several hundred-thousand m2, in Kinmen, Taiwan, are selected as the study sites. The multispectral sensors, carried on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), are adopted to acquire remote sensing data regarding water quality parameters, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Secchi disk depth (SDD), and turbidity in the reservoirs. The experimental results indicate that, while MPP can reduce the influence of specular reflection on regression model establishment, specular reflection does hamper the correction of thematic map production. Due to water fluidity, sampling in situ should be followed by UAV imaging as soon as possible. Excluding turbidity, the obtained estimation accuracy can satisfy the national standard.

  18. A novel source-drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Snoeys, W.; Sun, X.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/Ceff or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance Ceff because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source-drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to Ceff. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to Ceff, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a 55Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from -1 V to -6 V reduces Ceff by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the standard SF. The SDF

  19. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    CERN Document Server

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on Partially Depleted High Voltage SOI technology (PD-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer while FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The XFAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry witch mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neu...

  20. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  1. Design of a 3D-IC multi-resolution digital pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochard, N.; Nebhen, J.; Dubois, J.; Ginhac, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a digital pixel sensor (DPS) integrating a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at pixel level. The digital pixel includes a photodiode, a delta-sigma modulation and a digital decimation filter. It features adaptive dynamic range and multiple resolutions (up to 10-bit) with a high linearity. A specific row decoder and column decoder are also designed to permit to read a specific pixel chosen in the matrix and its neighborhood of 4 x 4. Finally, a complete design with the CMOS 130 nm 3D-IC FaStack Tezzaron technology is also described, revealing a high fill-factor of about 80%.

  2. Joint Sparse Sub-Pixel Mapping Model with Endmember Variability for Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral unmixing and sub-pixel mapping have been used to estimate the proportion and spatial distribution of the different land-cover classes in mixed pixels at a sub-pixel scale. In the past decades, several algorithms were proposed in both categories; however, these two techniques are generally regarded as independent procedures, with most sub-pixel mapping methods using abundance maps generated by spectral unmixing techniques. It should be noted that the utilized abundance map has a strong impact on the performance of the subsequent sub-pixel mapping process. Recently, we built a novel sub-pixel mapping model in combination with the linear spectral mixture model. Therefore, a joint sub-pixel mapping model was established that connects an original (coarser resolution remotely sensed image with the final sub-pixel result directly. However, this approach focuses on incorporating the spectral information contained in the original image without addressing the spectral endmember variability resulting from variable illumination and environmental conditions. To address this important issue, in this paper we designed a new joint sparse sub-pixel mapping method under the assumption that various representative spectra for each endmember are known a priori and available in a library. In addition, the total variation (TV regularization was also adopted to exploit the spatial information. The proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using both synthetic and real hyperspectral images, and the obtained results demonstrate that the method can achieve better results by considering the impact of endmember variability when compared with other sub-pixel mapping methods.

  3. Direct detection in Transmission Electron Microscopy with a 5{mu}m pitch CMOS pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contarato, Devis, E-mail: DContarato@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Joseph, John; Krieger, Brad [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This paper presents the characterization of a CMOS monolithic pixel sensor prototype optimized for direct detection in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The sensor was manufactured in a deep-submicron commercial CMOS process and features pixels of 5{mu}m pitch. Different pixel architectures have been implemented in the test chip, and the best performing architecture has been selected from a series of tests performed with 300 keV electrons. Irradiation tests to high electron doses have also been performed in order to estimate device lifetime.

  4. Achievements of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, C

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker to cope with the elevated occupancy. To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) was established comprising 19 institutes and more than 90 scientists. The paper provides an overview of the research and development project and highlights accomplishments, among them: beam test results with planar sensors up to innermost layer fluences (> 10^16 n_eq cm^2); measurements obtained with irradiated thin edgeless n-in-p pixel assemblies; recent studies of the SCP technique to obtain almost active edges by postprocessing already existing sensors based on scribing, cleaving and edge passivation; an update on prototyping efforts for large areas: sensor design improvements and concepts for low-cost hybridisation; comparison between Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results and TCAD simulations. Togethe...

  5. Design, optimization and evaluation of a "smart" pixel sensor array for low-dose digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Xinghui; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been widely used to build flat-panel X-ray detectors for digital radiography (DR). As the demand for low-dose X-ray imaging grows, a detector with high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) pixel architecture emerges. "Smart" pixel is intended to use a dual-gate photosensitive TFT for sensing, storage, and switch. It differs from a conventional passive pixel sensor (PPS) and active pixel sensor (APS) in that all these three functions are combined into one device instead of three separate units in a pixel. Thus, it is expected to have high fill factor and high spatial resolution. In addition, it utilizes the amplification effect of the dual-gate photosensitive TFT to form a one-transistor APS that leads to a potentially high SNR. This paper addresses the design, optimization and evaluation of the smart pixel sensor and array for low-dose DR. We will design and optimize the smart pixel from the scintillator to TFT levels and validate it through optical and electrical simulation and experiments of a 4x4 sensor array.

  6. Simulations of 3D-Si sensors for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Baselga, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The LHC is expected to reach luminosities up to 3000fb-1 and the innermost layer of the ATLAS upgrade plans to cope with higher occupancy and to decrease the pixel size. 3D-Si sensors are a good candidate for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade since they exhibit good performance under high fluences and the new designs will have smaller pixel size to fulfill the electronics expectations. This paper reports TCAD simulations of the 3D-Si sensors designed at IMB-CNM with non passing-through columns that are being fabricated for the next innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade, shows the charge collection response before and after irradiation, and the response of 3D-Si sensors located at large $\\eta$ angles.

  7. Simulations of 3D-Si sensors for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselga, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-03-01

    The LHC is expected to reach luminosities up to 3000 fb-1 and the innermost layer of the ATLAS upgrade plans to cope with higher occupancy and to decrease the pixel size. 3D-Si sensors are a good candidate for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade since they exhibit good performance under high fluences and the new designs will have smaller pixel size to fulfill the electronics expectations. This paper reports TCAD simulations of the 3D-Si sensors designed at IMB-CNM with non-passing-through columns that are being fabricated for the next innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade. It shows the charge collection response before and after irradiation, and the response of 3D-Si sensors located at large η angles.

  8. 2D and 3D CMOS MAPS with high performance pixel-level signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.traversi@unibg.i [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy); Ratti, Lodovico [University of Pavia and INFN Pavia (Italy); Re, Valerio [University of Bergamo and INFN Pavia, Via Marconi 5, Dalmine 24044 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Deep N-well (DNW) MAPS have been developed in the last few years with the aim of building monolithic sensors with similar functionalities as hybrid pixels systems. These devices have been fabricated in a planar (2D) 130 nm CMOS technology. The triple-well structure available in such an ultra-deep submicron technology is exploited by using the deep N-well as the charge-collecting electrode. This paper intends to discuss the design features and measurement results of the last prototype (Apsel5T chip) recently fabricated in a 2D 130 nm CMOS technology. Recent advances in microelectronics industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for High Energy Physics experiments. A 3D version of the Apsel5T chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS, two-layer, vertically integrated technology. The main features of this new 3D monolithic detector are presented in this paper.

  9. A COMPARISON OF SUB-PIXEL MAPPING METHODS FOR COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  10. a Comparison of Sub-Pixel Mapping Methods for Coastal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingxiang; Trinder, John; Turner, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the comparisons of three soft classification methods and three sub-pixel mapping methods for the classification of coastal areas at sub-pixel level. Specifically, SPOT-7 multispectral images covering the coastal area of Perth are selected as the experiment dataset. For the soft classification, linear spectral unmixing model, supervised fully-fuzzy classification method and the support vector machine are applied to generate the fraction map. Then for the sub-pixel mapping, the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model, pixel swapping and wavelets method are compared. Besides, the influence of the correct fraction constraint is explored. Moreover, a post-processing step is implemented according to the known spatial knowledge of coastal areas. The accuracy assessment of the fraction values indicates that support vector machine generates the most accurate fraction result. For sub-pixel mapping, wavelets method outperforms the other two methods with overall classification accuracy of 91.79% and Kappa coefficient of 0.875 after the post-processing step and it also performs best for waterline extraction with mean distance of 0.71m to the reference waterline. In this experiment, the use of correct fraction constraint decreases the classification accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods and waterline extraction. Finally, the post-processing step improves the accuracy of sub-pixel mapping methods, especially for those with correct coefficient constraint. The most significant improvement of overall accuracy is as much as 4% for the sub-pixel/pixel attraction model with correct coefficient constraint.

  11. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Alimonti, G.; /INFN, Milan; Barbero, M.; /Bonn U.; Bates, R.; /Glasgow U.; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /Manchester U.; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Buttar, C.; /Glasgow U.; Capua, M.; /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Cobal, M.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Cristofoli, A.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Dalla Betta, G.F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; /INFN, Genoa; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Devetak, E.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; DeWilde, B.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Di Girolamo, B.; /CERN; Dobos, D.; /CERN; Einsweiler, K.; /LBL, Berkeley; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  12. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernegger, Heinz, E-mail: heinz.pernegger@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  13. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  14. 320×240 Pixels CMOS Digital Image Sensor with Wide Dynamic Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jie; WANG Jing-guang; HONG Zhi-liang

    2004-01-01

    A 320×240 CMOS image sensor is demonstrated,which is implemented by a standard 0.6 μm 2P2M CMOS process.For reducing the chip area,each 2×2-pixel block shares a sample/hold circuit,analog-to-digital converter and 1-b memory.The 2×2 pixel pitch has an area of 40 μm×40 μm and the fill factor is about 16%.While operating at a low frame rate,the sensor dissipates a very low power by power-management circuit making pixel-level comparators in an idle state.A digital correlated double sampling,which eliminates fixed pattern noise,improves SNR of the sensor, and multiple sampling operations make the sensor have a wide dynamic range.

  15. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  16. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  17. Small pixel cross-talk MTF and its impact on MWIR sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Willers, Cornelius J.

    2017-05-01

    As pixel sizes reduce in the development of modern High Definition (HD) Mid Wave Infrared (MWIR) detectors the interpixel cross-talk becomes increasingly difficult to regulate. The diffusion lengths required to achieve the quantum efficiency and sensitivity of MWIR detectors are typically longer than the pixel pitch dimension, and the probability of inter-pixel cross-talk increases as the pixel pitch/diffusion length fraction decreases. Inter-pixel cross-talk is most conveniently quantified by the focal plane array sampling Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). Cross-talk MTF will reduce the ideal sinc square pixel MTF that is commonly used when modelling sensor performance. However, cross-talk MTF data is not always readily available from detector suppliers, and since the origins of inter-pixel cross-talk are uniquely device and manufacturing process specific, no generic MTF models appear to satisfy the needs of the sensor designers and analysts. In this paper cross-talk MTF data has been collected from recent publications and the development for a generic cross-talk MTF model to fit this data is investigated. The resulting cross-talk MTF model is then included in a MWIR sensor model and the impact on sensor performance is evaluated in terms of the National Imagery Interoperability Rating Scale's (NIIRS) General Image Quality Equation (GIQE) metric for a range of fnumber/ detector pitch Fλ/d configurations and operating environments. By applying non-linear boost transfer functions in the signal processing chain, the contrast losses due to cross-talk may be compensated for. Boost transfer functions, however, also reduce the signal to noise ratio of the sensor. In this paper boost function limits are investigated and included in the sensor performance assessments.

  18. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jonghoon; Chae, Seungho; Shim, Jinwook; Kim, Dongchul; Cheong, Cheolho; Han, Tack-Don

    2016-03-09

    Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel's type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  19. A high fill-factor low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with shared-pixel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    We have developed and evaluated the high responsivity and low dark leakage CMOS image sensor with the ring-gate shared-pixel design. A ring-gate shared-pixel design with a high fill factor makes it possible to achieve the low-light imaging. As eliminating the shallow trench isolation in the proposed pixel, the dark leakage current is significantly decreased because one of major dark leakage sources is removed. By sharing the in-pixel transistors such as a reset transistor, a select transistor, and a source follower amplifier, each pixel has a high fill-factor of 43 % and high sensitivity of 144.6 ke-/lx·sec. In addition, the effective number of transistors per pixel is 1.75. The proposed imager achieved the relatively low dark leakage current of about 104.5 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to a dark current density Jdark_proposed of about 30 pA/cm2. In contrast, the conventional type test pixel has a large dark leakage current of 2450 e-/s (median at 60°C), corresponding to Jdark_conventional of about 700 pA/cm2. Both pixels have a same pixel size of 7.5×7.5 μm2 and are fabricated in same process.

  20. Pixel parallel localized driver design for a 128 x 256 pixel array 3D 1Gfps image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Dao, V. T. S.; Etoh, T. G.; Charbon, E.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a 3D 1Gfps BSI image sensor is proposed, where 128 × 256 pixels are located in the top-tier chip and a 32 × 32 localized driver array in the bottom-tier chip. Pixels are designed with Multiple Collection Gates (MCG), which collects photons selectively with different collection gates being active at intervals of 1ns to achieve 1Gfps. For the drivers, a global PLL is designed, which consists of a ring oscillator with 6-stage current starved differential inverters, achieving a wide frequency tuning range from 40MHz to 360MHz (20ps rms jitter). The drivers are the replicas of the ring oscillator that operates within a PLL. Together with level shifters and XNOR gates, continuous 3.3V pulses are generated with desired pulse width, which is 1/12 of the PLL clock period. The driver array is activated by a START signal, which propagates through a highly balanced clock tree, to activate all the pixels at the same time with virtually negligible skew.

  1. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  2. First tests of CHERWELL, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor: A CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) using 180 nm technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylroie-Smith, James, E-mail: j.mylroie-smith@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Kolya, Scott; Velthuis, Jaap [University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Bevan, Adrian; Inguglia, Gianluca [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Headspith, Jon; Lazarus, Ian; Lemon, Roy [Daresbury Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom); Crooks, Jamie; Turchetta, Renato; Wilson, Fergus [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The Cherwell is a 4T CMOS sensor in 180 nm technology developed for the detection of charged particles. Here, the different test structures on the sensor will be described and first results from tests on the reference pixel variant are shown. The sensors were shown to have a noise of 12 e{sup −} and a signal to noise up to 150 in {sup 55}Fe.

  3. Polymer pixel enhancement by laser-induced forward transfer for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, V.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinescu, M.; Shaw Stewart, J.; Lippert, T. K.; di Pietrantonio, F.; Cannata, D.; Benetti, M.; Verona, E.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents polymer pixel printing for applications in chemoselective sensors where nanosecond laser direct transfer methods, with a triazene polymer (TP) acting as a Dynamic Release Layer (DRL), are used. A systematic study of laser fluence, donor film morphology and both single- and multiple-pixel deposition were optimized with the final goal to obtain continuous pixels of sensitive polymers, polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyisobutylene (PIB), on SAW surfaces. Morphology characterization after the laser transfer has been performed by Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The responses of the coated transducers were measured after deposition with different laser fluences and it was found that a fluence under 625 mJ/cm2 was required in order to prevent damage of the interdigital transducers (IDT) of the sensor devices. The sensitivity of the polymer coated devices to acetone concentrations gives an indication that LIFT can be used for printing sensitive polymer pixels onto transducer devices.

  4. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  5. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  6. Development of Kilo-Pixel Arrays of Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Ray, C. A.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Wassell, E. J.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Smith, D. R.; Swetz, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing kilo-pixel arrays of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for future X-ray astronomy observatories or for use in laboratory astrophysics applications. For example, Athena/XMS (currently under study by the european space agency) would require a close-packed 32x32 pixel array on a 250-micron pitch with pixel/second. We present characterization of 32x32 arrays. These detectors will be readout using state of the art SQUID based time-domain multiplexing (TDM). We will also present the latest results in integrating these detectors and the TDM readout technology into a 16 row x N column field-able instrument.

  7. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Pennicard, David; Sarajlic, Milija; Graafsma, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The mode...

  8. A Low-Noise CMOS Pixel Direct Charge Sensor, Topmetal-II-

    CERN Document Server

    An, Mangmang; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Xu, Nu; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35um CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a <15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  9. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  10. A Tracker for the Mu3e Experiment based on High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Niklaus; Bachmann, Sebastian; Kiehn, Moritz; Perić, Ivan; Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin; Philipp, Raphael; Schöning, André; Stumpf, Kevin; Wiedner, Dirk; Windelband, Bernd; Zimmermann, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The Mu3e experiment searches for the lepton flavour violating decay mu+ -> e+e-e+, aiming for a branching fraction sensitivity of 10^-16. This requires an excellent momentum resolution for low energy electrons, high rate capability and a large acceptance. In order to minimize multiple scattering, the amount of material has to be as small as possible. These challenges can be met with a tracker built from high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS), which can be thinned to 50 um and which incorporate the complete read-out electronics on the sensor chip. To further minimise material, the sensors are supported by a mechanical structure built from 25 um thick Kapton foil and cooled with gaseous helium.

  11. A tracker for the Mu3e experiment based on high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Niklaus, E-mail: nberger@physi.uni-heidelberg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Augustin, Heiko; Bachmann, Sebastian; Kiehn, Moritz [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Perić, Ivan [Zentralinstitut für technische Informatik, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin; Philipp, Raphael; Schöning, André; Stumpf, Kevin; Wiedner, Dirk; Windelband, Bernd; Zimmermann, Marco [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    The Mu3e experiment searches for the lepton flavour violating decay μ{sup +}→e{sup +}e{sup −}e{sup +}, aiming for a branching fraction sensitivity of 10{sup −16}. This requires an excellent momentum resolution for low energy electrons, high rate capability and a large acceptance. In order to minimise multiple scattering, the amount of material has to be as small as possible. These challenges can be met with a tracker built from high-voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS), which can be thinned to 50μm and which incorporate the complete read-out electronics on the sensor chip. To further minimise material, the sensors are supported by a mechanical structure built from 25μm thick Kapton foil and cooled with gaseous helium.

  12. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoon Seo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel’s type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.

  13. Probing and irradiation tests of ALICE pixel chip wafers and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cinausero, M; Antinori, F; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Galet, G; Lunardon, M; Manea, C; Marchini, S; Martini, S; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Riedler, P; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) project a system dedicated to the tests of the ALICE1LHCb chip wafers has been assembled and is now in use for the selection of pixel chips to be bump-bonded to sensor ladders. In parallel, radiation hardness tests of the SPD silicon sensors have been carried out using the 27 MeV proton beam delivered by the XTU TANDEM accelerator at the SIRAD facility in LNL. In this paper we describe the wafer probing and irradiation set-ups and we report the obtained results. (6 refs).

  14. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Within the ongoing R&D; phase, several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced on different epitaxial layer thicknesses and resistivities. These chips are being characterized for their performance before and after irradiation using source tests, test beam and measu...

  15. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shun; Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei; Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori

    2017-02-01

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm2 pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  16. Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Winter Crops at Sub-Pixel Level Using AVHRR NDVI Time Series and Neural Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Rembold

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For large areas, it is difficult to assess the spatial distribution and inter-annual variation of crop acreages through field surveys. Such information, however, is of great value for governments, land managers, planning authorities, commodity traders and environmental scientists. Time series of coarse resolution imagery offer the advantage of global coverage at low costs, and are therefore suitable for large-scale crop type mapping. Due to their coarse spatial resolution, however, the problem of mixed pixels has to be addressed. Traditional hard classification approaches cannot be applied because of sub-pixel heterogeneity. We evaluate neural networks as a modeling tool for sub-pixel crop acreage estimation. The proposed methodology is based on the assumption that different cover type proportions within coarse pixels prompt changes in time profiles of remotely sensed vegetation indices like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Neural networks can learn the relation between temporal NDVI signatures and the sought crop acreage information. This learning step permits a non-linear unmixing of the temporal information provided by coarse resolution satellite sensors. For assessing the feasibility and accuracy of the approach, a study region in central Italy (Tuscany was selected. The task consisted of mapping the spatial distribution of winter crops abundances within 1 km AVHRR pixels between 1988 and 2001. Reference crop acreage information for network training and validation was derived from high resolution Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (TM/ETM+ images and official agricultural statistics. Encouraging results were obtained demonstrating the potential of the proposed approach. For example, the spatial distribution of winter crop acreage at sub-pixel level was mapped with a cross-validated coefficient of determination of 0.8 with respect to the reference information from high resolution imagery. For the eight years for which

  17. Characterization of proton irradiated 3D-DDTC pixel sensor prototypes fabricated at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Cobal, M. [Universita degli Studi di Udine and INFN Trieste, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN Padova, Gruppo Collegato d Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gemme, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Huegging, F.; Janssen, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Micelli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Udine and INFN Trieste, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Povoli, M. [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN Padova, Gruppo Collegato d Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Wermes, N. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-07-21

    In this paper we discuss results relevant to 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. Some assemblies of these sensors featuring different columnar electrode configurations (2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) and coupled to the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip were irradiated up to large proton fluences and tested in laboratory with radioactive sources. In spite of the non-optimized columnar electrode overlap, sensors exhibit reasonably good charge collection properties up to an irradiation fluence of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2}, while requiring bias voltages in the order of 100 V. Sensor operation is further investigated by means of TCAD simulations which can effectively explain the basic mechanisms responsible for charge loss after irradiation.

  18. Characterization of proton irradiated 3D-DDTC pixel sensor prototypes fabricated at FBK

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Cobal, M; Betta, G -F Dalla; Da Via, C; Darbo, G; Gallrapp, C; Gemme, C; Huegging, F; Janssen, J; Micelli, A; Pernegger, H; Povoli, M; Wermes, N; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results relevant to 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. Some assemblies of these sensors featuring different columnar electrode configurations (2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) and coupled to the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip were irradiated up to large proton fluences and tested in laboratory with radioactive sources. In spite of the non optimized columnar electrode overlap, sensors exhibit reasonably good charge collection properties up to an irradiation fluence of 2 x 10**15 neq/cm2, while requiring bias voltages in the order of 100 V. Sensor operation is further investigated by means of TCAD simulations which can effectively explain the basic mechanisms responsible for charge loss after irradiation.

  19. Functional characterization of irradiated 3D-DDTC pixel sensor prototypes fabricated at FBK

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Cobal, M; Da Viá, C; Betta, G F Dalla; Darbo, G; Gallrapp, C; Gemme, C; Huegging, F; Janssen, J; Micelli, A; Pernegger, H; Povoli, M; Wermes, N; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results relevant to 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. Several assemblies of these sensors featuring various columnar electrode configurations (2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) and coupled to the ATLAS FE-I3 read-out chip were irradiated up to large particle fluences and tested in laboratory with radioactive sources. In spite of the non optimized columnar electrode overlap, sensors exhibit reasonably good charge collection properties up to an irradiation fluence of 2 10**15 neq/cm2 while requiring bias voltages of at most 160V. Sensor operation is further investigated by means of TCAD simulations which can effectively explain the basic mechanisms responsible for charge loss after irradiation.

  20. Wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with in-pixel double-exposure and synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Binqiao; Sun Zhongyan; Xu Jiangtao, E-mail: xujiangtao@tju.edu.c [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    A wide-dynamic-range CMOS image sensor (CIS) based on synthesis of a long-time and a short-time exposure signal in the floating diffusion (FD) of a five-transistor active pixel is proposed. With optimized pixel operation, the response curve is compressed and a wide dynamic range image is obtained. A prototype wide-dynamic-range CMOS image sensor was developed with a 0.18 {mu}m CIS process. With the double exposure time 2.4 ms and 70 ns, the dynamic range of the proposed sensor is 80 dB with 30 frames per second (fps). The proposed CMOS image sensor meets the demands of applications in security surveillance systems. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Recent Results of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    To cope with the higher occupancy and radiation damage at the HL-LHC also the LHC experiments will be upgraded. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) is an international collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists, exploring the feasibility of employing planar pixel sensors for this scenario. Depending on the radius, different pixel concepts are investigated using laboratory and beam test measurements. At small radii the extreme radiation environment and strong space constraints are addressed with very thin pixel sensors active thickness in the range of (75-150) mum, and the development of slim as well as active edges. At larger radii the main challenge is the cost reduction to allow for instrumenting the large area of (7-10) m^2. To reach this goal the pixel productions are being transferred to 6 inch production lines. Additionally, investigated are more cost-efficient and industrialised interconnection techniques as well as the n-in-p technology, which, being a single-sided pr...

  2. Novel Silicon n-in-p Pixel Sensors for the future ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter,R H; Weigell, P

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost eectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1016 1-MeV $n_{eq}cm^{-2}$, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  3. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, Genève 4, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10{sup 16}1-MeV n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  4. Pixel area variations in sensors: a novel framework for predicting pixel fidelity and distortion in flat field response

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We describe the drift field in thick depleted silicon sensors as a superposition of a one-dimensional backdrop field and various three-dimensional perturbative contributions that are physically motivated. We compute trajectories for the conversions along the field lines toward the channel and into volumes where conversions are confined by the perturbative fields. We validate this approach by comparing predictions against measured response distributions seen in five types of fixed pattern distortion features. We derive a quantitative connection between "tree ring" flat field distortions to astrometric and shape transfer errors with connections to measurable wavelength dependence - as ancillary pixel data that may be used in pipeline analysis for catalog population. Such corrections may be tested on DECam data, where correlations between tree ring flat field distortions and astrometric errors - together with their band dependence - are already under study. Dynamic effects, including the brighter-fatter phenomen...

  5. Heavily irradiated N-in-p thin planar pixel sensors with and without active edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, S.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 μm, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 μm thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detectors. Results obtained with 150 μm thin sensors, assembled with the new ATLAS FE-I4 chip and irradiated up to a fluence of 4 × 1015 neq/cm2, show that they are excellent candidates for larger radii of the silicon pixel tracker in the upgrade of the ATLAS detector at HL-LHC. In addition, the active edge technology of the VTT devices maximizes the active area of the sensor and reduces the material budget to suit the requirements for the innermost layers. The edge pixel performance of VTT modules has been investigated at beam test experiments and the analysis after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 × 1015 neq/cm2 has been performed using radioactive sources in the laboratory.

  6. Slim edge studies, design and quality control of planar ATLAS IBL pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Tobias

    2013-05-08

    One of the four large experiments at the LHC at CERN is the ATLAS detector, a multi purpose detector. Its pixel detector, composed of three layers, is the innermost part of the tracker. As it is closest to the interaction point, it represents a basic part of the track reconstruction. Besides the requested high resolution one main requirement is the radiation hardness. In the coming years the radiation damage will cause deteriorations of the detector performance. With the planned increase of the luminosity, especially after the upgrade to the High Luminosity LHC, this radiation damage will be even intensified. This circumstance necessitates a new pixel detector featuring improved radiation hard sensors and read-out chips. The present shutdown of the LHC is already utilized to insert an additional b-layer (IBL) into the existing ATLAS pixel detector. The current n-in-n pixel sensor design had to be adapted to the new read-out chip and the module specifications. The new stave geometry requests a reduction of the inactive sensor edge. In a prototype wafer production all modifications have been implemented. The sensor quality control was supervised which led to the decision of the final sensor thickness. In order to evaluate the performance of the sensor chip assemblies with an innovative slim edge design, they have been operated in test beam setups before and after irradiation. Furthermore, the quality control of the planar IBL sensor wafer production was supervised from the stage of wafer delivery to that before the flip chip process to ensure a sufficient amount of functional sensors for the module production.

  7. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Neng Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS. It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed.

  8. A rad-hard CMOS active pixel sensor for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Marco [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: MBattaglia@lbl.gov; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giubilato, Piero [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Kim, Tae Sung [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mattiazzo, Serena [INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zalusky, Sarah [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-01-11

    Monolithic CMOS pixel sensors offer unprecedented opportunities for fast nano-imaging through direct electron detection in transmission electron microscopy. We present the design and a full characterisation of a CMOS pixel test structure able to withstand doses in excess of 1 Mrad. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are compared to predictions of simulation and to 1.5 GeV electron data to disentagle the effect of multiple scattering. The point spread function measured with 300 keV electrons is (8.1{+-}1.6){mu}m for 10{mu}m pixel and (10.9{+-}2.3){mu}m for 20{mu}m pixels, respectively, which agrees well with the values of 8.4 and 10.5{mu}m predicted by our simulation.

  9. A 30 frames-per-second 18-million pixel image sensor for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul P. K.; Newman, J. Daniel; Sacco, Andrew P.

    2011-06-01

    ITT Geospatial Systems has space-qualified a visible band interline Charge Coupled Device (CCD) image sensor with 18 million pixels developed using commercial technology. The sensor is comprised of an 4320 (H) x 4144 (V) array of 8 micron square pixels. With multiple analog outputs each operating at 20 MHz the sensor will support 30 frames per second continuous video capture. The pixel incorporates a pinned photodiode, vertical overflow drain and microlens to achieve low dark current, lag-free imaging with highspeed global electronic shutter at high quantum efficiency (QE). The vertical and horizontal CCD's are true two-phase designs which support an integrate-while-read operation. The sensor chip is mounted on an Aluminum Nitride co-fired ceramic package optimized for electrical signal integrity, thermal and optical stability. The architecture supports quadrant redundancy. The complete assembly has been space-qualified to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 with Total Ionization Dose (TID) radiation testing at 25 Krad. The sensor exceeds 12-bit of dynamic range and 31% QE with 5 W of total power. The nonlinearity is measured to be 1.0% while the global non-uniformity is less than 2%. The low defect density of the CCD sensor allows high resolution video imaging in a space environment.

  10. A three-phase time-correlation image sensor using pinned photodiode active pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangman; Iwahori, Tomohiro; Sawada, Tomonari; Kawahito, Shoji; Ando, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    A time correlation (TC) image sensor is a device that produces 3-phase time-correlated signals between the incident light intensity and three reference signals. A conventional implementation of the TC image sensor using a standard CMOS technology works at low frequency and with low sensitivity. In order to achieve higher modulation frequency and high sensitivity, the TC image sensor with a dual potential structure using a pinned diode is proposed. The dual potential structure is created by changing the impurity doping concentration in the two different potential regions. In this structure, high-frequency modulation can be achieved, while maintaining a sufficient light receiving area. A prototype TC image sensor with 366×390pixels is implemented with 0.18-μm 1P4M CMOS image sensor technology. Each pixel with the size of 12μm×12μm has one pinned photodiode with the dual potential structure, 12 transistors and 3capacitors to implement three-parallel-output active pixel circuits. A fundamental operation of the implemented TC sensor is demonstrated.

  11. First prototypes of two-tier avalanche pixel sensors for particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheri, L.; Brogi, P.; Collazuol, G.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Ficorella, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Morsani, F.; Ratti, L.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation and preliminary evaluation of a new type of silicon sensor for charged particle detection operated in Geiger-mode. The proposed device, formed by two vertically-aligned pixel arrays, exploits the coincidence between two simultaneous avalanche events to discriminate between particle-triggered detections and dark counts. A proof-of-concept two-layer sensor with per-pixel coincidence circuits was designed and fabricated in a 150 nm CMOS process and vertically integrated through bump bonding. The sensor includes a 48×16 pixel array with 50 μ m × 75 μ m pixels. This work describes the sensor architecture and reports a selection of results from the characterization of the avalanche detectors in the two layers. Detectors with an active area of 43 × 45 μ m2 have a median dark count rate of 3 kHz at 3.3 V excess bias and a breakdown voltage non-uniformity lower than 20 mV.

  12. A Design of a New Column-Parallel Analog-to-Digital Converter Flash for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Mostafa; Akhamal, Hicham; Qjidaa, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VXD) expresses stringent requirements on their analog readout electronics, specifically on the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This paper concerns designing and optimizing a new architecture of a low power, high speed, and small-area 4-bit column-parallel ADC Flash. Later in this study, we propose to interpose an S/H block in the converter. This integration of S/H block increases the sensitiveness of the converter to the very small amplitude of the input signal from the sensor and provides a sufficient time to the converter to be able to code the input signal. This ADC is developed in 0.18 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The proposed ADC responds to the constraints of power dissipation, size, and speed for the MAPS composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns where each column ADC covers a small area of 35 × 336.76 μm(2). The proposed ADC consumes low power at a 1.8 V supply and 100 MS/s sampling rate with dynamic range of 125 mV. Its DNL and INL are 0.0812/-0.0787 LSB and 0.0811/-0.0787 LSB, respectively. Furthermore, this ADC achieves a high speed more than 5 GHz.

  13. Results with p-type pixel sensors with different geometries for the HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allport, P.P. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Bates, R.; Butter, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Casse, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dervan, P.J., E-mail: Paul.Dervan@cern.ch [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Forshaw, D.; Tsurin, I. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Road, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    Pixel detectors will be extensively used for the four innermost layers of the upgraded ATLAS experiment at the future High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. The total area of pixel sensors will be over 5 m{sup 2}. The silicon sensors that will instrument the pixel volume will have to face several technology challenges. They will have to withstand doses up to 2×10{sup 16} n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, to have a reduced inactive area at the edge of the sensors still being able to hold 1000 V bias voltage and to be relatively low cost considering the large area to be covered. N-side readout on p-type bulk is the most promising technology for satisfying the various requirements. Several sensor types have been produced in the UK, conceived for various readout systems, for studying the properties of n-in-p and n-in-n sensors before and after irradiation with test beam and laboratory measurements. The status of these studies is presented here.

  14. Experiment on digital CDS with 33-M pixel 120-fps super hi-vision image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonai, J.; Yasue, T.; Kitamura, K.; Hayashida, T.; Watabe, T.; Shimamoto, H.; Kawahito, S.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a CMOS image sensor with 33 million pixels and 120 frames per second (fps) for Super Hi-Vision (SHV:8K version of UHDTV). There is a way to reduce the fixed pattern noise (FPN) caused in CMOS image sensors by using digital correlated double sampling (digital CDS), but digital CDS methods need high-speed analog-to-digital conversion and are not applicable to conventional UHDTV image sensors due to their speed limit. Our image sensor, on the other hand, has a very fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using "two-stage cyclic ADC" architecture that is capable of being driven at 120-fps, which is double the normal frame rate for TV. In this experiment, we performed experimental digital CDS using the high-frame rate UHDTV image sensor. By reading the same row twice at 120-fps and subtracting dark pixel signals from accumulated pixel signals, we obtained a 60-fps equivalent video signal with digital noise reduction. The results showed that the VFPN was effectively reduced from 24.25 e-rms to 0.43 e-rms.

  15. Optical confinement methods for continued scaling of CMOS image sensor pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenmaier, Christian C; Huo, Yijie; Catrysse, Peter B

    2008-12-08

    The pixels that make up CMOS image sensors have steadily decreased in size over the last decade. This scaling has two effects: first, the amount of light incident on each pixel decreases, making optical efficiency, i.e., the collection of each photon, more important. Second, diffraction comes into play when pixel size approaches the wavelength of visible light, resulting in increased spatial optical crosstalk. To address these two effects, we investigate and compare three methods for guiding incident light from the microlens down to the photodiode. Two of these techniques rely on total internal reflection (TIR) at the boundary between dielectric media of different refractive indices, while the third uses reflection at a metal-dielectric interface to confine the light. Simulations are performed using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method on a realistic 1.75-mum pixel model for on-axis as well as angled incidence. We evaluate the optical efficiency and spatial crosstalk performance of these methods compared to a reference pixel and find significant (10%) improvement for the TIR designs with properly chosen parameters and nearly full spatial crosstalk elimination using metal to confine the light. We also show that these improvements are comparable to those achieved by thinning the image sensor stack.

  16. Performance of novel silicon n-in-p planar Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2012-01-01

    The performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel detectors, designed for future upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel system is presented. The n-in-p silicon sensors technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. The n-in-p modules presented here, are composed of pixel sensors produced by CiS connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. The characterization of these devices has been performed before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 x 10**15 neq/cm2 . Charge collection measurements carried out with radioactive sources have proven the functioning of this technology up to these particle fluences. First results from beam test data with a 120 GeV/c pion beam at the CERN-SPS are also discussed, demonstrating a high tracking efficiency before irradiation, and a high collected charge for a device irradiated at a fluence of 5 x 10**15 neq/cm2 .

  17. Pixel sensors with different pitch layouts for ATLAS Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Different pitch layouts are considered for the pixel detector being designed for the ATLAS up- graded tracking system which will be operating at the High Luminosity LHC. The tracking per- formance in the Endcap pixel regions could benefit from pixel layouts which differ from the ge- ometries used in the barrel region. Also, the performance in different barrel layers and eta regions could be optimised using different pixel sizes. This presentation will report on the development and tests of pitch layouts which could be readout by the FE-I4 ASICs. The pixel geometries in- clude 50 250 m m 2 , 25 500 m m 2 , 100 125 m m 2 , 125 167 m m 2 , 50 2000 m m 2 and 25 2000 m m 2 . The sensors with geometries 50 250 m m 2 , 25 500 m m 2 and 100 125 m m 2 were irradiated and tested at the DESY testbeam. These and other testbeam results as well as results from characterisation of these sensors in the laboratory will be presented

  18. Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenzoni, Matteo; Pancheri, Lucio; Stoppa, David

    2016-05-23

    This paper reviews the state of the art of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) image sensors for time-resolved imaging. The focus of the paper is on pixel architectures featuring small pixel size (20%) as a key enabling technology for the successful implementation of high spatial resolution SPAD-based image sensors. A summary of the main CMOS SPAD implementations, their characteristics and integration challenges, is provided from the perspective of targeting large pixel arrays, where one of the key drivers is the spatial uniformity. The main analog techniques aimed at time-gated photon counting and photon timestamping suitable for compact and low-power pixels are critically discussed. The main features of these solutions are the adoption of analog counting techniques and time-to-analog conversion, in NMOS-only pixels. Reliable quantum-limited single-photon counting, self-referenced analog-to-digital conversion, time gating down to 0.75 ns and timestamping with 368 ps jitter are achieved.

  19. Compact SPAD-Based Pixel Architectures for Time-Resolved Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Perenzoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensors for time-resolved imaging. The focus of the paper is on pixel architectures featuring small pixel size (<25 μm and high fill factor (>20% as a key enabling technology for the successful implementation of high spatial resolution SPAD-based image sensors. A summary of the main CMOS SPAD implementations, their characteristics and integration challenges, is provided from the perspective of targeting large pixel arrays, where one of the key drivers is the spatial uniformity. The main analog techniques aimed at time-gated photon counting and photon timestamping suitable for compact and low-power pixels are critically discussed. The main features of these solutions are the adoption of analog counting techniques and time-to-analog conversion, in NMOS-only pixels. Reliable quantum-limited single-photon counting, self-referenced analog-to-digital conversion, time gating down to 0.75 ns and timestamping with 368 ps jitter are achieved.

  20. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E.; Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Zhou, Z.; Ackland, B.; Dickinson, A.; Eid, E.; Inglis, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research and development of CMOS active pixel image sensors for low cost commercial applications. A number of sensor designs have been fabricated and tested in both p-well and n-well technologies. Major elements in the development of the sensor include on-chip analog signal processing circuits for the reduction of fixed pattern noise, on-chip timing and control circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Recent results and continuing efforts in these areas will be presented.

  1. 3D-FBK pixel sensors with CMS readout: First test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertino, M., E-mail: margherita.obertino@cern.ch [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, and INFN, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Vilela Pereira, A. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Alagoz, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Andresen, J. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Boscardin, M. [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Povo di Trento (Italy); Brosius, R. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Bubna, M. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) and Università di Trento, Povo di Trento (Italy); Jensen, F. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Krzywda, A. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kumar, A. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Kwan, S. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); Lei, C.M. [Colorado University, Colorado (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    Silicon 3D detectors consist of an array of columnar electrodes of both doping types which penetrate entirely in the detector bulk, perpendicularly to the surface. They are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Until recently, properties of 3D sensors have been investigated mostly with ATLAS readout electronics. 3D pixel sensors compatible with the CMS readout were first fabricated at SINTEF (Oslo, Norway), and more recently at FBK (Trento, Italy) and CNM (Barcelona, Spain). Several sensors with different electrode configurations, bump-bonded with the CMS pixel PSI46 readout chip, were characterized in laboratory and tested at Fermilab with a proton beam of 120 GeV/c. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  2. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, S.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Paschen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 μm, produced at CiS, and 100-200 μm thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4 × 1016 neq/cm2.

  3. Imaging properties of small-pixel spectroscopic x-ray detectors based on cadmium telluride sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Schulze, Julia; Zuber, Marcus; Rink, Kristian; Butzer, Jochen; Hamann, Elias; Cecilia, Angelica; Zwerger, Andreas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Oelfke, Uwe

    2012-11-07

    Spectroscopic x-ray imaging by means of photon counting detectors has received growing interest during the past years. Critical to the image quality of such devices is their pixel pitch and the sensor material employed. This paper describes the imaging properties of Medipix2 MXR multi-chip assemblies bump bonded to 1 mm thick CdTe sensors. Two systems were investigated with pixel pitches of 110 and 165 μm, which are in the order of the mean free path lengths of the characteristic x-rays produced in their sensors. Peak widths were found to be almost constant across the energy range of 10 to 60 keV, with values of 2.3 and 2.2 keV (FWHM) for the two pixel pitches. The average number of pixels responding to a single incoming photon are about 1.85 and 1.45 at 60 keV, amounting to detective quantum efficiencies of 0.77 and 0.84 at a spatial frequency of zero. Energy selective CT acquisitions are presented, and the two pixel pitches' abilities to discriminate between iodine and gadolinium contrast agents are examined. It is shown that the choice of the pixel pitch translates into a minimum contrast agent concentration for which material discrimination is still possible. We finally investigate saturation effects at high x-ray fluxes and conclude with the finding that higher maximum count rates come at the cost of a reduced energy resolution.

  4. Recent results of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Dean

    2013-12-01

    To extend the physics reach of the LHC, upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the integrated annual luminosity by a factor of 5-10. This will increase the occupancy and the radiation damage of the inner trackers. To cope with the elevated occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all silicon inner tracker for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation. With silicon, the occupancy can be adjusted by using the appropriate pitch for the pixels/micro-strips. Constraints due to high radiation damage mean that only sensors with electrode configuration designed to read out the electron signal (n-in-p and n-in-n) are considered. To investigate the suitability of planar pixel sensors (PPS) for the ATLAS tracker upgrade, a dedicated R&D project was established, with 17 institutes and more than 80 scientists. The main focuses of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors after the high fluences expected during HL-LHC operation, the optimisation of the detector and module production technologies for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large volumes and the reduction of the inactive areas needed for electrical insulation of the sensitive region from the cut edge of the sensors. An overview of recent accomplishments of the PPS (Planar Pixel Sensors) R&D project is given. The performance in terms of charge collection and tracking efficiency, evaluated with radioactive sources in the laboratory and from beam tests, is presented. Sensors with different thicknesses (ranging from 75 to 300 μm) were irradiated to several fluences up to 2 ×1016neqcm-2 to study the effect of varying thickness on the radiation hardness. The significant progresses made towards the reduction of the edge distance are reported.

  5. Radiation resistance of double-type double-sided 3D pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, M; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Rohe, T; Vila, I

    2013-01-01

    The proposed high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity at the experiments' interaction points by a factor of ten. The vertex detector will be the subsystem most affected by the luminosity increase, raising substantially their occupancy and radiation-induced damage. To preserve the vertex physics performance under these new conditions, current pixel technologies have to be improved. Hybrid pixel sensors with double-sided double-type vertical electrodes (3D sensors) are becoming a mature technology for the detector layers closest to the interaction point due to their intrinsic radiation hardness. In addition, the double-sided implementation of the 3D pixel technology provides some additional technical advantages with respect to the single-sided implementation. For this study, 3D pixel sensors manufactured at the Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica of Barcelona (IMB-CNM) have been bonded to the PSI46 readout chip currently used by the Compact Muon ...

  6. Radiation resistance of double-type double-sided 3D pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M.; Jaramillo, R. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Munoz, F.J., E-mail: fjmunoz@ifca.unican.es [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Univ. Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rohe, T. [Paul Sherrer Institute PSI, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Vila, I. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Avd. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-12-21

    The proposed high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity at the experiments' interaction points by a factor of ten. The vertex detector will be the subsystem most affected by the luminosity increase, raising substantially their occupancy and radiation-induced damage. To preserve the vertex physics performance under these new conditions, current pixel technologies have to be improved. Hybrid pixel sensors with double-sided double-type vertical electrodes (3D sensors) are becoming a mature technology for the detector layers closest to the interaction point due to their intrinsic radiation hardness. In addition, the double-sided implementation of the 3D pixel technology provides some additional technical advantages with respect to the single-sided implementation. For this study, 3D pixel sensors manufactured at the Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica of Barcelona (IMB-CNM) have been bonded to the PSI46 readout chip currently used by the Compact Muon Solenoid vertex detector. Detector performance before and after irradiation up to fluences of 5×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} is presented.

  7. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00211411; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F.A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Peric, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristic, B.; Vicente Barrero Pinto, M.; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the $4^{\\mathrm{th}}$ generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between $1\\cdot 10^{14}$ and $5\\cdot 10^{15}$ 1-MeV-n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of $85\\,$V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of $1\\cdot 10^{15}$ n$_\\textrm{eq}$/cm$^2$ - a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker - exhibited 99.7% average hit ...

  8. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Toko; Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans; Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick; Peric, Ivan; Pohl, David-Leon; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wang, Anqing; Wermes, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  9. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko, E-mail: thirono@uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Peric, Ivan [IPE, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Rozanov, Alexandre [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Rymaszewski, Piotr [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wang, Anqing [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  10. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  11. CMOS pixel sensor response to low energy electrons in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Marco [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: MBattaglia@lbl.gov; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This letter presents the results of a study of the response of a test CMOS sensor with a radiation tolerant pixel cell design to 80 and 100 keV electrons. The point spread function is measured to be (13.0{+-}1.7){mu}m at 100 keV and (12.1{+-}1.6){mu}m at 80 keV, for 20{mu}m pixels. Results agree well with values predicted by a Geant-4 and dedicated charge collection simulation.

  12. A new pixel level digital read out integrated circuits for ultraviolet imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Lan, Tian-yi; Yuan, Yong-gang; Li, Xiang-yang

    2014-11-01

    The ultraviolet imaging sensors consist of two important parts: the array of detectors and the read out integrated circuits. Along with the demand for the fine resolution, large input dynamic range and high integration degree of the imaging sensors, the functions of read out integrated circuits are becoming more and more important. The on chip analog to digital conversion is the main directions of research on this area. In this paper, we presented a new digital read out integrated circuits for ultraviolet imaging sensors. The proposed circuits have an analog to digital converter in each pixel, which enable the parallel analog to digital conversion of the whole pixel array. The developed circuits have a 50um×50um pixel area with a 128×128 size, and are designed in a 0.35um four metal double poly mixed signal CMOS process. The simulation results show that the designed analog to digital converter has an accuracy of 0.2mV and can achieve the dynamic range of 88dB. The proposed circuits realize the low noise and high speed digital output of read out integrated circuits for ultraviolet imaging sensors.

  13. Non-equal spacing CMOS sensor impact on response between even and odd pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cynthia; Chen, Nai-Yu

    2010-10-01

    With the self-developing CMOS imaging sensors in the instrument Focal Plane Assembly (FPA), there is flexibility in the trade-off for optimal specifications of CMOS sensor for systematic study. The criteria considered for the optimization are MTF and SNR, the CMOS imaging sensor considered is with TDI (time delay integration) feature. Among the specifications, fill factor is a key item. It affect not only the window effect in FPA MTF (static), but also the smearing effect in dynamic MTF, especially in satellite along track direction. Considering different fill factors, mirror-type and non-mirror-type pixel layout were studied for estimating the system MTF, another concern from image user point of view is mirror type pixel layout may cause different response between even and odd pixels. This work is to present the analysis results based on the construction of the non-equal spacing signal via Whittaker -Shannon interpolation formula. Further to present the analysis results about fill factor and stage number of TDI CMOS sensor. The result can function as a practice of FPA design specification.

  14. Heavily Irradiated N-in-p Thin Planar Pixel Sensors with and without Active Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, S; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detect...

  15. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  16. Supervised Sub-Pixel Mapping for Change Detection from Remotely Sensed Images with Different Resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively low temporal resolutions of high spatial resolution (HR remotely sensed images, land-cover change detection (LCCD may have to use multi-temporal images with different resolutions. The low spatial resolution (LR images often have high temporal repetition rates, but they contain a large number of mixed pixels, which may seriously limit their capability in change detection. Soft classification (SC can produce the proportional fractions of land-covers, on which sub-pixel mapping (SPM can construct fine resolution land-cover maps to reduce the low-spatial-resolution-problem to some extent. Thus, in this paper, sub-pixel land-cover change detection with the use of different resolution images (SLCCD_DR is addressed based on SC and SPM. Previously, endmember combinations within pixels are ignored in the LR image, which may result in flawed fractional differences. Meanwhile, the information of a known HR land-cover map is insignificantly treated in the SPM models, which leads to a reluctant SLCCD_DR result. In order to overcome these issues, a novel approach based on a back propagation neural network (BPNN with different resolution images (BPNN_DR is proposed in this paper. Firstly, endmember variability per pixel is considered during the SC process to ensure the high accuracy of the derived proportional fractional difference image. After that, the BPNN-based SPM model is constructed by a complete supervised framework. It takes full advantage of the prior known HR image, whether it predates or postdates the LR image, to train the BPNN, so that a sub-pixel change detection map is generated effectively. The proposed BPNN_DR is compared with four state-of-the-art methods at different scale factors. The experimental results using both synthetic data and real images demonstrated that it can outperform with a more detailed change detection map being produced.

  17. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; Nisius, R.; Paschen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 $\\mu$m, produced at CiS, and 100-200 $\\mu$m thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The perfo...

  18. Overview of Silicon Pixel Sensor Development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS tracking system and is critical for track and vertex reconstruction. In order to preserve the tracking performance notwithstanding the increasing instantaneous luminosity delivered by the LHC, ATLAS plans to introduce a new pixel layer (IBL) mounted directly on a reduced diameter beam pipe. The IBL will have to sustain an estimated radiation dose, including safety factors, of $5 imes 10^{15}$~n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$. Two sensor technologies are currently being considered for the IBL, planar n-on-n slim edge and 3D double sided designs. Results of the characterization, irradiation and beam test studies of IBL pixel devices are presented.

  19. Optimization of linear-logarithmic CMOS image sensor using a photogate and a cascode MOSFET for reducing pixel response variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2017-02-01

    Recently, CMOS image sensors (CISs) have become more and more complex because they require high-performances such as wide dynamic range, low-noise, high-speed operation, high-resolution and so on. First of all, wide dynamic range (WDR) is the first requirement for high-performance CIS. Several techniques have been proposed to improve the dynamic range. Although logarithmic pixel can achieve wide dynamic range, it leads to a poor signal-to-noise ratio due to small output swings. Furthermore, the fixed pattern noise of logarithmic pixel is significantly greater compared with other CISs. In this paper, we propose an optimized linear-logarithmic pixel. Compared to a conventional 3-transistor active pixel sensor structure, the proposed linear-logarithmic pixel is using a photogate and a cascode MOSFET in addition. The photogate which is surrounding a photodiode carries out change of sensitivity in the linear response and thus increases the dynamic range. The logarithmic response is caused by a cascode MOSFET. Although the dynamic range of the pixel has been improved, output curves of each pixel were not uniform. In general, as the number of devices increases in the pixel, pixel response variation is more pronounced. Hence, we optimized the linear-logarithmic pixel structure to minimize the pixel response variation. We applied a hard reset method and an optimized cascode MOSFET to the proposed pixel for reducing pixel response variation. Unlike the conventional reset operation, a hard reset using a p-type MOSFET fixes the voltage of each pixel to the same voltage. This reduces non-uniformity of the response in the linear response. The optimized cascode MOSFET achieves less variation in the logarithmic response. We have verified that the optimized pixel shows more uniform response than the conventional pixel, by both simulation and experiment.

  20. A high performance multi-tap CMOS lock-in pixel image sensor for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Woong; Shirakawa, Yuya; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    We have developed and evaluated the large full well capacity (FWC) for wide signal detection range and low temporal noise for high sensitivity lock-in pixel CMOS image sensor (CIS) embedded with two storage-diodes (SDs). In addition, for fast charge transfer from photodiode (PD) to SDs, a lateral electric field charge modulator (LEFM) is used for the developed lock-in pixel. As a result, the time-resolved CIS achieves a very large FWC of approximately 7000e-, low temporal random noise of 1.17e-rms at 45fps with true correlated double sampling (CDS) operation, and fast intrinsic response less than 500ps at 635nm. The proposed imager has an effective pixel array of 128(H)×256(V) and a pixel size of 11.2×11.2μm2. The sensor chip is fabricated by a Dongbu HiTek 1P4M 0.11μm CIS process.

  1. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070112; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Giles; Cousin, Loic; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hippolyte, Boris; Maria, Robert; Molnar, Levente; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) represent a novel technological approach to building charged particle detectors. CMOS processes allow to integrate a sensing volume and readout electronics in a single silicon die allowing to build sensors with a small pixel pitch ($\\sim 20 \\mu m$) and low material budget ($\\sim 0.2-0.3\\% X_0$) per layer. These characteristics make CPS an attractive option for vertexing and tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. Moreover, thanks to the mass production industrial CMOS processes used for the manufacturing of CPS the fabrication construction cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to more standard semiconductor technologies. However, the attainable performance level of the CPS in terms of radiation hardness and readout speed is mostly determined by the fabrication parameters of the CMOS processes available on the market rather than by the CPS intrinsic potential. The permanent evolution of commercial CMOS processes towards smaller feature sizes and high resistivity ...

  2. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00219560; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 $\\mu$m thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}$ \

  3. A CMOS image sensor using high-speed lock-in pixels for stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, DeXing; Mars, Kamel; Takasawa, Taishi; Yasutomi, Keita; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    A CMOS image sensor using high-speed lock-in pixels for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy is presented in this paper. The effective SRS signal from the stimulated emission of SRS mechanism is very small in contrast to the offset of a probing laser source, which is in the ratio of 10-4 to 10-5. In order to extract this signal, the common offset component is removed, and the small difference component is sampled using switched-capacitor integrator with a fully differential amplifier. The sampling is performed over many integration cycles to achieve appropriate amplification. The lock-in pixels utilizes high-speed lateral electric field charge modulator (LEFM) to demodulate the SRS signal which is modulated at high-frequency of 20MHz. A prototype chip is implemented using 0.11μm CMOS image sensor technology.

  4. Recent results of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073610

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has to undergo significant updates at the end of the current decade, in order to withstand the increased occupancy and radiation damage that will be produced by the high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. In this presentation we give an overview of the recent accomplishments of the R&D activity on the planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS Inner Detector upgrade.

  5. Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan O Isikman

    Full Text Available We report Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color sensor-arrays such as CMOS imagers that exhibit Bayer color filter patterns. Without physically removing these color filters coated on the sensor chip, we synthesize pixel super-resolved lensfree holograms, which are then reconstructed to achieve ~350 nm lateral resolution, corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.8, across a field-of-view of ~20.5 mm(2. This constitutes a digital image with ~0.7 Billion effective pixels in both amplitude and phase channels (i.e., ~1.4 Giga-pixels total. Furthermore, by changing the illumination angle (e.g., ± 50° and scanning a partially-coherent light source across two orthogonal axes, super-resolved images of the same specimen from different viewing angles are created, which are then digitally combined to synthesize tomographic images of the object. Using this dual-axis lensfree tomographic imager running on a color sensor-chip, we achieve a 3D spatial resolution of ~0.35 µm × 0.35 µm × ~2 µm, in x, y and z, respectively, creating an effective voxel size of ~0.03 µm(3 across a sample volume of ~5 mm(3, which is equivalent to >150 Billion voxels. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of this lensfree optical tomographic microscopy platform on a color CMOS image sensor by creating tomograms of micro-particles as well as a wild-type C. elegans nematode.

  6. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors fully adapted to the ILD Vertex Detector Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Dorokhov, Andrei; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Morel, Frederic; Valin, Isabelle; Voutsinas, Georgios; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are making steady progress towards the specifications of the ILD vertex detector. Recent developments are summarised, which show that these devices are close to comply with all major requirements, in particular the read-out speed needed to cope with the beam related background. This achievement is grounded on the double- sided ladder concept, which allows combining signals generated by a single particle in two different sensors, one devoted to spatial resolution and the other to time stamp, both assembled on the same mechanical support. The status of the development is overviewed as well as the plans to finalise it using an advanced CMOS process.

  7. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  8. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  9. On drift fields in CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with point-like collection diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, M; Dorokhov, A; Doering, D; Heymes, J; Kachel, M; Koziel, M; Linnik, B; Müntz, C; Stroth, J

    2016-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for charged particle tracking are considered as technology for numerous experiments in heavy ion and particle physics. To match the requirements for those applications in terms of tolerance to non-ionizing radiation, it is being tried to deplete the sensitive volume of the, traditionally non-depleted, silicon sensors. We study the feasibility of this approach for the common case that the collection diodes of the pixel are small as compared to the pixel pitch. An analytic equation predicting the thickness of the depletion depth and the capacity of this point-like junction is introduced. We find that the predictions of this equations differs qualitatively from the usual results for flat PN junctions and that $dC/dU$-measurements are not suited to measure the depletion depth of diodes with point-like geometry. The predictions of the equation is compared with measurements on the depletion depth of CMOS sensors, which were carried out with a novel measurement protocol. It is fo...

  10. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 ×1015neq /cm2. We will also report on the R&D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  11. A highly pixelated CdZnTe detector based on \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Shuguang; Sun, Xiangming; Huang, Guangming; Pei, Hua; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ping; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a low noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor with a pitch of 83$\\mu m$. CdZnTe is an excellent semiconductor material for radiation detection. The combination of CdZnTe and the sensor makes it possible to build a detector with high spatial resolution. In our experiments, an epoxy adhesive is used as the conductive medium to connect the sensor and CdZnTe. The diffusion coefficient and charge efficiency of electrons are measured at a low bias voltage of -2 Volts, and the image of a single alpha is clear with a reasonable spatial resolution. The detector of such structure has the potential to be applied in X-ray imaging systems with a further improvements of the sensor.

  12. Adaptive Multi-Objective Sub-Pixel Mapping Framework Based on Memetic Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2012-07-01

    Sub-pixel mapping technique can specify the location of each class within the pixels based on the assumption of spatial dependence. Traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms only consider the spatial dependence at the pixel level. The spatial dependence of each sub-pixel is ignored and sub-pixel spatial relation is lost. In this paper, a novel multi-objective sub-pixel mapping framework based on memetic algorithm, namely MSMF, is proposed. In MSMF, the sub-pixel mapping is transformed to a multi-objective optimization problem, which maximizing the spatial dependence index (SDI) and Moran's I, synchronously. Memetic algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-objective problem, which combines global search strategies with local search heuristics. In this framework, the sub-pixel mapping problem can be solved using different evolutionary algorithms and local algorithms. In this paper, memetic algorithm based on clonal selection algorithm (CSA) and random swapping as an example is designed and applied simultaneously in the proposed MSMF. In MSMF, CSA inherits the biologic properties of human immune systems, i.e. clone, mutation, memory, to search the possible sub-pixel mapping solution in the global space. After the exploration based on CSA, the local search based on random swapping is employed to dynamically decide which neighbourhood should be selected to stress exploitation in each generation. In addition, a solution set is used in MSMF to hold and update the obtained non-dominated solutions for multi-objective problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperform traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms, and hence provide an effective option for sub-pixel mapping of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  13. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: Borje.Norlin@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  14. A CMOS image sensor with draining only modulation pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Yasutomi, Keita; Takasawa, Taishi; Itoh, Shinya; Kawahito, Shoji

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging is becoming a powerful tool in biology. A charge-domain CMOS Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) chip using a pinned photo diode (PPD) and the pinned storage diode (PSD) with different depth of potential wells has been previously developed by the authors. However, a transfer gate between PPD and PSD causes charge transfer noise due to traps at the channel surface. This paper presents a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with draining only modulation pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging, which removes the transfer gate between PPD and PSD. The time windowing is done by draining with a draining gate only, which is attached along the carrier path from PPD to PSD. This allows us to realize a trapping less charge transfer between PPD and PSD, leading to a very low-noise time-resolved signal detection. A video-rate CMOS FLIM chip has been fabricated using 0.18μm standard CMOS pinned diode image sensor process. The pixel consists of a PPD, a PSD, a charge draining gate (TD), a readout transfer gate (TX) between the PSD and the floating diffusion (FD), a reset transistor and a source follower amplifier transistor. The pixel array has 200(Row) x 256(Column) pixels and the pixel pitch is 7.5μm. Fundamental characteristics of the implemented CMOS FLIM chip are measured. The signal intensity of the PSD as a function of the TD gate voltage is also measured. The ratio of the signal for the TD off to the signal for the TD on is 212 : 1.

  15. CMOS image sensor with lateral electric field modulation pixels for fluorescence lifetime imaging with sub-nanosecond time response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Seo, Min-Woong; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with a high-speed lateral electric field modulation (LEFM) gating structure for time domain fluorescence lifetime measurement. Time-windowed signal charge can be transferred from a pinned photodiode (PPD) to a pinned storage diode (PSD) by turning on a pair of transfer gates, which are situated beside the channel. Unwanted signal charge can be drained from the PPD to the drain by turning on another pair of gates. The pixel array contains 512 (V) × 310 (H) pixels with 5.6 × 5.6 µm2 pixel size. The imager chip was fabricated using 0.11 µm CMOS image sensor process technology. The prototype sensor has a time response of 150 ps at 374 nm. The fill factor of the pixels is 5.6%. The usefulness of the prototype sensor is demonstrated for fluorescence lifetime imaging through simulation and measurement results.

  16. Cost effective flip chip assembly and interconnection technologies for large area pixel sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, T., E-mail: thomas.fritzsch@izm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Jordan, R.; Oppermann, H. [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany); Ehrmann, O. [Berlin Institute of Technology (TUB), Berlin 10623 (Germany); Toepper, M.; Baumgartner, T.; Lang, K.-D. [Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, Berlin 13355 (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    Much of the cost of manufacturing pixel detectors is due to bumping and flip chip assembly of the readout chips onto sensor tiles, even if it is done on wafer level. To address this issue, Fraunhofer IZM investigated two new technological approaches, namely screen printing using dry film resist and chip-to-wafer assembly. In the first approach, solder bumps with diameters of 80 and 25 {mu}m in pitches of 110 and 60 {mu}m, respectively, were produced by screen-printing solder paste using a photo-structured dry film resist. Results indicated that the technology is a viable high yield and low cost bumping process. The second approach was developed to decrease the number of manual handling steps in pixel module manufacturing, which is critical for reducing processing time and cost. Here, chip designs on 200 mm readout chip (ROC) wafers and 150 mm sensor wafers were especially adapted for chip-to-wafer assembly and to ensure that the interconnection yield and reliability could be tested. After bumping and dicing of the readout chip wafer and UBM plating on the sensor wafer, individual dice were flip chip mounted on the pre-diced sensor wafer. This paper describes the technological steps, key processing parameters and first results for both technologies.

  17. Characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for use in the TEAM Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marco; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad; Giubilato, Piero; Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2010-01-01

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5x9.5 micron^2 pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 keV and 300 keV electrons is (12.1+/-0.7) micron and (7.4+/-0.6) micron, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78+/-0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74+/-0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 keV and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7+/-0.3) micron and (2.4+/-0.2) micron, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease o...

  18. Characterisation of a CMOS active pixel sensor for use in the TEAM microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Marco, E-mail: MBattaglia@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giubilato, Piero [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5x9.5{mu}m{sup 2} pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 and 300 keV electrons is (12.1{+-}0.7) and (7.4{+-}0.6){mu}m, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78{+-}0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74{+-}0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7{+-}0.3) and (2.4{+-}0.2){mu}m, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease of dynamic range by {approx_equal}30%, corresponding to a reduction in full-well depth from {approx}39 to {approx}27 primary 300 keV electrons, due to leakage current increase, but identical line spread function performance.

  19. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10−5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, ...

  20. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2017-02-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10-5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb-Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, where the occupancy is lower. This contribution describes the architecture and the main features of the final ALPIDE chip, planned for submission at the beginning of 2016. Early results from the experimental qualification of full scale prototype predecessors are also reported.

  1. M.i.p. detection performances of a 100 us read-out CMOS pixel sensor with digitised outputs

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Degerli, Yavuz; De Masi, Rita; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doziere, Guy; Dulinski, Wojciech; Gelin, Marie; Guilloux, Fabrice; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu-Guo, Christine; Morel, Frederic; Orsini, Fabienne; Valin, Isabelle; Voutsinas, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Swift, high resolution CMOS pixel sensors are being developed for the ILC vertex detector, aiming to allow approaching the interaction point very closely. A major issue is the time resolution of the sensors needed to deal with the high occupancy generated by the beam related background. A 128x576 pixel sensor providing digitised outputs at a read-out time of 92.5 us, was fabricated in 2008 within the EU project EUDET, and tested with charged particles at the CERN-SPS. Its prominent performances in terms of noise, detection efficiency versus fake hit rate, spatial resolution and radiation tolerance are overviewed. They validate the sensor architecture.

  2. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  3. Characterization and performance studies of high-voltage CMOS based pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Smaranda, Dumitru Dan

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will push the limits for detectors, specially the silicon trackers which are closest to the interaction point. The ATLAS CMOS Sensor R&D efort is investigating a new technology using high-voltage CMOS processes for producing pixel and strip sensors. In contrast to the currently used technology these devices implement active electronics on the sensor itself, offering a multitude of tuning parameters for achieving the best performance. My summer project revolved around characterising existing samples along with assembling and debugging hardware required for their improvement and functionality. Other tasks involved writing communication protocols using pyBAR to remotely control injection circuitry on a GPAC card, and helping various members of the group with data collection and analysis. Through the summer student programme I have had the opportunity to be part of a vibrant scientic community at the forefront of research, to create bonds with fellow students from univ...

  4. Development of edgeless n-on-p planar pixel sensors for future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, Marco, E-mail: marco.bomben@cern.ch [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, Luciano [Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Calderini, Giovanni [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa, and INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Chauveau, Jacques [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Giacomini, Gabriele [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, Alessandro [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, Genève (Switzerland); Marchiori, Giovanni [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    The development of n-on-p “edgeless” planar pixel sensors being fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), aimed at the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector for the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), is reported. A characterizing feature of the devices is the reduced dead area at the edge, achieved by adopting the “active edge” technology, based on a deep etched trench, suitably doped to make an ohmic contact to the substrate. The project is presented, along with the active edge process, the sensor design for this first n-on-p production and a selection of simulation results, including the expected charge collection efficiency after radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} comparable to those expected at HL-LHC (about ten years of running, with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}) for the outer pixel layers. We show that, after irradiation and at a bias voltage of 500 V, more than 50% of the signal should be collected in the edge region; this confirms the validity of the active edge approach. -- Highlights: ► We conceive n-on-p edgeless planar silicon sensors. ► These sensors are aimed at the Phase-II of the ATLAS experiment. ► Simulations show sensors can be operated well in overdepletion. ► Simulations show the sensor capability to collect charge at the periphery. ► Simulations prove the above statements to be true even after irradiation.

  5. Self-Powered High-Resolution and Pressure-Sensitive Triboelectric Sensor Matrix for Real-Time Tactile Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiandi; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Han, Xun; Du, Weiming; Zhai, Junyi; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-20

    A triboelectric sensor matrix (TESM) can accurately track and map 2D tactile sensing. A self-powered, high-resolution, pressure-sensitive, flexible and durable TESM with 16 × 16 pixels is fabricated for the fast detection of single-point and multi-point touching. Using cross-locating technology, a cross-type TESM with 32 × 20 pixels is developed for more rapid tactile mapping, which significantly reduces the addressing lines from m × n to m + n.

  6. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S

    2013-01-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  7. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, S., E-mail: sgrinstein@ifae.es [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Baselga, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Christophersen, M. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States); Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A. [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Nelist, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Parker, S. [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Phlips, B. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Pohl, D.-L. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  8. Characteristics of non-irradiated and irradiated double SOI integration type pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, M.; Sekigawa, D.; Hara, K.; Aoyagi, W.; Honda, S.; Tobita, N.; Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Kurachi, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Yamada, M.

    2016-09-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel sensors based on a 0.2 μm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology for high-energy physics experiment applications. With this SOI technology, the wafer resistivities for the electronics and sensor parts can be chosen separately. Therefore, a device with full depletion and fast charge collection is realized. The total ionizing dose (TID) effect is the major challenge for application in hard radiation environments. To compensate for TID damage, we introduced a double SOI structure that implements an additional middle silicon layer (SOI2 layer). Applying a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer should compensate for the effects induced by holes trapped in the buried oxide layers. We studied the recovery from TID damage induced by 60Co γ and other characteristics of the integration-type double SOI sensor INTPIXh2. When the double SOI sensor was irradiated to 100 kGy, it showed a response to the infrared laser similar to that of a non-irradiated sensor when we applied a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer. Thus, we concluded that the double SOI sensor is very effective at sufficiently enhancing the radiation hardness for application in experiments with harsh radiation environments, such as at Belle II or ILC.

  9. Characteristics of non-irradiated and irradiated double SOI integration type pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M.; Sekigawa, D. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Hara, K., E-mail: hara@hep.px.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Aoyagi, W.; Honda, S.; Tobita, N. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Kurachi, I.; Tsuboyama, T.; Yamada, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-21

    We are developing monolithic pixel sensors based on a 0.2 μm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) technology for high-energy physics experiment applications. With this SOI technology, the wafer resistivities for the electronics and sensor parts can be chosen separately. Therefore, a device with full depletion and fast charge collection is realized. The total ionizing dose (TID) effect is the major challenge for application in hard radiation environments. To compensate for TID damage, we introduced a double SOI structure that implements an additional middle silicon layer (SOI2 layer). Applying a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer should compensate for the effects induced by holes trapped in the buried oxide layers. We studied the recovery from TID damage induced by {sup 60}Co γ and other characteristics of the integration-type double SOI sensor INTPIXh2. When the double SOI sensor was irradiated to 100 kGy, it showed a response to the infrared laser similar to that of a non-irradiated sensor when we applied a negative voltage to the SOI2 layer. Thus, we concluded that the double SOI sensor is very effective at sufficiently enhancing the radiation hardness for application in experiments with harsh radiation environments, such as at Belle II or ILC.

  10. Detailed study of the column-based priority logic readout of Topmetal-II- CMOS pixel direct charge sensor

    CERN Document Server

    An, Mangmang; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Huang, Guangming; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Pei, Hua; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We present the detailed study of the digital readout of Topmetal-II- CMOS pixel direct charge sensor. Topmetal-II- is an integrated sensor with an array of 72X72 pixels each capable of directly collecting external charge through exposed metal electrodes in the topmost metal layer. In addition to the time-shared multiplexing readout of the analog output from Charge Sensitive Amplifiers in each pixel, hits are also generated through comparators with individually DAC settable thresholds in each pixel. The hits are read out via a column-based priority logic structure, retaining both hit location and time information. The in-array column-based priority logic is fully combinational hence there is no clock distributed in the pixel array. Sequential logic and clock are placed on the peripheral of the array. We studied the detailed working behavior and performance of this readout, and demonstrated its potential in imaging applications.

  11. Development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the ALICE-ITS Outer Barrel and for the CBM-MVD

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of R&D;, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS or CPS) have proven to offer concrete answers to the demanding requirements of subatomic physics experi- ments. Their main advantages result from their low material budget, their very high granularity and their integrated signal processing circuitry, which allows coping with high particle rates. Moreover, they offer a valuable radiation tolerance and may be produced at low cost. Sensors of the MIMOSA series have offered an opportunity for nuclear and particle physics exper- iments to address with improved sensitivity physics studies requiring an accurate reconstruction of short living and soft particles. One of their major applications is the STAR-PXL detector, which is the first vertex detector based on MAPS. While this experiment is successfully taking data since two years, it was found that the 0.35 m CMOS technology used for this purpose is not suited for upcoming applications like the CBM micro-vertex detector (MVD) and the ...

  12. Ultrasonic Sensor Based 3D Mapping & Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Fahim Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a basic level introduction to 3D mapping using sonar sensors and localization. It describes the methods used to construct a low-cost autonomous robot along with the hardware and software used as well as an insight to the background of autonomous robotic 3D mapping and localization. We have also given an overview to what the future prospects of the robot may hold in 3D based mapping.

  13. Comparison Effectiveness of Pixel Based Classification and Object Based Classification Using High Resolution Image In Floristic Composition Mapping (Study Case: Gunung Tidar Magelang City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardha Aryaguna, Prama; Danoedoro, Projo

    2016-11-01

    Developments of analysis remote sensing have same way with development of technology especially in sensor and plane. Now, a lot of image have high spatial and radiometric resolution, that's why a lot information. Vegetation object analysis such floristic composition got a lot advantage of that development. Floristic composition can be interpreted using a lot of method such pixel based classification and object based classification. The problems for pixel based method on high spatial resolution image are salt and paper who appear in result of classification. The purpose of this research are compare effectiveness between pixel based classification and object based classification for composition vegetation mapping on high resolution image Worldview-2. The results show that pixel based classification using majority 5×5 kernel windows give the highest accuracy between another classifications. The highest accuracy is 73.32% from image Worldview-2 are being radiometric corrected level surface reflectance, but for overall accuracy in every class, object based are the best between another methods. Reviewed from effectiveness aspect, pixel based are more effective then object based for vegetation composition mapping in Tidar forest.

  14. 10×10-pixel 606kS/s multi-point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takasawa, Taishi; Bo, Zhang; Seo, Min-Woong; Imai, Kaita; Yamamoto, Jotaro; Kinjo, Masataka; Terakawa, Susumu; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    To observe molecular transport in a living cell, a high-speed CMOS image sensor for multi-point fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is developed. To achieve low-noise and high-speed simultaneously, a prototype CMOS image sensor is designed based on a complete pixel-parallel architecture and multi-channel pipelined pixel readout. The prototype chip with 10×10 effective pixels is fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS image sensor technology. The pixel pitch and the photosensitive area are 56μm and 10μm in diameter without a microlens, respectively. In the experiment, the total sampling rate of 606kS/s is achieved. The measured average random noise is 24.9LSB, which is equivalent to about 2.5 electrons in average.

  15. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peric, I.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  16. Simple parallel stream to serial stream converter for Active Pixel Sensor readout

    CERN Document Server

    Kushpil, V; Szelezniak, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new electronics module for converting a parallel data flow to a serial stream in the USB 2.0 High Speed protocol. The system provides a connection between a PC USB port and a parallel interface of the DAQ board, which is used for investigation of performance of Active Pixel Sensors (APS) prototypes. The DAQ readout software supports Win XX OS and Linux OS. GUI examples have been prepared in the Lab Windows and Lab View environments. The module that was designed using virtual peripheral concept can be easily adapted for many similar tasks.

  17. Image Mining in Remote Sensing for Coastal Wetlands Mapping: from Pixel Based to Object Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farda, N. M.; Danoedoro, P.; Hartono; Harjoko, A.

    2016-11-01

    The availably of remote sensing image data is numerous now, and with a large amount of data it makes “knowledge gap” in extraction of selected information, especially coastal wetlands. Coastal wetlands provide ecosystem services essential to people and the environment. The aim of this research is to extract coastal wetlands information from satellite data using pixel based and object based image mining approach. Landsat MSS, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI images located in Segara Anakan lagoon are selected to represent data at various multi temporal images. The input for image mining are visible and near infrared bands, PCA band, invers PCA bands, mean shift segmentation bands, bare soil index, vegetation index, wetness index, elevation from SRTM and ASTER GDEM, and GLCM (Harralick) or variability texture. There is three methods were applied to extract coastal wetlands using image mining: pixel based - Decision Tree C4.5, pixel based - Back Propagation Neural Network, and object based - Mean Shift segmentation and Decision Tree C4.5. The results show that remote sensing image mining can be used to map coastal wetlands ecosystem. Decision Tree C4.5 can be mapped with highest accuracy (0.75 overall kappa). The availability of remote sensing image mining for mapping coastal wetlands is very important to provide better understanding about their spatiotemporal coastal wetlands dynamics distribution.

  18. Evaluation of the breakdown behaviour of ATLAS silicon pixel sensors after partial guard-ring removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.d [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    To avoid geometrical inefficiencies in the ATLAS pixel detector, the concept of shingling is used up to now in the barrel section. For the upgrades of ATLAS, it is desired to avoid this as it increases the volume and material budget of the pixel layers and complicates the cooling. A direct planar edge-to-edge arrangement of pixel modules has not been possible in the past due to about 1100{mu}m of inactive edge composed of approximately 600{mu}m of guard rings and 500{mu}m of safety margin. In this work, the safety margin and guard rings of ATLAS SingleChip sensors were cut at different positions using a standard diamond dicing saw and irradiated afterwards to explore the breakdown behaviour and the leakage current development. It is found that the inactive edge can be reduced to about 400{mu}m of guard rings with almost no reduction in pre-irradiation testability and leakage current performance. This is in particular important for the insertable b-layer upgrade of ATLAS (IBL) where inactive edges of less than 450{mu}m width are required.

  19. Novel Logarithmic Active Pixel Sensor with High Dynamic Range and High Output Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xian-song; YAO Su-ying; YUAN Yi-dong; XU Jiang-tao; DING Ke; YAN Kun-shan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithmic response complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS) image sensor provides a wide dynamic range, but its drawback is the lack of simple fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation scheme. Designed is a novel logarithmic active pixel sensor(APS) with high dynamic range and high output swing. Firstly, the operation principle of mixed-model APS is introduced. The pixel can work in three operation modes by choosing the proper control signals. Then, FPN sources of logarithmic APS are analyzed, and double-sampled technique is implemented to reduce FPN. Finally, according to the simulation results, layout is designed and has passed design rule check(DRC), electronic rule check(ERC) and layout versus schematic(LVS) verifications, and the post-simulation results are basically in agreement with the simulation results. Dynamic range of the new logarithmic APS can reach about 140 dB; and the output swing is about 750 mV. Results show that by using double sampled technique, most FPN is eliminated and the dynamic range is enhanced.

  20. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection; Developpement d'un capteur de nouvelle generation et son electronique integree pour les collisionneurs futurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, G

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a {sup 55}Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 {mu}m and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  1. Mapping impervious surface type and sub-pixel abundance using hyperion hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Impervious surfaces have been identified as an important and quantifiable indicator of environmental degradation in urban settings. A number of research efforts have been directed at mapping impervious surface type using multispectral imagery. To date, however, no studies have compared equivalent techniques using multispectral and hyperspectral imagery to that end. In this study, data from NASA's 220-channel Hyperion instrument were used to: a) delineate three types of impervious surface, and b) map sub-pixel percent abundance for a study site near Washington, D.C., USA. The results were compared with the results of similar methods using same-spatial-resolution Landsat ETM+ data for mapping impervious surface type, and with the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Land Cover Data (NLCD) 2001 impervious surface data layer, which is derived from Landsat and high-resolution Ikonos data. The accuracy of discriminating impervious surface type using Hyperion data was assessed at 88% versus Landsat at 59%. The sub-pixel percent impervious map corresponded well with the NLCD 2001; impervious surface in the study area was calculated at 29.3% for NLCD 2001 and 28.4% for the Hyperion-derived layer. The results suggest that fairly simple techniques using hyperspectral data are effective for quantifying impervious surface type, and that high-spectral- resolution imagery may be a good alternative to high-spatial-resolution data.

  2. Real-time distributed video coding for 1K-pixel visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanca, Jan; Deligiannis, Nikos; Munteanu, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Many applications in visual sensor networks (VSNs) demand the low-cost wireless transmission of video data. In this context, distributed video coding (DVC) has proven its potential to achieve state-of-the-art compression performance while maintaining low computational complexity of the encoder. Despite their proven capabilities, current DVC solutions overlook hardware constraints, and this renders them unsuitable for practical implementations. This paper introduces a DVC architecture that offers highly efficient wireless communication in real-world VSNs. The design takes into account the severe computational and memory constraints imposed by practical implementations on low-resolution visual sensors. We study performance-complexity trade-offs for feedback-channel removal, propose learning-based techniques for rate allocation, and investigate various simplifications of side information generation yielding real-time decoding. The proposed system is evaluated against H.264/AVC intra, Motion-JPEG, and our previously designed DVC prototype for low-resolution visual sensors. Extensive experimental results on various data show significant improvements in multiple configurations. The proposed encoder achieves real-time performance on a 1k-pixel visual sensor mote. Real-time decoding is performed on a Raspberry Pi single-board computer or a low-end notebook PC. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed codec is the first practical DVC deployment on low-resolution VSNs.

  3. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm(-1)) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  4. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm-1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  5. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova IT 35131 (Italy); Aimo, I. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Bedda, C. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Perez, A. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Riggi, F. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati and Sezione di Roma 3, Roma IT 00146 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  6. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  7. Radiation hardness studies of n{sup +}-in-n planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning upgrades of its pixel detector to cope with the luminosity increase foreseen in the coming years within the transition from LHC to Super-LHC (SLHC/HL-LHC). Associated with the increase in instantaneous luminosity is a rise of the target integrated luminosity from 730 to about 3000 fb{sup -1} which directly translates into significantly higher radiation damage. These upgrades consist of the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL, with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis, before 2016/17. In addition, the complete pixel detector will be exchanged before 2020/21. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2} at their end-of-life. The total fluence of the innermost pixel layer after the SLHC upgrade might even reach 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2}. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for these fluences, n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge after IBL fluences was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. After SLHC fluences, still reliable operation of the devices could be observed with a collected charge of more than 5000 electrons per MIP.

  8. arXiv The FoCal prototype - an extremely fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter using CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nooren, G.; Peitzmann, T.; Reicher, M.; Rocco, E.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; van den Brink, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.

    A prototype of a Si-W EM calorimeter was built with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors as the active elements. With a pixelsize of 30 $\\mu$m it allows digital calorimetry, i.e. the particles' energy is determined by counting pixels, not by measuring the energy deposited. Although of modest size, only 4 Moliere radii wide, it has 39 million pixels. We describe the construction and tuning of the prototype and present results from beam tests and compare them with predictions of GEANT-based Monte Carlo simulations. We show the shape of showers caused by electrons in unprecedented detail. Results for energy and position resolution will also be given.

  9. Beam-test results of 4k pixel CMOS MAPS and high resistivity striplet detectors equipped with digital sparsified readout in the Slim5 low mass silicon demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: villa@bo.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Bruschi, M.; Di Sipio, R.; Fabbri, L.; Giacobbe, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini, N.; Spighi, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Zoccoli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The results obtained by the Slim5 collaboration on a low material budget tracking silicon demonstrator put on a 12 GeV/c proton test beam at CERN are reported. Inside a reference telescope, two different and innovative detectors were placed for careful tests. The first was a 4k-Pixel Matrix of Deep N Well MAPS, developed in a 130 nm CMOS Technology, square pixels 50{mu}m wide, thinned down to 100{mu}m and equipped with a digital sparsified readout running up to 50 MHz. The other was a high resistivity double sided silicon detector, 200{mu}m thick, with short strips with 50{mu}m pitch at 45{sup 0} angle to the detector's edge. The detectors were equipped with dedicated fast readout architectures performing on-chip data sparsification and providing the timing information for the hits. The criteria followed in the design of the pixel sensor and of the pixel readout architecture will be reviewed. Preliminary measurements of the pixel charge collection, track detection efficiencies and resolutions of pixel and strip sensors are discussed. The data driven architecture of the readout chips has been fully exploited in the test beam by a data acquisition system able to collect on electronic board up to 2.5 Million events per second before triggering. By using a dedicated Associative Memory board, we were able to perform a level 1 trigger system, with minimal latency, identifying cleanly tracks traversing the detectors. System architecture and main performances are shown.

  10. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  11. A Measurement of Lorentz Angle and Spatial Resolution of Radiation Hard Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F X; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Meuser, S; Stockmanns, T; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Dao, K; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A N; Trouilleau, C; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Rohe, T; Boyd, G; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Snow, J; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Lipka, D; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Grassman, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Gerlach, P; Grah, C; Gregor, I; Harenberg, T; Linder, C

    2002-01-01

    Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to $10^{15} n_eq/cm^{2}$ have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 micron thick sensors depleted to ~200 micron after irradiation at the design fluence of 1 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2 and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5 * 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg and 30 deg....

  12. Improved Design of Active Pixel CMOS Sensors for Charged Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz

    2007-11-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear physics program requires developments in detector instrumentation electronics with improved energy, position and timing resolution, sensitivity, rate capability, stability, dynamic range, and background suppression. The current Phase-I project was focused on analysis of standard-CMOS photogate Active Pixel Sensors (APS) as an efficient solution to this challenge. The advantages of the CMOS APS over traditional hybrid approaches (i.e., separate detection regions bump-bonded to readout circuits) include greatly reduced cost, low power and the potential for vastly larger pixel counts and densities. However, challenges remain in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and readout speed (currently on the order of milliseconds), which is the major problem for this technology. Recent work has shown that the long readout time for photogate APS is due to the presence of (interface) traps at the semiconductor-oxide interface. This Phase-I work yielded useful results in two areas: (a) Advanced three-dimensional (3D) physics-based simulation models and simulation-based analysis of the impact of interface trap density on the transient charge collection characteristics of existing APS structures; and (b) Preliminary analysis of the feasibility of an improved photogate pixel structure (i.e., new APS design) with an induced electric field under the charge collecting electrode to enhance charge collection. Significant effort was dedicated in Phase-I to the critical task of implementing accurate interface trap models in CFDRC's NanoTCAD 3D semiconductor device-physics simulator. This resulted in validation of the new NanoTCAD models and simulation results against experimental (published) data, within the margin of uncertainty associated with obtaining device geometry, material properties, and experimentation details. Analyses of the new, proposed photogate APS design demonstrated several promising trends.

  13. Development and Performance of Kyoto's X-ray Astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuru, Takeshi G; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki; Shrestha, Sumeet

    2014-01-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5--10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3--40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300~eV (FWHM) at 6~keV and a read-out noise of 33~e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-K$\\alpha$ and K$\\beta$. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of $500~{\\rm \\mu m}$. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  14. Development and performance of Kyoto's x-ray astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Matsumura, Hideaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5-10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3-40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a read-out noise of 33 e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-Kα and Kβ. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of 500 μm. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  15. Impact of Substrate Bias on Fixed-Pattern-Noise in Active Pixel Sensor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Mamoru

    2007-11-01

    The effect of substrate (body) bias on fixed-pattern-noise (FPN) in active pixel sensor (APS) cells is studied. Through measuring test devices consisting of two metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) connected in series with each of the transistors located in the same well region, it has been revealed that substrate bias, which is inevitably applied in a normal circuit configuration in conventional APS cells, worsens the characteristics fluctuation in source-follower amplifiers in APS cells, leading to FPN that cannot be mitigated by conventional correction methods such as correlated double sampling. In addition it has been confirmed that the current-voltage characteristics of logarithmic converters, each of which is realized using a MOSFET with gate and drain terminals connected together, are also affected by substrate bias, resulting in increased characteristics fluctuation as compared with the case with no substrate bias.

  16. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  17. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  18. Optimized sampling strategy of Wireless sensor network for validation of remote sensing products over heterogeneous coarse-resolution pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Liu, Q.; Wen, J.; Fan, W.; Dou, B.

    2015-12-01

    Coarse-resolution satellite albedo products are increasingly applied in geographical researches because of their capability to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of land surface parameters. In the long-term validation of coarse-resolution satellite products with ground measurements, the scale effect, i.e., the mismatch between point measurement and pixel observation becomes the main challenge, particularly over heterogeneous land surfaces. Recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technologies offer an opportunity for validation using multi-point observations instead of single-point observation. The difficulty is to ensure the representativeness of the WSN in heterogeneous areas with limited nodes. In this study, the objective is to develop a ground-based spatial sampling strategy through consideration of the historical prior knowledge and avoidance of the information redundancy between different sensor nodes. Taking albedo as an example. First, we derive monthly local maps of albedo from 30-m HJ CCD images a 3-year period. Second, we pick out candidate points from the areas with higher temporal stability which helps to avoid the transition or boundary areas. Then, the representativeness (r) of each candidate point is evaluated through the correlational analysis between the point-specific and area-average time sequence albedo vector. The point with the highest r was noted as the new sensor point. Before electing a new point, the vector component of the selected points should be taken out from the vectors in the following correlational analysis. The selection procedure would be ceased once if the integral representativeness (R) meets the accuracy requirement. Here, the sampling method is adapted to both single-parameter and multi-parameter situations. Finally, it is shown that this sampling method has been effectively worked in the optimized layout of Huailai remote sensing station in China. The coarse resolution pixel covering this station could be

  19. Design and Optimization of Multi-Pixel Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron Michael; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Multi-pixel transition-edge sensors (TESs), commonly referred to as 'hydras', are a type of position sensitive micro-calorimeter that enables very large format arrays to be designed without commensurate increase in the number of readout channels and associated wiring. In the hydra design, a single TES is coupled to discrete absorbers via varied thermal links. The links act as low pass thermal filters that are tuned to give a different characteristic pulse shape for x-ray photons absorbed in each of the hydra sub pixels. In this contribution we report on the experimental results from hydras consisting of up to 20 pixels per TES. We discuss the design trade-offs between energy resolution, position discrimination and number of pixels and investigate future design optimizations specifically targeted at meeting the readout technology considered for Lynx.

  20. Interactive remote data processing using Pixelize Wavelet Filtration (PWF-method) and PeriodMap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Robert; Nakariakov, Valery; Anfinogentov, Sergey

    Wavelet analysis is suitable for investigating waves and oscillating in solar atmosphere, which are limited in both time and frequency. We have developed an algorithms to detect this waves by use the Pixelize Wavelet Filtration (PWF-method). This method allows to obtain information about the presence of propagating and non-propagating waves in the data observation (cube images), and localize them precisely in time as well in space. We tested the algorithm and found that the results of coronal waves detection are consistent with those obtained by visual inspection. For fast exploration of the data cube, in addition, we applied early-developed Period- Map analysis. This method based on the Fast Fourier Transform and allows on initial stage quickly to look for "hot" regions with the peak harmonic oscillations and determine spatial distribution at the significant harmonics. We propose the detection procedure of coronal waves separate on two parts: at the first part, we apply the PeriodMap analysis (fast preparation) and than, at the second part, use information about spatial distribution of oscillation sources to apply the PWF-method (slow preparation). There are two possible algorithms working with the data: in automatic and hands-on operation mode. Firstly we use multiply PWF analysis as a preparation narrowband maps at frequency subbands multiply two and/or harmonic PWF analysis for separate harmonics in a spectrum. Secondly we manually select necessary spectral subband and temporal interval and than construct narrowband maps. For practical implementation of the proposed methods, we have developed the remote data processing system at Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk. The system based on the data processing server - http://pwf.iszf.irk.ru. The main aim of this resource is calculation in remote access through the local and/or global network (Internet) narrowband maps of wave's sources both in whole spectral band and at significant harmonics. In addition

  1. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade fo the large hadron collider foreseen for 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the tracker system of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will experience fluences in the order of $\\phi_{eq} \\approx 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a dose of $\\approx 5$~MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$. Several materials and designs are under investigation in order to build a detector that can withstand such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good canditates to achieve this goal since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100~$\\mu$m. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of $\\phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$. The electrical properties of diodes have bee...

  2. Test-beam measurements and simulation studies of thin pixel sensors for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00574329; Dannheim, Dominik

    The multi-$TeV$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is one of the options for a future high-energy collider for the post-LHC era. It would allow for searches of new physics and simultaneously offer the possibility for precision measurements of standard model processes. The physics goals and experimental conditions at CLIC set high precision requirements on the vertex detector made of pixel detectors: a high pointing resolution of 3 $\\mu m$, very low mass of 0.2% $X_{0}$ per layer, 10 ns time stamping capability and low power dissipation of 50 mW/$cm^{2}$ compatible with air-flow cooling. In this thesis, hybrid assemblies with thin active-edge planar sensors are characterised through calibrations, laboratory and test-beam measurements. Prototypes containing 50 $\\mu m$ to 150 $\\mu m$ thin planar silicon sensors bump-bonded to Timepix3 readout ASICs with 55 $\\mu m$ pitch are characterised in test beams at the CERN SPS in view of their detection efficiency and single-point resolution. A digitiser for AllP...

  3. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  4. Front-end electronics in a 65 nm CMOS process for high density readout of pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioni, Luigi; Manghisoni, Massimo; Ratti, Lodovico; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca

    2011-09-01

    In future high energy physics experiments (HEP), readout integrated circuits for vertexing and tracking applications will be implemented by means of CMOS devices belonging to processes with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. In these nanoscale technologies the impact of new dielectric materials and processing techniques on the analog behavior of MOSFETs has to be carefully evaluated. This paper is concerned with the study of the analog properties, in particular in terms of noise performance and radiation hardness, of MOSFET devices belonging to a 65 nm CMOS low power technology. The behavior of the 1/ f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the main device parameters before and after exposure to 10 keV X-rays and 60Co γ-rays. A prototype chip designed in a 65 nm CMOS process including deep n-well MAPS structures and a fast front-end conceived for the readout of high-resistivity pixel sensors will be introduced.

  5. Development and characterisation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototypes for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Collu, Alberto

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is dedicated to the study and characterisation of the Quark-­‐Gluon Plasma (QGP), exploiting the unique potential of ultrarelativistic heavy-­‐ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of the LHC luminosity leading up to about 50 kHz Pb-­‐Pb interaction rate after the second long shutdown (in 2018-­‐2019) will offer the possibility to perform high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta. These measurements are statistically limited or not even possible with the present experimental set up. For this reason, an upgrade strategy for several ALICE detectors is being pursued. In particular, it is foreseen to replace the Inner Tracking System (ITS) by a new detector which will significantly improve the tracking and vertexing capabilities of ALICE in the upgrade scenario. The new ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which will...

  6. First functionality tests of a 64 × 64 pixel DSSC sensor module connected to the complete ladder readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.

    2017-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV-6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.

  7. Depth-of-interaction estimates in pixelated scintillator sensors using Monte Carlo techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Sze, Christina; Bhandari, Harish; Nagarkar, Vivek; Badano, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Image quality in thick scintillator detectors can be improved by minimizing parallax errors through depth-of-interaction (DOI) estimation. A novel sensor for low-energy single photon imaging having a thick, transparent, crystalline pixelated micro-columnar CsI:Tl scintillator structure has been described, with possible future application in small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging when using thicker structures under development. In order to understand the fundamental limits of this new structure, we introduce cartesianDETECT2, an open-source optical transport package that uses Monte Carlo methods to obtain estimates of DOI for improving spatial resolution of nuclear imaging applications. Optical photon paths are calculated as a function of varying simulation parameters such as columnar surface roughness, bulk, and top-surface absorption. We use scanning electron microscope images to estimate appropriate surface roughness coefficients. Simulation results are analyzed to model and establish patterns between DOI and photon scattering. The effect of varying starting locations of optical photons on the spatial response is studied. Bulk and top-surface absorption fractions were varied to investigate their effect on spatial response as a function of DOI. We investigated the accuracy of our DOI estimation model for a particular screen with various training and testing sets, and for all cases the percent error between the estimated and actual DOI over the majority of the detector thickness was ±5% with a maximum error of up to ±10% at deeper DOIs. In addition, we found that cartesianDETECT2 is computationally five times more efficient than MANTIS. Findings indicate that DOI estimates can be extracted from a double-Gaussian model of the detector response. We observed that our model predicts DOI in pixelated scintillator detectors reasonably well.

  8. Comparison of BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity Mapping and Pixel-Level Decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Ryan C.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Foster, Andrew S.; Deming, Drake; WASP Consortium

    2016-10-01

    Exoplanet eclipse signals are weaker than the systematics present in the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), and thus the correction method can significantly impact a measurement. BiLinearly Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity (BLISS) mapping calculates the sensitivity of the detector on a subpixel grid and corrects the photometry for any sensitivity variations. Pixel-Level Decorrelation (PLD) removes the sensitivity variations by considering the relative intensities of the pixels around the source. We applied both methods to WASP-29b, a Saturn-sized planet with a mass of 0.24 ± 0.02 Jupiter masses and a radius of 0.84 ± 0.06 Jupiter radii, which we observed during eclipse twice with the 3.6 µm and once with the 4.5 µm channels of IRAC aboard Spitzer in 2010 and 2011 (programs 60003 and 70084, respectively). We compared the results of BLISS and PLD, and comment on each method's ability to remove time-correlated noise. WASP-29b exhibits a strong detection at 3.6 µm and no detection at 4.5 µm. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  9. AN ITERATIVE PIXEL-LEVEL IMAGE MATCHING METHOD FOR MARS MAPPING USING APPROXIMATE ORTHOPHOTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Geng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mars mapping is essential to the scientific research of the red planet. The special terrain characteristics of Martian surface can be used to develop the targeted image matching method. In this paper, in order to generate high resolution Mars DEM, a pixel-level image matching method for Mars orbital pushbroom images is proposed. The main strategies of our method include: (1 image matching on approximate orthophotos; (2 estimating approximate value of conjugate points by using ground point coordinates of orthophotos; (3 hierarchical image matching; (4 generating DEM and approximate orthophotos at each pyramid level; (5 fast transformation from ground points to image points for pushbroom images. The derived DEM at each pyramid level is used as reference data for the generation of approximate orthophotos at the next pyramid level. With iterative processing, the generated DEM becomes more and more accurate and a very small search window is precise enough for the determination of conjugate points. The images acquired by High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC on European Mars Express were used to verify our method’s feasibility. Experiment results demonstrate that accurate DEM data can be derived with an acceptable time cost by pixel-level image matching.

  10. Characterization of the column-based priority logic readout of Topmetal-II‑ CMOS pixel direct charge sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, M.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, L.; Gao, C.; Chen, C.; Han, M.; Huang, G.; Ji, R.; Li, X.; Liu, J.; Mei, Y.; Pei, H.; Sun, Q.; Sun, X.; Wang, K.; Yang, P.; Zhou, W.

    2017-03-01

    We present the detailed study of the digital readout of Topmetal-II- CMOS pixel direct charge sensor. Topmetal-II- is an integrated sensor with an array of 72×72 pixels each capable of directly collecting external charge through exposed metal electrodes in the topmost metal layer. In addition to the time-shared multiplexing readout of the analog output from Charge Sensitive Amplifiers in each pixel, hits are also generated through comparators in each pixel with individually adjustable thresholds. The hits are read out via a column-based priority logic structure, retaining both hit location and time information. The in-array column-based priority logic features with a full clock-less circuitry hence there is no continuously running clock distributed in the pixel and matrix logic. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments. We studied the detailed working behavior and performance of this readout, and demonstrated its functional validity and potential in imaging applications.

  11. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  12. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  13. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  14. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimforde, Michael

    2010-07-19

    To extend the discovery potential of the experiments at the LHC accelerator a two phase luminosity upgrade towards the super LHC (sLHC) with a maximum instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}s{sup 1} is planned. Retaining the reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution of the ATLAS tracking detector at the sLHC, new pixel modules have to be developed that have a higher granularity, can be placed closer to the interaction point, and allow for a cost-efficient coverage of a larger pixel detector volume compared to the present one. The reduced distance to the interaction point calls for more compact modules that have to be radiation hard to supply a sufficient charge collection efficiency up to an integrated particle fluence equivalent to that of (1-2).10{sup 16} 1-MeV-neutrons per square centimeter (n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}). Within this thesis a new module concept was partially realised and evaluated for the operation within an ATLAS pixel detector at the sLHC. This module concept utilizes a novel thin sensor production process for thin n-in-p silicon sensors which potentially allow for a higher radiation hardness at a reduced cost. Furthermore, the new 3D-integration technology ICV-SLID is explored which will allow for increasing the active area of the modules from 71% to about 90% and hence, for employing the modules in the innermost layer of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. A semiconductor simulation and measurements of irradiated test sensors are used to optimize the implantation parameters for the inter-pixel isolation of the thin sensors. These reduce the crosstalk between the pixel channels and should allow for operating the sensors during the whole runtime of the experiment without causing junction breakdowns. The characterization of the first production of sensors with active thicknesses of 75 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m proved that thin pixel sensors can be successfully produced with the new process technology. Thin pad sensors with a reduced inactive

  15. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  16. Supporting drivable region detection by minimising salient pixels generated through robot sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Falola, O

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available serves to provide an assistive pre-processing strategy for the detection of drivable region through minimisation of salient pixels in a colour feature extraction. Salient pixels are pixels occupying the non-drivable region particularly those having same...

  17. 16k pixel digital line-scan sensor with 12bit resolution and 40kS/second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäny, Martin; Franco, Paulo; Voltz, Stephan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a digital line-scan sensor in standard CMOS technology for high resolution scanning application in machine vision, mainly surface inspection of large panel and web materials. The sensor however has due to the unprecedented resolution also application potential in earth observation and motion picture context. The sensor features 16384 charge integrating pixels of 3.5um x 3.5um photo active area. Each pixel has it's own charge integrating transconductance amplifier circuit, a true correlated double sampling stage, sample & hold stage and a pixel level 13 bit linear AD converter. Readout is performed over 16 parallel digital output tap's operated at 50MHz pixel clock. The sensor generates at maximum speed a total data rate of 10.4Gbit/s. In order to maximize the integration time, data readout, AD conversion and integration can be performed simultaneously. Therefore even at the maximum line rate of 43kScans/second the integration time can be maintained at 20us. In order to accommodate for different application scenarios with very different lighting budget's, the sensors full well capacity can be programmed by means of a two step programmable gain from 3000e- to 40ke-. The prototype characterization results showed a total quantum efficiency of 72% at 625nm. With the full well capacity set to 26ke- the conversion gain was measured to be 0.13DN/e- with a read noise in dark of 1.7DN, or 12 e- dark noise equivalent. Over all DSNU is reduced to 3DN rms independent of the conversion gain by the on chip combination of CDS and digital DSNU correction. PRNU was measured according the EMVA1288 standard to 1.2% rms. The sensor is mounted on an "Invar" enforced COB board without glass cover for reduced reflections on optical interface stacks. Instead of traditional package leads SMD mounted board to board connectors are used for the electrical connections.

  18. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Altenheiner, S.; Blue, A.; Bomben, M.; Butter, A.; Cervelli, A.; Crawley, S.; Ducourthial, A.; Gisen, A.; Hagihara, M.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hirose, M.; Homma, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Kamada, S.; Kono, T.; Macchiolo, A.; Marchiori, G.; Meloni, F.; Milovanovic, M.; Morton, A.; Mullier, G.; Munoz, F. J.; Nellist, C.; Paschen, B.; Quadt, A.; Rashid, T.; Rieger, J.; Rummler, A.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Savic, N.; Sawai, H.; Sexton, K.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Terzo, S.; Todome, K.; Tojo, J.; Houten, K. Van; Weingarten, J.; Wonsak, S.; Wraight, K.; Yamamura, K.

    2016-09-01

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD).

  19. Active pixel sensors in AMS H18/H35 HV-CMOS technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement signal processing electronics in deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150 V leading to a depletion depth of several 10 μm. Prototype sensors in the AMS H18 180 nm and H35 350 nm HV-CMOS processes were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiations with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses of 1 Grad while Edge-TCT studies assessed the effects of radiation on the charge collection. The sensors showed high detection efficiencies after neutron irradiation to 1015neq cm-2 in testbeam experiments. A full reticle size demonstrator chip, implemented in the H35 process is being submitted to prove the large scale feasibility of the HV-CMOS concept.

  20. A wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with dual charge storage in a pixel and a multiple sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a dynamic range expansion technique of CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple exposures. Each pixel contains two photodiodes, PD1 and PD2 whose sensitivity can be set independently by the accumulation time. The difference of charge accumulation time in both photodiode can be manipulated to expand the dynamic range of the sensor. It allows flexible control of the dynamic range since the accumulation time in PD2 is adjustable. The multiple exposure technique used in the sensor reduces the motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image when capturing fast-moving objects. It also reduces the signal-to-nose ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signals in the synthesized wide dynamic range image. A wide dynamic range camera with 320x240 pixels image sensor has been tested. It is found that the sampling of 4 times for the short accumulation time signals is sufficient for the reduction of motion blur in the synthesized wide dynamic range image, and the signal-to-noise ratio dip at the switching point of the PD1 signal to the PD2 signal is improved by 6 dB using 4 short-time exposures.

  1. A real-time ultrasonic field mapping system using a Fabry Pérot single pixel camera for 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nam; Zhang, Edward; Betcke, Marta; Arridge, Simon R.; Beard, Paul; Cox, Ben

    2015-03-01

    A system for dynamic mapping of broadband ultrasound fields has been designed, with high frame rate photoacoustic imaging in mind. A Fabry-Pérot interferometric ultrasound sensor was interrogated using a coherent light single-pixel camera. Scrambled Hadamard measurement patterns were used to sample the acoustic field at the sensor, and either a fast Hadamard transform or a compressed sensing reconstruction algorithm were used to recover the acoustic pressure data. Frame rates of 80 Hz were achieved for 32x32 images even though no specialist hardware was used for the on-the-fly reconstructions. The ability of the system to obtain photocacoustic images with data compressions as low as 10% was also demonstrated.

  2. Développement d'un capteur de pixels CMOS pour les couches externes du détecteur de vertex ILC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a CMOS pixel sensor prototype (called MIMOSA 31) for the outer layers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector. CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) also called monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) have demonstrated attractive performance towards the requirements of the vertex detector of the future linear collider. MIMOSA 31developed at IPHC-Strasbourg is the first pixel sensor integrated with 4-bit column-level ADC for the outer layers. It is compo...

  3. Per pixel uncertainty modelling and its spatial representation on land cover maps obtained by hybrid classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Cornford, Dan; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    The usage of remote sensing imagery combined with statistical classifiers to obtain categorical cartography is now common practice. As in many other areas of geographic information quality assessment, knowing the accuracy of these maps is crucial, and the spatialization of quality information is becoming ever more important for a large range of applications. Whereas some classifiers (e.g., maximum likelihood, linear discriminant analysis, naive Bayes, etc) permit the estimation and spatial representation of the uncertainty through a pixel level probabilistic estimator (and, from that, to compute a global accuracy estimator for the whole map), for other methods such a direct estimator does not exist. Regardless of the classification method applied, ground truth data is almost always available (to train the classifier and/or to compute the global accuracy and, usually, a confusion matrix). Our research is devoted to the development of a protocol to spatialize the error on a general framework based on the classifier parameters, and some ground truth reference data. In the methodological experiment presented here we provide an insight into uncertainty modelling for a hybrid classifier that combines unsupervised and supervised stages (implemented in the MiraMon GIS). In this work we describe what we believe is the first attempt to characterise pixel level uncertainty in a two stage classification process. We describe the model setup, show the preliminary results and identify future work that will be undertaken. The study area is a Landsat full frame located at the North-eastern region of the Iberian Peninsula. The six non-thermal bands + NDVI of a multi-temporal set of six geometrically and radiometrically corrected Landsat-5 images (between 2005 and 2007) were submitted to a hybrid classification process, together with some ancillary data (climate, slopes, etc). Training areas were extracted from the Land Cover Map of Catalonia (MCSC), a 0.5 m resolution map created by

  4. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  5. Studies Of Radiation Effects On Pixel Sensors For The Cms Experiment And Design Of Radiation Hard Sensors For Future Upgrades Of Lhc Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, A

    2005-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector that provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. The readout chip is expected to survive a particle fluence of 6 × 1014 neq/cm2 and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. This requires the silicon to operate partially depleted after irradiation and therefore “n in n” concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV tests on wafers to certify the quality of sensors and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential a resistive path between the pixels has been implemented by openings in the p -stop implants surrounding every pixel cell. Prototypes of such sensors have been produced by two different companies and their properties have been extensively tested before and after ir...

  6. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Two-dimensional pixel image lag simulation and optimization in a 4-T CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junting, Yu; Binqiao, Li; Pingping, Yu; Jiangtao, Xu; Cun, Mou

    2010-09-01

    Pixel image lag in a 4-T CMOS image sensor is analyzed and simulated in a two-dimensional model. Strategies of reducing image lag are discussed from transfer gate channel threshold voltage doping adjustment, PPD N-type doping dose/implant tilt adjustment and transfer gate operation voltage adjustment for signal electron transfer. With the computer analysis tool ISE-TCAD, simulation results show that minimum image lag can be obtained at a pinned photodiode n-type doping dose of 7.0 × 1012 cm-2, an implant tilt of -2°, a transfer gate channel doping dose of 3.0 × 1012 cm-2 and an operation voltage of 3.4 V. The conclusions of this theoretical analysis can be a guideline for pixel design to improve the performance of 4-T CMOS image sensors.

  7. Development of CdTe pixel detectors combined with an aluminum Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, H.; Saji, C.; Kawase, M.; Wu, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Sato, M.; Hirono, T.; Shiro, A.; Shobu, T.; Suenaga, A.; Ikeda, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have been developing CdTe pixel detectors combined with a Schottky diode sensor and photon-counting ASICs. The hybrid pixel detector was designed with a pixel size of 200 μ m by 200 μm and an area of 19 mm by 20 mm or 38.2 mm by 40.2 mm. The photon-counting ASIC, SP8-04F10K, has a preamplifier, a shaper, 3-level window-type discriminators and a 24-bits counter in each pixel. The single-chip detector with 100 by 95 pixels successfully operated with a photon-counting mode selecting X-ray energy with the window comparator and stable operation was realized at 20 degrees C. We have performed a feasibility study for a white X-ray microbeam experiment. Laue diffraction patterns were measured during the scan of the irradiated position in a silicon steel sample. The grain boundaries were identified by using the differentials between adjacent images at each position.

  8. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  9. K-edge imaging with the XPAD3 hybrid pixel detector, direct comparison of CdTe and Si sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, F; Portal, L; Graber-Bolis, J; Perez-Ponce, H; Dupont, M; Kronland, C; Boursier, Y; Blanc, N; Bompard, F; Boudet, N; Buton, C; Clémens, J C; Dawiec, A; Debarbieux, F; Delpierre, P; Hustache, S; Vigeolas, E; Morel, C

    2015-07-21

    We investigate the improvement from the use of high-Z CdTe sensors for pre-clinical K-edge imaging with the hybrid pixel detectors XPAD3. We compare XPAD3 chips bump bonded to Si or CdTe sensors in identical experimental conditions. Image performance for narrow energy bin acquisitions and contrast-to-noise ratios of K-edge images are presented and compared. CdTe sensors achieve signal-to-noise ratios at least three times higher than Si sensors within narrow energy bins, thanks to their much higher detection efficiency. Nevertheless Si sensors provide better contrast-to-noise ratios in K-edge imaging when working at equivalent counting statistics, due to their better estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the contrast agent. Results are compared to simulated data in the case of the XPAD3/Si detector. Good agreement is observed when including charge sharing between pixels, which have a strong impact on contrast-to-noise ratios in K-edge images.

  10. Adaptive pixel-selection using chaotic map lattices for image cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittigorn, Jirasak; Paithoonwattanakij, Kitti; Surawatpunya, Charray

    2014-01-01

    Chaotic theory has been used in cryptography application for generating a sequence of data that is close to pseudorandom number based on an adjusted initial condition and a parameter. However, data recovery becomes a crucial problem due to the precision of the parameters. This difficulty leads to limited usage of Chaotic-based cryptography especially for error sensitive applications such as voice cryptography. In order to enhance the encryption security and overcome this limitation, an Adaptive Pixel-Selection using Chaotic Map Lattices (APCML) is proposed. In APCML, the encryption sequence has been adaptively selected based on chaos generator. Moreover, the chaotic transformation and normalization boundary have been revised to alleviate the rounding error and inappropriate normalization boundary problems. In the experiments, the measurement indices of originality preservation, visual inspection, and statistical analysis are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed APCML compared to that of the original CML. Consequently, the APCML algorithm offers greater performance with full recovery of the original message.

  11. Characterization of CdTe sensors with Schottky contacts coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors for X-ray science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Tate, M. W.; Shanks, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Weiss, J. T.; Purohit, P.; Chamberlain, D.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Gruner, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we present characterizations of CdTe sensors hybridized with two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128 × 128 pixel array with (150 μm)2 pixels.

  12. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  13. Modeling Inter-Pixel Crosstalk in Teledyne Imaging Sensors H4RG Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Dorland, B N; Veillette, D; Waczynski, A; Lane, B; Loose, M; Kan, E; Waterman, J; Pravdo, S

    2012-01-01

    CMOS-hybrid arrays have recently surfaced as competitive optical detectors for use in ground- and space-based astronomy. One source of error in these detectors that does not appear in more traditional CCD arrays is the inter-pixel capacitance component of crosstalk. In this paper we use a single pixel reset method to model inter-pixel capacitance (IPC). We combine this IPC model with a model for charge diffusion to estimate the total crosstalk on H4RG arrays. Finally, we compare our model results to Fe55 data obtained using an astrometric camera built to test the H4RG-B0 generation detectors.

  14. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb{sup -1}, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering

  15. Investigation of charge-collection efficiency of Kyoto's X-ray astronomical SOI pixel sensors, XRPIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Hideaki, E-mail: matumura@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Ryu, Syukyo G. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeda, Ayaki [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Graduate School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    We are developing a monolithic active pixel sensor referred to as XRPIX for X-ray astronomy on the basis of silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. A crucial issue in our recent development is the impact of incomplete charge collection on the spectroscopic performance. In this paper, we report the spectral responses of several devices having different intra-pixel structures or produced from different wafers. We found that an emission line spectrum exhibits large low-energy tails when the size of the buried p-well, which acts as the charge-collection node, is small. Moreover, in charge sharing events, the peak channels of the emission lines shift toward channels lower than those without charge sharing. This peak shift is more pronounced as the distance between the pixel center and the position of incident photon increases. This suggests that the charge-collection efficiency is degraded at the pixel boundary. We also found that the charge-collection efficiency depends on the strength of the electric field at the interface of the depletion and insulator layers.

  16. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  17. Upsampling range camera depth maps using high-resolution vision camera and pixel-level confidence classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Vaishampayan, Vinay; Zhang, Yifu

    2011-03-01

    We consider the problem of upsampling a low-resolution depth map generated by a range camera, by using information from one or more additional high-resolution vision cameras. The goal is to provide an accurate high resolution depth map from the viewpoint of one of the vision cameras. We propose an algorithm that first converts the low resolution depth map into a depth/disparity map through coordinate mappings into the coordinate frame of one vision camera, then classifies the pixels into regions according to whether the range camera depth map is trustworthy, and finally refine the depth values for the pixels in the untrustworthy regions. For the last refinement step, both a method based on graph cut optimization and that based on bilateral filtering are examined. Experimental results show that the proposed methods using classification are able to upsample the depth map by a factor of 10 x 10 with much improved depth details, with significantly better accuracy comparing to those without the classification. The improvements are visually perceptible on a 3D auto-stereoscopic display.

  18. Automated mapping of sub-pixel impervious surface area from landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphaus, Benjamin D.

    The past few decades have seen rapid, global urbanization. Remotely sensed imagery is the best source of information about the extent of urbanization, but extracting urban extent from remotely sensed imagery is often an intensive, supervised task for analysts to perform. This project presents a fully automated method to extract impervious surface area (ISA), an important component of urban expansion, from Landsat TM and similar sensors. These moderate resolution sensors have a multi-decade collection archive, sub-monthly revisit rate and have served as a model for other national and commercial programs. The unsupervised methodology proposed herein, termed the PEEL process (pre-processing, endmember extraction and labeling), is an SMA (spectral mixture analysis) technique that uses as inputs endmembers that have been labeled by a SVM (support vector machine) classification through the fusion of the PanTex GLCM-based texture measure and endmembers drawn from the SMACC (sequential maximum angle convex cone) algorithm. Labels are provided to endmembers with an overall accuracy of 94% across 13 Landsat scenes from different sensor types and of several regions and urban forms. Multiple unmixing methods are tested, with BNMESMA (brightness normalized multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis) performing the best with a RMSE of 0.276. Caution is given regarding the value of RMSE as a metric for comparing method accuracy and more detailed error metrics are introduced. The method is shown as a viable template for mapping ISA across multiple scenes and as a useful framework for analyzing large archives of imagery with a common, automatable methodology.

  19. Imaging of moving fiducial markers during radiotherapy using a fast, efficient active pixel sensor based EPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmond, John P. F.; Zin, Hafiz M.; Harris, Emma J.; Lupica, Giovanni; Allinson, Nigel M.; Evans, Philip M. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Lincoln School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey, SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the use of an experimental complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) for tracking of moving fiducial markers during radiotherapy. Methods: The APS has an active area of 5.4 x 5.4 cm and maximum full frame read-out rate of 20 frame s{sup -1}, with the option to read out a region-of-interest (ROI) at an increased rate. It was coupled to a 4 mm thick ZnWO4 scintillator which provided a quantum efficiency (QE) of 8% for a 6 MV x-ray treatment beam. The APS was compared with a standard iViewGT flat panel amorphous Silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging device (EPID), with a QE of 0.34% and a frame-rate of 2.5 frame s{sup -1}. To investigate the ability of the two systems to image markers, four gold cylinders of length 8 mm and diameter 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2 mm were placed on a motion-platform. Images of the stationary markers were acquired using the APS at a frame-rate of 20 frame s{sup -1}, and a dose-rate of 143 MU min{sup -1} to avoid saturation. EPID images were acquired at the maximum frame-rate of 2.5 frame s{sup -1}, and a reduced dose-rate of 19 MU min{sup -1} to provide a similar dose per frame to the APS. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the background signal and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the marker signal relative to the background were evaluated for both imagers at doses of 0.125 to 2 MU. Results: Image quality and marker visibility was found to be greater in the APS with SNR {approx}5 times greater than in the EPID and CNR up to an order of magnitude greater for all four markers. To investigate the ability to image and track moving markers the motion-platform was moved to simulate a breathing cycle with period 6 s, amplitude 20 mm and maximum speed 13.2 mm s{sup -1}. At the minimum integration time of 50 ms a tracking algorithm applied to the APS data found all four markers with a success rate of {>=}92% and positional error {<=}90 {mu}m. At an integration time of 400

  20. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Suhaidi; Kawahito, Shoji; Itoh, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured. PMID:27879802

  1. A Dynamic Range Expansion Technique for CMOS Image Sensors with Dual Charge Storage in a Pixel and Multiple Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Itoh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic range expansion technique for CMOS image sensors with dual charge storage in a pixel and multiple sampling technique is presented. Each pixel contains a photodiode and a storage diode which is connected to the photodiode via a separation gate. The sensitivity of the signal charge in the storage diode can be controlled either by a separation gate which limits the charge to flow into the storage diode or by controlling the accumulation time in the storage diode. The operation of the sensitivity control with separation gate techniques is simulated and it is found that a blocking layer to the storage diode plays an important role for high controllability of sensitivity of the storage diode. A prototype chip for testing multiple short time accumulations is fabricated and measured.

  2. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  3. Tracking and flavour-tagging performance for HV-CMOS sensors in the context of the ATLAS ITK pixel simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandri, A.; Vacavant, L.; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A.; Djama, F.

    2016-12-01

    The HV-CMOS (High Voltage - Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) pixel technology has recently risen interest for the upgrade of the pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment towards the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . HV-CMOS sensors can be employed in the pixel outer layers (R >15 cm), where the radiation hardness requirements are less stringent, as they could instrument large areas at a relatively low cost. In addition, smaller pixel granularity can be achieved by exploiting sub-pixel encoding technology. Therefore, the largest impact on physics performance, tracking and flavour tagging, could be reached if exploited in the innermost layer (in place of the current IBL) or in the next-to-innermost layer. This proceeding will present studies on tracking and flavour-tagging performance in presence of HV-CMOS sensors in the innermost layer of the ATLAS detector.

  4. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  5. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldi, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detector based on CMOS pixel techology. Such detectors provide charge collection, analog and digital amplification in the same silicon bulk. The radiation hardness is obtained with multiple nested wells that have embedded the CMOS electronics with sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC. A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised, and are presented in this document.

  6. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  7. An introduction to monolithic active pixel sensors%单片式有源像素探测器简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) is based on very large scale integration CMOS technology. Its working principle, prototypes, improvements and development trends are introduced in the article.%介绍了基于CMOS超大规模集成电路工艺的单片式有源像素探测器(MAPS),包括它的工作原理、特型、以及一些改进方案与发展的趋势。

  8. Reduction of cross-talks between circuit and sensor layer in the Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors with Double-SOI wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Shunichi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ito, Makoto; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nakashima, Shinya; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takebayashi, Nobuaki; Noda, Koki; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Kouki; Ozawa, Yusuke; Sato, Tadashi; Konno, Takahiro; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki; Shrestha, Sumeet; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing silicon-on-insulator pixel sensors, "XRPIXs," for future X-ray astronomy satellites. XRPIXs are equipped with a function of "event-driven readout," with which we can read out only hit pixels by trigger signals and hence realize good time resolution reaching ∼ 10 μs . The current version of XRPIX suffers from a problem that the spectral performance degrades in the event-driven readout mode compared to the frame-readout mode, in which all the pixels are read out serially. Previous studies have clarified that one of the causes is capacitive coupling between the sense node and the trigger signal line in the circuit layer. In order to solve the problem, we adopt the Double SOI structure having a middle silicon layer between the circuit and the sensor layers. We expect the middle silicon layer to work as an electrostatic shield and reduces the capacitive coupling. In this paper, we report the spectroscopic performance of XRPIX with the middle silicon layer. We successfully reduce the capacitive coupling and the readout noise.

  9. Optimization of the Radiation Hardness of Silicon Pixel Sensors for High X-ray Doses using TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwandt, J; Klanner, R; Pintilie, I; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will deliver 27000 fully coherent, high brilliance X-ray pulses per second each with a duration below 100 fs. This will allow the recording of diffraction patterns of single molecules and the study of ultra-fast processes. One of the detector systems under development for the XFEL is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), which consists of a pixel array with readout ASICs bump-bonded to a silicon sensor with pixels of 200 {\\mu}m \\times 200 {\\mu}m. The particular requirements for the detector are a high dynamic range (0, 1 up to 10E5 12 keV photons/XFEL-pulse), a fast read-out and radiation tolerance up to doses of 1 GGy of 12 keV X-rays for 3 years of operation. At this X-ray energy no bulk damage in silicon is expected. However fixed oxide charges in the SiO2 layer and interface traps at the Si-SiO2 interface will build up. As function of the 12 keV X-ray dose the microscopic defects in test structures and the macro- scopic electrical properties of...

  10. Efficiency enhancement in a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CMOS image sensor via parabolic color filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Kwon; Kim, Ahreum; Kang, Dong-Wan; Lee, Byung Yang

    2016-07-11

    The shrinkage of pixel size down to sub-2 μm in high-resolution CMOS image sensors (CISs) results in degraded efficiency and increased crosstalk. The backside illumination technology can increase the efficiency, but the crosstalk still remains an critical issue to improve the image quality of the CIS devices. In this paper, by adopting a parabolic color filter (P-CF), we demonstrate efficiency enhancement without any noticeable change in optical crosstalk of a backside illuminated 1.12 μm pixel CIS with deep-trench-isolation structure. To identify the observed results, we have investigated the effect of radius of curvature (r) of the P-CF on the efficiency and optical crosstalk of the CIS by performing an electromagnetic analysis. As the r of P-CF becomes equal to (or half) that of the microlens, the efficiencies of the B-, G-, and R-pixels increase by a factor of 14.1% (20.3%), 9.8% (15.3%), and 15.0% (15.7%) with respect to the flat CF cases without any noticeable crosstalk change. Also, as the incident angle increases up to 30°, the angular dependence of the efficiency and crosstalk significantly decreases by utilizing the P-CF in the CIS. Meanwhile, further reduction of r severely increases the optical crosstalk due to the increased diffraction effect, which has been confirmed with the simulated electric-field intensity distribution inside the devices.

  11. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  12. Leader Follower Formation Control of Ground Vehicles Using Dynamic Pixel Count and Inverse Perspective Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.Vaitheeswarana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with leader-follower formations of non-holonomic mobile robots, introducing a formation control strategy based on pixel counts using a commercial grade electro optics camera. Localization of the leader for motions along line of sight as well as the obliquely inclined directions are considered based on pixel variation of the images by referencing to two arbitrarily designated positions in the image frames. Based on an established relationship between the displacement of the camera movement along the viewing direction and the difference in pixel counts between reference points in the images, the range and the angle estimate between the follower camera and the leader is calculated. The Inverse Perspective Transform is used to account for non linear relationship between the height of vehicle in a forward facing image and its distance from the camera. The formulation is validated with experiments.

  13. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles; Recherche et developpement de capteurs actifs monolithiques CMOS pour la detection de particules elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    2007-09-15

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a {sup 55}Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 {mu}m x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 {mu}W) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 {mu}m OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  14. Beam test results of different configurations of deep N-well MAPS matrices featuring in pixel full signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoloni, E., E-mail: Eugenio.Paoloni@pi.infn.i [INFN and Universita Di Pisa, Largo Ponte Corvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN and Universita Di Pisa, Largo Ponte Corvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M. [INFN and Universita Di Pisa, Largo Ponte Corvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    We report on further developments of our proposed design approach for a full in-pixel signal processing chain of deep N-well monolithic active pixel sensor, by exploiting the triple well option of a CMOS 130 nm process. Two different geometries of the collecting electrode (namely 'Apsel 3T{sub 1}M{sub 1}' and 'Apsel 3T{sub 1}M{sub 2}') was implemented to compare their charge collection efficiency. The results of the characterization of the various versions of pixel matrices with a pion beam of 120 GeV/c at the SPS H6 CERN facility will be presented. The performances of an 'Apsel 3T{sub 1}' chip irradiated with a dose up to 10 Mrad (Co{sup 60}) was also measured. Comparison will be presented among the irradiated and the new chip showing the impact of radiation damages on tracking efficiencies.

  15. Ocean current mapping using networked distributed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Fen; Yang, T. C.; Liu, Jin-Yuan; Burchfield, Tom; Schindall, Jeff

    2012-11-01

    Distributed underwater sensors are expected to provide environmental (oceanographic) monitoring over large areas. As fabrication technology advances, low cost sensors will be available for many applications. The sensors communicate to each other and are networked using acoustic communications. This paper proposes a method for ocean current tomography using distributed networked sensors and presents preliminary experimental results by this approach. Conventional acoustic tomography uses the acoustic sensors distributed on the periphery of an area of interest. Environmental reconstruction requires solving a challenging high dimensional inverse problem, typically requiring substantial computational effort. Given distributed sensors, currents can be constructed locally based on data from neighboring sensors. It is shown using simulated data that results obtained by the proposed method are similar to those obtained by a conventional tomographic method based on peripheral sensors. In addition, one finds that the distributed sensors consume much less energy than that by the conventional tomographic approach. An acoustic communication and networking experiment was conducted near the Sizihwan Bay in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, in May 2011. The communication signals are analyzed to measure currents as a function of space and time. The procedure is simple and can be implemented in real-time using in-buoy processing.

  16. Characterization of CdTe Sensors with Schottky Contacts Coupled to Charge-Integrating Pixel Array Detectors for X-Ray Science

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Julian; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Weiss, Joel T; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Ruff, Jacob P C; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-01-01

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we present characterizations of CdTe sensors hybridized with two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods $<$150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/...

  17. A novel position and time sensing active pixel sensor with field-assisted electron collection for charged particle tracking and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Deptuch, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Dragone, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)]. E-mail: rehak@bnl.gov; Castoldi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Ingegneria Nucleare, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Ingegneria Nucleare, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rijssenbeek, M. [Physics Department of State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11790 (United States); Dulinski, W. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Besson, A. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Deveaux, M. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Winter, M. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2006-11-30

    A new type of active pixel sensors (APSs) to track charged particles for particle physics experiments or to count number of electrons that cross any pixel at the focal plane of electron microscopes is described. The electric field of desirable shape is created inside the active volume of the pixel introducing the drift component in the movement of the signal electrons towards charge collecting electrodes. The electric field results from the flow of {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2} hole currents within individual pixels of the sensor. The proposed sensor is produced using a standard industrially available complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) process. There are two main advantages of the proposed detectors when compared to the present (February 2005) state-of-the-art, i.e. field-free APS sensors. The first advantage of a field-assisted transport mechanism is the reduction of the charge collection time and of the sharing of the signal electrons between adjacent pixels by diffusion. The second advantage is the freedom to use both kinds of MOS transistors within each pixel of the sensor. Thus, the full functional power of CMOS circuits can be embedded in situ. As an example, 16-bit scalers will be implemented in each pixel of the sensor for electron microscopy. The reduced collection time combined with the state-of-the-art electronics within each pixel provides the most complete information about the position and the timing of incident charged particles for particle physics experiments. Position resolution of new sensors was computationally simulated to be a few microns, that is, the same as the resolution of standard APSs. Moreover, the active depth of the sensor and the associate electronics is less than about 20 {mu}m and a thinned down sensor together with its beryllium backing can have a total thickness of less than 0.1% of one radiation length. The reduction of the thickness of the detector reduces the amount of multiple scattering within the detector. The

  18. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miucci, A; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Rosa, A.La; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J.C.; Liu, J; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C050642014 JINST 9 C05064 A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation a...

  19. Fully integrated system-on-chip for pixel-based 3D depth and scene mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Martin; De Coi, Beat; Thalmann, Markus; Gancarz, Radoslav; Ferrat, Pascal; Dürmüller, Martin; Britt, Florian; Annese, Marco; Ledergerber, Markus; Catregn, Gion-Pol

    2012-03-01

    We present for the first time a fully integrated system-on-chip (SoC) for pixel-based 3D range detection suited for commercial applications. It is based on the time-of-flight (ToF) principle, i.e. measuring the phase difference of a reflected pulse train. The product epc600 is fabricated using a dedicated process flow, called Espros Photonic CMOS. This integration makes it possible to achieve a Quantum Efficiency (QE) of >80% in the full wavelength band from 520nm up to 900nm as well as very high timing precision in the sub-ns range which is needed for exact detection of the phase delay. The SoC features 8x8 pixels and includes all necessary sub-components such as ToF pixel array, voltage generation and regulation, non-volatile memory for configuration, LED driver for active illumination, digital SPI interface for easy communication, column based 12bit ADC converters, PLL and digital data processing with temporary data storage. The system can be operated at up to 100 frames per second.

  20. Dense range map reconstruction from a versatile robotic sensor system with an active trinocular vision and a passive binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Hyunkee; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2008-04-10

    One major research issue associated with 3D perception by robotic systems is the creation of efficient sensor systems that can generate dense range maps reliably. A visual sensor system for robotic applications is developed that is inherently equipped with two types of sensor, an active trinocular vision and a passive stereo vision. Unlike in conventional active vision systems that use a large number of images with variations of projected patterns for dense range map acquisition or from conventional passive vision systems that work well on specific environments with sufficient feature information, a cooperative bidirectional sensor fusion method for this visual sensor system enables us to acquire a reliable dense range map using active and passive information simultaneously. The fusion algorithms are composed of two parts, one in which the passive stereo vision helps active vision and the other in which the active trinocular vision helps the passive one. The first part matches the laser patterns in stereo laser images with the help of intensity images; the second part utilizes an information fusion technique using the dynamic programming method in which image regions between laser patterns are matched pixel-by-pixel with help of the fusion results obtained in the first part. To determine how the proposed sensor system and fusion algorithms can work in real applications, the sensor system is implemented on a robotic system, and the proposed algorithms are applied. A series of experimental tests is performed for a variety of configurations of robot and environments. The performance of the sensor system is discussed in detail.

  1. Performance of the reconstruction algorithms of the FIRST experiment pixel sensors vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, R; Juliani, D; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Abou-Haidar, Z; Agodi, C; Alvarez, M A G; Aumann, T; Battistoni, G; Bocci, A; Böhlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Cuttone, G; De Napoli, M; Durante, M; Gallardo, M I; Golosio, B; Iarocci, E; Iazzi, F; Ickert, G; Introzzi, R; Krimmer, J; Kurz, N; Labalme, M; Leifels, Y; Le Fevre, A; Leray, S; Marchetto, F; Monaco, V; Morone, M C; Oliva, P; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pleskac, R; Quesada, J M; Randazzo, N; Romano, F; Rossi, D; Rousseau, M; Sacchi, R; Sala, P; Sarti, A; Scheidenberger, C; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Sfienti, C; Simon, H; Sipala, V; Tropea, S; Vanstalle, M; Younis, H

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy treatments use charged particles (e.g. protons and carbon ions) to treat tumors. During a therapeutic treatment with carbon ions, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation processes giving rise to significant yields of secondary charged particles. An accurate prediction of these production rates is necessary to estimate precisely the dose deposited into the tumours and the surrounding healthy tissues. Nowadays, a limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross-section is available. Experimental data are necessary to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations for their use in hadrontherapy. The purpose of the FIRST experiment is to study nuclear fragmentation processes of ions with kinetic energy in the range from 100 to 1000 MeV/u. Tracks are reconstructed using information from a pixel silicon detector based on the CMOS technology. The performances achieved using this device for hadrontherapy purpose are discussed. For each reconstruction step (clustering, tracking and vertexing), different...

  2. Characterisation of Irradiated Thin Silicon Sensors for the CMS Phase II Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg; bigskip; Institut fur Experimentalphysik; Luruper Chaussee; Hamburg; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Notkestra; e; Hamburg

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200\\,$\\mu$m thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of $\\Phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ are shown.

  3. Protein Impregnated Polymer (PIP) Film Infrared Sensor Using Suspended Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Sensor (a) without PIP material and (b) with PIP material applied by spin coating at 5000 rpm for 30 seconds. .............. 80 Figure 42...82 Figure 45. Common problems and anomalies caused by PIP spin coating process. ........ 83 xi Figure 46. SEM image of...applied first by LPCVD [6]. Then, photoresist is applied by spin coating a liquid photoresist onto the wafer and then baking the wafer at a raised

  4. The DEPFET Sensor-Amplifier Structure: A Method to Beat 1/f Noise and Reach Sub-Electron Noise in Pixel Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Depleted field effect transistors (DEPFET are used to achieve very low noise signal charge readout with sub-electron measurement precision. This is accomplished by repeatedly reading an identical charge, thereby suppressing not only the white serial noise but also the usually constant 1/f noise. The repetitive non-destructive readout (RNDR DEPFET is an ideal central element for an active pixel sensor (APS pixel. The theory has been derived thoroughly and results have been verified on RNDR-DEPFET prototypes. A charge measurement precision of 0.18 electrons has been achieved. The device is well-suited for spectroscopic X-ray imaging and for optical photon counting in pixel sensors, even at high photon numbers in the same cell.

  5. X-ray Performance of Back-Side Illuminated Type of Kyoto's X-ray Astronomical SOI Pixel Sensor, XRPIX

    CERN Document Server

    Itou, Makoto; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-01-01

    We have been developing X-ray SOI pixel Sensors, called "XRPIX", for future X-ray astronomy satellites that enable us to observe in the wide energy band of 0.5-40 keV. Since XRPIXs have the circuitry layer with a thickness of about 8 {\\mu}m in the front side of the sensor, it is impossible to detect low energy X-rays with a front-illuminated type. So, we have been developing back-illuminated type of XRPIX with a less 1 {\\mu}m dead layer in the back-side, which enables the sensitivity to reach 0.5 keV. We produced two types of back-side illuminated (BI) XRPIXs, one of which is produced in "Pizza process" which LBNL developed and the other is processed in the ion implantation and laser annealing. We irradiated both of the BI-XRPIXs with soft X-ray and investigate soft X-ray performance of them. We report results from soft X-ray evaluation test of the device.

  6. Performance of the reconstruction algorithms of the FIRST experiment pixel sensors vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, R., E-mail: regina.rescigno@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Finck, Ch.; Juliani, D. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma 3 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Abou-Haidar, Z. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Agodi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Alvarez, M.A.G. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Battistoni, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bocci, A. [CNA, Sevilla (Spain); Böhlen, T.T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boudard, A. [CEA-Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); Università di Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Cortes-Giraldo, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, University of Sevilla, 41080-Sevilla (Spain); Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Durante, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-12-11

    Hadrontherapy treatments use charged particles (e.g. protons and carbon ions) to treat tumors. During a therapeutic treatment with carbon ions, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation processes giving rise to significant yields of secondary charged particles. An accurate prediction of these production rates is necessary to estimate precisely the dose deposited into the tumours and the surrounding healthy tissues. Nowadays, a limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross-section is available. Experimental data are necessary to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations for their use in hadrontherapy. The purpose of the FIRST experiment is to study nuclear fragmentation processes of ions with kinetic energy in the range from 100 to 1000 MeV/u. Tracks are reconstructed using information from a pixel silicon detector based on the CMOS technology. The performances achieved using this device for hadrontherapy purpose are discussed. For each reconstruction step (clustering, tracking and vertexing), different methods are implemented. The algorithm performances and the accuracy on reconstructed observables are evaluated on the basis of simulated and experimental data.

  7. Performance of the reconstruction algorithms of the FIRST experiment pixel sensors vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescigno, R.; Finck, Ch.; Juliani, D.; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Agodi, C.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Böhlen, T. T.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Tropea, S.; Vanstalle, M.; Younis, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hadrontherapy treatments use charged particles (e.g. protons and carbon ions) to treat tumors. During a therapeutic treatment with carbon ions, the beam undergoes nuclear fragmentation processes giving rise to significant yields of secondary charged particles. An accurate prediction of these production rates is necessary to estimate precisely the dose deposited into the tumours and the surrounding healthy tissues. Nowadays, a limited set of double differential carbon fragmentation cross-section is available. Experimental data are necessary to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations for their use in hadrontherapy. The purpose of the FIRST experiment is to study nuclear fragmentation processes of ions with kinetic energy in the range from 100 to 1000 MeV/u. Tracks are reconstructed using information from a pixel silicon detector based on the CMOS technology. The performances achieved using this device for hadrontherapy purpose are discussed. For each reconstruction step (clustering, tracking and vertexing), different methods are implemented. The algorithm performances and the accuracy on reconstructed observables are evaluated on the basis of simulated and experimental data.

  8. Pixel Sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieri, Caterina [Fermilab; Bolla, Gino [Fermilab; Rivera, Ryan [Fermilab; Uplegger, Lorenzo [Fermilab; Zoi, Irene [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2x1015 neq/cm2 fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  9. Pixel sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieri, Caterina; Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene

    2017-02-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC experiments. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2×1015 neq/cm2 fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  10. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Scalar Field Mapping Using Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Hung Manh; Sheng, Weihua

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, autonomous mobile sensor networks are deployed to measure a scalar field and build its map. We develop a novel method for multiple mobile sensor nodes to build this map using noisy sensor measurements. Our method consists of two parts. First, we develop a distributed sensor fusion algorithm by integrating two different distributed consensus filters to achieve cooperative sensing among sensor nodes. This fusion algorithm has two phases. In the first phase, the weighted average consensus filter is developed, which allows each sensor node to find an estimate of the value of the scalar field at each time step. In the second phase, the average consensus filter is used to allow each sensor node to find a confidence of the estimate at each time step. The final estimate of the value of the scalar field is iteratively updated during the movement of the mobile sensors via weighted average. Second, we develop the distributed flocking-control algorithm to drive the mobile sensors to form a network and track the virtual leader moving along the field when only a small subset of the mobile sensors know the information of the leader. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate our proposed algorithms.

  11. An Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Balanced Pixel and Chaotic Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image encryption technology has been applied in many fields and is becoming the main way of protecting the image information security. There are also many ways of image encryption. However, the existing encryption algorithms, in order to obtain a better effect of encryption, always need encrypting several times. There is not an effective method to decide the number of encryption times, generally determined by the human eyes. The paper proposes an image encryption algorithm based on chaos and simultaneously proposes a balanced pixel algorithm to determine the times of image encryption. Many simulation experiments have been done including encryption effect and security analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  12. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  13. ATLAS IBL Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for ATLAS detector will undergo different phase towards super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel detector will consist of the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (LHC phase-I upgrade). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reducing the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (planar-Si, 3D-Si and diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on pixel module is presented in this paper

  14. From Hybrid to CMOS Pixels ... a possibility for LHC's pixel future?

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been invented for the LHC to make tracking and vertexing possible at all in LHC's radiation intense environment. The LHC pixel detectors have meanwhile very successfully fulfilled their promises and R\\&D for the planned HL-LHC upgrade is in full swing, targeting even higher ionising doses and non-ionising fluences. In terms of rate and radiation tolerance hybrid pixels are unrivaled. But they have disadvantages as well, most notably material thickness, production complexity, and cost. Meanwhile also active pixel sensors (DEPFET, MAPS) have become real pixel detectors but they would by far not stand the rates and radiation faced from HL-LHC. New MAPS developments, so-called DMAPS (depleted MAPS) which are full CMOS-pixel structures with charge collection in a depleted region have come in the R\\&D focus for pixels at high rate/radiation levels. This goal can perhaps be realised exploiting HV technologies, high ohmic substrates and/or SOI based technologies. The paper covers t...

  15. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Ellenburg, M.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2013-12-01

    This R&D activity is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 μm or 150 μm, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 μm thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4×1015 neq/cm2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation are discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond the active edge sensors, an additional ingredient needed to design four side buttable modules is the possibility of moving the wire bonding area from the chip surface facing the sensor to the backside, avoiding the implementation of the cantilever extruding beyond the sensor area. The feasibility of this process is under investigation with the FE-I3 SLID modules, where Inter Chip Vias are etched, employing an EMFT technology, with a cross section of 3 μm×10 μm, at the positions of the original wire bonding pads.

  16. Thin n-in-p pixel sensors and the SLID-ICV vertical integration technology for the ATLAS upgrade at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, A

    2013-01-01

    The R&D activity presented is focused on the development of new modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The performance after irradiation of n-in-p pixel sensors of different active thicknesses is studied, together with an investigation of a novel interconnection technique offered by the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT in Munich, the Solid-Liquid-InterDiffusion (SLID), which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding. The pixel modules are based on thin n-in-p sensors, with an active thickness of 75 um or 150 um, produced at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (MPI HLL) and on 100 um thick sensors with active edges, fabricated at VTT, Finland. Hit efficiencies are derived from beam test data for thin devices irradiated up to a fluence of 4e15 neq/cm^2. For the active edge devices, the charge collection properties of the edge pixels before irradiation is discussed in detail, with respect to the inner ones, using measurements with radioactive sources. Beyond ...

  17. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Protection, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Patel, Tushita [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  18. Pixel-level continuous-time incremental sigma-delta A/D converter for THz sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Moustafa; Perenzoni, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    A readout channel based on continuous-time incremental sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter for FET-based terahertz (THz) imaging applications was implemented in a 0.15 μm standard CMOS technology. The designed readout circuit is suitable for implementation in pixel arrays due to its compact size and power consumption. The system-level analysis used to define the modulator parameters and to specify its analog building blocks is presented. The loop filter has been realized by using a Gm-C integrator. Circuit linearization techniques have been implemented to improve the linearity of the transconductor cell and reduce the impact of parasitic capacitances. Moreover, chopper stabilization technique is adopted in the loop filter, significantly reducing the low-frequency flicker noise thereby preserving the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of the FET detector within the required specifications of minimum detectable signal. The resulting input referred noise voltage is 87.5 nV/√Hz . The incremental ADC achieves 68-dB peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion-ratio (SNDR), equivalent to 11 bits effective resolution over 1 kHz signal bandwidth at 1 MHz sampling frequency. In order to meet the requirements of large sensor arrays, a first order architecture is realized. This leads to lower area occupancy and power consumption. The readout circuit draws 80 μW of power from a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The channel occupies an area of 90 x 273μm2.

  19. The APSEL4D Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor and its Usage in a Single Electron Interference Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi

    We have realized a Data Acquisition chain for the use and characterization of APSEL4D, a 32 x 128 Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor, developed as a prototype for frontier experiments in high energy particle physics. In particular a transition board was realized for the conversion between the chip and the FPGA voltage levels and for the signal quality enhancing. A Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA was used for real time data processing, for the chip control and the communication with a Personal Computer through a 2.0 USB port. For this purpose a firmware code, developed in VHDL language, was written. Finally a Graphical User Interface for the online system monitoring, hit display and chip control, based on windows and widgets, was realized developing a C++ code and using Qt and Qwt dedicated libraries. APSEL4D and the full acquisition chain were characterized for the first time with the electron beam of the transmission electron microscope and with 55Fe and 90Sr radioactive sources. In addition, a beam test was performed at ...

  20. Pixel pitch and particle energy influence on the dark current distribution of neutron irradiated CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc; Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Molina, Romain; Magnan, Pierre; Gilard, Olivier

    2016-02-22

    The dark current produced by neutron irradiation in CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) is investigated. Several CIS with different photodiode types and pixel pitches are irradiated with various neutron energies and fluences to study the influence of each of these optical detector and irradiation parameters on the dark current distribution. An empirical model is tested on the experimental data and validated on all the irradiated optical imagers. This model is able to describe all the presented dark current distributions with no parameter variation for neutron energies of 14 MeV or higher, regardless of the optical detector and irradiation characteristics. For energies below 1 MeV, it is shown that a single parameter has to be adjusted because of the lower mean damage energy per nuclear interaction. This model and these conclusions can be transposed to any silicon based solid-state optical imagers such as CIS or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). This work can also be used when designing an optical imager instrument, to anticipate the dark current increase or to choose a mitigation technique.

  1. Ningaloo reef: shallow marine habitats mapped using a hyperspectral sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina T Kobryn

    Full Text Available Research, monitoring and management of large marine protected areas require detailed and up-to-date habitat maps. Ningaloo Marine Park (including the Muiron Islands in north-western Australia (stretching across three degrees of latitude was mapped to 20 m depth using HyMap airborne hyperspectral imagery (125 bands at 3.5 m resolution across the 762 km(2 of reef environment between the shoreline and reef slope. The imagery was corrected for atmospheric, air-water interface and water column influences to retrieve bottom reflectance and bathymetry using the physics-based Modular Inversion and Processing System. Using field-validated, image-derived spectra from a representative range of cover types, the classification combined a semi-automated, pixel-based approach with fuzzy logic and derivative techniques. Five thematic classification levels for benthic cover (with probability maps were generated with varying degrees of detail, ranging from a basic one with three classes (biotic, abiotic and mixed to the most detailed with 46 classes. The latter consisted of all abiotic and biotic seabed components and hard coral growth forms in dominant or mixed states. The overall accuracy of mapping for the most detailed maps was 70% for the highest classification level. Macro-algal communities formed most of the benthic cover, while hard and soft corals represented only about 7% of the mapped area (58.6 km(2. Dense tabulate coral was the largest coral mosaic type (37% of all corals and the rest of the corals were a mix of tabulate, digitate, massive and soft corals. Our results show that for this shallow, fringing reef environment situated in the arid tropics, hyperspectral remote sensing techniques can offer an efficient and cost-effective approach to mapping and monitoring reef habitats over large, remote and inaccessible areas.

  2. Localization and Mapping Using Only a Rotating FMCW Radar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chapuis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle’s displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed.

  3. Uas Topographic Mapping with Velodyne LiDAR Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkow, G.; Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  4. UAS TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING WITH VELODYNE LiDAR SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jozkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial System (UAS technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs, may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  5. RadMAP: The Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Mark S.; Aucott, Timothy J.; Brubaker, Erik; Chivers, Daniel H.; Cooper, Reynold J.; Curtis, Joseph C.; Davis, John R.; Joshi, Tenzing H.; Kua, John; Meyer, Ross; Negut, Victor; Quinlan, Michael; Quiter, Brian J.; Srinivasan, Shreyas; Zakhor, Avideh; Zhang, Richard; Vetter, Kai

    2016-12-01

    The variability of gamma-ray and neutron background during the operation of a mobile detector system greatly limits the ability of the system to detect weak radiological and nuclear threats. The natural radiation background measured by a mobile detector system is the result of many factors, including the radioactivity of nearby materials, the geometric configuration of those materials and the system, the presence of absorbing materials, and atmospheric conditions. Background variations tend to be highly non-Poissonian, making it difficult to set robust detection thresholds using knowledge of the mean background rate alone. The Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) system is designed to allow the systematic study of natural radiological background variations and to serve as a development platform for emerging concepts in mobile radiation detection and imaging. To do this, RadMAP has been used to acquire extensive, systematic background measurements and correlated contextual data that can be used to test algorithms and detector modalities at low false alarm rates. By combining gamma-ray and neutron detector systems with data from contextual sensors, the system enables the fusion of data from multiple sensors into novel data products. The data are curated in a common format that allows for rapid querying across all sensors, creating detailed multi-sensor datasets that are used to study correlations between radiological and contextual data, and develop and test novel techniques in mobile detection and imaging. In this paper we will describe the instruments that comprise the RadMAP system, the effort to curate and provide access to multi-sensor data, and some initial results on the fusion of contextual and radiological data.

  6. Integrated optical sensors for 2D spatial chemical mapping (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Viegas, Jaime

    2017-02-01

    Sensors based on optical waveguides for chemical sensing have attracted increasing interest over the last two decades, fueled by potential applications in commercial lab-on-a-chip devices for medical and food safety industries. Even though the early studies were oriented for single-point detection, progress in device size reduction and device yield afforded by photonics foundries have opened the opportunity for distributed dynamic chemical sensing at the microscale. This will allow researchers to follow the dynamics of chemical species in field of microbiology, and microchemistry, with a complementary method to current technologies based on microfluorescence and hyperspectral imaging. The study of the chemical dynamics at the surface of photoelectrodes in water splitting cells are a good candidate to benefit from such optochemical sensing devices that includes a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) with multiple sensors for real-time detection and spatial mapping of chemical species. In this project, we present experimental results on a prototype integrated optical system for chemical mapping based on the interaction of cascaded resonant optical devices, spatially covered with chemically sensitive polymers and plasmon-enhanced nanostructured metal/metal-oxide claddings offering chemical selectivity in a pixelated surface. In order to achieve a compact footprint, the prototype is based in a silicon photonics platform. A discussion on the relative merits of a photonic platform based on large bandgap metal oxides and nitrides which have higher chemical resistance than silicon is also presented.

  7. Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern “smart” CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage “smart” image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and Dynamic Range (DR as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel.

  8. Low-voltage 96 dB snapshot CMOS image sensor with 4.5 nW power dissipation per pixel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Arthur; Teman, Adam; Belenky, Alexander; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Fish, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Modern "smart" CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage "smart" image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Dynamic Range (DR) as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel.

  9. Transition-edge sensor pixel parameter design of the microcalorimeter array for the x-ray integral field unit on Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Chervenak, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Miniussi, A. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Sakai, K.; Wakeham, N. A.; Wassell, E. J.; Yoon, W.; Bennett, D. A.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Morgan, K. M.; Pappas, C. G.; Reintsema, C. N.; Swetz, D. S.; Ullom, J. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; den Hartog, R.; Jackson, B. D.; van der Kuur, J.; Barret, D.; Peille, P.

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU) for ESA's Athena X-ray observatory will consist of 4000 transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters optimized for the energy range of 0.2 to 12 keV. The instrument will provide unprecedented spectral resolution of 2.5 eV at energies of up to 7 keV and will accommodate photon fluxes of 1 mCrab (90 cps) for point source observations. The baseline configuration is a uniform large pixel array (LPA) of 4.28" pixels that is read out using frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). However, an alternative configuration under study incorporates an 18 × 18 small pixel array (SPA) of 2" pixels in the central 36" region. This hybrid array configuration could be designed to accommodate higher fluxes of up to 10 mCrab (900 cps) or alternately for improved spectral performance (report on the TES pixel designs that are being optimized to meet these proposed LPA and SPA configurations. In particular we describe details of how important TES parameters are chosen to meet the specific mission criteria such as energy resolution, count-rate and quantum efficiency, and highlight performance trade-offs between designs. The basis of the pixel parameter selection is discussed in the context of existing TES arrays that are being developed for solar and x-ray astronomy applications. We describe the latest results on DC biased diagnostic arrays as well as large format kilo-pixel arrays and discuss the technical challenges associated with integrating different array types on to a single detector die.

  10. Sub-pixel mapping in farming area remote sensing image based on improved spatial gravity model%基于改进空间引力模型的农作区遥感影像亚像元定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尚蓉; 刘佳; 杨鹏

    2013-01-01

    Due to the limitation of the sensor spatial resolution and the complexity and diversity of objects, mixed image pixels generally exist in remote sensing images. Pixel unmixing can only get the composition ratio of each endmember in the pixel, rather than the spatial distribution of each endmember. Sub-pixel mapping was proposed to solve above-mentioned problem. Spatial gravity model is an iterative solution of sub-pixel mapping which is based on the sub-pixel scale, the spatial correlation is expressed by gravitational relationship between sub-pixels and neighboring mixed pixels. This model does not require complicated parameters and its calculation is relatively simple, so it has the advantages of iterative solution and has the potential to improve mapping accuracy and speed. From the discussion above, this paper proposes a sub-pixel mapping method based on improved spatial gravity model for farming area remote sensing image. Firstly, this paper analyses the initialization algorithm and optimization algorithm of original spatial gravity model. The original initialization algorithm uses random assignment, which affects the calculation accuracy of neighboring mixed pixel gravity values, decreases the mapping accuracy, increases the number of iterations of the whole model, and decreases the overall speed of the model; Based on original initialization algorithm, the original optimization algorithm also affect the model accuracy and speed to a certain extent. Secondly, this paper improves the initialization algorithm and optimization algorithm of spatial gravity model. Improved initialization algorithm enables the model to combine the advantages of direct solution and iterative solution, after initialization data have more spatial correlation, the initialization accuracy and speed are improved compared with random assignment; Improved optimization algorithm optimizes data on the basis of initialization, greatly reduces the number of iterations and improves the speed

  11. Beam Test Results of Thin n-in-p 3D and Planar Pixel Sensors for the High Luminosity LHC Tracker Upgrade at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Zoi, Irene; Dalla Betta, G. F; Dinardo, Mauro; Giacomini, G; Menasce, Dario; Mendicino, R; Meschini, Marco; Messineo, Alberto; Moroni, Luigi; Ronchin, S; Sultan, D.M.S; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vernieri, Caterina; Viliani, Lorenzo; Zuolo, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This is necessary for the pixel tracker that is the closest to the interaction point and will be replaced. In this paper, the results, from beam tests performed at Fermilab Test Beam Facility, of thin (100 $\\mu$m and 130 $\\mu$m thick) n-in-p type sensors, assembled into hybrid single chip modules bump bonded to the PSI46dig readou...

  12. Design and characterization of a 256 x 64-pixel single-photon imager in CMOS for a MEMS-based laser scanning time-of-flight sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclass, Cristiano; Ito, Kota; Soga, Mineki; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Isao; Kato, Satoru; Kagami, Manabu

    2012-05-21

    We introduce an optical time-of-flight image sensor taking advantage of a MEMS-based laser scanning device. Unlike previous approaches, our concept benefits from the high timing resolution and the digital signal flexibility of single-photon pixels in CMOS to allow for a nearly ideal cooperation between the image sensor and the scanning device. This technique enables a high signal-to-background light ratio to be obtained, while simultaneously relaxing the constraint on size of the MEMS mirror. These conditions are critical for devising practical and low-cost depth sensors intended to operate in uncontrolled environments, such as outdoors. A proof-of-concept prototype capable of operating in real-time was implemented. This paper focuses on the design and characterization of a 256 x 64-pixel image sensor, which also comprises an event-driven readout circuit, an array of 64 row-level high-throughput time-to-digital converters, and a 16 Gbit/s global readout circuit. Quantitative evaluation of the sensor under 2 klux of background light revealed a repeatability error of 13.5 cm throughout the distance range of 20 meters.

  13. Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

    2012-09-11

    A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

  14. Design and Realisation of Integrated Circuits for the Readout of Pixel Sensors in High Energy Physics and Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Peric, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Several application specific microchips (ASICs) for the readout of pixel detectors have been designed, tested and described in this thesis. The first chapter gives the detailed description of the pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector (FEI). The chip is now in operation as the innermost electronic component of the ATLAS detector. The chip for steering of DEPFET matrix (SWITCHER) is described in the second chapter. The chip is implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology, it generates fast high voltage signals. Finally, a novel pixel readout chip for a hybrid x-ray pixel detector based on direct conversion is introduced. The chip (CIX) has joint photon counting and integrating capability.

  15. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover.

  16. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  17. FUZZY MAPPING IN DATA SONIFICATION SYSTEM OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseny A. Markhotin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. This paper describes the modeling of sonification system with possible types of wireless sensor network data. Fuzzy logic is used for the data-to-sound mapping. Methods. Devised sonification system includes input data model and sound synthesis core. It was created in Pure Data. For fuzzy output of mapped data the Fuzzy Logic Toolboxof MATLABwas used. Moreover, the system model has an ability to send data to the side application via UDP protocol. Results. We offer the method of timbre space organization for sonification system output and the following output of control sound characteristics depending on the type of input data. Practical Relevance. The offered approach of using fuzzy logic in sonification systems can be applied in development of new applications when the formalization of data-to-sound mapping is difficult and also complicated timbal space organization is required.

  18. Mapping an invasive plant, Phragmites australis, in coastal wetlands using the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, B.W.; Johnston, C.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Mapping tools are needed to document the location and extent of Phragmites australis, a tall grass that invades coastal marshes throughout North America, displacing native plant species and degrading wetland habitat. Mapping Phragmites is particularly challenging in the freshwater Great Lakes coastal wetlands due to dynamic lake levels and vegetation diversity. We tested the applicability of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping Phragmites in wetlands of the west coast of Green Bay in Wisconsin, U.S.A. A reference spectrum created using Hyperion data from several pure Phragmites stands within the image was used with a Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) algorithm to create a raster map with values ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represented the greatest similarity between the reference spectrum and the image spectrum and 1 the least similarity. The final two-class thematic classification predicted monodominant Phragmites covering 3.4% of the study area. Most of this was concentrated in long linear features parallel to the Green Bay shoreline, particularly in areas that had been under water only six years earlier when lake levels were 66??cm higher. An error matrix using spring 2005 field validation points (n = 129) showed good overall accuracy-81.4%. The small size and linear arrangement of Phragmites stands was less than optimal relative to the sensor resolution, and Hyperion's 30??m resolution captured few if any pure pixels. Contemporary Phragmites maps prepared with Hyperion imagery would provide wetland managers with a tool that they currently lack, which could aid attempts to stem the spread of this invasive species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  20. Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor%CMOS有源像素传感器特性分析与优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江涛; 姚素英; 李斌桥; 史再峰; 高静

    2006-01-01

    A three-transistor active pixel sensor and its double sampling readout circuit implemented by a switch capacitor amplifier are designed. The circuit is embedded in a 64 × 64 pixel array CMOS image sensor and success fully taped out with a Chartered 0.35μm process. The pixel pitch is 8μm × 8μm with a fill factor of 57% ,the photo-sensitivity is 0.8V/(lux · s) ,and the dynamic range is 50dB. Theoretical analysis and test results indicate that as the process is scaled down, a smaller pixel pitch reduces the sensitivity. A deep junction n-well/p-substrate photodiode with a reasonable fill factor and high sensitivity are more appropriate for submicron processes.%设计了一个三管有源像素和其用开关电容放大器实现的双采样读出电路.该电路被嵌入一64×64像素阵列CMOS图像传感器,在Chartered公司0.35μm工艺线上成功流片.在8μm×8μm像素尺寸下实现了57%的填充因子.测得可见光响应灵敏度为0.8V/(lux·s),动态范围为50dB.理论分析和实验结果表明随着工艺尺寸缩小,像素尺寸减小会使光响应灵敏度降低.在深亚微米工艺条件下,较深的n阱/p衬底结光电二极管可以提供合理的填充因子和光响应灵敏度.

  1. Hierarchical classification approach for mapping rubber tree growth using per-pixel and object-oriented classifiers with SPOT-5 imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Dibs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in Malaysia to increase the productivity of latex. This made accurate knowledge of rubber tree growth and age distribution a helpful decision making tool for the government, rubber plantation managers, and harvesters. Gathering this information using conventional methods is difficult, time consuming, and limited in spatial coverage. This paper presents hierarchical classification approach to obtain accurate map of rubber tree growth age distribution using SPOT-5 satellite imagery. The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of pixel-based and object-oriented classifiers for rubber growth classification. At the first level, the general land cover was classified into eight land cover classes (soil, water body, rubber, mature oil palm, young oil palm, forest, urban area, and other vegetation using Mahalanobis distance (MD, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. Thereafter, the best classification map, k-NN output, was used to select only pixels that belong to the rubber class from the SPOT-5 image. The extracted pixels served as input into the next classification hierarchy where four classifiers, MD, k-NN, SVM, and decision tree (DT, were implemented to map rubber trees into three intra-classes (mature, middle-aged, and young rubbers. The result produced overall accuracy of 97.48%, 96.90%, 96.25%, and 80.80% for k-NN, SVM, MD, and DT respectively. The result indicates that object-oriented classifiers are better than pixel-based methods mapping rubber tree growth.

  2. Charge collection and non-ionizing radiation tolerance of CMOS pixel sensors using a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Min

    2016-09-01

    The proposed Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) will be primarily aimed for precision measurements of the discovered Higgs boson. Its innermost vertex detector, which will play a critical role in heavy-flavor tagging, must be constructed with fine-pitched silicon pixel sensors with low power consumption and fast readout. CMOS pixel sensor (CPS), as one of the most promising candidate technologies, has already demonstrated its excellent performance in several high energy physics experiments. Therefore it has been considered for R&D for the CEPC vertex detector. In this paper, we present the preliminary studies to improve the collected signal charge over the equivalent input capacitance ratio (Q / C), which will be crucial to reduce the analog power consumption. We have performed detailed 3D device simulation and evaluated potential impacts from diode geometry, epitaxial layer properties and non-ionizing radiation damage. We have proposed a new approach to improve the treatment of the boundary conditions in simulation. Along with the TCAD simulation, we have designed the exploratory prototype utilizing the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process and we will verify the simulation results with future measurements.

  3. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Madeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS, the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.

  4. A time-of-flight range image sensor using high-speed 4-tap lock-in pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazawa, A.; Trang, H.; Takasawa, T.; Aoyama, S.; Yasutomi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Kawahito, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a CMOS Time-of-Flight (TOF) range imager using pinned-photodiode based high-speed 4-tap lock-in pixels with lateral-electric-field charge modulators (LEFM) in a 0.11 um CIS process. The proposed lock-in pixel structure using lateral electric field control is suitable for implementing a multiple-tap charge modulator while achieving high-speed charge transfer for high time resolution. The TOF imager with the multiple-tap charge modulators is expected to have background light cancelling capability in one frame and to improve range resolution with the 4 time windows for a range-shifted light pulse. Measurement results of the implemented TOF imager with 160×240 pixels are reported.

  5. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  6. Pressure mapping with textile sensors for compression therapy monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Mazzocchi, Tommaso; Paoletti, Clara; Ricotti, Leonardo; Salvo, Pietro; Dini, Valentina; Laschi, Cecilia; Francesco, Fabio Di; Menciassi, Arianna

    2016-08-01

    Compression therapy is the cornerstone of treatment in the case of venous leg ulcers. The therapy outcome is strictly dependent on the pressure distribution produced by bandages along the lower limb length. To date, pressure monitoring has been carried out using sensors that present considerable drawbacks, such as single point instead of distributed sensing, no shape conformability, bulkiness and constraints on patient's movements. In this work, matrix textile sensing technologies were explored in terms of their ability to measure the sub-bandage pressure with a suitable temporal and spatial resolution. A multilayered textile matrix based on a piezoresistive sensing principle was developed, calibrated and tested with human subjects, with the aim of assessing real-time distributed pressure sensing at the skin/bandage interface. Experimental tests were carried out on three healthy volunteers, using two different bandage types, from among those most commonly used. Such tests allowed the trends of pressure distribution to be evaluated over time, both at rest and during daily life activities. Results revealed that the proposed device enables the dynamic assessment of compression mapping, with a suitable spatial and temporal resolution (20 mm and 10 Hz, respectively). In addition, the sensor is flexible and conformable, thus well accepted by the patient. Overall, this study demonstrates the adequacy of the proposed piezoresistive textile sensor for the real-time monitoring of bandage-based therapeutic treatments.

  7. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2$\\cdot 10^{15}$\\,n$_{\\mathrm{eq}}$/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00237859; Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to $2\\cdot10^{15}$\\,\

  8. Characterization of Thin Pixel Sensor Modules Interconnected with SLID Technology Irradiated to a Fluence of 2⋅10 15 $n_{eq}$ /cm 2

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, P; Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H

    2011-01-01

    A new module concept for future ATLAS pixel detector upgrades is presented, where thin n-in-p silicon sensors are connected to the front-end chip exploiting the novel Solid Liquid Interdiffusion technique (SLID) and the signals are read out via Inter Chip Vias (ICV) etched through the front-end. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side buttable pixel assemblies for the ATLAS upgrades, without the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding. The SLID interconnection, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It is characterized by a very thin eutectic Cu-Sn alloy and allows for stacking of different layers of chips on top of the first one, without destroying the pre-existing bonds. This paves the way for vertical integration technologies. Results of the characterization of the first pixel modules interconnected through SLID as well as of one sample irradiated to 2⋅10 15 \\,\

  9. Tactile Robotic Topographical Mapping Without Force or Contact Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kevin; Melko, Joseph; Krajewski, Joel; Cady, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A method of topographical mapping of a local solid surface within the range of motion of a robot arm is based on detection of contact between the surface and the end effector (the fixture or tool at the tip of the robot arm). The method was conceived to enable mapping of local terrain by an exploratory robot on a remote planet, without need to incorporate delicate contact switches, force sensors, a vision system, or other additional, costly hardware. The method could also be used on Earth for determining the size and shape of an unknown surface in the vicinity of a robot, perhaps in an unanticipated situation in which other means of mapping (e.g., stereoscopic imaging or laser scanning with triangulation) are not available. The method uses control software modified to utilize the inherent capability of the robotic control system to measure the joint positions, the rates of change of the joint positions, and the electrical current demanded by the robotic arm joint actuators. The system utilizes these coordinate data and the known robot-arm kinematics to compute the position and velocity of the end effector, move the end effector along a specified trajectory, place the end effector at a specified location, and measure the electrical currents in the joint actuators. Since the joint actuator current is approximately proportional to the actuator forces and torques, a sudden rise in joint current, combined with a slowing of the joint, is a possible indication of actuator stall and surface contact. Hence, even though the robotic arm is not equipped with contact sensors, it is possible to sense contact (albeit with reduced sensitivity) as the end effector becomes stalled against a surface that one seeks to measure.

  10. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronic Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  11. Chromatic X-Ray imaging with a fine pitch CdTe sensor coupled to a large area photon counting pixel ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Minuti, M; Pinchera, M; Mozzo, P

    2012-01-01

    An innovative X-ray imaging sensor with intrinsic digital characteristics is presented. It is based on Chromatic Photon Counting technology. The detector is able to count individually the incident X-ray photons and to separate them according to their energy (two 'color' images per exposure). The energy selection occurs in real time and at radiographic imaging speed (GHz global counting rate). Photon counting, color mode and a very high spatial resolution (more than 10 l.p./mm at MTF50) allow to obtain an optimal ratio between image quality and absorbed dose. The individual block of the imaging system is a two-side buttable semiconductor radiation detector made of a thin pixellated CdTe crystal (the sensor) coupled to a large area VLSI CMOS pixel ASIC. 1, 2, 4, 8 tile units have been built. The 8 tiles unit has 25cm x 2.5cm sensitive area. Results and images obtained from in depth testing of several configurations of the system are presented. The X-Ray imaging system is the technological platform of PIXIRAD Im...

  12. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  13. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  14. Design and First Tests of a Radiation-Hard Pixel Sensor for the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Schwandt, Joern; Klanner, Robert; Kopsalis, Ioannis; Zhang, Jiaguo

    2014-01-01

    The high intensity and high repetition rate of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, presently under construction in Hamburg, requires silicon sensors which can stand X-ray doses of up to 1 GGy for 3 years of operation at high bias voltage. Within the AGIPD Collaboration the X-ray-radiation damage in MOS Capacitors and Gate-Controlled Diodes fabricated by four vendors on high-ohmic n-type silicon with two crystal orientations and dif- ferent technological parameters, has been studied for doses between 1 kGy and 1 GGy. The extracted values of oxide-charge and surface-current densi- ties have been used in TCAD simulations, and the layout and technological parameters of the AGIPD pixel sensor optimized. It is found that the op- timized layout for high X-ray doses is significantly different from the one for non-irradiated sensors. First sensors and test structures have been de-livered in early 2013. Measurement results for X-ray doses of 0 to 10 MGy and their comparison to simulations are presented. They demons...

  15. ATLAS-IBL Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    LaRosa, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phase towards Super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (SLHC Phase I). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (Planar-Si, 3D-Si and Diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on pixel module studies, irradiation and beam test plans will be presented.

  16. Frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging system (pco.flim) based on a in-pixel dual tap control CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Robert; Holst, Gerhard A.

    2015-03-01

    The luminescence lifetime as a beneficial analytical parameter is known for many years and is well described by a large variety of publications. Many instruments including 2D measuring systems with cameras have been developed and applied in the past years. However, since the current instrumentation to perform either time- or frequency-domain lifetime measurements is rather complex, new developments in CMOS image sensor technology have achieved to create new image sensors, which can efficiently be integrated into easier-to-handle luminescence lifetime measuring systems. The principle of these modulatable CMOS image sensors, while initially being designed for distance measurements, shows a clear analogy to frequency-domain FLIM measurements, which was proven by researchers [1, 2]. Based on this principle a new CMOS image sensor has been developed, integrated into a camera system and has been investigated within a research project. The image sensor has a resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a 5.6 μm pitch and can be modulated up to 50 MHz. First measurements show an effective dynamic range of larger than 1:1024 (corresponding to 10 bit dynamic). The maximum frame rate is in the range of 90 frames/s in dual-tap mode, resulting in an effective lifetime image frame rate for realistic measurements of approximately 22 frames/s. The camera system pco.flim, featuring that image sensor, generates all required modulation signals from 5 kHz to 50 MHz (sinusoidal and rectangular). It performs advanced pixel correction to generate linear and high-quality images, while the basic lifetime image processing is done in the computer. The modulation frequency can be freely adjusted within the specified range. The characteristics of the camera systems are presented, and first results are discussed using different representations of the data like for example the phasor approach [3], which has been established to provide a more global view to pixelwise fluorescence lifetime data and

  17. Evaluating Landsat 8 Satellite Sensor Data for Improved Vegetation Mapping Accuracy of the New Hampshire Coastal Watershed Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Lindsay

    Remote sensing is a technology that has been used for many years to generate land cover maps. These maps provide insight as to the landscape, and features that are on the ground. One way in which this is useful is through the visualization of forest cover types. The forests of New England have been notoriously difficult to map, due to their high complexity and fine-scale heterogeneity. In order to be able to better map these features, the newest satellite imagery available may be the best technology to use. Landsat 8 is the newest satellite created by a team of scientists and engineers from the United States Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was launched in February of 2013. The Landsat 8 satellite sensor is considered an improvement over previous Landsat sensors, as it has three additional bands: (1) a coastal/ aerosol band, band 1, that senses light in deep blue, (2) a cirrus band, band 9, that provides detection of wispy clouds that may interfere with analysis, and (3) a Quality Assessment band whose bits contain information regarding conditions that may affect the quality and applicability of certain image pixels. In addition to these added bands, the data generated by Landsat 8 are delivered at an increased radiometric resolution compared with previous Landsat sensors, increasing the dynamic range of the data the sensor can retrieve. In order to investigate the satellite sensor data, a novel approach to classifying Landsat 8 imagery was used. Object-Based Image Analysis was employed, along with the random forest machine learning classifier, to segment and classify the land cover of the Coastal Watershed of southeastern New Hampshire. In order to account strictly for band improvements, supervised classification using the maximum likelihood classifier was completed, on imagery created: (1) using all of the original bands provided by Landsat 8, and (2) an image created using Landsat 8 bands that were only available on

  18. Studies for a 10{mu}s, thin, high resolution CMOS pixel sensor for future vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutsinas, G. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Amar-Youcef, S. [IFK, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Baudot, J.; Bertolone, G.; Brogna, A.; Chon-Sen, N.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Degerli, Y. [IRFU / SEDI (CEA) Saclay (France); De Masi, R. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [IFK, Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gelin, M.; Goffe, M.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M. [IPHC/IN2P3/CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-06-15

    Future high energy physics (HEP) experiments require detectors with unprecedented performances for track and vertex reconstruction. These requirements call for high precision sensors, with low material budget and short integration time. The development of CMOS sensors for HEP applications was initiated at IPHC Strasbourg more than 10 years ago, motivated by the needs for vertex detectors at the International Linear Collider (ILC) [R. Turchetta et al, NIM A 458 (2001) 677]. Since then several other applications emerged. The first real scale digital CMOS sensor MIMOSA26 equips Flavour Tracker at RHIC, as well as for the microvertex detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR. MIMOSA sensors may also offer attractive performances for the ALICE upgrade at LHC. This paper will demonstrate the substantial performance improvement of CMOS sensors based on a high resistivity epitaxial layer. First studies for integrating the sensors into a detector system will be addressed and finally the way to go to a 10{mu}s readout sensor will be discussed.

  19. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  20. Beam Test Studies of 3D Pixel Sensors Irradiated Non-Uniformly for the ATLAS Forward Physics Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    configuration consists of two n-type readout electrodes connected at the wafer surface along the 250 µm long pixel di- rection, surrounded by six p-type...passivation step uses dielectric material that depends on the bulk type of the silicon. For p-type wafers used in this study, a dielectric with negative...region by applying the SCP technology, from the original 1 mm to 50 − 100µm. The devices were returned to Barcelona to be bump -bonded to FE-I3 readout

  1. A low power and low signal 4 bit 50MS/s double sampling pipelined ADC for monolithie active pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Dahoumane, M; Bouvier, J; Lagorio, E; Hostachy, J Y; Gallin-Martel, L; Hostachy, J Y; Rossetto, O; Hu, Y; Ghazlane, H; Dallet, D

    2007-01-01

    A 4 bit very low power and low incoming signal analog to digital converter (ADC) using a double sampling switched capacitor technique, designed for use in CMOS monolithic active pixels sensor readout, has been implemented in 0.35μm CMOS technology. A non-resetting sample and hold stage is integrated to amplify the incoming signal by 4. This first stage compensates both the amplifier offset effect and the input common mode voltage fluctuations. The converter is composed of a 2.5 bit pipeline stage followed by a 2 bit flash stage. This prototype consists of 4 ADC double-channels; each one is sampling at 50MS/s and dissipates only 2.6mW at 3.3V supply voltage. A bias pulsing stage is integrated in the circuit. Therefore, the analog part is switched OFF or ON in less than 1μs. The size for the layout is 80μm*0.9mm. This corresponds to the pitch of 4 pixel columns, each one is 20μm wide.

  2. First detective quantum efficiency measurement of 500 {mu}m silicon hybrid pixel sensor with photon counting readout for X-ray medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surre, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France)]. E-mail: Benjamin.surre@u-clermontl.fr; Caria, Mario [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Chaput, Julien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Hassoun, Thierry [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laverroux, Fabien [Laboratoire de Biophysique medicale, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Sarry, Laurent [Equipe de Recherche en Signal et Imagerie Medicale, EA3295, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2005-07-01

    We report the performances of a 500 {mu}m pixellated silicon sensor bonded to the photon counting chip Medipix2 [1]. In order to perform an absolute characterization of our detector, we measured both the pre-sampling MTF and NPS with respect to the International standard IEC-62220-1. From those data we have been able to extract the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and hence to assess the suitability of our detector for X-ray medical imaging purpose. Due to poor absorption of the Si at 70 kV the DQE peaked at 0.06 for null frequency. Nevertheless, these results are very promising since thicker Si or more absorbing material such as GaAs will soon be available.

  3. Selected results from the static characterization of edgeless n-on-p planar pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, Gabriele; Bomben, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; La Rosa, Alessandro; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the High Luminosity Phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the Inner Detector with an all-Silicon system. The n-on-p technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. There is also the demand to reduce the inactive areas to a minimum. The ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento started a collaboration for the development on a novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process which can cope with all these requirements. This paper reports selected results from the electrical characterization, both before and after irradiation, of test structures from the first production batch.

  4. Measurement of charm and beauty-production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA and test beam studies of ATLAS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libov, Vladyslav

    2013-08-15

    A measurement of charm and beauty production in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA is presented. The analysis is based on the data sample collected by the ZEUS detector in the period from 2003 to 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 354 pb{sup -1}. The kinematic region of the measurement is given by 54.2(5) GeV for charm (beauty) and -1.6<{eta}{sup jet}<2.2 for both charm and beauty, where E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are the transverse energy and pseudorapidity of the jet, respectively. The significance of the decay length and the invariant mass of charged tracks associated with the secondary vertex are used as discriminating variables to distinguish between signal and background. Differential cross sections of jet production in charm and beauty events as a function of Q{sup 2}, y, E{sup jet}{sub T} and {eta}{sup jet} are measured. Results are compared to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) predictions from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the fixed flavour number scheme. Good agreement between data and theory is observed. Contributions of the charm and beauty production to the inclusive proton structure function, F{sup cbar} {sup c}{sub 2} and F{sup b} {sup anti} {sup b}{sub 2}, are determined by extrapolating the double differential cross sections using NLO QCD predictions. Contributions to the test beam program for the Insertable B-Layer upgrade project of the ATLAS pixel detector are discussed. The test beam data analysis software package EUTelescope was extended, which allowed an efficient analysis of ATLAS pixel sensors. The USBPix DAQ system was integrated into the EUDET telescope allowing test beam

  5. Hybrid Constraints of Pure and Mixed Pixels for Soft-Then-Hard Super-Resolution Mapping with Multiple Shifted Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuehong; Ge, Yong; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Hu, Jianlong; Jiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple shifted images (MSIs) have been widely applied to many super-resolution mapping (SRM) approaches to improve the accuracy of fine-scale land-cover maps. Most SRM methods with MSIs involve two processes: subpixel sharpening and class allocation. Complementary information from the MSIs has

  6. Hybrid Constraints of Pure and Mixed Pixels for Soft-Then-Hard Super-Resolution Mapping with Multiple Shifted Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuehong; Ge, Yong; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Hu, Jianlong; Jiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple shifted images (MSIs) have been widely applied to many super-resolution mapping (SRM) approaches to improve the accuracy of fine-scale land-cover maps. Most SRM methods with MSIs involve two processes: subpixel sharpening and class allocation. Complementary information from the MSIs has

  7. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  8. Evaluation of test structures for the novel n{sup +}-in-p pixel and strip sensors for very high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, Y., E-mail: yoshinobu.unno@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi 305-0801 (Japan); Mitsui, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi 305-0801 (Japan); Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Terada, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi 305-0801 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K. [Solid-state Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1 Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi 435-8558 (Japan); Hanagaki, K. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hara, K. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi 305-8571 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kimura, N. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishi-Waseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Nagai, K. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi 305-8571 (Japan); Nakano, I. [Department of Physics, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tshushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi 700-8530 (Japan); Oda, S. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-11 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 812-8581 (Japan); Takashima, R. [Department of Education, Kyoto University of Education, 1 Fukakusa-Fujimori-cho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8522 (Japan); Takubo, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi 305-0801 (Japan); Tojo, J. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-11 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi 812-8581 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-11

    Radiation-tolerant n{sup +}-in-p silicon sensors were developed for use in very high radiation environments. Novel n{sup +}-in-p silicon strip and pixel sensors and test structures were fabricated, tested and evaluated, in order to understand the designs implemented. The resistance between the n{sup +} implants (interstrip resistance), the electric potential of the p-stop, and the punch-through-protection (PTP) onset voltage were measured before and as a function of fluence after irradiation. The technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations were used to understand the radiation damage and fluence dependence of the structures. The decrease in the interstrip resistance is a consequence of increased leakage current. The decrease in the electric potential of the p-stop results from a build-up of positive charge in the silicon–silicon oxide interface. The decrease and subsequent increase in the PTP onset voltages results from the interface charge build-up and an increase in acceptor states.

  9. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 um process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Cousin, Loic; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Winter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 um thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the 3 innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35 um CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJa...

  10. Investigation of Properties of Novel Silicon Pixel Assemblies Employing Thin n-in-p Sensors and 3D-Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300/fb¹ , the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running|especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5x10^35/(cm²s¹ ) as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost-effective pixel assemblies with...

  11. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Speller, Robert D.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range. The latter, which included measuring X-ray sensitivity, presampling modulation transfer function (pMTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and the resulting detective quantum efficiency (DQE), was assessed under three beam qualities (28 kV, 50 kV (RQA3) and 70 kV (RQA5) using W/Al) all in accordance with the IEC standard. The detector features an in-pixel option for switching the full well capacity between two distinct modes, high full well (HFW) and low full well (LFW). Two structured CsI:Tl scintillators of different thickness (a “thin” one for high resolution and a thicker one for high light efficiency) were optically coupled to the sensor array to optimize the performance of the system for different medical applications. The electro-optical performance evaluation of the sensor results in relatively high read noise (∼360 e-), high full well capacity (∼1.5×106 e-) and wide dynamic range (∼73 dB) under HFW mode operation. When the LFW mode is used, the read noise is lower (∼165) at the expense of a reduced full well capacity (∼0.5×106 e-) and dynamic range (∼69 dB). The maximum DQE values at low frequencies (i.e. 0.5 lp/mm) are high for both HFW (0.69 for 28 kV, 0.71 for 50 kV and 0.75 for 70 kV) and LFW (0.69 for 28 kV and 0.7 for 50 kV) modes. The X-ray performance of the studied detector compares well to that of other mammography and general radiography systems, obtained under similar experimental conditions. This demonstrates the suitability

  12. Sea surface velocities from visible and infrared multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, P. A.; Emery, W. J.; Radebaugh, M.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution (100 m), sequential Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) images were used in a study to calculate advective surface velocities using the Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique. Radiance and brightness temperature gradient magnitude images were formed from visible (0.48 microns) and infrared (11.12 microns) image pairs, respectively, of Chandeleur Sound, which is a shallow body of water northeast of the Mississippi delta, at 145546 GMT and 170701 GMT on 30 Mar. 1989. The gradient magnitude images enhanced the surface water feature boundaries, and a lower cutoff on the gradient magnitudes calculated allowed the undesirable sunglare and backscatter gradients in the visible images, and the water vapor absorption gradients in the infrared images, to be reduced in strength. Requiring high (greater than 0.4) maximum cross correlation coefficients and spatial coherence of the vector field aided in the selection of an optimal template size of 10 x 10 pixels (first image) and search limit of 20 pixels (second image) to use in the MCC technique. Use of these optimum input parameters to the MCC algorithm, and high correlation and spatial coherence filtering of the resulting velocity field from the MCC calculation yielded a clustered velocity distribution over the visible and infrared gradient images. The velocity field calculated from the visible gradient image pair agreed well with a subjective analysis of the motion, but the velocity field from the infrared gradient image pair did not. This was attributed to the changing shapes of the gradient features, their nonuniqueness, and large displacements relative to the mean distance between them. These problems implied a lower repeat time for the imagery was needed in order to improve the velocity field derived from gradient imagery. Suggestions are given for optimizing the repeat time of sequential imagery when using the MCC method for motion studies. Applying the MCC method to the infrared

  13. Validation of pixel-wise parametric mapping of myocardial blood flow with {sup 13}NH{sub 3} PET in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Castagnoli, Helga; Pupi, Alberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Cipollini, Fabrizio [University of Florence, Department of Statistics, Florence (Italy); Olivotto, Iacopo; Cecchi, Franco [University of Florence, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Florence (Italy); Burger, Cyrill [Pmod Technologies Ltd, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Transmural abnormalities in myocardial blood flow (MBF) are important causes of ischaemia in patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. The study aimed to test whether pixel-wise parametric mapping of {sup 13}NH{sub 3} MBF can reveal transmural abnormalities in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We submitted 11 HCM patients and 9 age-matched controls with physiological LV hypertrophy to rest and stress (dipyridamole) {sup 13}NH{sub 3} PET. We measured MBF using a compartmental model, and obtained rest and stress parametric maps. Pixel MBF values were reorganized to obtain subendocardial and subepicardial MBF of LV segments. MBF at rest was higher in the subendocardial than in the subepicardial layer: 0.78 ± 0.19 vs. 0.60 ± 0.18 mL/min/g in HCM patients; 0.92 ± 0.24 vs. 0.75 ± 0.24 mL/min/g in controls (both p < 0.0001). Transmural perfusion gradient (TPG = subendocardial MBF/subepicardial MBF) at rest was similar: 1.35 ± 0.31 in HCM patients; 1.28 ± 0.27 in controls (NS). During stress, controls maintained higher subendocardial MBF: 2.44 ± 0.54 vs. 1.96 ± 0.67 mL/min/g tissue (p < 0.0001), with a TPG of 1.33 ± 0.35 (NS vs. rest). In HCM patients, the difference between subendocardial and subepicardial MBF was reduced (1.46 ± 0.48 vs. 1.36 ± 0.48 mL/min/g tissue, p < 0.01) and TPG decreased to 1.11 ± 0.34 (p < 0.0001 vs. rest and vs. controls). In HCM patients 8 of 176 segments had subendocardial MBF less than -2 x SD of the mean, versus none of 144 segments in controls (p < 0.01). Pixel-wise parametric mapping of {sup 13}NH{sub 3} MBF enables the identification of transmural abnormalities in patients with HCM. (orig.)

  14. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra Aldo, F

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

  15. Development of enhanced double-sided 3D radiation sensors for pixel detector upgrades at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Povoli, Marco

    The upgrades of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will call for new radiation hard technologies to be applied in the next generations of tracking devices that will be required to withstand extremely high radiation doses. In this sense, one of the most promising approaches to silicon detectors, is the so called 3D technology. This technology realizes columnar electrodes penetrating vertically into the silicon bulk thus decoupling the active volume from the inter-electrode distance. 3D detectors were first proposed by S. Parker and collaborators in the mid ’90s as a new sensor geometry intended to mitigate the effects of radiation damage in silicon. 3D sensors are currently attracting growing interest in the field of High Energy Physics, despite their more complex and expensive fabrication, because of the much lower operating voltages and enhanced radiation hardness. 3D technology was also investigated in other laboratories, with the intent of reducing the fabrication co...

  16. Contribution of sensor fusion to urban mapping: application to simulated SPOT 5-6 data

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    International audience; This communication intends to enhance the contribution of a sensor fusion method to urban mapping using the simulated SPOT 5-6 data. A new scheme is proposed for cartography of urban areas which takes into account the multispectral and the multiresolution nature of the data. This process makes use of classification and segmentation. An application of the sensor fusion method to analyse the simulated SPOT 5-6 data is presented. The benefits of using sensor fusion before...

  17. Fast pixelated sensors for radiation detection and imaging based on quantum confined structures in III/V semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, M.; Biasiol, G.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Plaisier, J. R.; Antonelli, M.

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve the characterisation of the delivered beams in many types of photon sources, innovative beam profilers based on III/V semiconductor materials (InGaAs/InAlAs) have been deeply investigated. Owing to a tunable and direct band gap these devices allow radiation detection in a wide spectral range. In order to increase the sensitivity of the device in radiation detection charge amplification on the sensor level is implemented. This is obtained by exploiting In0.75Ga0.25As/In0.75Al0.25As quantum wells (QW) hosting a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) through molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Internal charge-amplification mechanism can be achieved for very low applied voltages, while the high carrier mobility allows the design of very fast photon detectors with sub-nanosecond response times. This technology has been preliminarily exploited to fabricate prototype beam profilers with a strip geometry (with 50-μm-wide strips). Tests were carried out both with conventional X-ray tubes and at the Elettra synchrotron facility. The results testify how these profilers are capable of reconstructing the shape of the beam, as well as estimating the position of the beam centroid with a precision of about 400 nm. Further measurements with different samples of decreasing thickness have shown how this precision could be further improved by an optimised microfabrication. For this reason a new design, based on a membrane-photodetector, is proposed. Results regarding the spatial resolution as function of the sensor thickness will be presented and discussed.

  18. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  19. THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN INDOOR MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM WITH RGB-D SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs have been widely applied to urban mapping, path management and monitoring and cyber city, etc. The key concept of mobile mapping is based on positioning technology and photogrammetry. In order to achieve the integration, multi-sensor integrated mapping technology has clearly established. In recent years, the robotic technology has been rapidly developed. The other mapping technology that is on the basis of low-cost sensor has generally used in robotic system, it is known as the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. The objective of this study is developed a prototype of indoor MMS for mobile mapping applications, especially to reduce the costs and enhance the efficiency of data collection and validation of direct georeferenced (DG performance. The proposed indoor MMS is composed of a tactical grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, the Kinect RGB-D sensor and light detection, ranging (LIDAR and robot. In summary, this paper designs the payload for indoor MMS to generate the floor plan. In first session, it concentrates on comparing the different positioning algorithms in the indoor environment. Next, the indoor plans are generated by two sensors, Kinect RGB-D sensor LIDAR on robot. Moreover, the generated floor plan will compare with the known plan for both validation and verification.

  20. The Performance Analysis of AN Indoor Mobile Mapping System with Rgb-D Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chiang, K. W.; Chu, C. H.; Chen, Y. L.; El-Sheimy, N.; Habib, A.

    2015-08-01

    Over the years, Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) have been widely applied to urban mapping, path management and monitoring and cyber city, etc. The key concept of mobile mapping is based on positioning technology and photogrammetry. In order to achieve the integration, multi-sensor integrated mapping technology has clearly established. In recent years, the robotic technology has been rapidly developed. The other mapping technology that is on the basis of low-cost sensor has generally used in robotic system, it is known as the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). The objective of this study is developed a prototype of indoor MMS for mobile mapping applications, especially to reduce the costs and enhance the efficiency of data collection and validation of direct georeferenced (DG) performance. The proposed indoor MMS is composed of a tactical grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the Kinect RGB-D sensor and light detection, ranging (LIDAR) and robot. In summary, this paper designs the payload for indoor MMS to generate the floor plan. In first session, it concentrates on comparing the different positioning algorithms in the indoor environment. Next, the indoor plans are generated by two sensors, Kinect RGB-D sensor LIDAR on robot. Moreover, the generated floor plan will compare with the known plan for both validation and verification.

  1. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 μm process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyukov, S.; Baudot, J.; Besson, A.; Claus, G.; Cousin, L.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.

    2013-12-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the three innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS process were studied with the help of the first prototype chip MIMOSA 32. The beam tests performed with negative pions of 120 GeV/c at the CERN-SPS allowed to measure a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the non-irradiated chip in the range between 22 and 32 depending on the pixel design. The chip irradiated with the combined dose of 1 MRad and 1013neq /cm2 was observed to yield an SNR ranging between 11 and 23 for coolant temperatures varying from 15 °C to 30 °C. These SNR values were measured to result in particle detection efficiencies above 99.5% and 98% before and after irradiation, respectively. These satisfactory results allow to validate the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS process for the ALICE ITS upgrade.

  2. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18μm process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyukov, S., E-mail: serhiy.senyukov@cern.ch; Baudot, J.; Besson, A.; Claus, G.; Cousin, L.; Dorokhov, A.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.

    2013-12-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the three innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35μm CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJazz0.18μm CMOS process were studied with the help of the first prototype chip MIMOSA 32. The beam tests performed with negative pions of 120 GeV/c at the CERN-SPS allowed to measure a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the non-irradiated chip in the range between 22 and 32 depending on the pixel design. The chip irradiated with the combined dose of 1 MRad and 10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} was observed to yield an SNR ranging between 11 and 23 for coolant temperatures varying from 15 °C to 30 °C. These SNR values were measured to result in particle detection efficiencies above 99.5% and 98% before and after irradiation, respectively. These satisfactory results allow to validate the TowerJazz0.18μm CMOS process for the ALICE ITS upgrade.

  3. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Perrey, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    A high resolution ($\\sigma 2 \\sim \\mu$) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six sensor planes using Mimosa26 MAPS with a pixel pitch of $18.4 \\mu$ and thinned down to $50 \\mu$. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the new European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope will be further extended in terms of cooling infrastructure, readout speed and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community, a combination of various pixel technologies is foreseen. In this report the design of this even more flexible telescope with three different pixel technologies (TimePix, Mimosa, ATLAS FE-I4) will be presented. First test beam results with the HitOR signal provided by the FE-I4 integrated into the trigger...

  4. Processing of A New Digital Orthoimage Map of The Martian Western Hemisphere Using Data Obtained From The Mars Orbiter Camera At A Resolution of 256 Pixel/deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wählisch, M.; Niedermaier, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Scholten, F.; Wewel, F.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.

    We present a new digital orthoimage map of Mars using data obtained from the CCD line scanner Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor Mis- sion (MGS) [1,2]. The map covers the Mars surface from 0 to 180 West and from 60 South to 60 North with the MDIM2 resolution of 256 pixel/degree and size. Image data processing has been performed using multiple programs, developed by DLR, Technical University of Berlin [3], JPL, and the USGS. 4,339 Context and 183 Geodesy images [2] were included. After radiometric corrections, the images were Mars referenced [4], geometrically corrected [5] and orthoprojected using a global Martian Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with a resolution of 64 pixel/degree, developed at DLR and based on MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [6]. To elim- inate major differences in brightness between the individual images of the mosaics, high- and low-pass filter processing techniques were applied for each image. After filtering, the images were mosaicked without registering or using block adjustment techniques in order to improve the geometric quality. It turns out that the accuracy of the navigation data has such a good quality that the orthoimages fit very well to each other. When merging the MOC mosaic with the MOLA data using IHS- trans- formation, we recognized very good correspondence between these two datasets. We create a topographic image map of the Coprates region (MC­18) adding contour lines derived from the global DTM to the mosaic. These maps are used for geological and morphological interpretations in order to review and improve our current Viking-based knowledge about the Martian surface. References: [1] www.mssss.com, [2] Caplinger, M. and M. Malin, "The Mars Or- biter Camera Geodesy Campaign, JGR, in press, [3] Scholten, F., Vol XXXI, Part B2, Wien 1996, p.351-356, [4] naïf.jpl.nasa.gov, [5] R.L.Kirk. et al. (2001), "Geometric Calibration of the Mars Orbiter Cameras and Coalignment with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

  5. Broadband Field Directionally Mapping using Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays David Smith Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Box 90291 Durham, NC 27708 phone: (919) 660...splines) EM algorithm. Both algorithms were run using a simulated 30 element acoustic vector sensor array with 900 snapshots. Attention has also

  6. Using multi-spectral sensors for vegetation mapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetland and estuarine vegetation is often difficult to detect and separate from adjacent land covers with multispectral sensors for a number of reasons. The spatial resolution of space-borne sensors is often insufficient for these features which...

  7. Calculation stellar detection limit for active pixel sensor%有源像素传感器恒星探测极限计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 沈绪榜; 陈朝阳

    2005-01-01

    恒星探测极限是星跟踪器的一个关键参数,在导航星库的建立和星图识别过程中起着重要作用.根据恒星辐射模型和CMOS有源像素传感器的噪声计算模型,提出了一种在给定信噪比和有源像素传感器噪声条件下,计算星跟踪器恒星探测极限的方法.该方法利用单位时间内、单位面积上有源像素传感器对0星等恒星的响应来求取恒星探测极限.最后,在信噪比为8的条件下,结合星跟踪器的有关参数给出了一个计算恒星探测极限的具体实例.%The stellar detection limit(SDL) of image sensor is a key parameter of star tracker. It plays an important role in the selection of guide stars and the star pattern identification. In order to calculate the SDL of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS), the model of star influx and the noise model of APS are presented. The main noise sources of APS are analyzed. If SNR and total noise of APS are given, the SDL of APS can be calculated based on the typical response of 0 magnitude visual star per second per mm2. As an example, a specific SDL of APS is provided with given optical parameters and exposure time.

  8. Achieving subpixel resolution with time-correlated transient signals in pixelated CdZnTe gamma-ray sensors using a focused laser beam (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo Giraldo, Luis A.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Cui, Yonggang; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Gul, Rubi; Fried, Jack; Hossain, Anwar; Unlu, Kenan; Vernon, Emerson; Yang, Ge; James, Ralph B.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution position-sensitive detectors have been proposed to correct response non-uniformities in Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals by virtually subdividing the detectors area into small voxels and equalizing responses from each voxel. 3D pixelated detectors coupled with multichannel readout electronics are the most advanced type of CZT devices offering many options in signal processing and enhancing detector performance. One recent innovation proposed for pixelated detectors is to use the induced (transient) signals from neighboring pixels to achieve high sub-pixel position resolution while keeping large pixel sizes. The main hurdle in achieving this goal is the relatively low signal induced on the neighboring pixels because of the electrostatic shielding effect caused by the collecting pixel. In addition, to achieve high position sensitivity one should rely on time-correlated transient signals, which means that digitized output signals must be used. We present the results of our studies to measure the amplitude of the pixel signals so that these can be used to measure positions of the interaction points. This is done with the processing of digitized correlated time signals measured from several adjacent pixels taking into account rise-time and charge-sharing effects. In these measurements we used a focused pulsed laser to generate a 10-micron beam at one milliwatt (650-nm wavelength) over the detector surface while the collecting pixel was moved in cardinal directions. The results include measurements that present the benefits of combining conventional pixel geometry with digital pulse processing for the best approach in achieving sub-pixel position resolution with the pixel dimensions of approximately 2 mm. We also present the sub-pixel resolution measurements at comparable energies from various gamma emitting isotopes.

  9. CMOS Pixel Development for the ATLAS Experiment at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the rate and radiation environment expected at the HL-LHC new approaches are being developed on CMOS pixel detectors, providing charge collection in a depleted layer. They are based on: HV enabling technologies that allow to use high depletion voltages (HV-MAPS), high resistivity wafers for large depletion depths (HR-MAPS); radiation hard processed with multiple nested wells to allow CMOS electronics embedded with sufficient shielding into the sensor substrate and backside processing and thinning for material minimization and backside voltage application. Since 2014, members of more than 20 groups in the ATLAS experiment are actively pursuing CMOS pixel R&D in an ATLAS Demonstrator program pursuing sensor design and characterizations. The goal of this program is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels, with monolithic or hybrid designs, are suited for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at LHC. For this a number of technologies have been explored and characterized. In this pr...

  10. CMOS pixel development for the ATLAS experiment at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Risti{c}, Branislav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the rate and radiation environment expected at the HL-LHC new approaches are being developed on CMOS pixel detectors, providing charge collection in a depleted layer. They are based on: HV enabling technologies that allow to use high depletion voltages (HV-MAPS), high resistivity wafers for large depletion depths (HR-MAPS); radiation hard processed with multiple nested wells to allow CMOS electronics embedded with sufficient shielding into the sensor substrate and backside processing and thinning for material minimization and backside voltage application. Since 2014, members of more than 20 groups in the ATLAS experiment are actively pursuing CMOS pixel R&D in an ATLAS Demonstrator program pursuing sensor design and characterizations. The goal of this program is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels, with monolithic or hybrid designs, are suited for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at LHC. For this a number of technologies have been explored and characterized. In this pr...

  11. Efficient generation of 3D surfel maps using RGB–D sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowski Artur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of building dense 3D occupancy maps using commercial RGB-D sensors and the SLAM approach. In particular, it addresses the problem of 3D map representations, which must be able both to store millions of points and to offer efficient update mechanisms. The proposed solution consists of two such key elements, visual odometry and surfel-based mapping, but it contains substantial improvements: storing the surfel maps in octree form and utilizing a frustum culling-based method to accelerate the map update step. The performed experiments verify the usefulness and efficiency of the developed system.

  12. Comparison of relevant parameters of multi-pixel sensors for tracker detectors after irradiation with high proton and neutron fluences; Vergleich relevanter Parameter von Multipixelsensoren fuer Spurdetektoren nach Bestrahlung mit hohen Proton- und Neutronfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergholz, Matthias

    2016-03-15

    The further increase of the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires new sensors for the tracking detector of the Compact Muon Soleniod (CMS) experiment. These sensors must be more radiation hard and of a finer granularity to lower the occupancy. In addition the new sensor modules must have a lower material budget and have to be self triggering. Sensor prototypes, the so called ''MPix''-sensors, produced on different materials were investigated for their radiation hardness. These sensors were fully characterized before and after irradiation. Of particular interest was the comparison of different bias methods, different materials and the influence of various geometries. The degeneration rate differs for the different sensor materials. The increase of the dark current of Float-Zone-Silicon is stronger for thicker sensors and less than for Magnetic-Czochralski-Silicon sensors. Both tested bias structures are damaged by the irradiation. The poly silicon resistance increases after irradiation by fifty percent. The Punch-Through-Structure is more effected by irradiation. The punch-through voltage increase by a factor of two. Due to the higher pixel current, the working point of the sensor is shifted to smaller differential resistances.

  13. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  14. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  15. Accuracy and feasibility of optoelectronic sensors for weed mapping in wide row crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Ángela; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of a ground-based weed mapping system that included optoelectronic sensors for weed detection, and to determine the sampling resolution required for accurate weed maps in maize crops. The optoelectronic sensors were located in the inter-row area of maize to distinguish weeds against soil background. The system was evaluated in three maize fields in the early spring. System verification was performed with highly reliable data from digital images obtained in a regular 12 m × 12 m grid throughout the three fields. The comparison in all these sample points showed a good relationship (83% agreement on average) between the data of weed presence/absence obtained from the optoelectronic mapping system and the values derived from image processing software ("ground truth"). Regarding the optimization of sampling resolution, the comparison between the detailed maps (all crop rows with sensors separated 0.75 m) with maps obtained with various simulated distances between sensors (from 1.5 m to 6.0 m) indicated that a 4.5 m distance (equivalent to one in six crop rows) would be acceptable to construct accurate weed maps. This spatial resolution makes the system cheap and robust enough to generate maps of inter-row weeds.

  16. Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dorado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of a ground-based weed mapping system that included optoelectronic sensors for weed detection, and to determine the sampling resolution required for accurate weed maps in maize crops. The optoelectronic sensors were located in the inter-row area of maize to distinguish weeds against soil background. The system was evaluated in three maize fields in the early spring. System verification was performed with highly reliable data from digital images obtained in a regular 12 m × 12 m grid throughout the three fields. The comparison in all these sample points showed a good relationship (83% agreement on average between the data of weed presence/absence obtained from the optoelectronic mapping system and the values derived from image processing software (“ground truth”. Regarding the optimization of sampling resolution, the comparison between the detailed maps (all crop rows with sensors separated 0.75 m with maps obtained with various simulated distances between sensors (from 1.5 m to 6.0 m indicated that a 4.5 m distance (equivalent to one in six crop rows would be acceptable to construct accurate weed maps. This spatial resolution makes the system cheap and robust enough to generate maps of inter-row weeds.

  17. Mapping and localization using GPS, lane markings and proprioceptive sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Estimating the pose in real-time is a primary function for intelligent vehicle navigation. Whilst different solutions exist, most of them rely on the use of high-end sensors. This paper proposes a solution that exploits an automotive type L1-GPS receiver, features extracted by low-cost perception sensors and vehicle proprioceptive information. A key idea is to use the lane detection function of a video camera to retrieve accurate lateral and orientation information wit...

  18. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  19. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.

    1996-01-01

    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific i

  20. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.

    1996-01-01

    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific i

  1. Development of a dynamic web mapping service for vegetation productivity using earth observation and in situ sensors in a sensor web based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Bergsma, A.R.; Chuma, B.; Bruin, de S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Nethe

  2. Urban Image Classification: Per-Pixel Classifiers, Sub-Pixel Analysis, Object-Based Image Analysis, and Geospatial Methods. 10; Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Soe W.; Mesev, Victor; Quattrochi, Dale; Wentz, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing methods used to generate base maps to analyze the urban environment rely predominantly on digital sensor data from space-borne platforms. This is due in part from new sources of high spatial resolution data covering the globe, a variety of multispectral and multitemporal sources, sophisticated statistical and geospatial methods, and compatibility with GIS data sources and methods. The goal of this chapter is to review the four groups of classification methods for digital sensor data from space-borne platforms; per-pixel, sub-pixel, object-based (spatial-based), and geospatial methods. Per-pixel methods are widely used methods that classify pixels into distinct categories based solely on the spectral and ancillary information within that pixel. They are used for simple calculations of environmental indices (e.g., NDVI) to sophisticated expert systems to assign urban land covers. Researchers recognize however, that even with the smallest pixel size the spectral information within a pixel is really a combination of multiple urban surfaces. Sub-pixel classification methods therefore aim to statistically quantify the mixture of surfaces to improve overall classification accuracy. While within pixel variations exist, there is also significant evidence that groups of nearby pixels have similar spectral information and therefore belong to the same classification category. Object-oriented methods have emerged that group pixels prior to classification based on spectral similarity and spatial proximity. Classification accuracy using object-based methods show significant success and promise for numerous urban 3 applications. Like the object-oriented methods that recognize the importance of spatial proximity, geospatial methods for urban mapping also utilize neighboring pixels in the classification process. The primary difference though is that geostatistical methods (e.g., spatial autocorrelation methods) are utilized during both the pre- and post

  3. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented.

  4. Thermal Mapping Airborne Simulator for Small Satellite Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance, inexpensive, airborne simulator that will serve as the prototype for a small satellite based imaging system capable of mapping thermal anomalies...

  5. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  6. Large area CMOS image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetta, R.; Guerrini, N.; Sedgwick, I.

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  7. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  8. DMAPS: a fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor—analog performance characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havránek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Fu, Y.; Germic, L.; Kishishita, T.; Marinas, C.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.

    2015-02-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed since the late 1990s based on silicon substrates with a thin epitaxial layer (thickness of 10-15 μm) in which charge is collected on an electrode, albeit by disordered and slow diffusion rather than by drift in a directed electric field. As a consequence, the signal of these conventional MAPS is small (≈1000 e-) and the radiation tolerance is limited. In this paper, the development of a fully Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) based on a high resistivity substrate allowing the creation of a fully depleted detection volume is presented. This concept overcomes the inherent limitations of charge collection by diffusion in the standard MAPS designs. We present results from a prototype chip EPCB01 designed in a commercial 150 nm CMOS technology. The technology provides a thin (≈50 μm) high resistivity n-type silicon substrate as well as an additional deep p-well which allows to integrate full CMOS circuitry inside the pixel. Different matrix types with several variants of collection electrodes and pixel electronics have been implemented. Measurements of the analog performance of this first implementation of DMAPS pixels are presented.

  9. Digital Calorimetry Using Pixel Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reicher, M.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a new type of electromagnetic calorimeter, which is not based on proportionality of deposited energy, but instead on counting the number of showering particles. This calorimeter is a proof of principle for a proposed upgrade of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron C

  10. Odour Mapping Under Strong Backgrounds With a Metal Oxide Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Calvo, José María Blanco; Lechón, Miguel; Bermúdez i Badia, Sergi; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Marco, Santiago; Perera, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    This work describes the data from navigation experiments with the mobile robot, equipped with the sensor array of three MOX gas sensors. Performed four series of measurements aim to explore the capabilities of sensor array to build the odour map with one or two odour sources in the wind tunnel space. It was demonstrated that the method based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is able to discriminate two odour sources, that in future can be used in the surge-and-cast robot navigation algorithm.

  11. Visualization and Statistical Analysis of Multi Dimensional Data of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Self Organising Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thendral Puyalnithi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensory Network(WSN has put much importance to the data that it gets from the Sensor nodes, since the data from sensors are so valuable since sensor has limited life time and moreover the sensors are mostly not reachable physically once they are deployed, so an efficient analysis of the valuable data needs to be place once the data is obtained , so that decision making is can be effective. The Self Organizing Maps(SOM technique of Artificial Neural Network, which are proven methodologies for clustering the data has more advantage and it has been proposed in this paper for the sink data analysis and the SOM has been modified, by storing the sensor location information in its Best Matching Unit, so that SOM can be used for Classical Statistical Analysis too.

  12. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  13. Battlespace Awareness: Heterogeneous Sensor Maps of Large Scale, Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    ICRA). Stockholm, Sweden , May 2016. [10]2 (Chapter 5) 1.3 Thesis Structure In Chapter 2, we present the preliminary research and tools required to...In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE. Stockholm, Sweden , May 2016, pp. 979–986. [11] Gilbert...Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). IEEE. Stockholm, Sweden , May 2016, pp. 4349–4356. [30] Zhengyou Zhang. “Microsoft Kinect Sensor and Its Effect

  14. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  15. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  16. Spectral and spatial resolution analysis of multi sensor satellite data for coral reef mapping: Tioman Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kabiri, Keivan

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an assessment of coral reef mapping using multi sensor satellite images such as Landsat ETM, SPOT and IKONOS images for Tioman Island, Malaysia. The study area is known to be one of the best Islands in South East Asia for its unique collection of diversified coral reefs and serves host to thousands of tourists every year. For the coral reef identification, classification and analysis, Landsat ETM, SPOT and IKONOS images were collected processed and classified using hierarchical classification schemes. At first, Decision tree classification method was implemented to separate three main land cover classes i.e. water, rural and vegetation and then maximum likelihood supervised classification method was used to classify these main classes. The accuracy of the classification result is evaluated by a separated test sample set, which is selected based on the fieldwork survey and view interpretation from IKONOS image. Few types of ancillary data in used are: (a) DGPS ground control points; (b) Water quality parameters measured by Hydrolab DS4a; (c) Sea-bed substrates spectrum measured by Unispec and; (d) Landcover observation photos along Tioman island coastal area. The overall accuracy of the final classification result obtained was 92.25% with the kappa coefficient is 0.8940. Key words: Coral reef, Multi-spectral Segmentation, Pixel-Based Classification, Decision Tree, Tioman Island

  17. Autonomous Airship Equipped by Multi-Sensor Mapping Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, J.; Koska, B.; Pospíšil, J.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the project is to create measuring system with specific properties suitable for effective mapping of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers). The system should be useful especially for ranges that are too large for conventional surveying with GNSS or total station and too small for use of manned air vehicles from economical and accuracy point of view. Accessories of the system will allow e.g. collecting data for urban area modeling, creating thermometric georeferenced maps, mapping of dangerous or inaccessible areas (damps, open-pit mines). For this reason the platform is equipped with laser scanner, VIS camera (one for vertical capturing or more for slope capturing), thermo camera and INS/GPS as an exterior orientation (pose) determination unit. Especially in task of urban modeling the airship, as carrier, have legislative advantages due to prepared restriction for UAV. The resulting absolute accuracy of the developed system should be better than 10 cm (position standard deviation) and the random component is less than 5 cm. This accuracy is lower than for conventional measurements, but significantly higher than the scanning system carried by piloted aircraft. In terms of properties (accuracy, speed of data collection) our system is close to the terrestrial mobile scanning systems, which has disadvantage in the lack of availability in hard to reach locations.

  18. Secure chaotic map based block cryptosystem with application to camera sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jiashu; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghathbar, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Wang et al. presented an efficient logistic map based block encryption system. The encryption system employs feedback ciphertext to achieve plaintext dependence of sub-keys. Unfortunately, we discovered that their scheme is unable to withstand key stream attack. To improve its security, this paper proposes a novel chaotic map based block cryptosystem. At the same time, a secure architecture for camera sensor network is constructed. The network comprises a set of inexpensive camera sensors to capture the images, a sink node equipped with sufficient computation and storage capabilities and a data processing server. The transmission security between the sink node and the server is gained by utilizing the improved cipher. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome the flaws and maintain all the merits of the original cryptosystem. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are encouraging for the practical implementation in the real environment as well as camera sensor network.

  19. Accurate 3D maps from depth images and motion sensors via nonlinear Kalman filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Hervier, Thibault; Goulette, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of depth images as localisation sensors for 3D map building. The localisation information is derived from the 3D data thanks to the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm. The covariance of the ICP, and thus of the localization error, is analysed, and described by a Fisher Information Matrix. It is advocated this error can be much reduced if the data is fused with measurements from other motion sensors, or even with prior knowledge on the motion. The data fusion is performed by a recently introduced specific extended Kalman filter, the so-called Invariant EKF, and is directly based on the estimated covariance of the ICP. The resulting filter is very natural, and is proved to possess strong properties. Experiments with a Kinect sensor and a three-axis gyroscope prove clear improvement in the accuracy of the localization, and thus in the accuracy of the built 3D map.

  20. Stiffness mapping prostate biopsy samples using a tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiyu; Omata, Sadao; Peehl, Donna M; Constantinou, Chris E

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the stiffness of cancerous cells reflects their pathological stage and progression rates, with increased cancerous cell stiffness associated with increased aggressiveness. Therefore, the elasticity of the cancerous cells has the potential to be used as an indicator of the cancer's aggressiveness. However, the sensitivity and resolution of current palpation and imaging techniques are not sufficient to detect small cancerous tissues. In previous studies, we developed a tactile-based device to map with high resolution the stiffness of a tissue section. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this device using different tissues (BPH, Cancer and PZ) collected from human prostates. The preliminary results show that the tactile device is sensitive enough to tell the differences of the stiffness of different tissues. The results also disclosed the factors (humidity, temperature and tissue degradation) which could dramatically affect the results of stiffness mapping. The tactile technology described in this paper has the potential to help disclose the underlying mechanical mechanisms that lead to increased stiffness in prostate tumors.

  1. A Mobile Sensor Network to Map CO2 in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Christen, A.; Nesic, Z.; Ketler, R.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, an estimated 80% of all fuel-based CO2 emissions into the atmosphere are attributable to cities, but there is still a lack of tools to map, visualize and monitor emissions to the scales at which emissions reduction strategies can be implemented - the local and urban scale. Mobile CO2 sensors, such as those attached to taxis and other existing mobile platforms, may be a promising way to observe and map CO2 mixing ratios across heterogenous urban environments with a limited number of sensors. Emerging modular open source technologies, and inexpensive compact sensor components not only enable rapid prototyping and replication, but also are allowing for the miniaturization and mobilization of traditionally fixed sensor networks. We aim to optimize the methods and technologies for monitoring CO2 in cities using a network of CO2 sensors deployable on vehicles and bikes. Our sensor technology is contained in a compact weather-proof case (35.8cm x 27.8cm x 11.8cm), powered independently by battery or by car, and includes the Li-Cor Li-820 infrared gas analyzer (Licor Inc, lincoln, NB, USA), Arduino Mega microcontroller (Arduino CC, Italy) and Adafruit GPS (Adafruit Technologies, NY, USA), and digital air temperature thermometer which measure CO2 mixing ratios (ppm), geolocation and speed, pressure and temperature, respectively at 1-second intervals. With the deployment of our sensor technology, we will determine if such a semi-autonomous mobile approach to monitoring CO2 in cities can determine excess urban CO2 mixing ratios (i.e. the 'urban CO2 dome') when compared to values measured at a fixed, remote background site. We present results from a pilot study in Vancouver, BC, where the a network of our new sensors was deployed both in fixed network and in a mobile campaign and examine the spatial biases of the two methods.

  2. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Bergsma, Aldo; Chuma, Beatus; de Bruin, Sytze

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS). A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) were used as input for a vegetation productivity model. This paper presents the vegetation productivity model, the sensor data sources and the implementation of the automated processing facility. Finally, an evaluation is made of the opportunities and limitations of sensor web based approaches for the development of web services which combine both satellite and in situ sensor sources.

  3. Development of a Dynamic Web Mapping Service for Vegetation Productivity Using Earth Observation and in situ Sensors in a Sensor Web Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sytze de Bruin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a sensor web based approach which combines earth observation and in situ sensor data to derive typical information offered by a dynamic web mapping service (WMS. A prototype has been developed which provides daily maps of vegetation productivity for the Netherlands with a spatial resolution of 250 m. Daily available MODIS surface reflectance products and meteorological parameters obtained through a Sensor Observation Service (SOS were used as input for a vegetation productivity model. This paper presents the vegetation productivity model, the sensor data sources and the implementation of the automated processing facility. Finally, an evaluation is made of the opportunities and limitations of sensor web based approaches for the development of web services which combine both satellite and in situ sensor sources.

  4. Estimation of Visual Maps with a Robot Network Equipped with Vision Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Gil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach to the Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM problem using a team of autonomous vehicles equipped with vision sensors. The SLAM problem considers the case in which a mobile robot is equipped with a particular sensor, moves along the environment, obtains measurements with its sensors and uses them to construct a model of the space where it evolves. In this paper we focus on the case where several robots, each equipped with its own sensor, are distributed in a network and view the space from different vantage points. In particular, each robot is equipped with a stereo camera that allow the robots to extract visual landmarks and obtain relative measurements to them. We propose an algorithm that uses the measurements obtained by the robots to build a single accurate map of the environment. The map is represented by the three-dimensional position of the visual landmarks. In addition, we consider that each landmark is accompanied by a visual descriptor that encodes its visual appearance. The solution is based on a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter that estimates the paths of the robots and the position of the visual landmarks. The validity of our proposal is demonstrated by means of experiments with a team of real robots in a office-like indoor environment.

  5. Local Mapping Based Modeling Sensor Network Data Algorithm for Query Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, sensors are devices used to collect data from the environment related to the detection or measurement of physical phenomena. The original sensor network data are commonly large amounts of measurements and high-dimensional. Spatial data mining techniques used to retrieve high-dimensional spatial information from WSN is effectively. Due to the limited energy of the sensors in WSN, energy efficient query evaluation is critical to prolong the system lifetime. In this paper, we propose a local mapping based modeling sensor network data algorithm for query processing to render effective spatial data retrieval services in the resource constrained WSN. The algorithm can be associated with the present features in spatial data and project high-dimensional data to feature space by using local mapping linear embedding for reducing the computation of spatial data retrieval. As the experiment results shown, the algorithm can preserve important spatial feature information and provide effective preprocessing analysis results. Furthermore, the algorithm is the more effectual on feature preserving than local linear embedding (LLE when the sample space is sparse source data.

  6. Improving Security for SCADA Sensor Networks with Reputation Systems and Self-Organizing Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José M; Araujo, Alvaro; Banković, Zorana; de Goyeneche, Juan-Mariano; Vallejo, Juan Carlos; Malagón, Pedro; Villanueva, Daniel; Fraga, David; Romero, Elena; Blesa, Javier

    2009-01-01

    The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which are also based on the data obtained from sensor networks. The inherent limitations of the sensor devices make them extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks. In this paper, we propose a reputation system enhanced with distributed agents, based on unsupervised learning algorithms (self-organizing maps), in order to achieve fault tolerance and enhanced resistance to previously unknown attacks. This approach has been extensively simulated and compared with previous proposals.

  7. Improving Security for SCADA Sensor Networks with Reputation Systems and Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blesa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems, which are also based on the data obtained from sensor networks. The inherent limitations of the sensor devices make them extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks. In this paper, we propose a reputation system enhanced with distributed agents, based on unsupervised learning algorithms (self-organizing maps, in order to achieve fault tolerance and enhanced resistance to previously unknown attacks. This approach has been extensively simulated and compared with previous proposals.

  8. Pixel readout chip for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ackers, M; Blanquart, L; Bonzom, V; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Delpierre, P A; Treis, J; Raith, B A; Wermes, N

    1999-01-01

    Pixel detectors with a high granularity and a very large number of sensitive elements (cells) are a very recent development used for high precision particle detection. At the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN (Geneva) a pixel detector with 1.4*10/sup 8/ individual pixel cells is developed for the ATLAS detector. The concept is a hybrid detector. Consisting of a pixel sensor connected to a pixel electronics chip by bump and flip chip technology in one-to-one cell correspondence. The development and prototype results of the pixel front end chip are presented together with the physical and technical requirements to be met at LHC. Lab measurements are reported. (6 refs).

  9. Reconstruction of in-plane strain maps using hybrid dense sensor network composed of sensing skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    The authors have recently developed a soft-elastomeric capacitive (SEC)-based thin film sensor for monitoring strain on mesosurfaces. Arranged in a network configuration, the sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. Under plane stress conditions, the sensor output contains the additive measurement of the two principal strain components over the monitored surface. In applications where the evaluation of strain maps is useful, in structural health monitoring for instance, such signal must be decomposed into linear strain components along orthogonal directions. Previous work has led to an algorithm that enabled such decomposition by leveraging a dense sensor network configuration with the addition of assumed boundary conditions. Here, we significantly improve the algorithm’s accuracy by leveraging mature off-the-shelf solutions to create a hybrid dense sensor network (HDSN) to improve on the boundary condition assumptions. The system’s boundary conditions are enforced using unidirectional RSGs and assumed virtual sensors. Results from an extensive experimental investigation demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm and its robustness with respect to sensors’ layout. Overall, the proposed algorithm is seen to effectively leverage the advantages of a hybrid dense network for application of the thin film sensor to reconstruct surface strain fields over large surfaces.

  10. Comparing Manual and Semi-Automated Landslide Mapping Based on Optical Satellite Images from Different Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hölbling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Object-based image analysis (OBIA has been increasingly used to map geohazards such as landslides on optical satellite images. OBIA shows various advantages over traditional image analysis methods due to its potential for considering various properties of segmentation-derived image objects (spectral, spatial, contextual, and textural for classification. For accurately identifying and mapping landslides, however, visual image interpretation is still the most widely used method. The major question therefore is if semi-automated methods such as OBIA can achieve results of comparable quality in contrast to visual image interpretation. In this paper we apply OBIA for detecting and delineating landslides in five selected study areas in Austria and Italy using optical Earth Observation (EO data from different sensors (Landsat 7, SPOT-5, WorldView-2/3, and Sentinel-2 and compare the OBIA mapping results to outcomes from visual image interpretation. A detailed evaluation of the mapping results per study area and sensor is performed by a number of spatial accuracy metrics, and the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches for landslide mapping on optical EO data are discussed. The analyses show that both methods produce similar results, whereby the achieved accuracy values vary between the study areas.

  11. Damage detection on mesosurfaces using distributed sensor network and spectral diffusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinde, V.; Cao, L.; Vaidya, U.; Laflamme, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we develop a data-driven method for the diagnosis of damage in mesoscale mechanical structures using an array of distributed sensor networks. The proposed approach relies on comparing intrinsic geometries of data sets corresponding to the undamaged and damaged states of the system. We use a spectral diffusion map approach to identify the intrinsic geometry of the data set. In particular, time series data from distributed sensors is used for the construction of diffusion maps. The low dimensional embedding of the data set corresponding to different damage levels is obtained using a singular value decomposition of the diffusion map. We construct appropriate metrics in the diffusion space to compare the different data sets corresponding to different damage cases. The developed algorithm is applied for damage diagnosis of wind turbine blades. To achieve this goal, we developed a detailed finite element-based model of CX-100 blade in ANSYS using shell elements. Typical damage, such as crack or delamination, will lead to a loss of stiffness, is modeled by altering the stiffness of the laminate layer. One of the main challenges in the development of health monitoring algorithms is the ability to use sensor data with a relatively small signal-to-noise ratio. Our developed diffusion map-based algorithm is shown to be robust to the presence of sensor noise. The proposed diffusion map-based algorithm is advantageous by enabling the comparison of data from numerous sensors of similar or different types of data through data fusion, hereby making it attractive to exploit the distributed nature of sensor arrays. This distributed nature is further exploited for the purpose of damage localization. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully determine the extent of damage on the wind turbine blade and also localize the damage. We also present preliminary results for the application of the developed algorithm on

  12. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will al...

  13. ATLAS pixel detector design for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector is called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended η-range: at least to |η|<3.2, and likely up to 0|η|<4.. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into `extended' and `inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will also be discussed.

  14. Performance study of a MegaPixel single photon position sensitive photodetector EBCMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, Remi [IPNL, 4 rue E. Fermi 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: rbarbier@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Baudot, J. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France); Chabanat, E.; Depasse, P. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dulinski, W. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France); Estre, N. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Kaiser, C.T.; Laurent, N. [PHOTONIS SAS, 19106 Brive (France); Winter, M. [Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg F-67037 (France)

    2009-10-21

    This development is related to the design and the integration of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) into a photosensitive proximity focusing vacuum-based tube. This EBCMOS project is dedicated to the fluorescent and the bioluminescent high speed imaging. The results of the full characterization of the first prototype are presented. Comparative tests with different fluorescent dyes have been performed in biology laboratories. Preliminary conclusions on the ability of EBCMOS to perform fast single-molecule tracking will be given.

  15. Soil pH Mapping with an On-The-Go Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Seidel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH is a key parameter for crop productivity, therefore, its spatial variation should be adequately addressed to improve precision management decisions. Recently, the Veris pH ManagerTM, a sensor for high-resolution mapping of soil pH at the field scale, has been made commercially available in the US. While driving over the field, soil pH is measured on-the-go directly within the soil by ion selective antimony electrodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Veris pH ManagerTM under farming conditions in Germany. Sensor readings were compared with data obtained by standard protocols of soil pH assessment. Experiments took place under different scenarios: (a controlled tests in the lab, (b semicontrolled test on transects in a stop-and-go mode, and (c tests under practical conditions in the field with the sensor working in its typical on-the-go mode. Accuracy issues, problems, options, and potential benefits of the Veris pH ManagerTM were addressed. The tests demonstrated a high degree of linearity between standard laboratory values and sensor readings. Under practical conditions in the field (scenario c, the measure of fit (r2 for the regression between the on-the-go measurements and the reference data was 0.71, 0.63, and 0.84, respectively. Field-specific calibration was necessary to reduce systematic errors. Accuracy of the on-the-go maps was considerably higher compared with the pH maps obtained by following the standard protocols, and the error in calculating lime requirements was reduced by about one half. However, the system showed some weaknesses due to blockage by residual straw and weed roots. If these problems were solved, the on-the-go sensor investigated here could be an efficient alternative to standard sampling protocols as a basis for liming in Germany.

  16. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin; Syed Muhammad Mamduh; Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff; Ammar Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor wi...

  17. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS. The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect’s depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  18. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  19. 利用像素工厂系统对SPOT-5影像镶嵌图进行局部修正%Partial Correction of SPOT -5 Image Mosaic Map Using Pixel Factory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹; 王永峰; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    A large size remote sensing image mapping project is to produce mosaic map with 23 pairs of SPOT - 5 images rapidly using pixel factory system. A serious problem is that there are some distorted pixels in mosaic map due to low registration precision between 2 pairs of synchronous images, the reason is that a mistake was made by someone dur- ing aerial triangulation process. To solve this problem and submit product to customer on time, this paper adopts a partial correction to mosaic map method and finally it success.%利用像素工厂系统对一个包含23对SPOT-5影俸镶嵌图项目进行快速制作,但由于空三处理失误导致其中2景影像配准精度差而出现像素错位。为避免返工、有效弥补镶嵌影像图的局部几何问题,本文采用了局部修正方法,最终实现及时向客户提交质量合格的产品。

  20. Diamond pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Robichaud, A; Potenza, R; Kuleshov, S; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Wermes, N; Dulinski, W; Eremin, V; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Olivero, P; Gorisek, A; Chren, D; Kramberger, G; Schnetzer, S; Weilhammer, P; Martemyanov, A; Hugging, F; Pernegger, H; Lagomarsino, S; Manfredotti, C; Mishina, M; Trischuk, W; Dobos, D; Cindro, V; Belyaev, V; Duris, J; Claus, G; Wallny, R; Furgeri, A; Tuve, C; Goldstein, J; Sciortino, S; Sutera, C; Asner, D; Mikuz, M; Lo Giudice, A; Velthuis, J; Hits, D; Griesmayer, E; Oakham, G; Frais-Kolbl, H; Bellini, V; D'Alessandro, R; Cristinziani, M; Barbero, M; Schaffner, D; Costa, S; Goffe, M; La Rosa, A; Bruzzi, M; Schreiner, T; de Boer, W; Parrini, G; Roe, S; Randrianarivony, K; Dolenc, I; Moss, J; Brom, J M; Golubev, A; Mathes, M; Eusebi, R; Grigoriev, E; Tsung, J W; Mueller, S; Mandic, I; Stone, R; Menichelli, D

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10(16) protons/cm(2) illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel m...

  1. Land Cover Heterogeneity Effects on Sub-Pixel and Per-Pixel Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung V. Tran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Per-pixel and sub-pixel are two common classification methods in land cover studies. The characteristics of a landscape, particularly the land cover itself, can affect the accuracies of both methods. The objectives of this study were to: (1 compare the performance of sub-pixel vs. per-pixel classification methods for a broad heterogeneous region; and (2 analyze the impact of land cover heterogeneity (i.e., the number of land cover classes per pixel on both classification methods. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of both per-pixel and sub-pixel classification methods were generally reduced by increasing land cover heterogeneity. Urban areas, for example, were found to have the lowest accuracy for the per-pixel method, because they had the highest heterogeneity. Conversely, rural areas dominated by cropland and grassland had low heterogeneity and high accuracy. When a sub-pixel method was used, the producer’s accuracy for artificial surfaces was increased by more than 20%. For all other land cover classes, sub-pixel and per-pixel classification methods performed similarly. Thus, the sub-pixel classification was only advantageous for heterogeneous urban landscapes. Both creators and users of land cover datasets should be aware of the inherent landscape heterogeneity and its potential effect on map accuracy.

  2. Damage evaluation based on a wave energy flow map using multiple PZT sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi, Emptyyn Y; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke

    2014-01-23

    A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti's reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map.

  3. Soft Nanocomposite Based Multi-point, Multi-directional Strain Mapping Sensor Using Anisotropic Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyosang; Kwon, Donguk; Cho, Haedo; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Jung

    2017-01-01

    The practical utilization of soft nanocomposites as a strain mapping sensor in tactile sensors and artificial skins requires robustness for various contact conditions as well as low-cost fabrication process for large three dimensional surfaces. In this work, we propose a multi-point and multi-directional strain mapping sensor based on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-silicone elastomer nanocomposites and anisotropic electrical impedance tomography (aEIT). Based on the anisotropic resistivity of the sensor, aEIT technique can reconstruct anisotropic resistivity distributions using electrodes around the sensor boundary. This strain mapping sensor successfully estimated stretch displacements (error of 0.54 ± 0.53 mm), surface normal forces (error of 0.61 ± 0.62 N), and multi-point contact locations (error of 1.88 ± 0.95 mm in 30 mm × 30 mm area for a planar shaped sensor and error of 4.80 ± 3.05 mm in 40 mm × 110 mm area for a three dimensional contoured sensor). In addition, the direction of lateral stretch was also identified by reconstructing anisotropic distributions of electrical resistivity. Finally, a soft human-machine interface device was demonstrated as a practical application of the developed sensor. PMID:28120886

  4. Secure Chaotic Map Based Block Cryptosystem with Application to Camera Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Wang et al. presented an efficient logistic map based block encryption system. The encryption system employs feedback ciphertext to achieve plaintext dependence of sub-keys. Unfortunately, we discovered that their scheme is unable to withstand key stream attack. To improve its security, this paper proposes a novel chaotic map based block cryptosystem. At the same time, a secure architecture for camera sensor network is constructed. The network comprises a set of inexpensive camera sensors to capture the images, a sink node equipped with sufficient computation and storage capabilities and a data processing server. The transmission security between the sink node and the server is gained by utilizing the improved cipher. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome the flaws and maintain all the merits of the original cryptosystem. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are encouraging for the practical implementation in the real environment as well as camera sensor network.

  5. Comparison of Sensor Resolution Trade-offs Between Landsat 8 and a Sentinel-2 Proxy for Mapping Wetland Vegetation Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, C.; Hestir, E.; Khanna, S.; Ustin, S.

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have mapped terrestrial vegetation phenology as indicators of climate change using remote sensing products, but few have refined this process for wetland ecosystems. Unfortunately, the ability of wetlands to function as climate indicators is currently unknown. Developing such a metric would be very useful to climate studies, as wetlands, located at the interface of land and water, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate and human induced changes. Sentinel-2 is a next generation earth observation sensor that provides researchers with improved temporal (5 days revisit) and spatial (10m) resolution over Landsat 8, but the practical utility of Sentinel-2 remains unknown. In preparation for the Sentinel-2 dataset, ESA lowered the orbit of the SPOT 5 satellite to enhance its spatial and temporal resolution (SPOT-5 Take 5). Here the SPOT-5 Take 5 (S5T5) experimental dataset acquired from April to September of 2015 in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta was used as a proxy for full Sentinel-2 data. Phenology profiles created for three wetland vegetation community types (floating, emergent, and submerged) using S5T5 imagery were compared to those created from Landsat 8 imagery. Spectral resolutions were evaluated by comparing vegetation indices (VI) values between sensor at key times in the vegetation growth cycle. In addition, VIs specifically created for wetlands were assessed and results highlight the importance of including a blue spectral band in wetland analysis. S5T5 captures the diverse vegetation community types, but the signal-to-noise ratio, particularly in the water column, must be carefully monitored. Temporal resolution tradeoffs were evaluated using a cloud cover analysis and by comparing the overall shape between phenology profiles. Increased temporal resolution does not always provide a significant amount of new information for key points in the vegetation growth cycle. However, S5T5 results in significantly more cloud free pixels

  6. Design and TCAD simulation of planar p-on-n active-edge pixel sensors for the next generation of FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F., E-mail: gianfranco.dallabetta@unitn.it [Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, I-38123 Trento (Italy); TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Batignani, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Benkechkache, M.A. [TIFPA INFN, I-38123 Trento (Italy); University Constantine 1, Department of Electronics in the Science and Technology Faculty, I-25017 Constantine (Algeria); Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Comotti, D. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Fabris, L. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Applicate, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); Forti, F. [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Grassi, M. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Latreche, S. [University Constantine 1, Department of Electronics in the Science and Technology Faculty, I-25017 Constantine (Algeria); Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell' Informazione, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienze Applicate, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    We report on the design and TCAD simulations of planar p-on-n sensors with active edge aimed at a four-side buttable X-ray detector module for future FEL applications. Edge terminations with different number of guard rings were designed to find the best trade-off between breakdown voltage and border gap size. The methodology of the sensor design, the optimization of the most relevant parameters to maximize the breakdown voltage and the final layout are described.

  7. Design and TCAD simulation of planar p-on-n active-edge pixel sensors for the next generation of FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Latreche, S.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the design and TCAD simulations of planar p-on-n sensors with active edge aimed at a four-side buttable X-ray detector module for future FEL applications. Edge terminations with different number of guard rings were designed to find the best trade-off between breakdown voltage and border gap size. The methodology of the sensor design, the optimization of the most relevant parameters to maximize the breakdown voltage and the final layout are described.

  8. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  9. Mobile Mapping of Sporting Event Spectators Using Bluetooth Sensors: Tour of Flanders 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik van Bossche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate spatiotemporal information on crowds is a necessity for a better management in general and for the mitigation of potential security risks. The large numbers of individuals involved and their mobility, however, make generation of this information non-trivial. This paper proposes a novel methodology to estimate and map crowd sizes using mobile Bluetooth sensors and examines to what extent this methodology represents a valuable alternative to existing traditional crowd density estimation methods. The proposed methodology is applied in a unique case study that uses Bluetooth technology for the mobile mapping of spectators of the Tour of Flanders 2011 road cycling race. The locations of nearly 16,000 cell phones of spectators along the race course were registered and detailed views of the spatiotemporal distribution of the crowd were generated. Comparison with visual head counts from camera footage delivered a detection ratio of 13.0 ± 2.3%, making it possible to estimate the crowd size. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses mobile Bluetooth sensors to count and map a crowd over space and time.

  10. Mobile Mapping of Sporting Event Spectators Using Bluetooth Sensors: Tour of Flanders 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versichele, Mathias; Neutens, Tijs; Goudeseune, Stephanie; van Bossche, Frederik; van de Weghe, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Accurate spatiotemporal information on crowds is a necessity for a better management in general and for the mitigation of potential security risks. The large numbers of individuals involved and their mobility, however, make generation of this information non-trivial. This paper proposes a novel methodology to estimate and map crowd sizes using mobile Bluetooth sensors and examines to what extent this methodology represents a valuable alternative to existing traditional crowd density estimation methods. The proposed methodology is applied in a unique case study that uses Bluetooth technology for the mobile mapping of spectators of the Tour of Flanders 2011 road cycling race. The locations of nearly 16,000 cell phones of spectators along the race course were registered and detailed views of the spatiotemporal distribution of the crowd were generated. Comparison with visual head counts from camera footage delivered a detection ratio of 13.0 ± 2.3%, making it possible to estimate the crowd size. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses mobile Bluetooth sensors to count and map a crowd over space and time. PMID:23202044

  11. Fusion of Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Measurements and Map Information for Pedestrian Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shu-Di; Meng, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wendong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-02-10

    The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy. In the proposed method, a simple stance phase detector is designed to identify the stance phase of a gait cycle based on gyroscope measurements. For the non-stance phase during a gait cycle, an acceleration control variable derived from ZUPT information is introduced in the process model, while vector map information is taken as binary pseudo-measurements to further enhance position estimation accuracy and reduce uncertainty of walking trajectories. A particle filter is then designed to fuse ZUPT information and binary pseudo-measurements together. The proposed human position estimation method has been evaluated with closed-loop walking experiments in indoor and outdoor environments. Results of comparison study have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for application scenarios with useful map information.

  12. Fusion of Inertial/Magnetic Sensor Measurements and Map Information for Pedestrian Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shu-Di; Meng, Xiao-Li; Xiao, Wendong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The wearable inertial/magnetic sensor based human motion analysis plays an important role in many biomedical applications, such as physical therapy, gait analysis and rehabilitation. One of the main challenges for the lower body bio-motion analysis is how to reliably provide position estimations of human subject during walking. In this paper, we propose a particle filter based human position estimation method using a foot-mounted inertial and magnetic sensor module, which not only uses the traditional zero velocity update (ZUPT), but also applies map information to further correct the acceleration double integration drift and thus improve estimation accuracy. In the proposed method, a simple stance phase detector is designed to identify the stance phase of a gait cycle based on gyroscope measurements. For the non-stance phase during a gait cycle, an acceleration control variable derived from ZUPT information is introduced in the process model, while vector map information is taken as binary pseudo-measurements to further enhance position estimation accuracy and reduce uncertainty of walking trajectories. A particle filter is then designed to fuse ZUPT information and binary pseudo-measurements together. The proposed human position estimation method has been evaluated with closed-loop walking experiments in indoor and outdoor environments. Results of comparison study have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for application scenarios with useful map information. PMID:28208591

  13. Mobile mapping of sporting event spectators using bluetooth sensors: tour of flanders 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versichele, Mathias; Neutens, Tijs; Goudeseune, Stephanie; van Bossche, Frederik; van de Weghe, Nico

    2012-10-22

    Accurate spatiotemporal information on crowds is a necessity for a better management in general and for the mitigation of potential security risks. The large numbers of individuals involved and their mobility, however, make generation of this information non-trivial. This paper proposes a novel methodology to estimate and map crowd sizes using mobile Bluetooth sensors and examines to what extent this methodology represents a valuable alternative to existing traditional crowd density estimation methods. The proposed methodology is applied in a unique case study that uses Bluetooth technology for the mobile mapping of spectators of the Tour of Flanders 2011 road cycling race. The locations of nearly 16,000 cell phones of spectators along the race course were registered and detailed views of the spatiotemporal distribution of the crowd were generated. Comparison with visual head counts from camera footage delivered a detection ratio of 13.0 ± 2.3%, making it possible to estimate the crowd size. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses mobile Bluetooth sensors to count and map a crowd over space and time.

  14. Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS. The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters. In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy.

  15. A volumetric sensor for real-time 3D mapping and robot navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Ricard, Benoit; Laurendeau, Denis

    2006-05-01

    The use of robots for (semi-) autonomous operations in complex terrains such as urban environments poses difficult mobility, mapping, and perception challenges. To be able to work efficiently, a robot should be provided with sensors and software such that it can perceive and analyze the world in 3D. Real-time 3D sensing and perception in this operational context are paramount. To address these challenges, DRDC Valcartier has developed over the past years a compact sensor that combines a wide baseline stereo camera and a laser scanner with a full 360 degree azimuth and 55 degree elevation field of view allowing the robot to view and manage overhang obstacles as well as obstacles at ground level. Sensing in 3D is common but to efficiently navigate and work in complex terrain, the robot should also perceive, decide and act in three dimensions. Therefore, 3D information should be preserved and exploited in all steps of the process. To achieve this, we use a multiresolution octree to store the acquired data, allowing mapping of large environments while keeping the representation compact and memory efficient. Ray tracing is used to build and update the 3D occupancy model. This model is used, via a temporary 2.5D map, for navigation, obstacle avoidance and efficient frontier-based exploration. This paper describes the volumetric sensor concept, describes its design features and presents an overview of the 3D software framework that allows 3D information persistency through all computation steps. Simulation and real-world experiments are presented at the end of the paper to demonstrate the key elements of our approach.

  16. Cross-sensitivity of metal oxide gas sensor to ambient temperature and humidity: Effects on gas distribution mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Bennetts, V. H.; Mamduh, S. M.; Visvanathan, R.; Yeon, A. S. A.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2017-03-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used in robotics application to perform remote and mobile gas sensing. However, previous researches have indicated that this type of sensor technology is cross-sensitive to environmental temperature and humidity. This paper therefore investigates the effects of these two factors towards gas distribution mapping and gas source localization domains. A mobile robot equipped with TGS2600 gas sensor was deployed to build gas distribution maps of indoor environment, where the temperature and humidity varies. The results from the trials in environment with and without gas source indicated that there is a strong relation between the fluctuation of the mean and variance map with respect to the variations in the temperature and humidity maps.

  17. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F. [University and INFN of Pisa (Italy); Villa, M. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: (http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB)]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, (doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039)]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm{sup 2} with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack . s{sup -1} . cm{sup -2} with a temporal resolution below 1 {mu}s. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Morsani, F.; Villa, M.

    2011-06-01

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm 2 with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack ṡ s -1 ṡ cm -2 with a temporal resolution below 1 μs. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  20. Fast neutron background characterization with the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP)

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, John R; Vetter, Kai

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the fast neutron radiation background, 16 EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells were installed in the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) to collect data in the San Francisco Bay Area. Each fast neutron event was associated with specific weather metrics (pressure, temperature, absolute humidity) and GPS coordinates. The expected exponential dependence of the fast neutron count rate on atmospheric pressure was demonstrated and event rates were subsequently adjusted given the measured pressure at the time of detection. Pressure adjusted data was also used to investigate the influence of other environmental conditions on the neutron background rate. Using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) coastal area lidar data, an algorithm was implemented to approximate sky-view factors (the total fraction of visible sky) for points along RadMAPs route. Three areas analyzed in San Francisco, Downtown Oakland, and Berkeley all demonstrated a suppression in the backg...

  1. Atmospheric corrosion mapping of copper surfaces from diffuse light scattering measurements by an optoelectronic sensor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu PAULVANNA NAYAKI; Arunachalam P. KABILAN

    2009-01-01

    A novel light scattering technique for mapping metal surface corrosion is presented and its results on copper exposed to atmosphere are reported. The front end of the instrument is made up of a sensor module comprising a thin beam light emitting diode (LED) illuminating a small spot on the metal surface, and a matched pair of photodetectors, one for capturing the reflected light and the other for sampling the scattered light. The analog photocurrent signals are digitized and processed online by a personal computer (PC) to determine the corrosion factor defined in terms of the two current values. By scanning the sample surface using the light beam and by computing the corrosion factor values simultaneously, a three dimensional graph and a two dimensional contour map are generated in the PC using Matlab tools. The values of the corrosion factor measured in different durations of exposure to atmosphere, which obey a bilogarithmic law, testify to the validity of our mathematical model.

  2. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPATH PIXELS IN SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivitywhich determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  3. A framework for mapping tree species combining hyperspectral and LiDAR data: Role of selected classifiers and sensor across three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aniruddha; Fassnacht, Fabian Ewald; Joshi, P. K.; Koch, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of tree species distribution is important worldwide for sustainable forest management and resource evaluation. The accuracy and information content of species maps produced using remote sensing images vary with scale, sensor (optical, microwave, LiDAR), classification algorithm, verification design and natural conditions like tree age, forest structure and density. Imaging spectroscopy reduces the inaccuracies making use of the detailed spectral response. However, the scale effect still has a strong influence and cannot be neglected. This study aims to bridge the knowledge gap in understanding the scale effect in imaging spectroscopy when moving from 4 to 30 m pixel size for tree species mapping, keeping in mind that most current and future hyperspectral satellite based sensors work with spatial resolution around 30 m or more. Two airborne (HyMAP) and one spaceborne (Hyperion) imaging spectroscopy dataset with pixel sizes of 4, 8 and 30 m, respectively were available to examine the effect of scale over a central European forest. The forest under examination is a typical managed forest with relatively homogenous stands featuring mostly two canopy layers. Normalized digital surface model (nDSM) derived from LiDAR data was used additionally to examine the effect of height information in tree species mapping. Six different sets of predictor variables (reflectance value of all bands, selected components of a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Vegetation Indices (VI) and each of these sets combined with LiDAR derived height) were explored at each scale. Supervised kernel based (Support Vector Machines) and ensemble based (Random Forest) machine learning algorithms were applied on the dataset to investigate the effect of the classifier. Iterative bootstrap-validation with 100 iterations was performed for classification model building and testing for all the trials. For scale, analysis of overall classification accuracy and kappa values indicated that 8 m spatial

  4. Retrieving quantifiable social media data from human sensor networks for disaster modeling and crisis mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulov, Oleg

    This dissertation presents a novel approach that utilizes quantifiable social media data as a human aware, near real-time observing system, coupled with geophysical predictive models for improved response to disasters and extreme events. It shows that social media data has the potential to significantly improve disaster management beyond informing the public, and emphasizes the importance of different roles that social media can play in management, monitoring, modeling and mitigation of natural and human-caused extreme disasters. In the proposed approach Social Media users are viewed as "human sensors" that are "deployed" in the field, and their posts are considered to be "sensor observations", thus different social media outlets all together form a Human Sensor Network. We utilized the "human sensor" observations, as boundary value forcings, to show improved geophysical model forecasts of extreme disaster events when combined with other scientific data such as satellite observations and sensor measurements. Several recent extreme disasters are presented as use case scenarios. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster of 2010 that devastated the Gulf of Mexico, the research demonstrates how social media data from Flickr can be used as a boundary forcing condition of GNOME oil spill plume forecast model, and results in an order of magnitude forecast improvement. In the case of Hurricane Sandy NY/NJ landfall impact of 2012, we demonstrate how the model forecasts, when combined with social media data in a single framework, can be used for near real-time forecast validation, damage assessment and disaster management. Owing to inherent uncertainties in the weather forecasts, the NOAA operational surge model only forecasts the worst-case scenario for flooding from any given hurricane. Geolocated and time-stamped Instagram photos and tweets allow near real-time assessment of the surge levels at different locations, which can validate model forecasts, give

  5. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  6. A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Alimenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation.

  7. A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimenti, Federico; Bonafoni, Stefania; Roselli, Luca

    2017-06-14

    Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation.

  8. Sound-maps of environmentally sensitive areas constructed from Wireless Acoustic Sensors Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, E. T.; Liaperdos, J.; Tatlas, N.-A.; Potirakis, S. M.; Rangoussi, M.

    2016-03-01

    “E-SOUNDMAPS” is a distributed microelectronic system for the sound/acoustic monitoring of areas of environmental interest that is based on an appropriately designed wireless acoustic sensor network (WASN). It involves the automated generation of multi-level sound-maps for environmental assessment of areas of interest. This paper focuses on the method and the software application for the construction of sound-maps, which is developed as part of the integrated “E-SOUNDMAPS” system. The software application periodically produces geographically-referenced, accurate environmental sound information, based on real- field measurement data, and integrates them in the geographic map of the area of interest in a concise and comprehensive manner. Following the field recording of sound and the hierarchical recognition/classification of sound events and corresponding sources, the obtained sound sources characterization tags feed the specific software application. The output is a multilevel soundmap, constructed on the basis of the data and published electronically on the Web, for human inspection and assessment. All necessary steps for handling, archiving, monitoring, visualization and retrieval of sound data are also presented.

  9. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  10. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules.

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising Silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests will be presented.

  11. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented.

  12. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies’ qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests are presented.

  13. An LPV Adaptive Observer for Updating a Map Applied to an MAF Sensor in a Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Changhui

    2015-10-23

    In this paper, a new method for mass air flow (MAF) sensor error compensation and an online updating error map (or lookup table) due to installation and aging in a diesel engine is developed. Since the MAF sensor error is dependent on the engine operating point, the error model is represented as a two-dimensional (2D) map with two inputs, fuel mass injection quantity and engine speed. Meanwhile, the 2D map representing the MAF sensor error is described as a piecewise bilinear interpolation model, which can be written as a dot product between the regression vector and parameter vector using a membership function. With the combination of the 2D map regression model and the diesel engine air path system, an LPV adaptive observer with low computational load is designed to estimate states and parameters jointly. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is proven under the conditions of persistent excitation and given inequalities. The observer is validated against the simulation data from engine software enDYNA provided by Tesis. The results demonstrate that the operating point-dependent error of the MAF sensor can be approximated acceptably by the 2D map from the proposed method.

  14. Evaluating pixel and object based image classification techniques for mapping plant invasions from UAV derived aerial imagery: Harrisia pomanensis as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafanya, Madodomzi; Tsele, Philemon; Botai, Joel; Manyama, Phetole; Swart, Barend; Monate, Thabang

    2017-07-01

    Invasive alien plants (IAPs) not only pose a serious threat to biodiversity and water resources but also have impacts on human and animal wellbeing. To support decision making in IAPs monitoring, semi-automated image classifiers which are capable of extracting valuable information in remotely sensed data are vital. This study evaluated the mapping accuracies of supervised and unsupervised image classifiers for mapping Harrisia pomanensis (a cactus plant commonly known as the Midnight Lady) using two interlinked evaluation strategies i.e. point and area based accuracy assessment. Results of the point-based accuracy assessment show that with reference to 219 ground control points, the supervised image classifiers (i.e. Maxver and Bhattacharya) mapped H. pomanensis better than the unsupervised image classifiers (i.e. K-mediuns, Euclidian Length and Isoseg). In this regard, user and producer accuracies were 82.4% and 84% respectively for the Maxver classifier. The user and producer accuracies for the Bhattacharya classifier were 90% and 95.7%, respectively. Though the Maxver produced a higher overall accuracy and Kappa estimate than the Bhattacharya classifier, the Maxver Kappa estimate of 0.8305 is not significantly (statistically) greater than the Bhattacharya Kappa estimate of 0.8088 at a 95% confidence interval. The area based accuracy assessment results show that the Bhattacharya classifier estimated the spatial extent of H. pomanensis with an average mapping accuracy of 86.1% whereas the Maxver classifier only gave an average mapping accuracy of 65.2%. Based on these results, the Bhattacharya classifier is therefore recommended for mapping H. pomanensis. These findings will aid in the algorithm choice making for the development of a semi-automated image classification system for mapping IAPs.

  15. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; Mailah, Musa; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B.; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P. P.

    2016-02-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout.

  16. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  17. Empirical evaluation of mapping functions for navigation in virtual reality using phones with integrated sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Benzina, Amal

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones provide an interesting all-in-one alternative for 3D input devices in virtual environments. Mobile phones are becoming touch sensitive and spatially aware, and they are now part of our daily activities. We present Phone-Based Motion Control, a novel one-handed travel technique for a virtual environment. The technique benefits from the touch capability offered by growing number of mobile phones to change viewpoint translation in virtual environments, while the orientation of the viewpoint is controlled by built-in sensors in the mobile phone. The travel interaction separates translation (touch based translation control) and rotation (steer based rotation control), putting each set of degrees of freedom (DOF) to a separate interaction technique (separability). This paper examines, how many DOF are needed to perform the travel task as easy and comfortable as possible. It also investigates different mapping functions between the user\\'s actions on the mobile phone and the viewpoint change in the virtual environment. Therefore, four techniques are implemented: rotate by heading, rotate by roll, rotate by roll with fixed horizon and a merged rotation. Each technique has either 4 or 5 DOF and different mappings between phone and viewpoint coordinates in the virtual environment. We perform an extensive user study to explore different aspects related to the travel techniques in terms of DOF and mapping functions. Results of the user evaluation show that 4 DOF techniques seem to perform better the travel task. Even though, the results were not statistically decisive in favor of the usage of the mobile roll to control the viewpoint heading in the virtual environment despite the good results, there is a clear tendency from the users to prefer the mobile roll as the desired mapping. Copyright 2012 ACM.

  18. Denoising and Frequency Analysis of Noninvasive Magnetoencephalography Sensor Signals for Functional Brain Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Ukil, A

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an important noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, measuring the magnetic fields due to the intracellular neuronal current flow in the brain. However, most often, the inherent level of noise in the MEG sensor data collection process is large enough to obscure the signal(s) of interest. In this paper, a denoising technique based on the wavelet transform and the multiresolution signal decomposition technique along with thresholding is presented, substantiated by application results. Thereafter, different frequency analysis are performed on the denoised MEG signals to identify the major frequencies of the brain oscillations present in the denoised signals. Time-frequency plots (spectrograms) of the denoised signals are also provided.

  19. A novel sensor to map auxin response and distribution at high spatio-temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoud, Géraldine; Wells, Darren M; Oliva, Marina; Larrieu, Antoine; Mirabet, Vincent; Burrow, Amy H; Beeckman, Tom; Kepinski, Stefan; Traas, Jan; Bennett, Malcolm J; Vernoux, Teva

    2012-01-15

    Auxin is a key plant morphogenetic signal but tools to analyse dynamically its distribution and signalling during development are still limited. Auxin perception directly triggers the degradation of Aux/IAA repressor proteins. Here we describe a novel Aux/IAA-based auxin signalling sensor termed DII-VENUS that was engineered in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The VENUS fast maturing form of yellow fluorescent protein was fused in-frame to the Aux/IAA auxin-interaction domain (termed domain II; DII) and expressed under a constitutive promoter. We initially show that DII-VENUS abundance is dependent on auxin, its TIR1/AFBs co-receptors and proteasome activities. Next, we demonstrate that DII-VENUS provides a map of relative auxin distribution at cellular resolution in different tissues. DII-VENUS is also rapidly degraded in response to auxin and we used it to visualize dynamic changes in cellular auxin distribution successfully during two developmental responses, the root gravitropic response and lateral organ production at the shoot apex. Our results illustrate the value of developing response input sensors such as DII-VENUS to provide high-resolution spatio-temporal information about hormone distribution and response during plant growth and development.

  20. Recent Data Campaigns and Results from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne, Medium-Footprint, Full-Waveform, Swath Mapping Laser Altimeter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rabine, D. L.; Luthcke, S. B.; Greim, H.

    2005-12-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, medium-sized footprint laser altimeter system. By digitally recording the shape of the returning laser pulse (waveform), LVIS provides a precise and accurate view of the vertical structure within each footprint/pixel including both the sub-canopy and canopy-top topography. Applications of LVIS data include biomass estimation for a wide variety of forest types, ground surface change detection for tectonic studies, mapping sea surface topography to assist in coastal hazard assessment, and hydrology studies utilizing sub-canopy topography in densely forested regions. Since 1998, LVIS data have been collected in various areas of New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, California, Maryland, Panama and Costa Rica. The data calibration and geolocation processing system utilizes a formal Bayesian least-squares-estimation of pointing, ranging and timing parameters based on a batch reduction of altimeter range residuals. Data are released publicly on the LVIS website at http://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov. Results show data precisions of landcover type and study site location. Comparisons between LVIS and ICESat will also be presented.

  1. Fast neutron background characterization with the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John R.; Brubaker, Erik; Vetter, Kai

    2017-06-01

    In an effort to characterize the fast neutron radiation background, 16 EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells were installed in the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) to collect data in the San Francisco Bay Area. Each fast neutron event was associated with specific weather metrics (pressure, temperature, absolute humidity) and GPS coordinates. The expected exponential dependence of the fast neutron count rate on atmospheric pressure was demonstrated and event rates were subsequently adjusted given the measured pressure at the time of detection. Pressure adjusted data was also used to investigate the influence of other environmental conditions on the neutron background rate. Using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) coastal area lidar data, an algorithm was implemented to approximate sky-view factors (the total fraction of visible sky) for points along RadMAPs route. Three areas analyzed in San Francisco, Downtown Oakland, and Berkeley all demonstrated a suppression in the background rate of over 50% for the range of sky-view factors measured. This effect, which is due to the shielding of cosmic-ray produced neutrons by surrounding buildings, was comparable to the pressure influence which yielded a 32% suppression in the count rate over the range of pressures measured.

  2. Mapping rice field anopheline breeding habitats in Mali, West Africa, using Landsat ETM+ sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuk-Wasser, M A; Bagayoko, M; Sogoba, N; Dolo, G; Touré, M B; Traoré, S F; Taylor, C E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related malaria vector breeding habitats in an irrigated rice growing area near Niono, Mali. Early stages of rice growth show peak larval production, but Landsat sensor data are often obstructed by clouds during the early part of the cropping cycle (rainy season). In this study, we examined whether a classification based on two Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM)+ scenes acquired in the middle of the season and at harvesting times could be used to map different land uses and rice planted at different times (cohorts), and to infer which rice growth stages were present earlier in the season. We performed a maximum likelihood supervised classification and evaluated the robustness of the classifications with the transformed divergence separability index, the kappa coefficient and confusion matrices. Rice was distinguished from other land uses with 98% accuracy and rice cohorts were discriminated with 84% accuracy (three classes) or 94% (two classes). Our study showed that optical remote sensing can reliably identify potential malaria mosquito breeding habitats from space. In the future, these 'crop landscape maps' could be used to investigate the relationship between cultivation practices and malaria transmission.

  3. A Multi-Modality CMOS Sensor Array for Cell-Based Assay and Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Taiyun; Park, Jong Seok; Butts, Jessica C; Hookway, Tracy A; Su, Amy; Zhu, Chengjie; Styczynski, Mark P; McDevitt, Todd C; Wang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a fully integrated multi-modality CMOS cellular sensor array with four sensing modalities to characterize different cell physiological responses, including extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance mapping, optical detection with shadow imaging and bioluminescence sensing, and thermal monitoring. The sensor array consists of nine parallel pixel groups and nine corresponding signal conditioning blocks. Each pixel group comprises one temperature sensor and 16 tri-modality sensor pixels, while each tri-modality sensor pixel can be independently configured for extracellular voltage recording, cellular impedance measurement (voltage excitation/current sensing), and optical detection. This sensor array supports multi-modality cellular sensing at the pixel level, which enables holistic cell characterization and joint-modality physiological monitoring on the same cellular sample with a pixel resolution of 80 μm × 100 μm. Comprehensive biological experiments with different living cell samples demonstrate the functionality and benefit of the proposed multi-modality sensing in cell-based assay and drug screening.

  4. Angle-sensitive pixel design for wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Conventional image sensors are only responsive to the intensity variation of the incoming light wave. By encoding the wavefront information into the balanced detection scheme, we demonstrate an image sensor pixel design that is capable to detect both the local intensity and wavefront information simultaneously. With the full compatibility to the CMOS fabrication process, the proposed pixel design can benefit a variety of applications, including phase microscopy, lensless imaging and machine vision.

  5. Intensity Maps Production Using Real-Time Joint Streaming Data Processing From Social and Physical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropivnitskaya, Y. Y.; Tiampo, K. F.; Qin, J.; Bauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Intensity is one of the most useful measures of earthquake hazard, as it quantifies the strength of shaking produced at a given distance from the epicenter. Today, there are several data sources that could be used to determine intensity level which can be divided into two main categories. The first category is represented by social data sources, in which the intensity values are collected by interviewing people who experienced the earthquake-induced shaking. In this case, specially developed questionnaires can be used in addition to personal observations published on social networks such as Twitter. These observations are assigned to the appropriate intensity level by correlating specific details and descriptions to the Modified Mercalli Scale. The second category of data sources is represented by observations from different physical sensors installed with the specific purpose of obtaining an instrumentally-derived intensity level. These are usually based on a regression of recorded peak acceleration and/or velocity amplitudes. This approach relates the recorded ground motions to the expected felt and damage distribution through empirical relationships. The goal of this work is to implement and evaluate streaming data processing separately and jointly from both social and physical sensors in order to produce near real-time intensity maps and compare and analyze their quality and evolution through 10-minute time intervals immediately following an earthquake. Results are shown for the case study of the M6.0 2014 South Napa, CA earthquake that occurred on August 24, 2014. The using of innovative streaming and pipelining computing paradigms through IBM InfoSphere Streams platform made it possible to read input data in real-time for low-latency computing of combined intensity level and production of combined intensity maps in near-real time. The results compare three types of intensity maps created based on physical, social and combined data sources. Here we correlate

  6. A mobile sensor network to map carbon dioxide emissions in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K.; Christen, Andreas; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran

    2017-03-01

    A method for directly measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using a mobile sensor network in cities at fine spatial resolution was developed and tested. First, a compact, mobile system was built using an infrared gas analyzer combined with open-source hardware to control, georeference, and log measurements of CO2 mixing ratios on vehicles (car, bicycles). Second, two measurement campaigns, one in summer and one in winter (heating season) were carried out. Five mobile sensors were deployed within a 1 × 12. 7 km transect across the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The sensors were operated for 3.5 h on pre-defined routes to map CO2 mixing ratios at street level, which were then averaged to 100 × 100 m grid cells. The averaged CO2 mixing ratios of all grids in the study area were 417.9 ppm in summer and 442.5 ppm in winter. In both campaigns, mixing ratios were highest in the grid cells of the downtown core and along arterial roads and lowest in parks and well vegetated residential areas. Third, an aerodynamic resistance approach to calculating emissions was used to derive CO2 emissions from the gridded CO2 mixing ratio measurements in conjunction with mixing ratios and fluxes collected from a 28 m tall eddy-covariance tower located within the study area. These measured emissions showed a range of -12 to 226 CO2 ha-1 h-1 in summer and of -14 to 163 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 in winter, with an average of 35.1 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (summer) and 25.9 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (winter). Fourth, an independent emissions inventory was developed for the study area using buildings energy simulations from a previous study and routinely available traffic counts. The emissions inventory for the same area averaged to 22.06 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (summer) and 28.76 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (winter) and was used to compare against the measured emissions from the mobile sensor network. The comparison on a grid-by-grid basis showed linearity between CO2 mixing ratios and the emissions inventory (R2 = 0. 53 in summer and R

  7. It's all in the pixels: high resolution remote sensing data and the mapping and analysis of the archaeological and historical landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Meylemans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Flanders (Belgium a large amount of remote-sensing data has been acquired