WorldWideScience

Sample records for pixel sensor readout

  1. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  2. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  3. Performance of a Fast Binary Readout CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Chip Designed for Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerli, Yavuz; Besanon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Himmi, Abdelkader; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Szelezniak, Michal

    2006-12-01

    We report on the performance of the MIMOSA8 (HiMAPS1) chip. The chip is a 128times32 pixels array where 24 columns have discriminated binary outputs and eight columns analog test outputs. Offset correction techniques are used extensively in this chip to overcome process related mismatches. The array is divided in four blocks of pixels with different conversion factors and is controlled by a serially programmable sequencer. MIMOSA8 is a representative of the CMOS sensors development option considered as a promising candidate for the Vertex Detector of the future International Linear Collider (ILC). The readout technique, implemented on the chip, combines high spatial resolution capabilities with high processing readout speed. Data acquisition, providing control of the chip and signal buffering and linked to a VME system, was made on the eight analog outputs. Analog data, without and with a 55Fe X-ray source, were acquired and processed using off-line analysis software. From the reconstruction of pixel clusters, built around a central pixel, we deduce that the charge spread is limited to the closest 25 pixels and almost all the available charge is collected. The position of the total charge collection peak (and subsequently the charge-to-voltage conversion factor) stays unaffected when the clock frequency is increased even up to 150 MHz (13.6 mus readout time per frame). The discriminators, placed in the readout chain, have proved to be fully functional. Beam tests have been made with high energy electrons at DESY (Germany) to study detection efficiency. The results prove that MIMOSA8 is the first and fastest successful monolithic active pixel sensor with on-chip signal discrimination for detection of MIPs

  4. Development of a versatile readout and test system and characterization of a capacitively coupled active pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Jens; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    With the availability of high voltage and high resistivity CMOS processes, active pixel sensors are becoming increasingly interesting for radiation detection in high energy physics experiments. Although the pixel signal-to-noise ratio and the sensor radiation tolerance were improved, active pixel sensors cannot yet compete with state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detector in a high radiation environment. Hence, active pixel sensors are possible candidates for the outer tracking detector in HEP experiments where production cost plays a role. The investigation of numerous prototyping steps and different technologies is still ongoing and requires a versatile test and readout system, which will be presented in this talk. A capacitively coupled active pixel sensor fabricated in AMS 180 nm high voltage CMOS process is investigated. The sensor is designed to be glued to existing front-end pixel readout chips. Results from the characterization are presented in this talk.

  5. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peric, I.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  6. Low noise signal-to-noise ratio enhancing readout circuit for current-mediated active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, Tony; Karim, Karim S.; Nathan, Arokia; Rowlands, John A.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic digital fluoroscopic applications continuously expose patients to low doses of x-ray radiation, posing a challenge to both the digital imaging pixel and readout electronics when amplifying small signal x-ray inputs. Traditional switch-based amorphous silicon imaging solutions, for instance, have produced poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at low exposure levels owing to noise sources from the pixel readout circuitry. Current-mediated amorphous silicon pixels are an improvement over conventional pixel amplifiers with an enhanced SNR across the same low-exposure range, but whose output also becomes nonlinear with increasing dosage. A low-noise SNR enhancing readout circuit has been developed that enhances the charge gain of the current-mediated active pixel sensor (C-APS). The solution takes advantage of the current-mediated approach, primarily integrating the signal input at the desired frequency necessary for large-area imaging, while adding minimal noise to the signal readout. Experimental data indicates that the readout circuit can detect pixel outputs over a large bandwidth suitable for real-time digital diagnostic x-ray fluoroscopy. Results from hardware testing indicate that the minimum achievable C-APS output current that can be discerned at the digital fluoroscopic output from the enhanced SNR readout circuit is 0.341 nA. The results serve to highlight the applicability of amorphous silicon current-mediated pixel amplifiers for large-area flat panel x-ray imagers

  7. Characterization of the column-based priority logic readout of Topmetal-II− CMOS pixel direct charge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, M.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, L.; Gao, C.; Chen, C.; Huang, G.; Ji, R.; Liu, J.; Pei, H.; Sun, X.; Wang, K.; Yang, P.; Zhou, W.; Han, M.; Mei, Y.; Li, X.; Sun, Q.

    2017-01-01

    We present the detailed study of the digital readout of Topmetal-II - CMOS pixel direct charge sensor. Topmetal-II - is an integrated sensor with an array of 72×72 pixels each capable of directly collecting external charge through exposed metal electrodes in the topmost metal layer. In addition to the time-shared multiplexing readout of the analog output from Charge Sensitive Amplifiers in each pixel, hits are also generated through comparators in each pixel with individually adjustable thresholds. The hits are read out via a column-based priority logic structure, retaining both hit location and time information. The in-array column-based priority logic features with a full clock-less circuitry hence there is no continuously running clock distributed in the pixel and matrix logic. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments. We studied the detailed working behavior and performance of this readout, and demonstrated its functional validity and potential in imaging applications.

  8. First functionality tests of a 64 × 64 pixel DSSC sensor module connected to the complete ladder readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.

    2017-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV-6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.

  9. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  10. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented

  11. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  12. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  13. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  14. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  15. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  16. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  17. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S.C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55 Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  18. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  19. JPL CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present the JPL-developed complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology. The CMOS APS has achieved performance comparable to charge coupled devices, yet features ultra low power operation, random access readout, on-chip timing and control, and on-chip analog to digital conversion. Previously published open literature will be reviewed.

  20. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  1. Development of radiation hardened pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Koziel, Michal

    2014-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are being developed since a few years to equip vertex detectors for future high-energy physics experiments with the crucial advantages of a low material budget and low production costs. The features simultaneously required are a short readout time, high granularity and high tolerance to radiation. This thesis mainly focuses on the radiation tolerance studies. To achieve the targeted readout time (tens of microseconds), the sensor pixel readout was organized in parallel columns restricting in addition the readout to pixels that had collected the signal charge. The pixels became then more complex, and consequently more sensitive to radiation. Different in-pixel architectures were studied and it was concluded that the tolerance to ionizing radiation was limited to 300 krad with the 0.35- m fabrication process currently used, while the targeted value was several Mrad. Improving this situation calls for implementation of the sensors in processes with a smaller feature size which naturally imp...

  2. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  3. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  4. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  5. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perić, I., E-mail: ivan.peric@ziti.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A. [University of Geneve (Switzerland); and others

    2014-11-21

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  6. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  7. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  8. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm 2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  9. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Villa, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  10. Pixel readout ASIC for an APD based 2D X-ray hybrid pixel detector with sub-nanosecond resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thil, Ch., E-mail: christophe.thil@ziti.uni-heidelberg.d [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Baron, A.Q.R. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Fajardo, P. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Graafsma, H. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rueffer, R. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-01

    The fast response and the short recovery time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in linear mode make those devices ideal for direct X-ray detection in applications requiring high time resolution or counting rate. In order to provide position sensitivity, the XNAP project aims at creating a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond time resolution based on a monolithic APD sensor array with 32 x32 pixels covering about 1 cm{sup 2} active area. The readout is implemented in a pixelated front-end ASIC suited for the readout of such arrays, matched to pixels of 280{mu}mx280{mu}m size. Every single channel features a fast transimpedance amplifier, a discriminator with locally adjustable threshold and two counters with high dynamic range and counting speed able to accumulate X-ray hits with no readout dead time. Additionally, the detector can be operated in list mode by time-stamping every single event with sub-nanosecond resolution. In a first phase of the project, a 4x4 pixel test module is built to validate the conceptual design of the detector. The XNAP project is briefly presented and the performance of the readout ASIC is discussed.

  11. Pixel readout ASIC for an APD based 2D X-ray hybrid pixel detector with sub-nanosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thil, Ch.; Baron, A.Q.R.; Fajardo, P.; Fischer, P.; Graafsma, H.; Rueffer, R.

    2011-01-01

    The fast response and the short recovery time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in linear mode make those devices ideal for direct X-ray detection in applications requiring high time resolution or counting rate. In order to provide position sensitivity, the XNAP project aims at creating a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond time resolution based on a monolithic APD sensor array with 32 x32 pixels covering about 1 cm 2 active area. The readout is implemented in a pixelated front-end ASIC suited for the readout of such arrays, matched to pixels of 280μmx280μm size. Every single channel features a fast transimpedance amplifier, a discriminator with locally adjustable threshold and two counters with high dynamic range and counting speed able to accumulate X-ray hits with no readout dead time. Additionally, the detector can be operated in list mode by time-stamping every single event with sub-nanosecond resolution. In a first phase of the project, a 4x4 pixel test module is built to validate the conceptual design of the detector. The XNAP project is briefly presented and the performance of the readout ASIC is discussed.

  12. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed

  13. A compact readout system for multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datema, C.P.; Meng, L.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although the first Multi-pixel Hybrid Photodiode (M-HPD) was developed in the early 1990s by Delft Electronic Products, the main obstacle to its application has been the lack of availability of a compact read-out system. A fast, parallel readout system has been constructed for use with the earlier 25-pixel tube with High-energy Physics applications in mind. The excellent properties of the recently developed multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes (M-HPD) will be easier to exploit following the development of the new hybrid read-out circuits described in this paper. This system will enable all of the required read-out functions to be accommodate on a single board into which the M-HPD is plugged. The design and performance of a versatile system is described in which a trigger-signal, derived from the common-side of the silicon anode in the M-HPD, is used to trigger the readout of the 60-anode pixels in the M-HPD. The multi-channel amplifier section is based on the use of a new, commercial VLSI chip, whilst the read-out sequencer uses a chip of its own design. The common anode signal is processed by a fast amplifier and discriminator to provide a trigger signal when a single event is detected. In the prototype version, the serial analogue output data-stream is processed using a PC-mounted, high speed ADC. Results obtained using the new read-out system in a compact gamma-camera and with a small muon tracking-chamber demonstrate the low-noise performance of the system. The application of this read-out system in other position-sensitive or multi-anode photomultiplier tube applications are also described

  14. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  15. Sensor Development for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Chiochia, V; Cremaldi, L M; Cucciarelli, S; Dorkhov, A; Konecki, M; Prokofiev, K; Regenfus, C; Sanders, D A; Son, S; Speer, T; Swartz, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a current R&D activity for the sensor part of the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence of 1E15 (1MeV Neutron)/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterwards they have been bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips. The chip allows a non zero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The samples have been tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS in June and September 2003. The results of this test beam are presented and the differences between the sensor options are discussed.

  16. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  17. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M; Morsani, F

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  18. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M [INFN-Bologna and Physics Department, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F, E-mail: alessandro.gabrielli@bo.infn.i [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  19. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  20. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  1. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, M.; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K.K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented

  2. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Markus; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  3. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, M. E-mail: markus.keil@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K.K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-03-21

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  4. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, M.; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K. K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  5. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  6. High-speed readout of high-Z pixel detectors with the LAMBDA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Sheviakov, I.; Xia, Q.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-01-01

    High-frame-rate X-ray pixel detectors make it possible to perform time-resolved experiments at synchrotron beamlines, and to make better use of these sources by shortening experiment times. LAMBDA is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector based on the Medipix3 chip, designed to combine a small pixel size of 55 μm, a large tileable module design, high speed, and compatibility with ''high-Z'' sensors for hard X-ray detection. This technical paper focuses on LAMBDA's high-speed-readout functionality, which allows a frame rate of 2000 frames per second with no deadtime between successive images. This takes advantage of the Medipix3 chip's ''continuous read-write'' function and highly parallelised readout. The readout electronics serialise this data and send it back to a server PC over two 10 Gigabit Ethernet links. The server PC controls the detector and receives, processes and stores the data using software designed for the Tango control system. As a demonstration of high-speed readout of a high-Z sensor, a GaAs LAMBDA detector was used to make a high-speed X-ray video of a computer fan

  7. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Morsani, F.; Villa, M.

    2011-01-01

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: (http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB)]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, (doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039)]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm 2 with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack . s -1 . cm -2 with a temporal resolution below 1 μs. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F. [University and INFN of Pisa (Italy); Villa, M. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: (http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB)]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, (doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039)]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm{sup 2} with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack . s{sup -1} . cm{sup -2} with a temporal resolution below 1 {mu}s. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  10. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  11. Planar sensors for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2011-01-01

    A replacement of the present CMS pixel detector with a better performing light weight four-layer system is foreseen in 2016. In the lifetime of this new system the LHC will reach and exceed its nominal luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Therefore the radiation hardness of all parts of the pixel system has to be reviewed. For the construction of the much larger four-layer pixel system, the replacement of the present double sided sensors by much cheaper single sided ones is considered. However, the construction of pixel modules with such sensors is challenging due to the small geometrical distance of the sensor high voltage and the ground of the readout electronics. This small distance limits the sensor bias to about 500 V in the tested samples.

  12. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  13. SEU tolerant memory design for the ATLAS pixel readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouni, M; Barbero, M; Breugnon, P; Fougeron, D; Gensolen, F; Arutinov, D; Backhaus, M; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Caminada, L; Dube, S; Fleury, J; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gnani, D; Jensen, F; Gromov, V; Kluit, R

    2013-01-01

    The FE-I4 chip for the B-layer upgrade is designed in a 130 nm CMOS process. For this design, configuration memories are based on the DICE latches where layout considerations are followed to improve the tolerance to SEU. Tests have shown that DICE latches for which layout approaches are adopted are 30 times more tolerant to SEU than the standard DICE latches. To prepare for the new pixel readout chip planned for the future upgrades, a prototype chip containing 512 pixels has been designed in a 65 nm CMOS process and a new approach is adopted for SEU tolerant latches. Results in terms of SEU and TID tolerance are presented.

  14. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  15. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, B. van der; Visser, J.; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.; Kulis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a 'soft core' CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four

  16. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    Letter of Intent for RD Collaboration Proposal focused on development of a next generation pixel readout integrated circuits needed for high luminosity LHC detector upgrades. Brings together ATLAS and CMS pixel chip design communities.

  17. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: michal.szelezniak@ires.in2p3.fr; Besson, Auguste [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deptuch, Grzegorz [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Deveaux, Michael [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dorokhov, Andrei [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Dulinski, Wojciech [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Fourches, Nicolas [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Goffe, Mathieu [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Heini, Sebastien [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]|[GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Himmi, Abdelkader [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Hu, Christine [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)

    2006-11-30

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e{sup -}, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  18. Pixel detector readout electronics with two-level discriminator scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengg, F.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for a silicon pixel detector with more than 3,000 readout channels per chip for operation at the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN the analog front end of the readout electronics has been designed and measured on several test-arrays with 16 by 4 cells. They are implemented in the HP 0.8 microm process but compatible with the design rules of the radiation hard Honeywell 0.8 microm bulk process. Each cell contains bump bonding pad, preamplifier, discriminator and control logic for masking and testing within a layout area of only 50 microm by 140 microm. A new two-level discriminator scheme has been implemented to cope with the problems of time-walk and interpixel cross-coupling. The measured gain of the preamplifier is 900 mV for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP, about 24,000 e - for a 300 microm thick Si-detector) with a return to baseline within 750 ns for a 1 MIP input signal. The full readout chain (without detector) shows an equivalent noise charge to 60e - r.m.s. The time-walk, a function of the separation between the two threshold levels, is measured to be 22 ns at a separation of 1,500 e - , which is adequate for the 40 MHz beam-crossing frequency at the LHC. The interpixel cross-coupling, measured with a 40fF coupling capacitance, is less than 3%. A single cell consumes 35 microW at 3.5 V supply voltage

  19. Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA): The readout ASIC for the pixel-strip (PS) module of the CMS outer tracker at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ceresa, Davide; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Jan Kaplon; Bialas, Wojciech; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Gaioni, Luigi; Ratti, Lodovico

    2014-01-01

    The CMS tracker at HL-LHC is required to provide prompt information on particles with high transverse momentum to the central Level\\,1 trigger. For this purpose, the innermost part of the outer tracker is based on a combination of a pixelated sensor with a short strip sensor, the so-called Pixel-Strip module (PS). The readout of these sensors is carried out by distinct ASICs, the Strip Sensor ASIC (SSA), for the strip layer, and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixel layer. The processing of the data directly on the front-end module represents a design challenge due to the large data volume (30720\\,pixels and 1920\\,strips per module) and the limited power budget. This is the reason why several studies have been carried out to find the best compromise between ASICs performance and power consumption. This paper describes the current status of the MPA ASIC development where the logic for generating prompt information on particles with high transverse momentum is implemented. An overview of the readout method i...

  20. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  1. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the R and D project on Planar Pixel Sensor Technology for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade, the use of planar pixel sensors for highest fluences as well as large area silicon detectors is investigated. The main research goals are optimizing the signal size after irradiations, reducing the inactive sensor edges, adjusting the readout electronics to the radiation induced decrease of the signal sizes, and reducing the production costs. Planar n-in-p sensors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons up to fluences of 2x10 16 n eq /cm 2 and 1x10 16 n eq /cm 2 , respectively, to study the collected charge as a function of the irradiation dose received. Furthermore comparisons of irradiated standard 300μm and thin 140μm sensors will be presented showing an increase of signal sizes after irradiation in thin sensors. Tuning studies of the present ATLAS front end electronics show possibilities to decrease the discriminator threshold of the present FE-I3 read out chips to less than 1500 electrons. In the present pixel detector upgrade scenarios a flat stave design for the innermost layers requires reduced inactive areas at the sensor edges to ensure low geometric inefficiencies. Investigations towards achieving slim edges presented here show possibilities to reduce the width of the inactive area to less than 500μm. Furthermore, a brief overview of present simulation activities within the Planar Pixel R and D project is given.

  2. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  3. Results of FE65-P2 Pixel Readout Test Chip for High Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)394193

    2016-01-01

    A pixel readout test chip called FE65-P2 has been fabricated on 65 nm CMOS technology. FE65-P2 contains a matrix of 64 x 64 pixels on 50 micron by 50 micron pitch, designed to read out a bump bonded sensor. The goals of FE65-P2 are to demonstrate excellent analog performance isolated from digital activity well enough to achieve 500 electron stable threshold, be radiation hard to at least 500 Mrad, and prove the novel concept of isolated analog front ends embedded in a flat digital design, dubbed “analog islands in a digital sea”. Experience from FE65-P2 and hybrid assemblies will be applied to the design for a large format readout chip, called RD53A, to be produced in a wafer run in early 2017 by the RD53 collaboration. We review the case for 65 nm technology and report on threshold stability test results for the FE65-P2.

  4. A 2D 4×4 Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Martínez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles

    2015-10-01

    We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4 × 4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10 × 10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5.3 mm × 6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μ W. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μ W. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e - RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.

  5. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  6. High accuracy injection circuit for the calibration of a large pixel sensor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartieri, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, for particle tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments as well as for X-ray imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs, require a large area sensor matrix. This work will discuss the design and the characterization of a high-linearity, low dispersion injection circuit to be used for pixel-level calibration of detector readout electronics in a large pixel sensor matrix. The circuit provides a useful tool for the characterization of the readout electronics of the pixel cell unit for both monolithic active pixel sensors and hybrid pixel detectors. In the latter case, the circuit allows for precise analogue test of the readout channel already at the chip level, when no sensor is connected. Moreover, it provides a simple means for calibration of readout electronics once the detector has been connected to the chip. Two injection techniques can be provided by the circuit: one for a charge sensitive amplification and the other for a transresistance readout channel. The aim of the paper is to describe the architecture and the design guidelines of the calibration circuit, which has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Moreover, experimental results of the proposed injection circuit will be presented in terms of linearity and dispersion

  7. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeys, W., E-mail: walter.snoeys@cern.ch

    2014-11-21

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  8. Characterization of active CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensors are very attractive as radiation imaging pixel detector because they do not need cost-intensive fine pitch bump bonding. High radiation tolerance and time resolution are required to apply those sensors to upcoming particle physics experiments. To achieve these requirements, the active CMOS pixel sensors were developed on high resistive substrates. Signal charges are collected faster by drift in high resistive substrates than in standard low resistive substrates yielding also a higher radiation tolerance. A prototype of the active CMOS pixel sensor has been fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process on 2 kΩcm substrate. This prototype chip was thinned down to 300 μm and the backside has been processed and can contacted by an aluminum contact. The breakdown voltage is around -115 V, and the depletion width has been measured to be as large as 180 μm at a bias voltage of -110 V. Gain and noise of the readout circuitry agree with the designed values. Performance tests in the lab and test beam have been done before and after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  9. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, E., E-mail: elena.ferri@mib.infn.it [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Becker, D.; Bennett, D. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Faverzani, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fowler, J.; Gard, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Giachero, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Maino, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Mates, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the {sup 163}Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 163}Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  10. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  11. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  12. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R; Manolopoulos, S; Tyndel, M; Allport, P P; Bates, R; O'Shea, V; Hall, G; Raymond, M

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to ta...

  13. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    low noise figure. Especially, an energy resolution of about 400 eV for 5 keV X-rays was obtained for single pixels. The prototypes have then been exposed to gradually increased fluences of neutrons, from 10{sup 13} to 5x10{sup 14} neq/cm{sup 2}. Again laboratory tests allowed to evaluate the signal over noise persistence on the different pixels implemented. Currently our development mostly targets the detection of soft X-rays, with the ambition to develop a pixel sensor matching counting rates as affordable with hybrid pixel sensors, but with an extended sensitivity to low energy and finer pixel about 25 x 25 μm{sup 2}. The original readout architecture proposed relies on a two tiers chip. The first tier consists of a sensor with a modest dynamic in order to insure low noise performances required by sensitivity. The interconnected second tier chip enhances the read-out speed by introducing massive parallelization. Performances reachable with this strategy combining counting and integration will be detailed. (authors)

  14. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  15. Characterisation of pixel sensor prototypes for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix [CERN (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    ALICE is preparing a major upgrade of its experimental apparatus to be installed in the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in the years 2018-2019. A key element of the upgrade is the replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) deploying Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have a reduced material budget while increasing the pixel density and readout rate capabilities. The novel design leads to higher pointing and momentum resolution as well as a p{sub T} acceptance extended to lower values. The corresponding sensor prototypes were qualified in laboratory measurements and beam tests with respect to their radiation tolerance and detection efficiency. This talk summarises recent results on the characterisation of prototypes belonging to the ALPIDE family.

  16. Development of a customized SSC pixel detector readout for vertex tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, O.; Atlas, E.L.; Marking, W.L.; Worley, S.; Yacoub, G.Y.; Kramer, G.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Shapiro, S.L.; Nygren, D.; Spieler, H.; Wright, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the readout architecture and progress to date in the development of hybrid PIN diode arrays for use as vertex detectors in the SSC environment. The architecture supports a self-timed mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates and later selectively reading out only those pixels containing interesting data along with their coordinates. The peripheral logic resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls pixel neighbor readout to achieve high spatial resolution. A test lot containing 64 x 32 pixel arrays has been processed and is currently being tested. Each pixel contains 23 transistors and six capacitors consuming an area of 50μm by 150μm and dissipating about 20μW of power

  17. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  18. Development of the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensor for high luminosity lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Martin, E.; Mueller, J.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Yang, Q.; Yarema, R.

    2006-01-01

    A future higher luminosity B-factory detector and concept study detectors for the proposed International Linear Collider require precision vertex reconstruction while coping with high track densities and radiation exposures. Compared with current silicon strip and hybrid pixels, a significant reduction in the overall detector material thickness is needed to achieve the desired vertex resolution. Considerable progress in the development of thin CMOS-based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in recent years makes them a viable technology option and feasibility studies are being actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their readout speed. To address these, several prototypes denoted as the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep Correlated Double Sample (CDS) pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors is under evaluation to assess the performance of a full-scale pixel readout system running at realistic readout speed. Given the similarity in the occupancy numbers and hit throughput requirements, per unit area, between a Belle vertex detector upgradation and the requirements for a future ILC pixel detector, this effort can be considered a small-scale functioning prototype for such a future system. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Belle Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  19. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

  20. RD Collaboration Proposal: Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chistiansen, J (CERN)

    2013-01-01

    This proposal describes a new RD collaboration to develop the next genrration of hybrid pixel readout chips for use in ATLAS and CMS PHase 2 upgrades. extrapolation of hybrid pixel technology to the HL-LHC presents major challenges on several fronts. Challenges include: smaller pixels to resolve tracks in boosted jets, much higher hit rates (1-2 GHz/cm2 ), unprecedented radiation tolerance (10 MGy), much higher output bandwidth, and large IC format with low power consumption in order to instrument large areas while keeping the material budget low. This collaboration is specifically focused on design of hybrid pixel readout chips, and not on more general chip design or on other aspects of hybrid pixel technology. Participants include 7 institutes on ATLAS and 7 on CMS, plus 2 on both experiments.

  1. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Multimedia

    Liberali, V; Rizzi, A; Re, V; Minuti, M; Pangaud, P; Barbero, M B; Pacher, L; Kluit, R; Hinchliffe, I; Manghisoni, M; Giubilato, P; Faccio, F; Pernegger, H; Krueger, H; Gensolen, F D; Bilei, G M; Da rocha rolo, M D; Prydderch, M L; Fanucci, L; Grillo, A A; Bellazzini, R; Palomo pinto, F R; Michelis, S; Huegging, F G; Kishishita, T; Marchiori, G; Christian, D C; Kaestli, H C; Meier, B; Andreazza, A; Key-charriere, M; Linssen, L; Dannheim, D; Conti, E; Hemperek, T; Menouni, M; Fougeron, D; Genat, J; Bomben, M; Marzocca, C; Demaria, N; Mazza, G; Van bakel, N A; Palla, F; Grippo, M T; Magazzu, G; Ratti, L; Abbaneo, D; Crescioli, F; Deptuch, G W; Neue, G; De robertis, G; Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Gromov, V; Morsani, F; Paccagnella, A; Christiansen, J; Dho, E; Wermes, N; Rymaszewski, P; Rozanov, A; Wang, A; Lipton, R J; Havranek, M; Neviani, A; Marconi, S; Karagounis, M; Godiot, S; Calderini, G; Seidel, S C; Horisberger, R P; Garcia-sciveres, M A; Stabile, A; Beccherle, R; Bacchetta, N

    The present hybrid pixel detectors in operation at the LHC represent a major achievement. They deployed a new technology on an unprecedented scale and their success firmly established pixel tracking as indispensable for future HEP experiments. However, extrapolation of hybrid pixel technology to the HL-LHC presents major challenges on several fronts. We propose a new RD collaboration specifically focused on the development of pixel readout Integrated Circuits (IC). The IC challenges include: smaller pixels to resolve tracks in boosted jets, much higher hit rates (1-2 GHz/cm$^{2}$), unprecedented radiation tolerance (10 MGy), much higher output bandwidth, and large IC format with low power consumption in order to instrument large areas while keeping the material budget low. We propose a collaboration to design the next generation of hybrid pixel readout chips to enable the ATLAS and CMS Phase 2 pixel upgrades. This does not imply that ATLAS and CMS must use the same exact pixel readout chip, as most of the dev...

  2. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  3. Spectroscopic measurements with the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, David-Leon; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Univeristaet Bonn (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chip is a large (2 x 2 cm{sup 2}) state of the art ASIC used in high energy physics experiments as well as for research and development purposes. While the FE-I4 is optimized for high hit rates it provides very limited charge resolution. Therefore two methods were developed to obtain high resolution single pixel charge spectra with the ATLAS FE-I4. The first method relies on the ability to change the detection threshold in small steps while counting hits from a particle source and has a resolution limited by electronic noise only. The other method uses a FPGA based time-to-digital-converter to digitize the analog charge signal with high precision. The feasibility, performance and challenges of these methods are discussed. First results of sensor characterizations from radioactive sources and test beams with the ATLAS FE-I4 in view of the charge collection efficiency after irradiation are presented.

  4. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  5. Depleted fully monolithic CMOS pixel detectors using a column based readout architecture for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Barbero, M.; Berdalovic, I.; Bespin, C.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Caicedo, I.; Cardella, R.; Chen, Z.; Degerli, Y.; Egidos, N.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Kugathasan, T.; Hügging, F.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Pangaud, P.; Schwemling, P.; Pernegger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Rozanov, A.; Rymaszewski, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wermes, N.

    2018-03-01

    Depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which exploit high voltage and/or high resistivity add-ons of modern CMOS technologies to achieve substantial depletion in the sensing volume, have proven to have high radiation tolerance towards the requirements of ATLAS in the high-luminosity LHC era. DMAPS integrating fast readout architectures are currently being developed as promising candidates for the outer pixel layers of the future ATLAS Inner Tracker, which will be installed during the phase II upgrade of ATLAS around year 2025. In this work, two DMAPS prototype designs, named LF-Monopix and TJ-Monopix, are presented. LF-Monopix was fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS technology, and TJ-Monopix has been designed in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS technology. Both chips employ the same readout architecture, i.e. the column drain architecture, whereas different sensor implementation concepts are pursued. The paper makes a joint description of the two prototypes, so that their technical differences and challenges can be addressed in direct comparison. First measurement results for LF-Monopix will also be shown, demonstrating for the first time a fully functional fast readout DMAPS prototype implemented in the LFoundry technology.

  6. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigas, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Marc.Bigas@cnm.es; Cabruja, E. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Enric.Cabruja@cnm.es; Lozano, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  7. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Valerio [Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi, 5, 24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors. - Highlights: • 3D integration is a promising technology for pixel sensors in high energy physics. • Experimental results on two-layer 3D CMOS pixel sensors are presented. • The outcome of the first run from the 3D-IC consortium is discussed. • The AIDA network is studying via-last 3D integration of heterogeneous layers. • New ideas based on 3D vertically integrated pixels are being developed for HEP.

  8. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors. - Highlights: • 3D integration is a promising technology for pixel sensors in high energy physics. • Experimental results on two-layer 3D CMOS pixel sensors are presented. • The outcome of the first run from the 3D-IC consortium is discussed. • The AIDA network is studying via-last 3D integration of heterogeneous layers. • New ideas based on 3D vertically integrated pixels are being developed for HEP

  9. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10 34 cm -2 s -1 . As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10 34 cm -2 s -1 , twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ eq =2.10 16 cm -2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 . Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in

  10. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  11. X-ray imaging characterization of active edge silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchut, C; Ruat, M; Kalliopuska, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the experimental characterization of edge effects in active-edge silicon pixel sensors, in the frame of X-ray pixel detectors developments for synchrotron experiments. We produced a set of active edge pixel sensors with 300 to 500 μm thickness, edge widths ranging from 100 μm to 150 μm, and n or p pixel contact types. The sensors with 256 × 256 pixels and 55 × 55 μm 2 pixel pitch were then bump-bonded to Timepix readout chips for X-ray imaging measurements. The reduced edge widths makes the edge pixels more sensitive to the electrical field distribution at the sensor boundaries. We characterized this effect by mapping the spatial response of the sensor edges with a finely focused X-ray synchrotron beam. One of the samples showed a distortion-free response on all four edges, whereas others showed variable degrees of distortions extending at maximum to 300 micron from the sensor edge. An application of active edge pixel sensors to coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron beams is described

  12. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  13. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  14. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e − and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e − rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  15. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  16. An induced charge readout scheme incorporating image charge splitting on discrete pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, D.O.; Lapington, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Top hat electrostatic analysers used in space plasma instruments typically use microchannel plates (MCPs) followed by discrete pixel anode readout for the angular definition of the incoming particles. Better angular definition requires more pixels/readout electronics channels but with stringent mass and power budgets common in space applications, the number of channels is restricted. We describe here a technique that improves the angular definition using induced charge and an interleaved anode pattern. The technique adopts the readout philosophy used on the CRRES and CLUSTER I instruments but has the advantages of the induced charge scheme and significantly reduced capacitance. Charge from the MCP collected by an anode pixel is inductively split onto discrete pixels whose geometry can be tailored to suit the scientific requirements of the instrument. For our application, the charge is induced over two pixels. One of them is used for a coarse angular definition but is read out by a single channel of electronics, allowing a higher rate handling. The other provides a finer angular definition but is interleaved and hence carries the expense of lower rate handling. Using the technique and adding four channels of electronics, a four-fold increase in the angular resolution is obtained. Details of the scheme and performance results are presented

  17. A silicon pixel detector with routing for external VLSI read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.L.; Seller, P.

    1988-07-01

    A silicon pixel detector with an array of 32 by 16 hexagonal pixels has been designed and is being built on high resistivity silicon. The detector elements are reverse biased diodes consisting of p-implants in an n-type substrate and are fully depleted from the front to the back of the wafer. They are intended to measure high energy ionising particles traversing the detector. The detailed design of the pixels, their layout and method of read-out are discussed. A number of test structures have been incorporated onto the wafer to enable measurements to be made on individual pixels together with a variety of active devices. The results will give a better understanding of the operation of the pixel array, and will allow testing of computer simulations of more elaborate structures for the future. (author)

  18. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Bonacini, S; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Morel, M; Noy, M; Perktold, L; Poltorak, K

    2013-01-01

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak fl ow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm 2 for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection ef fi ciency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45 40 square pixels of 300 300 μ m 2 and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low...

  19. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  20. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  1. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  2. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  3. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-11-22

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  4. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel quadsensor flip-chipped with FE-I4 readout ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unno, Y.; Hanagaki, K.; Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Nagai, R.; Saito, S.; Sugibayashi, K.; Hirose, M.; Jinnouchi, O.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Hara, K.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed flip-chip modules applicable to the pixel detector for the HL-LHC. New radiation-tolerant n + -in-p planar pixel sensors of a size of four FE-I4 application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are laid out in a 6-in wafer. Variation in readout connection for the pixels at the boundary of ASICs is implemented in the design of quadsensors. Bump bonding technology is developed for four ASICs onto one quadsensor. Both sensors and ASICs are thinned to 150 μm before bump bonding, and are held flat with vacuum chucks. Using lead-free SnAg solder bumps, we encounter deficiency with large areas of disconnected bumps after thermal stress treatment, including irradiation. Surface oxidation of the solder bumps is identified as a critical source of this deficiency after bump bonding trials, using SnAg bumps with solder flux, indium bumps, and SnAg bumps with a newly-introduced hydrogen-reflow process. With hydrogen-reflow, we establish flux-less bump bonding technology with SnAg bumps, appropriate for mass production of the flip-chip modules with thin sensors and thin ASICs.

  5. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R and D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision

  6. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  7. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Shun, E-mail: s-ono@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Org. (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm{sup 2} pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  8. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, A., E-mail: alexander.kluge@cern.ch; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-21

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm{sup 2} for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300μm{sup 2} and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms. -- Highlights: • Feasibility demonstration of a silicon pixel detector with sub-ns time tagging capability. • Demonstrator detector assembly with a time resolution of 75 ps RMS with laser charge injection; 170 ps RMS with particle beam. • Design of trigger-less TDCpix ASIC with 1800 pixels, 720 TDC channels and 4 3.2 Gbit/s serializers.

  9. The FE-I4 Pixel Readout Chip and the IBL Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Fang, Xiao-Chao; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Hans, Kruger; Kruth, Andre; Wermes, Norbert; /Bonn U.; Breugnon, Patrick; Fougeron, Denis; Gensolen, Fabrice; Menouni, Mohsine; Rozanov, Alexander; /Marseille, CPPM; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; /INFN, Genoa; Caminada, Lea; Dube, Sourabh; Fleury, Julien; Gnani, Dario; /LBL, Berkeley /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Gottingen U. /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    FE-I4 is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip for the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. Designed in a CMOS 130 nm feature size process, the IC is able to withstand higher radiation levels compared to the present generation of ATLAS pixel Front-End FE-I3, and can also cope with higher hit rate. It is thus suitable for intermediate radii pixel detector layers in the High Luminosity LHC environment, but also for the inserted layer at 3.3 cm known as the 'Insertable B-Layer' project (IBL), at a shorter timescale. In this paper, an introduction to the FE-I4 will be given, focusing on test results from the first full size FE-I4A prototype which has been available since fall 2010. The IBL project will be introduced, with particular emphasis on the FE-I4-based module concept.

  10. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  11. Temporal Noise Analysis of Charge-Domain Sampling Readout Circuits for CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a temporal noise analysis of charge-domain sampling readout circuits for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS image sensors. In order to address the trade-off between the low input-referred noise and high dynamic range, a Gm-cell-based pixel together with a charge-domain correlated-double sampling (CDS technique has been proposed to provide a way to efficiently embed a tunable conversion gain along the read-out path. Such readout topology, however, operates in a non-stationery large-signal behavior, and the statistical properties of its temporal noise are a function of time. Conventional noise analysis methods for CMOS image sensors are based on steady-state signal models, and therefore cannot be readily applied for Gm-cell-based pixels. In this paper, we develop analysis models for both thermal noise and flicker noise in Gm-cell-based pixels by employing the time-domain linear analysis approach and the non-stationary noise analysis theory, which help to quantitatively evaluate the temporal noise characteristic of Gm-cell-based pixels. Both models were numerically computed in MATLAB using design parameters of a prototype chip, and compared with both simulation and experimental results. The good agreement between the theoretical and measurement results verifies the effectiveness of the proposed noise analysis models.

  12. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60 Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  13. Development of readout system for FE-I4 pixel module using SiTCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, J.J., E-mail: jjteoh@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Hanagaki, K. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    The ATLAS pixel detector will be replaced in the future High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade to preserve or improve the detector performance at high luminosity environment. To meet the tight requirements of the upgrade, a new pixel Front-End (FE) Integrated Circuit (IC) called FE-I4 has been developed. We have then devised a readout system for the new FE IC. Our system incorporates Silicon Transmission Control Protocol (SiTCP) technology (Uchida, 2008 [1]) which utilizes the standard TCP/IP and UDP communication protocols. This technology allows direct data access and transfer between a readout hardware chain and PC via a high speed Ethernet. In addition, the communication protocols are small enough to be implemented in a single Field-Programable Gate Array (FPGA). Relying on this technology, we have been able to construct a very compact, versatile and fast readout system. We have developed a firmware and software together with the readout hardware chain. We also have established basic functionalities for reading out FE-I4.

  14. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A., E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Andricek, L. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    We present an R and D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5×10{sub 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. We will also report on the R and D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  15. Development of a cylindrical tracking detector with multichannel scintillation fibers and pixelated photon detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Y.; Miwa, K.; Honda, R.; Shiozaki, T.; Chiga, N.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing a cylindrical tracking detector for a Σp scattering experiment in J-PARC with scintillation fibers and the Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) readout, which is called as cylindrical fiber tracker (CFT), in order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles emitted inside CFT. CFT works not only as a tracking detector but also a particle identification detector from energy deposits. A prototype CFT consisting of two straight layers and one spiral layer was constructed. About 1100 scintillation fibers with a diameter of 0.75 mm (Kuraray SCSF-78 M) were used. Each fiber signal was read by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC, HPK S10362-11-050P, 1×1 mm{sup 2}, 400 pixels) fiber by fiber. MPPCs were handled with Extended Analogue Silicon Photomultipliers Integrated ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) boards, which were developed for the readout of a large number of MPPCs. The energy resolution of one layer was 28% for a 70 MeV proton where the energy deposit in fibers was 0.7 MeV.

  16. Position dependence of charge collection in prototype sensors for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, Tilman; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Konecki, Marcin; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Sanders, David A; Son Seung Hee; Speer, Thomas; Swartz, Morris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensor R&D activity for the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence1 of 1 multiplied by 10**1**5 n //e//q/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterward, they were bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips and tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. The readout chip allows a nonzero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The position dependence of signal is presented and the differences between the two sensor options are discussed. 20 Refs.

  17. Readout electronics for low dark count pixel detectors based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes fabricated in conventional CMOS technologies for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilella, E.; Arbat, A.; Comerma, A.; Trenado, J.; Alonso, O.; Gascon, D.; Vila, A.; Garrido, L.; Dieguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    High sensitivity and excellent timing accuracy of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes make them ideal sensors as pixel detectors for particle tracking in high energy physics experiments to be performed in future linear colliders. Nevertheless, it is well known that these sensors suffer from dark counts and afterpulsing noise, which induce false hits (indistinguishable from event detection) as well as an increase in the necessary area of the readout system. In this work, we present a comparison between APDs fabricated in a high voltage 0.35 μm and a high integration 0.13 μm commercially available CMOS technologies that has been performed to determine which of them best fits the particle collider requirements. In addition, a readout circuit that allows low noise operation is introduced. Experimental characterization of the proposed pixel is also presented in this work.

  18. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  19. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  20. CMOS Pixel Sensors for High Precision Beam Telescopes and Vertex Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, R. de; Baudot, J.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.

    2009-01-01

    CMOS sensors of the MIMOSA (standing for Minimum Ionising particle MOS Active pixel sensor) series are developed at IPHC since a decade and have ended up with full scale devices used in beam telescopes and in demonstrators of future vertex detectors. The sensors deliver analogue, unfiltered, signals and are therefore limited to read-out frequencies of ∼ 1 kframe/s. Since a few years, a fast architecture is being developed in collaboration with IRFU, which aims to speed up the read-out by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first full scale sensor based on this architecture was fabricated recently and is being tested. Made of 660,000 pixels (18 μm pitch) covering an active area of ∼ 2 cm 2 , it delivers zero-suppressed binary signals, which allow running at ∼ 10 kframes/s. It will equip the beam telescope of the E.U. project EUDET and serve as a forerunner of the sensor equipping the 2 layers of the PIXEL detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. The contribution to the conference will overview the main features and test results of this pioneering sensor. It will next describe its evolution towards read-out frequencies approaching 100 kframes/s, as required for the vertex detectors of the CBM experiment at FAIR and at the ILC. Finally, the issue of radiation tolerance will be addressed, in the context of a newly available CMOS process using a depleted substrate. A prototype sensor was fabricated in a such CMOS process. The talk will summarise beam test results showing, for the first time, that fluences of 10 14 n eq /cm 2 may be tolerable for CMOS sensors. Overall, the talk provides an overview of the status and plans of CMOS pixel sensors at the frontier of their achievements and outreach. (author)

  1. Hybrid active pixel sensors in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Gert; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Joerg; Moorwood, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is currently benefiting from three main technologies providing high-performance hybrid active pixel sensors. In the near infrared from 1 to 5 μm two technologies, both aiming for buttable 2Kx2K mosaics, are competing, namely InSb and HgCdTe grown by LPE or MBE on Al 2 O 3 , Si or CdZnTe substrates. Blocked impurity band Si:As arrays cover the mid infrared spectral range from 8 to 28 μm. Adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high-resolution spectrographs drive the requirements for the array format of infrared sensors used at ground-based infrared observatories. The pixel performance is now approaching fundamental limits. In view of this development, a detection limit for the photon flux of the ideal detector will be derived, depending only on the temperature and the impedance of the detector. It will be shown that this limit is approximated by state of the art infrared arrays for long on-chip integrations. Different detector materials are compared and strategies to populate large focal planes are discussed. The need for the development of small-format low noise sensors for adaptive optics and interferometry will be pointed out

  2. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  3. Development of Micromegas-like gaseous detectors using a pixel readout chip as collecting anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefdeville, M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports on the fabrication and test of a new gaseous detector with a very large number of readout channels. This detector is intended for measuring the tracks of charged particles with an unprecedented sensitivity to single electrons of almost 100 %. It combines a metal grid for signal amplification called the Micromegas with a pixel readout chip as signal collecting anode and is dubbed GridPix. GridPix is a potential candidate for a sub-detector at a future electron linear collider (ILC) foreseen to work in parallel with the LHC around 2020--2030. The tracking capability of GridPix is best exploited if the Micromegas is integrated on the pixel chip. This integrated grid is called InGrid and is precisely fabricated by wafer post-processing. The various steps of the fabrication process and the measurements of its gain, energy resolution and ion back-flow property are reported in this document. Studies of the response of the complete detector formed by an InGrid and a TimePix pixel chip to X-rays and cosmic particles are also presented. In particular, the efficiency for detecting single electrons and the point resolution in the pixel plane are measured. Implications for a GridPix detector at ILC are discussed. (author)

  4. The Layer 1 / Layer 2 readout upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mullier, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of instantaneous luminosity foreseen during the LHC Run 2, will lead to an increased detector occupancy that is expected to saturate the readout links of the outermost layers of the pixel detector: Layers 1 and 2. To ensure a smooth data taking under such conditions, the read out system of the recently installed fourth innermost pixel layer, the Insertable B-Layer, was modified to accomodate the needs of the older detector. The Layer 2 upgrade installation took place during the 2015 winter shutdown, with the Layer 1 installation scheduled for 2016. A report of the successful installation, together with the design of novel dedicated optical to electrical converters and the software and firmware updates will be presented.

  5. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  6. Optical readout of a triple-GEM detector by means of a CMOS sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafini, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pinci, D., E-mail: davide.pinci@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Sarti, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Sciubba, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In last years, the development of optical sensors has produced objects able to provide very interesting performance. Large granularity is offered along with a very high sensitivity. CMOS sensors with millions of pixels able to detect as few as two or three photons per pixel are commercially available and can be used to read-out the optical signals provided by tracking particle detectors. In this work the results obtained by optically reading-out a triple-GEM detector by a commercial CMOS sensor will be presented. A standard detector was assembled with a transparent window below the third GEM allowing the light to get out. The detector is supplied with an Ar/CF{sub 4} based gas mixture producing 650 nm wavelength photons matching the maximum quantum efficiency of the sensor.

  7. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  8. Fine pitch and low material readout bus in the Silicon Pixel Vertex Tracker for the PHENIX Vertex Tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the Silicon Pixel Detector is starting in spring 2009 as project of the RHIC-PHENIX Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX) upgrade at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. For the construction, we have developed a fine pitch and low material readout bus as the backbone parts of the VTX. In this article, we report the development and production of the readout bus.

  9. Fast Imaging Detector Readout Circuits with In-Pixel ADCs for Fourier Transform Imaging Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, D.; Blavier, J-F.; Cunningham, T.; Hancock, B.; Key, R.; Pannell, Z.; Sander, S.; Seshadri, S.; Sun, C.; Wrigley, C.

    2011-01-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) with high frame rates and many pixels benefit several upcoming Earth science missions including GEO-CAPE, GACM, and ACE by enabling broader spatial coverage and higher spectral resolution. FPAs for the PanFTS, a high spatial resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and a candidate instrument for the GEO-CAPE mission are the focus of the developments reported here, but this FPA technology has the potential to enable a variety of future measurements and instruments. The ESTO ACT Program funded the developed of a fast readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on an innovative in-pixel analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC features 60 ?m pixels, a 14-bit ADC in each pixel and operates at a continuous frame rate of 14 kHz consuming only 1.1 W of power. The ROIC outputs digitized data completely eliminating the bulky, power consuming signal chains needed by conventional FPAs. The 128 X 128 pixel ROIC has been fabricated in CMOS and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current version is designed to be hybridized with PIN photodiode arrays via indium bump bonding for light detection in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. However, the ROIC design incorporates a small photodiode in each cell to permit detailed characterization of the ROICperformance without the need for hybridization. We will describe the essential features of the ROIC design and present results of ROIC performance measurements.

  10. Results from a prototype MAPS sensor telescope and readout system with zero suppression for the heavy flavor tracker at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Thomas, J.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a three Mimostar-2 Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) sensor telescope prototype with an accompanying readout system incorporating on-the-fly data sparsification. The system has been characterized and we report on the measured performance of the sensor telescope and readout system in beam tests conducted both at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and in the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effort is part of the development and prototyping work that will lead to a vertex detector for the STAR experiment

  11. Hot pixel generation in active pixel sensors: dosimetric and micro-dosimetric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Novak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetric response of an active pixel sensor is analyzed. heavy ions are seen to damage the pixel in much the same way as gamma radiation. The probability of a hot pixel is seen to exhibit behavior that is not typical with other microdose effects.

  12. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Giles; Cousin, Loic; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hippolyte, Boris; Maria, Robert; Molnar, Levente; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Winter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) represent a novel technological approach to building charged particle detectors. CMOS processes allow to integrate a sensing volume and readout electronics in a single silicon die allowing to build sensors with a small pixel pitch ($\\sim 20 \\mu m$) and low material budget ($\\sim 0.2-0.3\\% X_0$) per layer. These characteristics make CPS an attractive option for vertexing and tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. Moreover, thanks to the mass production industrial CMOS processes used for the manufacturing of CPS the fabrication construction cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to more standard semiconductor technologies. However, the attainable performance level of the CPS in terms of radiation hardness and readout speed is mostly determined by the fabrication parameters of the CMOS processes available on the market rather than by the CPS intrinsic potential. The permanent evolution of commercial CMOS processes towards smaller feature sizes and high resistivity ...

  13. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2014-11-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget ( 0.3 %X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity ( 20 μm × 20 μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1-5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  14. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavicchioli, C., E-mail: costanza.cavicchioli@cern.ch [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Giubilato, P. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Marin Tobon, C.A. [Valencia Polytechnic University, Valencia (Spain); Martinengo, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Mattiazzo, S. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Mugnier, H. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Musa, L. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pantano, D. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Rousset, J. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Reidt, F. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Van Hoorne, J.W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria); Yang, P. [Central China Normal University CCNU, Wuhan (China)

    2014-11-21

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X{sub 0} in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a {sup 55}Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  15. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Van Hoorne, J.W.; Yang, P.

    2014-01-01

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X 0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55 Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented

  16. Development of thin pixel sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the SLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Beimforde, M.; Dubbert, J.; Ghodbane, N.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Moser, H.G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    We present an R and D activity aiming to develop a new detector concept in the framework of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade in view of the Super-LHC. The new devices combine 75-150 μm thick pixels sensors with a vertical integration technology. A new production of thin pixel sensors on n- and p-type material is under way at the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory. These devices will be connected to the ATLAS read-out electronics with the new Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion technique as an alternative to the bump-bonding process. We also plan for the signals to be extracted from the back of the electronics wafer through Inter-Chip-Vias. The compatibility of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion process with the silicon sensor functionality has already been demonstrated by measurements on two wafers hosting diodes with an active thickness of 50 μm

  17. The NA62 Gigatracker: Detector properties and pixel read-out architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment, named Gigatracker, has to perform single track reconstruction with unprecedented time resolution (150 ps rms) in a harsh radiation environment. To meet these requirements, and in order to reduce material budget to a minimum, three hybrid silicon pixel detector stations will be installed in vacuum. An adequate strategy to compensate for the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and R and D investigating two different options is ongoing. Two read-out chip prototypes have been designed in order to compare their performance: one approach is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC, while the other one is based on the use of a time-over-threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. This paper describes the Gigatracker system, presents the global architectures of both read-out ASICs and reviews the current status of the R and D project.

  18. submitter Development of the readout for the IBL upgrade project of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Nina

    The LHC luminosity is upgraded in several phases until 2022. The resulting higher occupancy degrades the detector performance of the current Pixel Detector. To provide a good performance during the LHC luminosity upgrade, a fourth pixel layer is inserted into the existing ATLAS Pixel Detector. A new FE-I4 readout chip and a new data acquisition chain are required to cope with the higher track rate and the resulting increased bandwidth. Among others, this includes a new readout board: the IBL ROD. One component of this board is the DSP which creates commands for the FE-I4 chip and has to be upgraded as well. In this thesis, the first tests of the IBL ROD prototype are presented. A correct communication of the DSP to its external memory is verified. Moreover, the implementations for an IBL DSP code are described and tested. This includes the first configuration of the FE-I4 with an IBL ROD. In addition, a working communication with the Histogrammer SDRAM and the Input FIFO on the IBL ROD are demonstrated.

  19. Readout of a 176 pixel FDM system for SAFARI TES arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R.; Ridder, M.; van der Linden, A. J.; van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J. R.; Jackson, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our 176-pixel prototype of the FDM readout system for SAFARI, a TES-based focal-plane instrument for the far-IR SPICA mission. We have implemented the knowledge obtained from the detailed study on electrical crosstalk reported previously. The effect of carrier leakage is reduced by a factor two, mutual impedance is reduced to below 1 nH and mutual inductance is removed. The pixels are connected in stages, one quarter of the array half of the array and the full array, to resolve intermediate technical issues. A semi-automated procedure was incorporated to find all optimal settings for all pixels. And as a final step the complete array has been connected and 132 pixels have been read out simultaneously within the frequency range of 1-3.8MHz with an average frequency separation of 16kHz. The noise was found to be detector limited and was not affected by reading out all pixels in a FDM mode. With this result the concept of using FDM for multiplexed bolometer read out for the SAFARI instrument has been demonstrated.

  20. Development of a readout technique for the high data rate BTeV pixel detector at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Bradley K.

    2001-01-01

    The pixel detector for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab provides digitized data from approximately 22 million silicon pixel channels. Portions of the detector are six millimeters from the beam providing a substantial hit rate and high radiation dose. The pixel detector data will be employed by the lowest level trigger system for track reconstruction every beam crossing. These requirements impose a considerable constraint on the readout scheme. This paper presents a readout technique that provides the bandwidth that is adequate for high hit rates, minimizes the number of radiation hard components, and satisfies all other design constraints

  1. Improvement to the signaling interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Feng, Chong [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Dalian Minzu University, No.18 Liaohe West Road, 116600 Dalian (China); Cai, Hong [Dalian University of Technology, No.2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China)

    2016-10-01

    The development of the readout speed of CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) is motivated by the demanding requirements of future high energy physics (HEP) experiments. As the interface between CPS and the data acquisition (DAQ) system, which inputs clock from the DAQ system and outputs data from CPS, the signaling interface should also be improved in terms of data rates. Meanwhile, the power consumption of the signaling interface should be maintained as low as possible. Consequently, a reduced swing differential signaling (RSDS) driver was adopted instead of a low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) driver to transmit data from CPS to the DAQ system. In order to increase the capability of data rates, a serial source termination technique was employed. A LVDS/RSDS receiver was employed for transmitting clock from the DAQ system to CPS. A new method of generating hysteresis and a special current comparator were used to achieve a higher speed with lower power consumption. The signaling interface was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18 µm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Measurement results indicate that the RSDS driver and the LVDS receiver can operate correctly at a data rate of 2 Gb/s with a power consumption of 19.1 mW.

  2. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (>30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed

  3. Optical readout and control interface for the BTeV pixel vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara-Limon, S; Sheaff, M; Vargas, M A

    2002-01-01

    Optical links will be used for sending data back and forth from the counting room to the detector in the data acquisition systems for future high energy physics experiments, including ATLAS and CMS in the LHC at CERN (Switzerland) and BTeV at Fermilab (USA). This is because they can be ultra-high speed and are relatively immune to electro-magnetic interference (EMI). The baseline design for the BTeV Pixel Vertex Detector includes two types of optical link, one to control and monitor and the other to read out the hit data from the multi-chip modules on each half-plane of the detector. The design and performance of the first prototype of the Optical Readout and Control Interface for the BTeV Pixel Vertex Detector is described.

  4. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  5. Studies and development of a readout ASIC for pixelated CdTe detectors for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowska, A.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is part of a project where a new instrument is developed: a camera for hard X-rays imaging spectroscopy. It is dedicated to fundamental research for observations in astrophysics, at wavelengths which can only be observed using space-borne instruments. In this domain the spectroscopic accuracy as well as the imaging details are of high importance. This work has been realized at CEA/IRFU (Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers), which has a long-standing and successful experience in instruments for high energy physics and space physics instrumentation. The objective of this thesis is the design of the readout electronics for a pixelated CdTe detector, suitable for a stacked assembly. The principal parameters of this integrated circuit are a very low noise for reaching a good accuracy in X-ray energy measurement, very low power consumption, a critical parameter in space-borne applications, and a small dead area for the full system combining the detector and the readout electronics. In this work I have studied the limits of these three parameters in order to optimize the circuit. In terms of the spectral resolution, two categories of noise had to be distinguished to determine the final performance. The first is the Fano noise limit, related to detector interaction statistics, which cannot be eliminated. The second is the electronic noise, also unavoidable; however it can be minimized through optimization of the detection chain. Within the detector, establishing a small pixel pitch of 300 μm reduces the input capacitance and the dark current. This limits the effects of the electronic noise. Also in order to limit the input capacitance the future camera is designed as a stacked assembly of the detector with the readout ASIC. This allows to reach extremely good input parameters seen by the readout electronics: a capacitance in range of 0.3 pF-1 pF and a dark current below 5 pA. In the frame of this thesis I have

  6. Conceptual design of 3D integrated pixel sensors for the innermost layer of the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y; Hu-Guo, C; Dorokhov, A; Zhao, W; Hu, Y; Torheim, O

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a design of CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) using the vertical integration technology (3DIT), expected to alleviate the most essential limitations of 2D-CPS. Our objective is to develop an intelligent architecture in order to meet the requirements of the innermost layer of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detectors, which are particularly demanding in spatial resolution of less than 3 μm and associated frame readout time of 10 μs. The sensor, with a pixel pitch of 23 μm, will be composed of 3-tiers Integrated Circuits (IC) with different functionalities: detection with in pixel analogue processing, pixel-level 3-bit Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC) and fast parallel sparse readout.

  7. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  8. Characterization of proton irradiated 3D-DDTC pixel sensor prototypes fabricated at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Cobal, M. [Universita degli Studi di Udine and INFN Trieste, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN Padova, Gruppo Collegato d Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gemme, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Huegging, F.; Janssen, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Micelli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Udine and INFN Trieste, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Povoli, M. [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN Padova, Gruppo Collegato d Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Wermes, N. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-07-21

    In this paper we discuss results relevant to 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. Some assemblies of these sensors featuring different columnar electrode configurations (2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) and coupled to the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip were irradiated up to large proton fluences and tested in laboratory with radioactive sources. In spite of the non-optimized columnar electrode overlap, sensors exhibit reasonably good charge collection properties up to an irradiation fluence of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2}, while requiring bias voltages in the order of 100 V. Sensor operation is further investigated by means of TCAD simulations which can effectively explain the basic mechanisms responsible for charge loss after irradiation.

  9. Characterization of proton irradiated 3D-DDTC pixel sensor prototypes fabricated at FBK

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Cobal, M; Betta, G -F Dalla; Da Via, C; Darbo, G; Gallrapp, C; Gemme, C; Huegging, F; Janssen, J; Micelli, A; Pernegger, H; Povoli, M; Wermes, N; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results relevant to 3D Double-Side Double Type Column (3D-DDTC) pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy) and oriented to the ATLAS upgrade. Some assemblies of these sensors featuring different columnar electrode configurations (2, 3, or 4 columns per pixel) and coupled to the ATLAS FEI3 read-out chip were irradiated up to large proton fluences and tested in laboratory with radioactive sources. In spite of the non optimized columnar electrode overlap, sensors exhibit reasonably good charge collection properties up to an irradiation fluence of 2 x 10**15 neq/cm2, while requiring bias voltages in the order of 100 V. Sensor operation is further investigated by means of TCAD simulations which can effectively explain the basic mechanisms responsible for charge loss after irradiation.

  10. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  11. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu-Guo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evolved in the coming 2-3 years in perspective of the ILD Detector Baseline Document, to be delivered in 2012. Two different devices are foreseen for this objective, one being optimized for the inner layers and their fast read-out requirement, while the other exploits the dimmed background in the outer layers to reduce the power consumption. The sensor evolution relies on a high resistivity epitaxial layer, on the use of an advanced CMOS process and on the combination of column-level ADCs with a pixel array. The paper will p...

  12. Slim edge studies, design and quality control of planar ATLAS IBL pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Tobias

    2013-05-08

    One of the four large experiments at the LHC at CERN is the ATLAS detector, a multi purpose detector. Its pixel detector, composed of three layers, is the innermost part of the tracker. As it is closest to the interaction point, it represents a basic part of the track reconstruction. Besides the requested high resolution one main requirement is the radiation hardness. In the coming years the radiation damage will cause deteriorations of the detector performance. With the planned increase of the luminosity, especially after the upgrade to the High Luminosity LHC, this radiation damage will be even intensified. This circumstance necessitates a new pixel detector featuring improved radiation hard sensors and read-out chips. The present shutdown of the LHC is already utilized to insert an additional b-layer (IBL) into the existing ATLAS pixel detector. The current n-in-n pixel sensor design had to be adapted to the new read-out chip and the module specifications. The new stave geometry requests a reduction of the inactive sensor edge. In a prototype wafer production all modifications have been implemented. The sensor quality control was supervised which led to the decision of the final sensor thickness. In order to evaluate the performance of the sensor chip assemblies with an innovative slim edge design, they have been operated in test beam setups before and after irradiation. Furthermore, the quality control of the planar IBL sensor wafer production was supervised from the stage of wafer delivery to that before the flip chip process to ensure a sufficient amount of functional sensors for the module production.

  13. High-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Paul; Rabin, Michael; Croce, Mark; Hoteling, Nathan; Schwellenbach, David; Kruschwitz, Craig; Mocko, Veronika; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) array. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio frequency superconducting-quantum-interference devices (RF-SQUIDs) and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We used a flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and avoid low-frequency noise. The result is a very high-resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed 4-pixel transition edge sensor array. We performed and validated a small-scale demonstration and test of all the components of our concept system, which encompassed microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and software-defined radio (SDR). We shall display data we acquired in the first simultaneous combination of all key innovations in a 4-pixel demonstration, including microcalorimetry, microwave multiplexing, RF-SQUIDs, and SDR. We present the energy spectrum of a gadolinium-153 (153Gd) source we measured using our 4-pixel TES array and the RF-SQUID multiplexer. For each pixel, one can observe the two 97.4 and 103.2 keV photopeaks. We measured the 153Gd photon source with an achieved energy resolution of 70 eV, full width half maximum (FWHM) at 100 keV, and an equivalent readout system noise of 90 pA/pHz at the TES. This demonstration establishes a path for the readout of cryogenic x-ray and gamma ray sensor arrays with more elements and spectral resolving powers. We believe this project has improved capabilities and substantively advanced the science useful for missions such as nuclear forensics, emergency response, and treaty verification through the explored TES developments.

  14. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  16. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors fully adapted to the ILD Vertex Detector Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Dorokhov, Andrei; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Morel, Frederic; Valin, Isabelle; Voutsinas, Georgios; Zhang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are making steady progress towards the specifications of the ILD vertex detector. Recent developments are summarised, which show that these devices are close to comply with all major requirements, in particular the read-out speed needed to cope with the beam related background. This achievement is grounded on the double- sided ladder concept, which allows combining signals generated by a single particle in two different sensors, one devoted to spatial resolution and the other to time stamp, both assembled on the same mechanical support. The status of the development is overviewed as well as the plans to finalise it using an advanced CMOS process.

  17. Pixel Read-Out Architectures for the NA62 GigaTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacasa, G

    2008-01-01

    Beam particles in NA62 experiment are measured with a Si-pixel sensor having a size of 300 μm x 300 μm and a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). To meet the timing requirement an adequate strategy to compensate the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and an R&D effort investigating two different options is ongoing. In this presentation we describe the two different approaches. One is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The other one is based on the use of a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. The global architectures of both the front-end ASIC will be discussed.

  18. Testbeam results of irradiated ams H18 HV-CMOS pixel sensor prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M.; Braccini, S.; Casse, G.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Di Bello, F. A.; Ferrere, D.; Golling, T.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Kiehn, M.; Lanni, F.; Liu, H.; Meng, L.; Merlassino, C.; Miucci, A.; Muenstermann, D.; Nessi, M.; Okawa, H.; Perić, I.; Rimoldi, M.; Ristić, B.; Barrero Pinto, M. Vicente; Vossebeld, J.; Weber, M.; Weston, T.; Wu, W.; Xu, L.; Zaffaroni, E.

    2018-02-01

    HV-CMOS pixel sensors are a promising option for the tracker upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, as well as for other future tracking applications in which large areas are to be instrumented with radiation-tolerant silicon pixel sensors. We present results of testbeam characterisations of the 4th generation of Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detectors (CCPDv4) produced with the ams H18 HV-CMOS process that have been irradiated with different particles (reactor neutrons and 18 MeV protons) to fluences between 1× 1014 and 5× 1015 1-MeV- neq. The sensors were glued to ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout chips and measured at the CERN SPS H8 beamline using the FE-I4 beam telescope. Results for all fluences are very encouraging with all hit efficiencies being better than 97% for bias voltages of 85 V. The sample irradiated to a fluence of 1× 1015 neq—a relevant value for a large volume of the upgraded tracker—exhibited 99.7% average hit efficiency. The results give strong evidence for the radiation tolerance of HV-CMOS sensors and their suitability as sensors for the experimental HL-LHC upgrades and future large-area silicon-based tracking detectors in high-radiation environments.

  19. A passive CMOS pixel sensor for the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daas, Michael; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high luminosity upgrade for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new inner tracking detector for the ATLAS experiment. About 200 m{sup 2} of silicon detectors are needed demanding new, low cost hybridization- and sensor technologies. One promising approach is to use commercial CMOS technologies to produce the passive sensor for a hybrid pixel detector design. In this talk a fully functional prototype of a 300 μm thick, backside biased CMOS pixel sensor in 150 nm LFoundry technology is presented. The sensor is bump bonded to the ATLAS FE-I4 with AC and DC coupled pixels. Results like leakage current, noise performance, and charge collection efficiency are presented and compared to the actual ATLAS pixel sensor design.

  20. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge.

  1. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge. - Highlights: • We achieved a tolerance of 1000 V with a 250-μm edge by Al2O3 side wall passivation. • Above is a wafer process and suitable for mass production. • For edge-spark protection, we suggest N+ edge with an isolation

  2. Design and Optimization of Multi-Pixel Transition-Edge Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron Michael; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Multi-pixel transition-edge sensors (TESs), commonly referred to as 'hydras', are a type of position sensitive micro-calorimeter that enables very large format arrays to be designed without commensurate increase in the number of readout channels and associated wiring. In the hydra design, a single TES is coupled to discrete absorbers via varied thermal links. The links act as low pass thermal filters that are tuned to give a different characteristic pulse shape for x-ray photons absorbed in each of the hydra sub pixels. In this contribution we report on the experimental results from hydras consisting of up to 20 pixels per TES. We discuss the design trade-offs between energy resolution, position discrimination and number of pixels and investigate future design optimizations specifically targeted at meeting the readout technology considered for Lynx.

  3. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.

    2007-09-01

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a 55 Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 μm x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 μW) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 μm OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  4. The ALICE silicon pixel detector front-end and read-out electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 half staves each of which consists of a linear array of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈107. The tight material budget and the limitation in physical dimensions required by the detector design introduce new challenges for the integration of the on-detector electronics. An essential part of the half stave is a low-mass multi-layer flex that carries power, ground, and signals to the pixel chips. Each half stave is read out using a multi-chip module (MCM). The MCM contains three radiation hard ASICs and an 800 Mbit/s custom developed optical link for the data transfer between the detector and the control room. The detector components are less than 3 mm thick. The production of the half-staves and MCMs is currently under way. Test results as well as on overvie...

  5. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Wildermuth, D.; Goodman, C.; Fujieda, I.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 μm) and thick (> 30 μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-ray, γ rays and thermal neutrons. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For thermal neutron detection we use thin (2∼5 μm) gadolinium converters on 30 μm thick a-Si:H diodes. For direct detection of minimum ionizing particles and others with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Diode and amorphous silicon readouts as well as polysilicon pixel amplifiers are described

  6. Cryogenic readout for multiple VUV4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.; Conicella, V.; Di Giovanni, A.; Fawwaz, O.; Messina, M.; Candela, A.; Franchi, G.

    2018-06-01

    We present the performances and characterization of an array made of S13370-3050CN (VUV4 generation) Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu and equipped with a low power consumption preamplifier operating at liquid xenon temperature (∼ 175 K). The electronics is designed for the readout of a matrix of maximum dimension of 8 × 8 individual photosensors and it is based on a single operational amplifier. The detector prototype presented in this paper utilizes the Analog Devices AD8011 current feedback operational amplifier, but other models can be used depending on the application. A biasing correction circuit has been implemented for the gain equalization of photosensors operating at different voltages. The results show single photon detection capability making this device a promising choice for future generation of large scale dark matter detectors based on liquid xenon, such as DARWIN.

  7. A 10 MHz micropower CMOS front end for direct readout of pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Krummenacher, F.; Enz, C.C.; Declercq, M.; Vittoz, E.; Viertel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN-LAA project for detector R and D, a micropower circuit of 200 μmx200 μm with a current amplifier, a latched comparator and a digital memory element has been tested electrically and operated in connection with linear silicon detector arrays. The experimental direct-readout (DRO) chip comprises a matrix of 9x12 circuit cells and has been manufactured in a 3 μm CMOS technology. Particles and X-ray photons below 22 keV were detected, and thresholds can be set between 2000 and 20000 e - . The noise is less than 4 keV FWHM or 500 e - rms and the power dissipation per pixel element is 30 μW. The chip can be coupled to a detector matrix using bump bonding. (orig.)

  8. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C; Giubilato, P; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Marin Tobon, C A; Martinengo, P; Mattiazzo, S; Mugnier, H; Musa, L; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Reidt, F; Riedler, P; Snoeys, W; Van Hoorne, J W; Yang, P

    2014-01-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~0.3%X0~0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (View the MathML source~20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity View the MathML source(ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge c...

  9. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Green, S.; Parker, D.J.; Price, T.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  10. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Evans, P M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Poludniowski, G; Price, T; Waltham, C; Allinson, N M

    2015-06-03

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  11. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G. [Technological Educational Institute of Halkis, Psahna - Evia (Greece); Loukas, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Agia Paraskevi - Attiki (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100{mu}m x 100 {mu}m CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G.; Loukas, D.

    2008-01-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100μm x 100 μm CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  14. Small pitch pixel sensors for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  15. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  16. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00219560; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 $\\mu$m thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}$ \

  17. Quality control on planar n-in-n pixel sensors — Recent progress of ATLAS planar pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingenberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5–10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) R and D Project was established. Main areas of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors at highest fluences, the exploration of possibilities for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large areas, the achievement of slim or active edges to provide low geometric inefficiencies without the need for shingling of modules and the investigation of the operation of highly irradiated sensors at low thresholds to increase the efficiency. The Insertable b-layer (IBL) is the first upgrade project within the ATLAS experiment and will employ a new detector layer consisting of silicon pixel sensors, which were improved and prototyped in the framework of the planar pixel sensor R and D project. A special focus of this paper is the status of the development and testing of planar n-in-n pixel sensors including the quality control of the on-going series production and postprocessing of sensor wafers. A high yield of produced planar sensor wafers and FE-I4 double chip sensors after first steps of post-processing including under bump metallization and dicing is observed. -- Highlights: ► Prototypes of irradiated planar n-in-n sensors have been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. ► A quality assurance programme on the series production of planar sensors for the IBL has started. ► A high yield of double chip sensors during the series production is observed which are compatible to the specifications to this detector component.

  18. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  19. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  20. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzo, S; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Paschen, B

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 μm, produced at CiS, and 100-200 μm thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4 × 10 16 n eq /cm 2

  1. Evaluation of testing strategies for the radiation tolerant ATLAS n **+-in-n pixel sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M

    2003-01-01

    The development of particle tracker systems for high fluence environments in new high-energy physics experiments raises new challenges for the development, manufacturing and reliable testing of radiation tolerant components. The ATLAS pixel detector for use at the LHC, CERN, is designed to cover an active sensor area of 1.8 m**2 with 1.1 multiplied by 10 **8 read-out channels usable for a particle fluence up to 10 **1**5 cm**-**2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) and an ionization dose up to 500 kGy of mainly charged hadron radiation. To cope with such a harsh environment the ATLAS Pixel Collaboration has developed a radiation hard n **+-in-n silicon pixel cell design with a standard cell size of 50 multiplied by 400 mum**2. Using this design on an oxygenated silicon substrate, sensor production has started in 2001. This contribution describes results gained during the development of testing procedures of the ATLAS pixel sensor and evaluates quality assurance procedures regarding their relevance for detector operati...

  2. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  3. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, G.

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a 55 Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 μm and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10 12 n/cm 2 and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  4. A high speed, low power consumption LVDS interface for CMOS pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhan, E-mail: sz1134@163.com [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tang, Zhenan, E-mail: tangza@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Tian, Yong [Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, 116024 Dalian (China); Pham, Hung; Valin, Isabelle; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo [IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPSs) offers a promising approach to the design of vertex detectors in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. As the CPS equipping the upgraded Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) pixel detector, ULTIMATE perfectly illustrates the potential of CPSs for HEP applications. However, further development of CPSs with respect to readout speed is required to fulfill the readout time requirement of the next generation HEP detectors, such as the upgrade of A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Inner Tracking System (ITS), the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) vertex detectors. One actual limitation of CPSs is related to the speed of the Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) circuitry implementing the interface between the sensor and the Data Acquisition (DAQ) system. To improve the transmission rate while keeping the power consumption at a low level, a source termination technique and a special current comparator were adopted for the LVDS driver and receiver, respectively. Moreover, hardening techniques are used. The circuitry was designed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18-µm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process at the end of 2011. The test results indicated that the LVDS driver and receiver can operate properly at the data rate of 1.2 Gb/s with power consumption of 19.6 mW.

  5. A monolithic pixel sensor (TRAPPISTe-2) for particle physics instrumentation in OKI 0.2μm SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Alvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2012-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking has been developed within the frame of a research and development project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology). TRAPPISTe aims to study the feasibility of developing a monolithic pixel sensor with SOI technology. TRAPPISTe-2 is the second prototype in this series and was fabricated with an OKI 0.20μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. This device contains test transistors and amplifiers, as well as two pixel matrices with integrated 3-transistor and amplifier readout electronics. The results presented are based on the first electrical measurements performed on the test structures and laser measurements on the pixel matrices.

  6. Design of fundamental building blocks for fast binary readout CMOS sensors used in high-energy physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: degerli@cea.fr

    2009-04-21

    In this paper, design details of key building blocks for fast binary readout CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors developed for charged particle detection are presented. Firstly, an all-NMOS pixel architecture with in-pixel amplification and reset noise suppression which allows fast readout is presented. This pixel achieves high charge-to-voltage conversion factors (CVF) using a few number of transistors inside the pixel. It uses a pre-amplifying stage close to the detector and a simple double sampling (DS) circuitry to store the reset level of the detector. The DS removes the offset mismatches of amplifiers and the reset noise of the detector. Offset mismatches of the source follower are also corrected by a second column-level DS stage. The second important building block of these sensors, a low-power auto-zeroed column-level discriminator, is also presented. These two blocks transform the charge of the impinging particle into binary data. Finally, some experimental results obtained on CMOS chips designed using these blocks are presented.

  7. Active Pixel Sensors for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denes, P. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: pdenes@lbl.gov; Bussat, J.-M. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lee, Z.; Radmillovic, V. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The technology used for monolithic CMOS imagers, popular for cell phone cameras and other photographic applications, has been explored for charged particle tracking by the high-energy physics community for several years. This technology also lends itself to certain imaging detector applications in electron microscopy. We have been developing such detectors for several years at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and we and others have shown that this technology can offer excellent point-spread function, direct detection and high readout speed. In this paper, we describe some of the design constraints peculiar to electron microscopy and summarize where such detectors could play a useful role.

  8. Development of a thinned back-illuminated CMOS active pixel sensor for extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging in space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, N.R.; Prydderch, M.; Mapson-Menard, H.; Pool, P.; Harris, A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format, science-grade, monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrograph for solar physics studies on ESA's Solar Orbiter. Our route to EUV sensitivity relies on adapting the back-thinning and rear-illumination techniques first developed for CCD sensors. Our first large-format sensor consists of 4kx3k 5 μm pixels fabricated on a 0.25 μm CMOS imager process. Wafer samples of these sensors have been thinned by e2v technologies with the aim of obtaining good sensitivity at EUV wavelengths. We present results from both front- and back-illuminated versions of this sensor. We also present our plans to develop a new sensor of 2kx2k 10 μm pixels, which will be fabricated on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In progress towards this goal, we have designed a test-structure consisting of six arrays of 512x512 10 μm pixels. Each of the arrays has been given a different pixel design to allow verification of our models, and our progress towards optimizing a design for minimal system readout noise and maximum dynamic range. These sensors will also be back-thinned for characterization at EUV wavelengths

  9. Design studies on sensors for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F G

    2002-01-01

    For the ATLAS Pixel Detector, prototype sensors have been successfully developed. For the sensors design, attention was given to survivability of the harsh LHC radiation environment leading to the need to operate them at several hundreds of volts, while maintaining a good charge collection efficiency, small cell size and minimal multiple scattering. For a cost effective mass production, a bias grid is implemented to test the sensors before assembly under full bias. (6 refs).

  10. Bio-Inspired Asynchronous Pixel Event Tricolor Vision Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Bryn, D H; Hafliger, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    This article investigates the potential of the first ever prototype of a vision sensor that combines tricolor stacked photo diodes with the bio-inspired asynchronous pixel event communication protocol known as Address Event Representation (AER). The stacked photo diodes are implemented in a 22 × 22 pixel array in a standard STM 90 nm CMOS process. Dynamic range is larger than 60 dB and pixels fill factor is 28%. The pixels employ either simple pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or a Time-to-First-Spike (TFS) mode. A heuristic linear combination of the chip's inherent pseudo colors serves to approximate RGB color representation. Furthermore, the sensor outputs can be processed to represent the radiation in the near infrared (NIR) band without employing external filters, and to color-encode direction of motion due to an asymmetry in the update rates of the different diode layers.

  11. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  12. Production and characterization of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 micron thin silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H.G; Nisius, R; Richter, R.H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. T...

  13. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  14. High-QE fast-readout wavefront sensor with analog phase reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey T.; Loos, Gary C.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Percheron, Isabelle; Finkner, Lyle G.

    1998-09-01

    The contradiction inherent in high temporal bandwidth adaptive optics wavefront sensing at low-light-levels (LLL) has driven many researchers to consider the use of high bandwidth high quantum efficiency (QE) CCD cameras with the lowest possible readout noise levels. Unfortunately, the performance of these relatively expensive and low production volume devices in the photon counting regime is inevitably limited by readout noise, no matter how arbitrarily close to zero that specification may be reduced. Our alternative approach is to optically couple a new and relatively inexpensive Ultra Blue Gen III image intensifier to an also relatively inexpensive high bandwidth CCD camera with only moderate QE and high rad noise. The result is a high bandwidth broad spectral response image intensifier with a gain of 55,000 at 560 nm. Use of an appropriately selected lenslet array together with coupling optics generates 16 X 16 Shack-Hartmann type subapertures on the image intensifier photocathode, which is imaged onto the fast CCD camera. An integral A/D converter in the camera sends the image data pixel by pixel to a computer data acquisition system for analysis, storage and display. Timing signals are used to decode which pixel is being rad out and the wavefront is calculated in an analog fashion using a least square fit to both x and y tilt data for all wavefront sensor subapertures. Finally, we present system level performance comparisons of these new concept wavefront sensors versus the more standard low noise CCD camera based designs in the low-light-level limit.

  15. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  16. arXiv Characterization and Verification Environment for the RD53A Pixel Readout Chip in 65 nm CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, M.; Hemperek, T.; Janssen, J.; Pohl, D.L.; Daas, M.

    2018-02-02

    The RD53 collaboration is currently designing a large scale prototype pixel readout chip in 65 nm CMOS technology for the phase 2 upgrades at the HL-LHC. The RD53A chip will be available by the end of the year 2017 and will be extensively tested to confirm if the circuit and the architecture make a solid foundation for the final pixel readout chips for the experiments at the HL-LHC. A test and data acquisition system for the RD53A chip is currently under development to perform single-chip and multi-chip module measurements. In addition, the verification of the RD53A design is performed in a dedicated simulation environment. The concept and the implementation of the test and data acquisition system and the simulation environment, which are based on a modular data acquisition and system testing framework, are presented in this work.

  17. Active pixel sensor array with electronic shuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An active pixel cell includes electronic shuttering capability. The cell can be shuttered to prevent additional charge accumulation. One mode transfers the current charge to a storage node that is blocked against accumulation of optical radiation. The charge is sampled from a floating node. Since the charge is stored, the node can be sampled at the beginning and the end of every cycle. Another aspect allows charge to spill out of the well whenever the charge amount gets higher than some amount, thereby providing anti blooming.

  18. Study of multi-pixel Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes as a read-out for PET

    CERN Document Server

    Musienko, Yuri; Lecoq, Paul; Reucroft, Stephen; Swain, John; Trummer, Julia

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the performance of two multi-pixel Geiger-mode APDs (recently developed by the Centre of Perspective Technologies and Apparatus (CPTA) in Moscow) with 1×1 mm2 and 3×3 mm2 sensitive area as a readout for LSO and LYSO scintillator crystals. Energy and timing spectra were measured using a 22Na γ-source. The results of this study allow us to conclude that this photodetector is a very promising candidate for PET applications.

  19. Recent achievements of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R and D Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, M

    2014-01-01

    After the foreseen upgrade of the LHC towards the HL-LHC, coming along with higher beam energies and increased peak luminosities, the experiments have to upgrade their detector systems to cope with the expected higher occupancies and radiation damages. In case of the ATLAS experiment a new Inner Tracker will be installed in this context. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R and D Project (PPS) is investigating the possibilities to cope with these new requirements, using planar pixel silicon sensors, working in a collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists. Since the new Inner Tracker is supposed to have an active area on the order of 8 m 2 on the one side and has to withstand extreme irradiation on the other side, the PPS community is working on several approaches to reduce production costs, while increasing the radiation tolerance of the sensors. Another challenge is to produce sensors in such large quantities. During the production of the Insertable b-Layer (IBL) modules, the PPS community has proven to be able to produce a large scale production of planar silicon sensors with a high yield. For cost reduction reasons, it is desirable to produce larger sensors. There the PPS community is working on so called quad- and hex-modules, which have a size of four, respectively six FE-I4 readout chips. To cope with smaller radii and strict material budget requirements for the new pixel layers, developments towards sensors with small inactive areas are in the focus of research. Different production techniques, which even allow the production of sensors with active edges, have been investigated and the designs were qualified using lab and testbeam measurements. The short distance between the new innermost pixel layers and the interaction point, combined with the increase in luminosity, requires designs which are more radiation tolerant. Since charge collection on the one hand decreases with irradiation and on the other hand is not uniform within the pixel cells

  20. E-Beam Effects on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Ook; Jo, Gyu Seong; Kim, Hyeon Daek; Kim, Hyunk Taek; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Three different CMOS active pixel structures manufactured in a deep submicron process have been evaluated with electron beam. The devices were exposed to 1 MeV electron beam up to 5kGy. Dark current increased after E-beam irradiation differently at each pixel structure. Dark current change is dependent on CMOS pixel structures. CMOS image sensors are now good candidates in demanding applications such as medical image sensor, particle detection and space remote sensing. In these situations, CISs are exposed to high doses of radiation. In fact radiation is known to generate trapped charge in CMOS oxides. It can lead to threshold voltage shifts and current leakages in MOSFETs and dark current increase in photodiodes. We studied ionizing effects in three types of CMOS APSs fabricated by 0.25 CMOS process. The devices were irradiated by a Co 60 source up to 50kGy. All irradiation took place at room temperature. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. From the above figure, the change of dark current is dependent on the pixel structure. Double junction structure has shown relatively small increase of dark current after electron beam irradiation. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. The contribution of the total ionizing dose to the dark current increase is small here, since the devices were left unbiased during the electron beam irradiation. Radiation hardness in dependent on the pixel structures. Pixel2 is relatively vulnerable to radiation exposure. Pixel3 has radiation hardened structure

  1. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DE GERONIMO, G.; O CONNOR, P.; KANDASAMY, A.; GROSHOLZ, J.

    2002-01-01

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 (micro)m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed

  2. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  3. Performance of irradiated thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N.; Beyer, J.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; La Rosa, A.; Macchiolo, A.; Mandić, I.; Nisius, R.; Petek, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ATLAS collaboration will replace its tracking detector with new all silicon pixel and strip systems. This will allow to cope with the higher radiation and occupancy levels expected after the 5-fold increase in the luminosity of the LHC accelerator complex (HL-LHC). In the new tracking detector (ITk) pixel modules with increased granularity will implement to maintain the occupancy with a higher track density. In addition, both sensors and read-out chips composing the hybrid modules will be produced employing more radiation hard technologies with respect to the present pixel detector. Due to their outstanding performance in terms of radiation hardness, thin n-in-p sensors are promising candidates to instrument a section of the new pixel system. Recently produced and developed sensors of new designs will be presented. To test the sensors before interconnection to chips, a punch-through biasing structure was implemented. Its design was optimized to decrease the possible tracking efficiency losses observed. After irradiation, they were caused by the punch-through biasing structure. A sensor compatible with the ATLAS FE-I4 chip with a pixel size of 50×250 μm2, subdivided into smaller pixel implants of 30×30 μm2 size was designed to investigate the performance of the 50×50 μm2 pixel cells foreseen for the HL-LHC. Results on sensor performance of 50×250 and 50×50 μm2 pixel cells in terms of efficiency, charge collection and electric field properties are obtained with beam tests and the Transient Current Technique.

  4. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M

    2011-01-01

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  5. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M, E-mail: sander.heuvelmans@bruco.nl [Bruco integrated circuits BV, Oostermaat 2, 7623 CS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  6. Noise analysis of a novel hybrid active-passive pixel sensor for medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavian, N.; Izadi, M.H.; Sultana, A.; Wu, D.; Karim, K.S.; Nathan, A.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive pixel sensor (PPS) is one of the most widely used architectures in large area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers. It consists of a detector and a thin film transistor (TFT) acting as a readout switch. While the PPS is advantageous in terms of providing a simple and small architecture suitable for high-resolution imaging, it directly exposes the signal to the noise of data line and external readout electronics, causing significant increase in the minimum readable sensor input signal. In this work we present the operation and noise performance of a hybrid 3-TFT current programmed, current output active pixel sensor (APS) suitable for real-time X-ray imaging. The pixel circuit extends the application of a-Si TFT from conventional switching element to on-pixel amplifier for enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and higher imager dynamic range. The capability of operation in both passive and active modes as well as being able to compensate for inherent instabilities of the TFTs makes the architecture a good candidate for X-ray imaging modalities with a wide range of incoming X-ray intensities. Measurement and theoretical calculations reveal a value for input refferd noise below the 1000 electron noise limit for real-time fluoroscopy. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Research of high speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingzhou; Lin Haichuan; Guo Fang; Liu Zhen'an; Xu Hao; Gong Wenxuan; Liu Zhao

    2012-01-01

    As the development of the detector, Silicon pixel detectors have been widely used in high energy physics experiments. It needs data processing system with high speed, high bandwidth and high availability to read data from silicon pixel detectors which generate more large data. The same question occurs on Belle II Pixel Detector which is a new style silicon pixel detector used in SuperKEKB accelerator with high luminance. The paper describes the research of High speed data readout and pre-processing system based on xTCA for silicon pixel detector. The system consists of High Performance Computer Node (HPCN) based on xTCA and ATCA frame. The HPCN consists of 4XFPs based on AMC, 1 AMC Carrier ATCA Board (ACAB) and 1 Rear Transmission Module. It characterized by 5 high performance FPGAs, 16 fiber links based on RocketIO, 5 Gbit Ethernet ports and DDR2 with capacity up to 18GB. In a ATCA frame, 14 HPCNs make up a system using the high speed backplane to achieve the function of data pre-processing and trigger. This system will be used on the trigger and data acquisition system of Belle II Pixel detector. (authors)

  8. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Allinson, N M

    2014-01-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  9. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  10. Planar slim-edge pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenheiner, S; Goessling, C; Jentzsch, J; Klingenberg, R; Lapsien, T; Rummler, A; Troska, G; Wittig, T; Muenstermann, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost tracking detector of ATLAS and requires a sufficient level of hermeticity to achieve superb track reconstruction performance. The current planar n-type pixel sensors feature a pixel matrix of n + -implantations which is (on the opposite p-side) surrounded by so-called guard rings to reduce the high voltage stepwise towards the cutting edge and an additional safety margin. Because of the inactive region around the active area, the sensor modules have been shingled on top of each other's edge which limits the thermal performance and adds complexity in the present detector. The first upgrade phase of the ATLAS pixel detector will consist of the insertable b-layer (IBL), an additional b-layer which will be inserted into the present detector in 2013. Several changes in the sensor design with respect to the existing detector had to be applied to comply with the IBL's specifications and are described in detail. A key issue for the ATLAS upgrades is a flat arrangement of the sensors. To maintain the required level of hermeticity in the detector, the inactive sensor edges have to be reduced to minimize the dead space between the adjacent detector modules. Unirradiated and irradiated sensors with the IBL design have been operated in test beams to study the efficiency performance in the sensor edge region and it was found that the inactive edge width could be reduced from 1100 μm to less than 250 μm.

  11. Front-end electronics for the readout of CdZnTe sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Rudge, A

    2006-01-01

    The CERN_DxCTA is a front-end ASIC optimized for the readout of CdZn Te sensors. The chip is implemented in 0.25 mum CMOS technology. The circuit consists of 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain-shaper stage with 20 ns peaking time and two discriminators, allowing two threshold settings. Each discriminator includes a 5-bit trim DAC and is followed by an 18-bit static ripple-counter. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and Cd ZnTe pixel detectors.

  12. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10−5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, ...

  13. A novel source–drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C., E-mail: chaosong.gao@mails.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Huang, G., E-mail: gmhuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Junique, A.; Keil, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mugnier, H. [Mind, Archamps (France); Musa, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Lee, S. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reidt, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rousset, J. [Mind, Archamps (France); Sielewicz, K.M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    2016-09-21

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/C{sub eff} or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance C{sub eff} because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source–drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to C{sub eff}. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to C{sub eff}, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a {sup 55}Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from −1 V to −6 V reduces C{sub eff} by 38% and the equivalent noise charge

  14. A novel source–drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K.M.; Snoeys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/C_e_f_f or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance C_e_f_f because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source–drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to C_e_f_f. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to C_e_f_f, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a "5"5Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from −1 V to −6 V reduces C_e_f_f by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the

  15. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  16. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kawahito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs. This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median: 0.29 e−rms when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 e−rms, or 16 (1.1 e−rms.

  17. Characterisation of individual pixel efficiency in the PILATUS II sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, A., E-mail: aschub@physics.unimelb.edu.a [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); O' Keefe, G.J. [Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); Sobott, B.A. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Kirby, N.M. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Synchrotron applications such as protein crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) demand precise knowledge of detector pixel efficiency for data corrections. Current techniques used to determine detector efficiency are only applicable for the specific set-up for which the calibration is performed. Here the effect of comparator thresholding on pixel efficiency for PILATUS is presented for standard amplifier and shaper gain settings, allowing users to make necessary corrections to their intensity data for various threshold settings without requiring repeated empirical calibrations. A three-dimensional TCAD simulation of the sensor is also presented and is used to confirm the experimental result.

  18. Readout and characterisation of new silicon pixel photodiode array for use in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.; Ward, G.; Lerch, R.; Rozenfeld, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging tool, which is able to quantify physiological, and biochemical processes in vivo using short-lived cyclotron-produced radiotracers. The main physical principle of PET is the simultaneous measurement of two 511 keV photons which are emitted in opposite directions following the annihilation of a positron in tissue. The accuracy of tracking these photons determines the accuracy of localising the radiotracer in the body, which is referred to as the spatial resolution of the system. Compared with conventional single photon imaging with gamma cameras, PET provides superior spatial resolution and sensitivity. However, compared with anatomical imaging techniques, the spatial resolution remains relatively poor at approximately 4-6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), compared with 1 mm FWHM for MRI. The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong is developing a new Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detection sub-module that will significantly improve the spatial resolution of PET. The new sub-module design is simple and robust to minimise module assembly complications and is completely independent of photomultiplier tubes. The new sub-module has also been designed to maximise its flexibility for easy sub-module coupling so as to form a complete, customised, detection module to be used in PET scanners dedicated to human brain and breast, and small animal studies. A new computer controlled gantry allows the system to be used for PET and SPECT applications. Silicon 8x8 detector arrays have been developed by CMRP and will be optically coupled scintillation crystals and readout using the VIKING tM hybrid preamplifier chip to form the basis of the new module Characterisation of the pixel photodiode array has been performed to check the uniformity of the response of the array. This characterisation has been done using a pulsed, near infra-red laser diode system and alpha particles

  19. Development of a 750x750 pixels CMOS imager sensor for tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaudie, Franck; Guardiola, Nicolas; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Vignon, Bruno; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Estribeau, Magali

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state optical sensors are now commonly used in space applications (navigation cameras, astronomy imagers, tracking sensors...). Although the charge-coupled devices are still widely used, the CMOS image sensor (CIS), which performances are continuously improving, is a strong challenger for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems. This paper describes a 750x750 pixels CMOS image sensor that has been specially designed and developed for star tracker and tracking sensor applications. Such detector, that is featuring smart architecture enabling very simple and powerful operations, is built using the AMIS 0.5μm CMOS technology. It contains 750x750 rectangular pixels with 20μm pitch. The geometry of the pixel sensitive zone is optimized for applications based on centroiding measurements. The main feature of this device is the on-chip control and timing function that makes the device operation easier by drastically reducing the number of clocks to be applied. This powerful function allows the user to operate the sensor with high flexibility: measurement of dark level from masked lines, direct access to the windows of interest… A temperature probe is also integrated within the CMOS chip allowing a very precise measurement through the video stream. A complete electro-optical characterization of the sensor has been performed. The major parameters have been evaluated: dark current and its uniformity, read-out noise, conversion gain, Fixed Pattern Noise, Photo Response Non Uniformity, quantum efficiency, Modulation Transfer Function, intra-pixel scanning. The characterization tests are detailed in the paper. Co60 and protons irradiation tests have been also carried out on the image sensor and the results are presented. The specific features of the 750x750 image sensor such as low power CMOS design (3.3V, power consumption<100mW), natural windowing (that allows efficient and robust tracking algorithms), simple proximity electronics (because of the on

  20. Silicon Sensors for the Upgrades of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Schleper, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accel- erator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The rst upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2 10 34 cm-2 s-1 A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5 10 34 cm-2 s1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The rst upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout elec- tronics that allow ecient data taking up to a luminosity of 2 10 34 cm-2s-1,twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at dierent institutes. Ham...

  1. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  2. MULTI ELEMENT SI SENSOR WITH READOUT ASIC FOR EXAFS SPECTROSCOPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.; LI,Z.; KUCZEWSKI,A.J.; SIDDONS,D.P.

    2002-09-09

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) experiments impose stringent requirements on a detection system, due to the need for processing ionizing events at a high rate, typically above of 10Mcps/cm{sup 2}, and with a high resolution, typically better than 300eV. The detection system here presented is being developed targeting these stringent requirements. It is the result of a cooperation between the Instrumentation Division and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The system is composed of a multi-element Si sensor with dedicated per pixel electronics. The combination of high rate, high resolution and moderate complexity makes this system attractive when compared to other multi-element solutions. In sections 2, 3 and 4 the sensor, the interconnect and the electronics are briefly described. Section 5 reports on the first experimental results.

  3. Comparison of three resistor network division circuits for the readout of 4×4 pixel SiPM arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratos, David; Maria, Georgiou; Eleftherios, Fysikopoulos; George, Loudos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of a flexible SensL's silicon photomultiplier array (SPMArray4) photodetector for possible applications in PET imaging. We have designed and evaluated three different resistor network division circuits to read out the signal outputs of a 4×4 pixel SiPM array. We have applied firstly (i) a symmetric resistive voltage division circuit, secondly (ii) a symmetric resistive charge division circuit and thirdly (iii) a charge division multiplexing resistor network reducing the 16 pixel outputs to 4 position signals. In the first circuit the SensL SPMArray4-A0 preamplification electronics and a SPMArray4-A1 evaluation board providing the 16 pixels voltage outputs were used, before the symmetric resistive voltage network. We reduced the 16 voltage signals firstly to 4X and 4Y coordinate signals. Then those signals were further reduced to 2X and 2Y position signals connected via a resistor network. In the second readout circuit we have used the same technique but without the preamplification stage. The third circuit is based on a discretized positioning circuit, which multiplexes the 16 signals from the SiPM array to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals (Xa, Xb, Yc and Yd) were digitized using a free running sampling technique. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX16) was used for triggering and signal processing of the pulses. We acquired raw images and energy histograms of a BGO and a CsI:Na pixilated scintillator under 22 Na excitation. A clear visualization of the discrete 2×2×5 mm 3 pixilated BGO scintillator elements as well as the 1×1×5 mm 3 pixilated CsI:Na crystal array was achieved with all applied readout circuits. The symmetric resistive charge division circuit provides higher peak to valley ratio than the other readout circuits. Τhe sensitivity and the energy resolution remained almost constant for the three circuits

  4. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-21

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  5. The PASTA chip - A free-running readout ASIC for silicon strip sensors in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Ritman, James [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment is a multi purpose detector, investigating hadron physics in the charm quark mass regime. It is one of the main experiments at the future FAIR accelerator facility, using pp annihilations from a 1.5-15 GeV/c anti-proton beam. Because of the broad physics spectrum and the similarity of event and background signals, PANDA does not rely on a hardware-level trigger decision. The innermost of PANDA's sub-systems is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), consisting of silicon pixel and strip sensors. The latter will be read out by a specialized, free-running readout front-end called PANDA Strip ASIC (PASTA). It has to face a high event rate of up to 40 kHz/ch in an radiation-intense environment. To fulfill the MVD's requirements, it has to give accurate timing information to incoming events (<10 ns) and determine the collected charge with an 8-bit precision. The design has to meet cooling and placing restrictions, leading to a very low power consumption (<4 mW/ch) and limited dimensions. Therefore, a simple, time-based readout approach is chosen. In this talk, the conceptual design of the front-end is presented.

  6. The PASTA chip. A free-running readout ASIC for silicon strip sensors in PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Ritman, James [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA experiment is a multi purpose detector, investigating hadron physics in the charm quark mass regime. It is one of the main experiments at the future FAIR accelerator facility, using anti pp annihilations from a 1.5-15 GeV/c anti-proton beam. Because of the broad physics spectrum and the similarity of event and background signals, PANDA does an event selection based on the complete raw data of the detector. The innermost of PANDA's sub-systems is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), consisting of silicon pixel and strip sensors. The latter will be read out by a specialized, free-running readout front-end called PANDA Strip ASIC (PASTA). It has to face a high event rate of up to 40 kHz/ch in an radiation-intense environment. To fulfill the MVD's requirements, it has to give accurate timing information to incoming events (<10 ns) and determine the collected charge with an 8-bit precision. All this has to be done with a very low power design (<4 mW/ch) on a small footprint with less than 21 mm{sup 2} and 60 μm input pitch for 64 channels per chip. Therefore, a simple, time-based readout approach with two independent thresholds is chosen. In this talk, the conceptual design of the full front-end and some aspects of the digital part are presented.

  7. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokashiki, Ken; Bai, KeunHee; Baek, KyeHyun; Kim, Yongjin; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Jootae

    2007-01-01

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  8. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  9. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mails.ccnu.edu.cn; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming, E-mail: sphy2007@126.com; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-21

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II{sup -}, as the anode array. Topmetal-II{sup -} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 µm technology. Each Topmetal-II{sup -} sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 µm{sup 2}. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 µm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  10. Thin and edgeless sensors for ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourthial, A.; Bomben, M.; Calderini, G.; Marchiori, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Luise, I.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Darbo, G.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2017-12-01

    To cope with the harsh environment foreseen at the high luminosity conditions of HL-LHC, the ATLAS pixel detector has to be upgraded to be fully efficient with a good granularity, a maximized geometrical acceptance and an high read out rate. LPNHE, FBK and INFN are involved in the development of thin and edgeless planar pixel sensors in which the insensitive area at the border of the sensor is minimized thanks to the active edge technology. In this paper we report on two productions, a first one consisting of 200 μm thick n-on-p sensors with active edge, a second one composed of 100 and 130 μm thick n-on-p sensors. Those sensors have been tested on beam, both at CERN-SPS and at DESY. In terms of hit-efficiency, the first production reaches 99 % before irradiation and the second one reaches 96.3% after a fluence in excess of 1× 1016neq/cm2. The performances of those two productions before and after irradiation will be presented in details.

  11. Evaluation of local radiation damage in silicon sensor via charge collection mapping with the Timepix read-out chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platkevic, M; Jakubek, J; Jakubek, M; Pospisil, S; Zemlicka, J; Havranek, V; Semian, V

    2013-01-01

    Studies of radiation hardness of silicon sensors are standardly performed with single-pad detectors evaluating their global electrical properties. In this work we introduce a technique to visualize and determine the spatial distribution of radiation damage across the area of a semiconductor sensor. The sensor properties such as charge collection efficiency and charge diffusion were evaluated locally at many points of the sensor creating 2D maps. For this purpose we used a silicon sensor bump bonded to the pixelated Timepix read-out chip. This device, operated in Time-over-threshold (TOT) mode, allows for the direct energy measurement in each pixel. Selected regions of the sensor were intentionally damaged by defined doses (up to 10 12 particles/cm 2 ) of energetic protons (of 2.5 and 4 MeV). The extent of the damage was measured in terms of the detector response to the same ions. This procedure was performed either on-line during irradiation or off-line after it. The response of the detector to each single particle was analyzed determining the charge collection efficiency and lateral charge diffusion. We evaluated the changes of these parameters as a function of radiation dose. These features are related to the local properties such as the spatial homogeneity of the sensor. The effect of radiation damage was also independently investigated measuring local changes of signal response to γ, and X rays and alpha particles.

  12. ALPIDE: the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šuljić, M.

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of ∼10 m 2 , thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The ALPIDE chip, based on TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process, is being developed for this purpose. A particular process feature, the deep p-well, is exploited so the full CMOS logic can be implemented over the active sensor area without impinging on the deposited charge collection. ALPIDE is implemented on silicon wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. A single chip measures 15 mm by 30 mm and contains half a million pixels distributed in 512 rows and 1024 columns. In-pixel circuitry features amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout is hit driven i.e. only addresses of hit pixels are sent to the periphery. The upgrade of the ITS presents two different sets of requirements for sensors of the inner and of the outer layers due to the significantly different track density, radiation level and active detector surface. The ALPIDE chip fulfils the stringent requirements in both cases. The detection efficiency is higher than 99%, fake-hit probability is orders of magnitude lower than the required 10 −6 and spatial resolution within the required 5 μm. This performance is to be maintained even after a total ionising does (TID) of 2.7 Mrad and a non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) fluence of 1.7 × 10 13 1 MeV n eq /cm 2 , which is above what is expected during the detector lifetime. Readout rate of 100 kHz is provided and the power density of ALPIDE is less than 40 mW/cm 2 . This contribution will provide a summary of the ALPIDE features and main test results.

  13. ALPIDE: the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuljić, M.

    2016-11-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of ~10 m2, thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The ALPIDE chip, based on TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process, is being developed for this purpose. A particular process feature, the deep p-well, is exploited so the full CMOS logic can be implemented over the active sensor area without impinging on the deposited charge collection. ALPIDE is implemented on silicon wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. A single chip measures 15 mm by 30 mm and contains half a million pixels distributed in 512 rows and 1024 columns. In-pixel circuitry features amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout is hit driven i.e. only addresses of hit pixels are sent to the periphery. The upgrade of the ITS presents two different sets of requirements for sensors of the inner and of the outer layers due to the significantly different track density, radiation level and active detector surface. The ALPIDE chip fulfils the stringent requirements in both cases. The detection efficiency is higher than 99%, fake-hit probability is orders of magnitude lower than the required 10-6 and spatial resolution within the required 5 μm. This performance is to be maintained even after a total ionising does (TID) of 2.7 Mrad and a non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) fluence of 1.7 × 1013 1 MeV neq/cm2, which is above what is expected during the detector lifetime. Readout rate of 100 kHz is provided and the power density of ALPIDE is less than 40 mW/cm2. This contribution will provide a summary of the ALPIDE features and main test results.

  14. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.aglieri.rinella@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10{sup −5} and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm{sup 2} for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm{sup 2} for the Outer Barrel Layers, where the occupancy is lower. This contribution describes the architecture and the main features of the final ALPIDE chip, planned for submission at the beginning of 2016. Early results from the experimental qualification of full scale prototype predecessors are also reported. - Highlights: • The ALPIDE chip, an innovative CMOS pixel particle detector is described. • It achieves excellent detection performance figures and very low power consumption. • The characterization of prototypes confirms the achievement of the specifications.

  15. A radiation-hardened two transistor memory cell for monolithic active pixel sensors in STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X; Dorokhov, A; Hu, Y; Gao, D

    2011-01-01

    Radiation tolerance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) is dramatically decreased when intellectual property (IP) memories are integrated for fast readout application. This paper presents a new solution to improve radiation hardness and avoid latch-up for memory cell design. The tradeoffs among radiation tolerance, area and speed are significantly considered and analyzed. The cell designed in 0.35 μm process satisfies the radiation tolerance requirements of STAR experiment. The cell size is 4.55 x 5.45 μm 2 . This cell is smaller than the IP memory cell based on the same process and is only 26% of a radiation tolerant 6T SRAM cell used in previous contribution. The write access time of the cell is less than 2 ns, while the read access time is 80 ns.

  16. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  17. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  18. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  19. Device Simulation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors: Radiation Damage Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourches, N.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vertexing for the future International Linear Collider represents a challenging goal because of the high spatial resolution required with low material budget and high ionizing radiation tolerance. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) represent a good potential solution for this purpose. Up to now many MAPS sensors have been developed. They are based on various architectures and manufactured in different processes. However, up so far, the sensor diode has not been the subject of extensive modelization and simulation. Published simulation studies of sensor-signal formation have been less numerous than measurements on real sensors. This is a cause for concern because such sensor is physically based on the partially depleted diode, in the vicinity of which the electric field collects the minority carriers generated by an incident MIP (minimum ionizing particle). Although the microscopic mechanisms are well known and modelled, the global physical mechanisms for signal formation are not very rigorously established. This is partly due to the presence of a predominant diffusion component in the charge transport. We present here simulations mainly based on the S-PISCES code, in which physical mechanisms affecting transport are taken into account. Diffusion, influence of residual carrier concentration due to the doping level in the sensitive volume, and more importantly charge trapping due to deep levels in the active (detecting) layer are studied together with geometric aspects. The effect of neutron irradiation is studied to assess the effects of deep traps. A comparison with available experimental data, obtained on processed MAPS before or after neutron irradiation will be introduced. Simulated reconstruction of the Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP) point of impact in two dimensions is also investigated. For further steps, guidelines for process choices of next Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors are introduced. (authors)

  20. A self-adjusting delay circuit for pixel read-out chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, B.

    1997-01-01

    A simple concept for automatic adjustment of important VLSI-circuit properties was proposed in (Fischer and Joens, Nucl. Instr. and. Meth.). As an application, a self-adjusting monoflop is reviewed, and detailed measurements are discussed regarding a possible implementation in the LHC 1 read-out chip for the ATLAS experiment (ATLAS Internal Note, 1995). (orig.)

  1. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miucci, A; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Ferrere, D; Iacobucci, G; Rosa, A La; Muenstermann, D; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Obermann, T; Wermes, N; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Backhaus, M; Capeans, M; Feigl, S; Nessi, M; Pernegger, H; Ristic, B; George, M

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

  2. A novel CMOS sensor with in-pixel auto-zeroed discrimination for charged particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degerli, Y; Guilloux, F; Orsini, F

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing fast and granular Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) as new charged particle tracking detectors for high energy physics experiments, a new rolling shutter binary pixel architecture concept (RSBPix) with in-pixel correlated double sampling, amplification and discrimination is presented. The discriminator features auto-zeroing in order to compensate process-related transistor mismatches. In order to validate the pixel, a first monolithic CMOS sensor prototype, including a pixel array of 96 × 64 pixels, has been designed and fabricated in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Results of laboratory tests are presented

  3. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guo-An; He Jin; Zhang Dong-Wei; Su Yan-Mei; Wang Cheng; Chen Qin; Liang Hai-Lang; Ye Yun

    2012-01-01

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1 T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed. By switching the photosensing pinned diode, resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus, the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition, the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line, leading to a very high fill factor. The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail. The functionality of the proposed 1T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology

  4. The RD53 Collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM Simulation Framework and its General Applicability to Design of Advanced Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Christiansen, J.; Hemperek, T.

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger late...

  5. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  6. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1993-01-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application. (orig.)

  7. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  8. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  9. On drift fields in CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, Michael [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-MVD-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) combine an excellent spatial resolution of few μm with a very low material budget of 0.05% X{sub 0}. To extend their radiation tolerance to the level needed for future experiments like e.g. CBM, it is regularly considered to deplete their active volume. We discuss the limits of this strategy accounting for the specific features of the sensing elements of MAPS. Moreover, we introduce an alternative approach to generate the drift fields needed to provoke a faster charge collection by means of doping gradients.

  10. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...

  11. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...

  12. Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducourthial, A.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subject to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) [1], the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 1015 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is essential in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects on the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

  13. Scintillator counters with multi-pixel avalanche photodiode readout for the ND280 detector of the T2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineev, O.; Afanasjev, A.; Bondarenko, G.; Golovin, V.; Gushchin, E.; Izmailov, A.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kudenko, Yu.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Mayatski, V.; Musienko, Yu.; Nakaya, T.; Nobuhara, T.; Shaibonov, B.A.J.; Shaikhiev, A.; Taguchi, M.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment is a second generation long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which aims at a sensitive search for ν e appearance. The main design features of the T2K near neutrino detectors located at 280m from the target are presented, and the scintillator counters are described. The counters are readout via WLS fibers embedded into S-shaped grooves in the scintillator from both ends by multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes operating in a limited Geiger mode. Operating principles and results of tests of photosensors with a sensitive area of 1mm 2 are presented. A time resolution of 1.75ns, a spatial resolution of 9.9-12.4cm, and a detection efficiency for minimum ionizing particles of more than 99% were obtained for scintillator detectors in a beam test

  14. Layout techniques to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard CMOS technologies demonstrated on a pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Carrer, N; Casagrande, L; Cavagnoli, A; Dachs, C; Di Liberto, S; Formenti, F; Giraldo, A; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Letheren, M F; Marchioro, A; Martinengo, P; Meddi, F; Mikulec, B; Morando, M; Morel, M; Noah, E; Paccagnella, A; Ropotar, I; Saladino, S; Sansen, Willy; Santopietro, F; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Signe, P M; Soramel, F; Vannucci, Luigi; Vleugels, K

    2000-01-01

    A new pixel readout prototype has been developed at CERN for high- energy physics applications. This full mixed mode circuit has been implemented in a commercial 0.5 mu m CMOS technology. Its radiation tolerance has been enhanced by designing all NMOS transistors in enclosed geometry and introducing guardrings wherever necessary. The technique is explained and its effectiveness demonstrated on various irradiation measurements on individual transistors and on the prototype. Circuit performance started to degrade only after a total dose of 600 krad-1.7 Mrad depending on the type of radiation. 10 keV X-rays, /sup 60/Co gamma-rays, 6.5 MeV protons, and minimum ionizing particles were used. Implications of this layout approach on the circuit design and perspectives for even deeper submicron technologies are discussed. (20 refs).

  15. Electronic dosimetry and neutron metrology by CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstalle, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at demonstrating the possibility to use active pixel sensors as operational neutron dosemeters. To do so, the sensor that has been used has to be γ-transparent and to be able to detect neutrons on a wide energy range with a high detection efficiency. The response of the device, made of the CMOS sensor MIMOSA-5 and a converter in front of the sensor (polyethylene for fast neutron detection and 10 B for thermal neutron detection), has been compared with Monte Carlo simulations carried out with MCNPX and GEANT4. These codes have been before-hand validated to check they can be used properly for our application. Experiments to characterize the sensor have been performed at IPHC and at IRSN/LMDN (Cadarache). The results of the sensor irradiation to photon sources and mixed field ( 241 AmBe source) show the γ-transparency of the sensor by applying an appropriate threshold on the deposited energy (around 100 keV). The associated detection efficiency is satisfactory with a value of 10 -3 , in good agreement with MCNPX and GEANT4. Other features of the device have been tested with the same source, like the angular response. The last part of this work deals with the detection of thermal neutrons (eV-neutrons). Assays have been done in Cadarache (IRSN) with a 252 Cf source moderated with heavy water (with and without cadmium shell). Results asserted a very high detection efficiency (up to 6*10 -3 for a pure 10 B converter) in good agreement with GEANT4. (author)

  16. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm^2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current and future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for b...

  17. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time and considers both planar and 3D sensor designs. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we compare predictions for basic...

  18. Active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S; Wieman, Howard; Denes, Peter; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2005-09-01

    A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX electron microscope. For this experiment, we used an APS prototype with an area of 64 x 64 pixels of 20 microm x 20 microm pixel pitch. Single-electron events were measured by using very low beam intensity. The histogram of the incident electron energy deposited in the sensor shows a Landau distribution at low energies, as well as unexpected events at higher absorbed energies. After careful study, we concluded that backscattering in the silicon substrate and re-entering the sensitive epitaxial layer a second time with much lower speed caused the unexpected events. Exhaustive simulation experiments confirmed the existence of these back-scattered electrons. For the APS to be usable, the back-scattered electron events must be eliminated, perhaps by thinning the substrate to less than 30 microm. By using experimental data taken with an APS chip with a standard silicon substrate (300 microm) and adjusting the results to take into account the effect of a thinned silicon substrate (30 microm), we found an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio for a back-thinned detector in the energy range of 200-400 keV was about 10:1 and an estimate for the spatial resolution was about 10 microm.

  19. LHC1: a semiconductor pixel detector readout chip with internal, tunable delay providing a binary pattern of selected events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.; Antinori, F.; Barberis, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Omega3/LHC1 pixel detector readout chip comprises a matrix of 128 x 16 readout cells of 50 μm x 500 μm and peripheral functions with 4 distinct modes of initialization and operation, together more than 800 000 transistors. Each cell contains a complete chain of amplifier, discriminator with adjustable threshold and fast-OR output, a globally adjustable delay with local fine-tuning, coincidence logic and memory. Every cell can be individually addressed for electrical test and masking. First results have been obtained from electrical tests of a chip without detector as well as from source measurements. The electronic noise without detector is ∼100 e - rms. The lowest threshold setting is close to 2000 e - and non-uniformity has been measured to be better than 450 e - rms at 5000 e - threshold. A timewalk of <10 ns and a precision of <6 ns rms on a delay of 2 μs have been measured. The results may be improved by further optimization. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of CMOS pixel sensor with 0.18 μm CMOS technology for high-precision tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, M.; Fu, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yan, W.

    2017-01-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) proposed by the Chinese high energy physics community is aiming to measure Higgs particles and their interactions precisely. The tracking detector including Silicon Inner Tracker (SIT) and Forward Tracking Disks (FTD) has driven stringent requirements on sensor technologies in term of spatial resolution, power consumption and readout speed. CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) is a promising candidate to approach these requirements. This paper presents the preliminary studies on the sensor optimization for tracking detector to achieve high collection efficiency while keeping necessary spatial resolution. Detailed studies have been performed on the charge collection using a 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. This process allows high resistivity epitaxial layer, leading to a significant improvement on the charge collection and therefore improving the radiation tolerance. Together with the simulation results, the first exploratory prototype has bee designed and fabricated. The prototype includes 9 different pixel arrays, which vary in terms of pixel pitch, diode size and geometry. The total area of the prototype amounts to 2 × 7.88 mm 2 .

  1. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Beimforde, M., E-mail: mibei@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Macchiolo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel module concept is presented utilizing thin sensors and a novel vertical integration technique for the ATLAS pixel detector in view of the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrades. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 and 150{mu}m has been produced from wafers of standard thickness using a thinning process developed at the Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor (HLL) and the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP). Pre-irradiation characterizations of these sensors show a very good device yield and high break down voltage. First proton irradiations up to a fluence of 10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2} have been carried out and their impact on the electrical properties of thin sensors has been studied. The novel ICV-SLID vertical integration technology will allow for routing signals vertically to the back side of the readout chips. With this, four-side buttable detector devices with an increased active area fraction are made possible. A first production of SLID test structures was performed and showed a high connection efficiency for different pad sizes and a mild sensitivity to disturbances of the surface planarity.

  2. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andricek, L.; Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    A new pixel module concept is presented utilizing thin sensors and a novel vertical integration technique for the ATLAS pixel detector in view of the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrades. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 and 150μm has been produced from wafers of standard thickness using a thinning process developed at the Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor (HLL) and the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPP). Pre-irradiation characterizations of these sensors show a very good device yield and high break down voltage. First proton irradiations up to a fluence of 10 15 n eq cm -2 have been carried out and their impact on the electrical properties of thin sensors has been studied. The novel ICV-SLID vertical integration technology will allow for routing signals vertically to the back side of the readout chips. With this, four-side buttable detector devices with an increased active area fraction are made possible. A first production of SLID test structures was performed and showed a high connection efficiency for different pad sizes and a mild sensitivity to disturbances of the surface planarity.

  3. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L.

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the current detector, planned for installation during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2018-19, in order to enhance its low-momentum vertexing and tracking capability, and exploit the planned increase of the LHC luminosity with Pb beams. One of the cornerstones of the ALICE upgrade strategy is to replace the current Inner Tracking System in its entirety with a new, high resolution, low-material ITS detector. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) implemented using the 0.18 μm CMOS technology of TowerJazz. In this contribution, the main key features of the ITS upgrade will be illustrated with emphasis on the functionality of the pixel chip. The ongoing developments on the readout architectures, which have been implemented in several fabricated prototypes, will be discussed. The operational features of these prototypes as well as the results of the characterisation tests before and after irradiation will also be presented

  4. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the current detector, planned for installation during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2018-19, in order to enhance its low-momentum vertexing and tracking capability, and exploit the planned increase of the LHC luminosity with Pb beams. One of the cornerstones of the ALICE upgrade strategy is to replace the current Inner Tracking System in its entirety with a new, high resolution, low-material ITS detector. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) implemented using the 0.18 μm CMOS technology of TowerJazz. In this contribution, the main key features of the ITS upgrade will be illustrated with emphasis on the functionality of the pixel chip. The ongoing developments on the readout architectures, which have been implemented in several fabricated prototypes, will be discussed. The operational features of these prototypes as well as the results of the characterisation tests before and after irradiation will also be presented.

  5. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) active pixel sensors with the photosite implemented in the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Active pixel sensors for a high quality imager are fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process by integrating the photodetectors on the SOI substrate and forming pixel readout transistors on the SOI thin-film. The technique can include forming silicon islands on a buried insulator layer disposed on a silicon substrate and selectively etching away the buried insulator layer over a region of the substrate to define a photodetector area. Dopants of a first conductivity type are implanted to form a signal node in the photodetector area and to form simultaneously drain/source regions for a first transistor in at least a first one of the silicon islands. Dopants of a second conductivity type are implanted to form drain/source regions for a second transistor in at least a second one of the silicon islands. Isolation rings around the photodetector also can be formed when dopants of the second conductivity type are implanted. Interconnections among the transistors and the photodetector are provided to allow signals sensed by the photodetector to be read out via the transistors formed on the silicon islands.

  6. Development of high data readout rate pixel module and detector hybridization at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the baseline design and a variation of the pixel module to handle the data rate required for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. The present prototype has shown good electrical performance characteristics. Indium bump bonding is proven to be capable of successful fabrication at 50 micron pitch on real detectors. For solder bumps at 50 micron pitch, much better results have been obtained with the fluxless PADS processed detectors. The results are adequate for our needs and our tests have validated it as a viable technology

  7. Cryogenic readout for multiple VUV4 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, A.

    2018-03-01

    This work concerned the preliminary tests and characterization of a cryogenic preamplifier board for an array made of 16 S13370-3050CN (VUV4 family) Multi-Pixel Photon Counters manufactured by Hamamatsu and operated at liquid xenon temperature. The proposed prototype is based on the use of the Analog Devices AD8011 current feedback operational amplifier. The detector allows for single photon detection, making this device a promising choice for the future generation of neutrino and dark matter detectors based on liquid xenon targets.

  8. Pixelized M-pi-n CdTe detector coupled to Medipix2 readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Penttila, R; Andersson, H; Nenonen, S; Gadda, A; Pohjonen, H; Vanttajac, I; Laaksoc, P; Likonen, J

    2011-01-01

    We have realized a simple method for patterning an M-pi-n CdTe diode with a deeply diffused pn-junction, such as indium anode on CdTe. The method relies on removing the semiconductor material on the anode-side of the diode until the physical junction has been reached. The pixelization of the p-type CdTe diode with an indium anode has been demonstrated by patterning perpendicular trenches with a high precision diamond blade and pulsed laser. Pixelization or microstrip pattering can be done on both sides of the diode, also on the cathode-side to realize double sided detector configuration. The article compares the patterning quality of the diamond blade process, pulsed pico-second and femto-second lasers processes. Leakage currents and inter-strip resistance have been measured and are used as the basis of the comparison. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) characterization has been done for a diode to define the pn-junction depth and to see the effect of the thermal loads of the flip-chip bonding process. Th...

  9. Performance of Radiation Hard Pixel Sensors for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dorokhov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors in particle physics experiments are used for the detection of the particles trajectory produced in high energy collisions. To study physics phenomena at high energies the high particle interaction rate is unavoidable, as the number of interesting events falls with the energy and the total number of events is dominated by the soft processes. The position resolution of vertex detectors has to be of few microns in order to distinguish between particle tracks produced in b-quark or tau-decays, because of the short flight path before the decay. The high spatial position resolution and the ability to detect a large number of superimposed track are the key features for tracking detectors. Modern silicon microstrip and pixel detectors with high resolution are currently most suitable devices for the tracking systems of high energy physics experiments. In this work the performance of the sensors designed for the CMS pixel detector are studied and the position resolution is estimated. In the...

  10. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  11. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  12. 3D printed flexible capacitive force sensor with a simple micro-controller based readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Martijn G.; Sanders, Remco; Krijnen, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a proof of principle of a flexible force sensor and the corresponding readout circuit. The flexible force sensor consists of a parallel plate capacitor that is 3D printed using regular and conductive thermoplastic poly-urethane (TPU). The capacitance change

  13. Test-beam measurements and simulation studies of thin pixel sensors for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00574329; Dannheim, Dominik

    The multi-$TeV$ $e^{+}e^{-}$ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is one of the options for a future high-energy collider for the post-LHC era. It would allow for searches of new physics and simultaneously offer the possibility for precision measurements of standard model processes. The physics goals and experimental conditions at CLIC set high precision requirements on the vertex detector made of pixel detectors: a high pointing resolution of 3 $\\mu m$, very low mass of 0.2% $X_{0}$ per layer, 10 ns time stamping capability and low power dissipation of 50 mW/$cm^{2}$ compatible with air-flow cooling. In this thesis, hybrid assemblies with thin active-edge planar sensors are characterised through calibrations, laboratory and test-beam measurements. Prototypes containing 50 $\\mu m$ to 150 $\\mu m$ thin planar silicon sensors bump-bonded to Timepix3 readout ASICs with 55 $\\mu m$ pitch are characterised in test beams at the CERN SPS in view of their detection efficiency and single-point resolution. A digitiser for AllP...

  14. Characterization study of an intensified complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active pixel sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J. A.; Chen, D.; Turchetta, R.; Royle, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An intensified CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) has been constructed for operation in low-light-level applications: a high-gain, fast-light decay image intensifier has been coupled via a fiber optic stud to a prototype "VANILLA" APS, developed by the UK based MI3 consortium. The sensor is capable of high frame rates and sparse readout. This paper presents a study of the performance parameters of the intensified VANILLA APS system over a range of image intensifier gain levels when uniformly illuminated with 520 nm green light. Mean-variance analysis shows the APS saturating around 3050 Digital Units (DU), with the maximum variance increasing with increasing image intensifier gain. The system's quantum efficiency varies in an exponential manner from 260 at an intensifier gain of 7.45 × 103 to 1.6 at a gain of 3.93 × 101. The usable dynamic range of the system is 60 dB for intensifier gains below 1.8 × 103, dropping to around 40 dB at high gains. The conclusion is that the system shows suitability for the desired application.

  15. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  16. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F.R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  17. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, G., E-mail: geetikajain.hep@gmail.com [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Eber, R. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Eichorn, T. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (Germany); Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Lalwani, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Messineo, A. [Universita di Pisa & INFN sez. di Pisa (Italy); Palomo, F.R. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Peltola, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Printz, M. [Institute fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (Germany); Ranjan, K. [CDRST, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Villa, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (Spain); Hidalgo, S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (Spain)

    2016-07-11

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  18. Spectroscopy study of imaging devices based on silicon Pixel Array Detector coupled to VATAGP7 read-out chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linhart, V; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Stankova, V; Burdette, D; Chessi, E; Cochran, E; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Weilhammer, P; Cindro, V; Grosicar, B; Mikuz, M; Studen, A; Zontar, D; Clinthorne, N H

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopic and timing response studies have been conducted on a detector module consisting of a silicon Pixel Array Detector bonded on two VATAGP7 read-out chips manufactured by Gamma-Medica Ideas using laboratory gamma sources and the internal calibration facilities (the calibration system of the read-out chips). The performed tests have proven that the chips have (i) non-linear calibration curves which can be approximated by power functions, (ii) capability to measure the energy of photons with energy resolution better than 2 keV (exact range and resolution depend on experimental setup), (iii) the internal calibration facility which provides 6 out of 16 available internal calibration charges within our region of interest (spanning the Compton edge of 511 keV photons). The peaks induced by the internal calibration facility are suitable for a fit of the calibration curves. However, they are not suitable for measurements of equivalent noise charge because their full width at half maximum varies with their amplitude. These facts indicate that the VATAGP7 chips are useful and precise tools for a wide variety of spectroscopic devices. We have also explored time walk of the module and peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips. We have observed that (iv) the time walk is caused partly by the peaking time of the signals provided by the fast shaper of the chips and partly by the timing uncertainty related to the varying position of the photon interaction, (v) the peaking time of the spectroscopy signals provided by the chips increases with increasing pulse height.

  19. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    to higher charge collection efficiencies after irradiation. Devices with thicknesses between 75 μm and 150 μm are investigated before and after irradiation with different experimental approaches, namely radioactive sources, beam tests, and laser measurements. The obtained results are compared to those gathered for devices using the currently widely used thickness of 285 μm. By implanting the sides of the sensors, the distance between the last active pixel implant and the edge can be considerably reduced, allowing for a compact module concept. In this thesis several steps are discussed to reduce this distance from 1.1mm down to 50 μm. Subsequently, the performance of the different implementations is investigated. The SLID interconnections offer the possibility to stack sensors and several layers of read-out electronics as well as a reduced minimal pitch and eventually a lower cost. In combination with ICVs it paves the way to 3D-integrated pixel assemblies. These can be further optimised in terms of the active area, thanks to a reduced footprint of the read-out chip. Furthermore, it enables the use of specialised processes for the analogue and digital parts of the read-out chip in the different layers. First assemblies employing SLID interconnections were built and the properties of the interconnection are discussed. Finally, etching of ICVs was started and the present status is reviewed.

  20. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    within the tracking system and leads to higher charge collection efficiencies after irradiation. Devices with thicknesses between 75 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m are investigated before and after irradiation with different experimental approaches, namely radioactive sources, beam tests, and laser measurements. The obtained results are compared to those gathered for devices using the currently widely used thickness of 285 {mu}m. By implanting the sides of the sensors, the distance between the last active pixel implant and the edge can be considerably reduced, allowing for a compact module concept. In this thesis several steps are discussed to reduce this distance from 1.1mm down to 50 {mu}m. Subsequently, the performance of the different implementations is investigated. The SLID interconnections offer the possibility to stack sensors and several layers of read-out electronics as well as a reduced minimal pitch and eventually a lower cost. In combination with ICVs it paves the way to 3D-integrated pixel assemblies. These can be further optimised in terms of the active area, thanks to a reduced footprint of the read-out chip. Furthermore, it enables the use of specialised processes for the analogue and digital parts of the read-out chip in the different layers. First assemblies employing SLID interconnections were built and the properties of the interconnection are discussed. Finally, etching of ICVs was started and the present status is reviewed.

  1. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μ W from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e - RMS at room temperature.

  2. FE-I2 a front-end readout chip designed in a commercial 025- mu m process for the ATLAS pixel detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanquart, L; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Mandelli, E; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2004-01-01

    A new front-end chip (FE-I2) has been developed for the ATLAS pixel detector at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator facility of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This chip has been submitted in a commercial 0.25- mu m CMOS process using special layout techniques for radiation tolerance. It comprises 2880 pixels arranged into 18 columns of 160 channels. Each pixel element of dimension 50 mu m * 400 mu m is composed of a charge- sensitive amplifier followed by a fast discriminator with a detection threshold adjustable within a range of 0-6000 electrons and slow control logic incorporating a wired-hit-Or, preamplifier-kill, readout mask, and automatic threshold tuning circuitry. There are two single-event- upset (SEU)-tolerant DACs for reducing threshold (7-b) and recovery- time (3-b) mismatches from pixel to pixel along with digital hit emulation and a differential readout circuit aimed at transporting time-stamped data from each pixel to buffers at the bottom of the chip. In c...

  3. Transfer Function and Fluorescence Measurements on New CMOS Pixel Sensor for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kaemingk, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of pixel sensors is being designed for the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk). These pixel sensors are being tested to ensure that they meet the demands of the ATLAS detector. As a summer student, I was involved in some of the measurements taken for this purpose.

  4. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coluccia, Maria R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n + /n/p + silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10 14 protons/cm 2

  5. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul, E-mail: md.arefin@monash.edu; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet [Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-06-02

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  6. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0–5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  7. Implementation of a Customisable Readout Sequence for the ALICE ITS Upgrade Explorer Family Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzari, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Within the ALICE ITS upgrade R&D programme the Explorer family chips are developed featuring 11700 pixels which are split into 18 different sectors with different properties. These pixels are read out sequentially leading to a time span of 2.34ms between the first and last pixel. Due to the long readout time, shot noise induced by the leakage currents in the in-pixel analogue memories makes the comparison of different sensor implementations located in distant sectors on the Explorer family chips difficult. In order to reduce this noise contribution a customisable readout sequence is developed to read parts instead of the whole chip which reduces the overall readout time. This readout sequence is integrated in the existing characterisation framework in order to choose the best performing sensor implementation through pixel-by-pixel comparison without readout-induced effects.

  8. The Read-Out Driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS experiment: commissioning for the IBL detector and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    CERN Document Server

    Travaglini, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Bindi, M; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Lama, L; Chen, S P; Hsu, S C; Hauck, S; Kugel, A; Flick, T; Wensing, M

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called Insertable B-layer (IBL). IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered in order to perform tests with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this contribution both setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes in order to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  9. An Over 90 dB Intra-Scene Single-Exposure Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor Using a 3.0 μm Triple-Gain Pixel Fabricated in a Standard BSI Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Takayanagi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To respond to the high demand for high dynamic range imaging suitable for moving objects with few artifacts, we have developed a single-exposure dynamic range image sensor by introducing a triple-gain pixel and a low noise dual-gain readout circuit. The developed 3 μm pixel is capable of having three conversion gains. Introducing a new split-pinned photodiode structure, linear full well reaches 40 ke−. Readout noise under the highest pixel gain condition is 1 e− with a low noise readout circuit. Merging two signals, one with high pixel gain and high analog gain, and the other with low pixel gain and low analog gain, a single exposure dynamic rage (SEHDR signal is obtained. Using this technology, a 1/2.7”, 2M-pixel CMOS image sensor has been developed and characterized. The image sensor also employs an on-chip linearization function, yielding a 16-bit linear signal at 60 fps, and an intra-scene dynamic range of higher than 90 dB was successfully demonstrated. This SEHDR approach inherently mitigates the artifacts from moving objects or time-varying light sources that can appear in the multiple exposure high dynamic range (MEHDR approach.

  10. An Over 90 dB Intra-Scene Single-Exposure Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor Using a 3.0 μm Triple-Gain Pixel Fabricated in a Standard BSI Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Isao; Yoshimura, Norio; Mori, Kazuya; Matsuo, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Abe, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Naoto; Ishikawa, Kenichiro; Okura, Shunsuke; Ohsawa, Shinji; Otaka, Toshinori

    2018-01-12

    To respond to the high demand for high dynamic range imaging suitable for moving objects with few artifacts, we have developed a single-exposure dynamic range image sensor by introducing a triple-gain pixel and a low noise dual-gain readout circuit. The developed 3 μm pixel is capable of having three conversion gains. Introducing a new split-pinned photodiode structure, linear full well reaches 40 ke - . Readout noise under the highest pixel gain condition is 1 e - with a low noise readout circuit. Merging two signals, one with high pixel gain and high analog gain, and the other with low pixel gain and low analog gain, a single exposure dynamic rage (SEHDR) signal is obtained. Using this technology, a 1/2.7", 2M-pixel CMOS image sensor has been developed and characterized. The image sensor also employs an on-chip linearization function, yielding a 16-bit linear signal at 60 fps, and an intra-scene dynamic range of higher than 90 dB was successfully demonstrated. This SEHDR approach inherently mitigates the artifacts from moving objects or time-varying light sources that can appear in the multiple exposure high dynamic range (MEHDR) approach.

  11. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  12. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beimforde, Michael

    2010-07-19

    edge demonstrate that the active sensor area fraction can be increased to fulfill the requirements for the detector upgrades. A subset of sensors, irradiated up to the fluence expected at the sLHC demonstrated that thin sensors show a higher charge collection efficiency than expected from current radiation damage models. First thin diodes equipped with the SLID metallization and first test structures that were connected with SLID indicate that this novel interconnection as part of the ICV-SLID technology could be a suitable replacement for the present bump-bonding technology. Finally, a new calibration algorithm for the ATLAS pixel readout chips is presented which is used to lower the discriminator threshold from 4000 electrons to 2000 electrons, to account for the reduction of the signal size due to radiation damage and the reduced sensor thickness. (orig.)

  13. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, Michael

    2010-01-01

    sensor area fraction can be increased to fulfill the requirements for the detector upgrades. A subset of sensors, irradiated up to the fluence expected at the sLHC demonstrated that thin sensors show a higher charge collection efficiency than expected from current radiation damage models. First thin diodes equipped with the SLID metallization and first test structures that were connected with SLID indicate that this novel interconnection as part of the ICV-SLID technology could be a suitable replacement for the present bump-bonding technology. Finally, a new calibration algorithm for the ATLAS pixel readout chips is presented which is used to lower the discriminator threshold from 4000 electrons to 2000 electrons, to account for the reduction of the signal size due to radiation damage and the reduced sensor thickness. (orig.)

  14. 4T CMOS Active Pixel Sensors under Ionizing Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ionizing radiation effects on 4T pixels and the elementary in-pixel test devices with regard to the electrical performance and the optical performance. In addition to an analysis of the macroscopic pixel parameter degradation, the radiation-induced degradation mechanisms

  15. The RD53 collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM simulation framework and its general applicability to design of advanced pixel readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, S; Christiansen, J; Conti, E; Placidi, P; Hemperek, T

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger latency buffering section of pixel chips. A fully shared architecture and a distributed one have been described at behavioral level and simulated; the resulting memory occupancy statistics and hit loss rates have subsequently been compared

  16. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  17. Performance of thin pixel sensors irradiated up to a fluence of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}cm{sup -2} and development of a new interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchiolo, A., E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany); Beimforde, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany); Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Muenchen (Germany); Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    A new pixel module concept is presented, where thin sensors and a novel vertical integration technique are combined. This R and D activity is carried out in view of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrades. A first set of n-in-p pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 and 150{mu}m has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency measurements have been performed, yielding a higher CCE than expected from the present radiation damage models. The interconnection of thin n-in-p pixels to the FE-I3 ATLAS electronics is under way, exploiting the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technique developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT. In addition, preliminary studies aimed at Inter-Chip-Vias (ICV) etching into the FE-I3 electronics are reported. ICVs will be used to route the signals vertically through the read-out chip, to newly created pads on the backside. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side tileable pixel assemblies, avoiding the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding.

  18. Performance of thin pixel sensors irradiated up to a fluence of 1016neqcm-2 and development of a new interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Beimforde, M.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Weigell, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new pixel module concept is presented, where thin sensors and a novel vertical integration technique are combined. This R and D activity is carried out in view of the ATLAS pixel detector upgrades. A first set of n-in-p pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 and 150μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency measurements have been performed, yielding a higher CCE than expected from the present radiation damage models. The interconnection of thin n-in-p pixels to the FE-I3 ATLAS electronics is under way, exploiting the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technique developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT. In addition, preliminary studies aimed at Inter-Chip-Vias (ICV) etching into the FE-I3 electronics are reported. ICVs will be used to route the signals vertically through the read-out chip, to newly created pads on the backside. This should serve as a proof of principle for future four-side tileable pixel assemblies, avoiding the cantilever presently needed in the chip for the wire bonding.

  19. Evaluation of 320x240 pixel LEC GaAs Schottky barrier X-ray imaging arrays, hybridized to CMOS readout circuit based on charge integration

    CERN Document Server

    Irsigler, R; Alverbro, J; Borglind, J; Froejdh, C; Helander, P; Manolopoulos, S; O'Shea, V; Smith, K

    1999-01-01

    320x240 pixels GaAs Schottky barrier detector arrays were fabricated, hybridized to silicon readout circuits, and subsequently evaluated. The detector chip was based on semi-insulating LEC GaAs material. The square shaped pixel detector elements were of the Schottky barrier type and had a pitch of 38 mu m. The GaAs wafers were thinned down prior to the fabrication of the ohmic back contact. After dicing, the chips were indium bump, flip-chip bonded to CMOS readout circuits based on charge integration, and finally evaluated. A bias voltage between 50 and 100 V was sufficient to operate the detector. Results on I-V characteristics, noise behaviour and response to X-ray radiation are presented. Images of various objects and slit patterns were acquired by using a standard dental imaging X-ray source. The work done was a part of the XIMAGE project financed by the European Community (Brite-Euram). (author)

  20. The first fully functional 3D CMOS chip with Deep N-well active pixel sensors for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of Deep N-well (DNW) active pixel sensors fabricated in a vertically integrated technology. The DNW approach takes advantage of the triple well structure to lay out a sensor with relatively large charge collecting area (as compared to standard three transistor MAPS), while the readout is performed by a classical signal processing chain for capacitive detectors. This new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS process where the top tier is thinned down to about 12μm to expose through silicon vias (TSV), therefore making connection to the buried circuits possible. This technology has been used to design a fine pitch 3D CMOS sensor with sparsification capabilities, in view of vertexing applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiments. Results from the characterization of different kind of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 and 8×8 matrices, are presented

  1. Frequency-domain readout multiplexing of transition-edge sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanting, T.M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: tlanting@berkeley.edu; Arnold, K. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cho, Hsiao-Mei [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Clarke, John [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, Matt [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, William [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lueker, M. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richards, P.L. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A.D. [Northrop-Grumman, Redondo Beach, CA 94278 (United States); Spieler, H.G. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have demonstrated frequency-domain readout multiplexing of eight channels for superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometer arrays. The multiplexed readout noise is 6.5 pA/{radical}Hz, well below the bolometer dark noise of 15-20 pA/{radical}Hz. We measure an upper limit on crosstalk of 0.004 between channels adjacent in frequency which meets our design requirement of 0.01. We have observed vibration insensitivity in our frequency-domain multiplexed transition-edge sensors, making this system very attractive for telescope and satellite observations. We also discuss extensions to our multiplexed readout. In particular, we are developing a SQUID flux-locked loop that is entirely cold and collaborating on digital multiplexer technology in order to scale up the number of multiplexed channels.

  2. Photodiode area effect on performance of X-ray CMOS active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, G.; Lim, K. T.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.

    2018-02-01

    Compared to conventional TFT-based X-ray imaging devices, CMOS-based X-ray imaging sensors are considered next generation because they can be manufactured in very small pixel pitches and can acquire high-speed images. In addition, CMOS-based sensors have the advantage of integration of various functional circuits within the sensor. The image quality can also be improved by the high fill-factor in large pixels. If the size of the subject is small, the size of the pixel must be reduced as a consequence. In addition, the fill factor must be reduced to aggregate various functional circuits within the pixel. In this study, 3T-APS (active pixel sensor) with photodiodes of four different sizes were fabricated and evaluated. It is well known that a larger photodiode leads to improved overall performance. Nonetheless, if the size of the photodiode is > 1000 μm2, the degree to which the sensor performance increases as the photodiode size increases, is reduced. As a result, considering the fill factor, pixel-pitch > 32 μm is not necessary to achieve high-efficiency image quality. In addition, poor image quality is to be expected unless special sensor-design techniques are included for sensors with a pixel pitch of 25 μm or less.

  3. Characterization of pixel sensor designed in 180 nm SOI CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benka, T.; Havranek, M.; Hejtmanek, M.; Jakovenko, J.; Janoska, Z.; Marcisovska, M.; Marcisovsky, M.; Neue, G.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.

    2018-01-01

    A new type of X-ray imaging Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS), X-CHIP-02, was developed using a 180 nm deep submicron Silicon On Insulator (SOI) CMOS commercial technology. Two pixel matrices were integrated into the prototype chip, which differ by the pixel pitch of 50 μm and 100 μm. The X-CHIP-02 contains several test structures, which are useful for characterization of individual blocks. The sensitive part of the pixel integrated in the handle wafer is one of the key structures designed for testing. The purpose of this structure is to determine the capacitance of the sensitive part (diode in the MAPS pixel). The measured capacitance is 2.9 fF for 50 μm pixel pitch and 4.8 fF for 100 μm pixel pitch at -100 V (default operational voltage). This structure was used to measure the IV characteristics of the sensitive diode. In this work, we report on a circuit designed for precise determination of sensor capacitance and IV characteristics of both pixel types with respect to X-ray irradiation. The motivation for measurement of the sensor capacitance was its importance for the design of front-end amplifier circuits. The design of pixel elements, as well as circuit simulation and laboratory measurement techniques are described. The experimental results are of great importance for further development of MAPS sensors in this technology.

  4. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  5. Three-axial force sensor with capacitive read-out using a differential relaxation oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Robert Anton; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A silicon three-axis force sensor is designed and realized to be used for measurement of the interaction force between a human finger and the environment. To detect the force components, a capacitive read-out system using a novel relaxation oscillator has been developed with an output frequency

  6. Design and Verification of Digital Architecture of 65K Pixel Readout Chip for High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Poikela, Tuomas; Paakkulainen, J

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility to design and implement a front-end ASIC for the upgrade of the VELO detector of LHCb experiment at CERN using IBM’s 130nm standard CMOS process and a standard cell library is studied in this thesis. The proposed architecture is a design to cope with high data rates and continuous data taking. The architecture is designed to operate without any external trigger to record every hit signal the ASIC receives from a sensor chip, and then to transmit the information to the next level of electronics, for example to FPGAs. This thesis focuses on design, implementation and functional verification of the digital electronics of the active pixel area. The area requirements are dictated by the geometry of pixels (55$mu$m x 55$mu$m), power requirements (20W/module) by restricted cooling capabilities of the module consisting of 10 chips and output bandwidth requirements by data rate (< 10 Gbit/s) produced by a particle flux passing through the chip. The design work was carried out using transaction...

  7. First Results from Cherwell, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nooney, Tamsin; Borri, Marcello; Crooks, Jamie; Headspith, Jon; Inguglia, Gianluca; Kolya, Scott; Lazarus, Ian; Lemmon, Roy; Mylroie-Smith, James; Turchetta, Renato; Velthuis, Jaap; Wilson, Fergus

    2014-01-01

    Cherwell is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) developed for digital calorimetry and charged particle tracking applications. Here, we outline the initial tests carried out to charac- terise the performance of Cherwell, give details of the test beam carried out at CERN and include the first results from this analysis. Three variations of the chip were tested; Type A, a high re- sistivity, low noise sensor, Type B, a standard resisivity, low noise sensor and Type C, a standard resistivity, standard noise sensor. The sensors yield an average RMS noise value per pixel of 9.6 e

  8. Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

  9. A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This system can measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256. The system is able to operate with different types (p- and n-type) and different sizes (up to 3 cm 2 ) of microstrip silicon sensors, both irradiated and non-irradiated. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the Super Large Hadron Collider, so this system can be used to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the Super Large Hadron Collider operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format. The main characteristics of the system are described. Results of measurements acquired with n- and p-type detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup are also presented and discussed.

  10. Gossipo-3 A prototype of a Front-End Pixel Chip for Read-Out of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Christpoh; van der Graaf, Haryy; Gromov, Vladimir; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Zappon, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In a joint effort of Nikhef (Amsterdam) and the University of Bonn, the Gossipo-3 integrated circuit (IC) has been developed. This circuit is a prototype of a chip dedicated for read-out of various types of position sensitive Micro-Pattern Gas detectors (MPGD). The Gossipo-3 is defined as a set of building blocks to be used in a future highly granulated (60 μm) chip. The pixel circuit can operate in two modes. In Time mode every readout pixel measures the hit arrival time and the charge deposit. For this purpose it has been equipped with a high resolution TDC (1.7 ns) covering dynamic range up to 102 μs. Charge collected by the pixel will be measured using Time-over- Threshold method in the range from 400 e- to 28000 e- with accuracy of 200 e- (standard deviation). In Counting mode every pixel operates as a 24-bit counter, counting the number of incoming hits. The circuit is also optimized to operate at low power consumption (100 mW/cm2) that is required to avoid the need for massive power transport and coo...

  11. Simulation of digital pixel readout chip architectures with the RD53 SystemVerilog-UVM verification environment using Monte Carlo physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, E.; Marconi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.; Hemperek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and verification framework developed by the RD53 collaboration is a powerful tool for global architecture optimization and design verification of next generation hybrid pixel readout chips. In this paper the framework is used for studying digital pixel chip architectures at behavioral level. This is carried out by simulating a dedicated, highly parameterized pixel chip description, which makes it possible to investigate different grouping strategies between pixels and different latency buffering and arbitration schemes. The pixel hit information used as simulation input can be either generated internally in the framework or imported from external Monte Carlo detector simulation data. The latter have been provided by both the CMS and ATLAS experiments, featuring HL-LHC operating conditions and the specifications related to the Phase 2 upgrade. Pixel regions and double columns were simulated using such Monte Carlo data as inputs: the performance of different latency buffering architectures was compared and the compliance of different link speeds with the expected column data rate was verified

  12. Radiation hard pixel sensors using high-resistive wafers in a 150 nm CMOS processing line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, D.-L.; Hemperek, T.; Caicedo, I.; Gonella, L.; Hügging, F.; Janssen, J.; Krüger, H.; Macchiolo, A.; Owtscharenko, N.; Vigani, L.; Wermes, N.

    2017-06-01

    Pixel sensors using 8'' CMOS processing technology have been designed and characterized offering the benefits of industrial sensor fabrication, including large wafers, high throughput and yield, as well as low cost. The pixel sensors are produced using a 150 nm CMOS technology offered by LFoundry in Avezzano. The technology provides multiple metal and polysilicon layers, as well as metal-insulator-metal capacitors that can be employed for AC-coupling and redistribution layers. Several prototypes were fabricated and are characterized with minimum ionizing particles before and after irradiation to fluences up to 1.1 × 1015 neq cm-2. The CMOS-fabricated sensors perform equally well as standard pixel sensors in terms of noise and hit detection efficiency. AC-coupled sensors even reach 100% hit efficiency in a 3.2 GeV electron beam before irradiation.

  13. The effect of split pixel HDR image sensor technology on MTF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Brian M.

    2014-03-01

    Split-pixel HDR sensor technology is particularly advantageous in automotive applications, because the images are captured simultaneously rather than sequentially, thereby reducing motion blur. However, split pixel technology introduces artifacts in MTF measurement. To achieve a HDR image, raw images are captured from both large and small sub-pixels, and combined to make the HDR output. In some cases, a large sub-pixel is used for long exposure captures, and a small sub-pixel for short exposures, to extend the dynamic range. The relative size of the photosensitive area of the pixel (fill factor) plays a very significant role in the output MTF measurement. Given an identical scene, the MTF will be significantly different, depending on whether you use the large or small sub-pixels i.e. a smaller fill factor (e.g. in the short exposure sub-pixel) will result in higher MTF scores, but significantly greater aliasing. Simulations of split-pixel sensors revealed that, when raw images from both sub-pixels are combined, there is a significant difference in rising edge (i.e. black-to-white transition) and falling edge (white-to-black) reproduction. Experimental results showed a difference of ~50% in measured MTF50 between the falling and rising edges of a slanted edge test chart.

  14. A Differential Electrochemical Readout ASIC With Heterogeneous Integration of Bio-Nano Sensors for Amperometric Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishizadeh, Sara S; Taurino, Irene; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2017-10-01

    A monolithic biosensing platform is presented for miniaturized amperometric electrochemical sensing in CMOS. The system consists of a fully integrated current readout circuit for differential current measurement as well as on-die sensors developed by growing platinum nanostructures (Pt-nanoS) on top of electrodes implemented with the top metal layer. The circuit is based on the switch-capacitor technique and includes pseudodifferential integrators for concurrent sampling of the differential sensor currents. The circuit further includes a differential to single converter and a programmable gain amplifier prior to an ADC. The system is fabricated in [Formula: see text] technology and measures current within [Formula: see text] with minimum input-referred noise of [Formula: see text] and consumes [Formula: see text] from a [Formula: see text] supply. Differential sensing for nanostructured sensors is proposed to build highly sensitive and offset-free sensors for metabolite detection. This is successfully tested for bio-nano-sensors for the measurement of glucose in submilli molar concentrations with the proposed readout IC. The on-die electrodes are nanostructured and cyclic voltammetry run successfully through the readout IC to demonstrate detection of [Formula: see text].

  15. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernegger, H.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Dalla, M.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Maneuski, D.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Sbarra, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-06-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 1015neq/cm2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  16. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Dai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  17. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwak, N. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K. [Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  18. A Design of a New Column-Parallel Analog-to-Digital Converter Flash for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Mostafa; Akhamal, Hicham; Qjidaa, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VXD) expresses stringent requirements on their analog readout electronics, specifically on the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This paper concerns designing and optimizing a new architecture of a low power, high speed, and small-area 4-bit column-parallel ADC Flash. Later in this study, we propose to interpose an S/H block in the converter. This integration of S/H block increases the sensitiveness of the converter to the very small amplitude of the input signal from the sensor and provides a sufficient time to the converter to be able to code the input signal. This ADC is developed in 0.18  μ m CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35  μ m. The proposed ADC responds to the constraints of power dissipation, size, and speed for the MAPS composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns where each column ADC covers a small area of 35 × 336.76  μ m 2 . The proposed ADC consumes low power at a 1.8 V supply and 100 MS/s sampling rate with dynamic range of 125 mV. Its DNL and INL are 0.0812/-0.0787 LSB and 0.0811/-0.0787 LSB, respectively. Furthermore, this ADC achieves a high speed more than 5 GHz.

  19. Environmental sensors based on micromachined cantilevers with integrated read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thaysen, Jacob; Jensenius, Henriette

    2000-01-01

    -out facilitates measurements in liquid. The probe has been successfully implemented in gaseous as well as in liquid experiments. For example, the probe has been used as an accurate and minute thermal sensor and as a humidity sensor. In liquid, the probe has been used to detect the presence of alcohol in water. (C......An AFM probe with integrated piezoresistive read-out has been developed and applied as a cantilever-based environmental sensor. The probe has a built-in reference cantilever, which makes it possible to subtract background drift directly in the measurement. Moreover, the integrated read...

  20. Active pixel sensors: The sensor of choice for future space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leijtens, J.; Theuwissen, A.; Rao, P.R.; Wang, X.; Xie, N.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at t...

  1. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Tournier, Arnaud; Roy, François; Deschamps, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS). It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed.

  2. Integrating Metal-Oxide-Decorated CNT Networks with a CMOS Readout in a Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhwan Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented a tin-oxide-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT network gas sensor system on a single die. We have also demonstrated the deposition of metallic tin on the CNT network, its subsequent oxidation in air, and the improvement of the lifetime of the sensors. The fabricated array of CNT sensors contains 128 sensor cells for added redundancy and increased accuracy. The read-out integrated circuit (ROIC was combined with coarse and fine time-to-digital converters to extend its resolution in a power-efficient way. The ROIC is fabricated using a 0.35 µm CMOS process, and the whole sensor system consumes 30 mA at 5 V. The sensor system was successfully tested in the detection of ammonia gas at elevated temperatures.

  3. Beam test results for the RAPS03 non-epitaxial CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagetti, Daniele; Marras, Alessandro; Meroli, Stefano; Passeri, Daniele; Placidi, Pisana; Servoli, Leonello; Tucceri, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Recently our group has been investigating the possibility of using a standard CMOS technology - featuring no epitaxial layer - to fabricate a sensor for charged particle detection. In this work we present the results obtained exposing sensors with 256x256 pixels (10x10μm pixel size, two different pixel layouts) to 180 GeV protons and positrons at the SuperProtoSynchrotron facility (CERN). We have investigated the different response of the two architectural options in terms of S/N, cluster width, intrinsic spatial resolution, efficiency. The results show a good Landau response, S/N about 22 with an average cluster size of 4.5 pixels, and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.5μm (order of 1/7th of the pixel size).

  4. Evaluation of mixed-signal noise effects in photon-counting X-ray image sensor readout circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; Abdalla, Suliman; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    In readout electronics for photon-counting pixel detectors, the tight integration between analog and digital blocks causes the readout electronics to be sensitive to on-chip noise coupling. This noise coupling can result in faulty luminance values in grayscale X-ray images, or as color distortions in a color X-ray imaging system. An exploration of simulating noise coupling in readout circuits is presented which enables the discovery of sensitive blocks at as early a stage as possible, in order to avoid costly design iterations. The photon-counting readout system has been simulated for noise coupling in order to highlight the existing problems of noise coupling in X-ray imaging systems. The simulation results suggest that on-chip noise coupling should be considered and simulated in future readout electronics systems for X-ray detectors

  5. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  6. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS); Effets de l'irradiation sur les capteurs a pixels actifs (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P. [ONERA-CERT/, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1999-07-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity.

  7. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS); Effets de l'irradiation sur les capteurs a pixels actifs (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M; David, J P [ONERA-CERT/, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1999-07-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity.

  8. Polymer-based stress sensor with integrated readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vettiger, P.

    2002-01-01

    softer than silicon and that a gold resistor is easily incorporated in SU-8, we have proven that a SU-8-based cantilever sensor is almost as sensitive to stress changes as the silicon piezoresistive cantilever. First, the surface stress sensing principle is discussed, from which it can be shown......, noise and device failure. The characterization shows that there is a good agreement between the expected and the obtained performance....

  9. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  10. Fast regional readout CMOS image sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, H; Harris, E; Osmond, J; Evans, P

    2014-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ∼400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  11. ReadMON: a portable readout system for the CERN PH-RADMON sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Mateu, Isidre; Gorine, Georgi; Moll, Michael; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Ravotti, Federico

    2018-01-01

    PH-RADMON sensors are extensively used for radiation monitoring in the LHC experiments. Here, ReadMON, a dedicated and portable readout system for non-LHC applications, is presented. The system is able to source currents up to 32 mA and measure voltages up to 125 V, covering the full operational range of all dosimeters onboard the PH-RADMON sensor. Thus, the total measurement range of the system goes from 0.01 Gy to hundreds of kGy Total Ionizing Dose, and from few 10^10 neq/cm2 to 10^15 neq/cm2 1MeV neutron equivalent fluence. Different tests have been carried out at CERN IRRAD facility to prove the system concept and analyze its performance. Errors of only a few percent with respect to the readout done with a commercial Source Measuring Unit were found.

  12. Area-efficient readout with 14-bit SAR-ADC for CMOS image sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sassi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a readout design for CMOS image sensors. It has been squeezed into a 7.5um pitch under a 0.28um 1P3M technology. The ADC performs one 14-bit conversion in only 1.5us and targets a theoretical DNL feature about +1.3/-1 at 14-bit accuracy. Correlated Double Sampling (CDS is performed both in the analog and digital domains to preserve the image quality.

  13. SQUID readout multiplexers for transition-edge sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Adrian T. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: atl@physics.berkeley.edu

    2006-04-15

    Two classes of SQUID multiplexer are being developed for large arrays of cryogenic sensors, distinguished by their operation in either the time domain or frequency domain. Several systems optimized for use with Transition-Edge Sensors (TES) are reaching a high level of maturity, and will be deployed on funded astrophysics experiments in the next several years. A useful technical figure of merit is the product of the number of detectors multplexed multipled by the bandwidth of the detectors, which can be termed the 'total signal bandwidth' of a multiplexer system. This figure of merit is comparable within a factor of two for the mature systems. Several new concepts for increasing the total bandwidth are being developed in the broad class of frequency domain multiplexers. Another notable area of progress is in the level of integration of muliplexer and detector array. The time domain system for SCUBA-II is a sophisticated bump-bonded sandwich structure, and the Jena/MPI group is integrating detectors and a time domain multiplexer on one substrate. Finally, the Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID)/HEMT (non-SQUID) detector/multiplexer system, will be discussed briefly.

  14. Low Power Camera-on-a-Chip Using CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    A second generation image sensor technology has been developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a result of the continuing need to miniaturize space science imaging instruments. Implemented using standard CMOS, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology permits the integration of the detector array with on-chip timing, control and signal chain electronics, including analog-to-digital conversion.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of n-on-n silicon pixel detectors compatible with the Medipix2 readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)]. E-mail: zorzi@itc.it; Bisogni, M.G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Boscardin, M. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Gregori, P. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Novelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Quattrocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ronchin, S. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Rosso, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and Sezione INFN, Via Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Pixel detectors for mammographic applications have been fabricated at ITC-irst on 800 {mu}m thick silicon wafers adopting a double side n{sup +}-on-n fabrication technology. The activity aims at increasing the X-ray detection efficiency in the energy range of interest minimizing the risk of electrical discharges in hybrid systems operating at high voltages. The detectors, having a layout compatible with the Medipix2 photon counting chip, feature two different design solutions for the p-isolation between neighboring n{sup +}-pixels. We report on the characterization of the fabrication process and on preliminary results of electrical measurements on full detectors and pixel test structures. In particular, we found that the detectors can be reliably operated above the full depletion voltage regardless of the isolation design, that however, impacts the performances in terms of current-voltage characteristics, single pixel currents, inter-pixel resistances and inter-pixel capacitances.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of n-on-n silicon pixel detectors compatible with the Medipix2 readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzi, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gregori, P.; Novelli, M.; Piemonte, C.; Quattrocchi, M.; Ronchin, S.; Rosso, V.

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for mammographic applications have been fabricated at ITC-irst on 800 μm thick silicon wafers adopting a double side n + -on-n fabrication technology. The activity aims at increasing the X-ray detection efficiency in the energy range of interest minimizing the risk of electrical discharges in hybrid systems operating at high voltages. The detectors, having a layout compatible with the Medipix2 photon counting chip, feature two different design solutions for the p-isolation between neighboring n + -pixels. We report on the characterization of the fabrication process and on preliminary results of electrical measurements on full detectors and pixel test structures. In particular, we found that the detectors can be reliably operated above the full depletion voltage regardless of the isolation design, that however, impacts the performances in terms of current-voltage characteristics, single pixel currents, inter-pixel resistances and inter-pixel capacitances

  17. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection; Developpement d'un capteur de nouvelle generation et son electronique integree pour les collisionneurs futurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, G

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a {sup 55}Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 {mu}m and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  18. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection; Developpement d'un capteur de nouvelle generation et son electronique integree pour les collisionneurs futurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, G

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a {sup 55}Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 {mu}m and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  19. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Cavicchioli, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Hristozkov, S.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Degerli, Y.; Flouzat, C.; Guilloux, F.; Dorokhov, A.; Gajanana, D.; Gao, C.; Kwon, Y.; Lattuca, A.

    2016-01-01

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m 2 tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the development of the charge sensitive front end and in particular its optimization for uniformity of charge threshold and time response will be presented

  20. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Degerli, Y.; Dorokhov, A.; Flouzat, C.; Gajanana, D.; Gao, C.; Guilloux, F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hristozkov, S.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kwon, Y.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pham, T. H.; Puggioni, C.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Song, M.; Usai, G.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-02-01

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m2 tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the development of the charge sensitive front end and in particular its optimization for uniformity of charge threshold and time response will be presented.

  1. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D; Rinella, G Aglieri; Cavicchioli, C; Chanlek, N; Collu, A; Degerli, Y; Dorokhov, A; Flouzat, C; Gajanana, D; Gao, C; Guilloux, F; Hillemanns, H; Hristozkov, S; Junique, A; Keil, M

    2016-01-01

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m(2) tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the ...

  2. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, H.; Hoorne, J.W. van; Kugathasan, T.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E.J.; Snoeys, W.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Maneuski, D.; Dalla, M.; Sbarra, C.

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 10"1"5 n _e_q/cm"2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  3. Performance of the ALIBAVA portable readout system with irradiated and non-irradiated microstrip silicon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Hernadez, R.

    2009-01-01

    A readout system for microstrip silicon sensors has been developed as a result of collaboration among the University of Liverpool, the CNM of Barcelona and the IFIC of Valencia. The name of this collaboration is ALIBAVA and it is integrated in the RD50 Collaboration. This system is able to measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256, as an analogue measurement. The system uses two Beetle chips to read out the detector(s). The Beetle chip is an analogue pipelined readout chip used in the LHCb experiment. The system can operate either with non-irradiated and irradiated sensors as well as with n-type and p-type microstrip silicon sensors. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the SLHC, so this system is being to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the SLHC operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. This acquired data is sent by USB to be stored in a PC for a further processing. The hardware is a dual board based system. The daughterboard is a small board intended for containing two Beetle readout chips as well as fan-ins and detector support to interface the sensors. The motherboard is intended to process the data, to control the whole hardware and to communicate with the software by USB. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format file. The main characteristics of the system will be described. Results of measurements acquired with n-type and p-type irradiated and non-irradiated detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup will be also presented and discussed

  4. Innovative multi-cantilever array sensor system with MOEMS read-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaldi, F.; Bieniek, T.; Janus, P.; Grabiec, P.; Majstrzyk, W.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2016-11-01

    Cantilever based sensor system are a well-established sensor family exploited in several every-day life applications as well as in high-end research areas. The very high sensitivity of such systems and the possibility to design and functionalize the cantilevers to create purpose built and highly selective sensors have increased the interest of the scientific community and the industry in further exploiting this promising sensors type. Optical deflection detection systems for cantilever sensors provide a reliable, flexible method for reading information from cantilevers with the highest sensitivity. However the need of using multi-cantilever arrays in several fields of application such as medicine, biology or safety related areas, make the optical method less suitable due to its structural complexity. Working in the frame of a the Joint Undertaking project Lab4MEMS II our group proposes a novel and innovative approach to solve this issue, by integrating a Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System (MOEMS) with dedicated optics, electronics and software with a MOEMS micro-mirror, ultimately developed in the frame of Lab4MEMSII. In this way we are able to present a closely packed, lightweight solution combining the advantages of standard optical read-out systems with the possibility of recording multiple read-outs from large cantilever arrays quasi simultaneously.

  5. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-08-01

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeonghwan Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  7. Performance of new radiation tolerant thin n-in-p Silicon pixel sensors for the CMS experiment at High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Betta, G.F; Darbo, G; Dinardo, Mauro; Giacomini, G; Menasce, Dario; Meschini, Marco; Messineo, Alberto; Moroni, Luigi; Rivera, Ryan Allen; Ronchin, S; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene; Zuolo, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the CERN-LHC (HL-LHC) demands for a new high-radiation tolerant solid-state pixel sensor capable of surviving fluencies up to a few 10$^{16}$ particles/cm$^2$ at $\\sim$3 cm from the interaction point. To this extent the INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler-FBK, is aiming at the development of thin n-in-p type pixel sensors for the HL-LHC. The R and D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ active thickness for planars, and 130~$\\mu {\\rm m}$ for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. First prototypes of hybrid modules bump-bonded to the present CMS readout chip have been tested in beam tests. Preliminary results on their performance before and after irradiation are presented.

  8. A CMOS Image Sensor With In-Pixel Buried-Channel Source Follower and Optimized Row Selector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, X.; Mierop, A.J.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS imager sensor with pinned-photodiode 4T active pixels which use in-pixel buried-channel source followers (SFs) and optimized row selectors. The test sensor has been fabricated in a 0.18-mum CMOS process. The sensor characterization was carried out successfully, and the

  9. First tests of CHERWELL, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor: A CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) using 180 nm technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylroie-Smith, James, E-mail: j.mylroie-smith@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Kolya, Scott; Velthuis, Jaap [University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Bevan, Adrian; Inguglia, Gianluca [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Headspith, Jon; Lazarus, Ian; Lemon, Roy [Daresbury Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom); Crooks, Jamie; Turchetta, Renato; Wilson, Fergus [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The Cherwell is a 4T CMOS sensor in 180 nm technology developed for the detection of charged particles. Here, the different test structures on the sensor will be described and first results from tests on the reference pixel variant are shown. The sensors were shown to have a noise of 12 e{sup −} and a signal to noise up to 150 in {sup 55}Fe.

  10. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  11. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  12. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  13. Experimental characterization of the 192 channel Clear-PEM frontend ASIC coupled to a multi-pixel APD readout of LYSO:Ce crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Edgar; Bexiga, Vasco; Bugalho, Ricardo; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Claudia S.; Ferreira, Miguel; Godinho, Joaquim; Goncalves, Fernando; Leong, Carlos; Lousa, Pedro; Machado, Pedro; Moura, Rui; Neves, Pedro; Ortigao, Catarina; Piedade, Fernando; Pinheiro, Joao F.; Rego, Joel; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodrigues, Pedro; Silva, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution scanner for breast cancer imaging, a very compact and dense frontend electronics system has been developed for readout of multi-pixel S8550 Hamamatsu APDs. The frontend electronics are instrumented with a mixed-signal Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), which incorporates 192 low-noise charge pre-amplifiers, shapers, analog memory cells and digital control blocks. Pulses are continuously stored in memory cells at clock frequency. Channels above a common threshold voltage are readout for digitization by off-chip free-sampling ADCs. The ASIC has a size of 7.3x9.8mm 2 and was implemented in a AMS 0.35μm CMOS technology. In this paper the experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM frontend ASIC, reading out multi-pixel APDs coupled to LYSO:Ce crystal matrices, is presented. The chips were mounted on a custom test board connected to six APD arrays and to the data acquisition system. Six 32-pixel LYSO:Ce crystal matrices coupled on both sides to APD arrays were readout by two test boards. All 384 channels were operational. The chip power consumption is 660 mW (3.4 mW per channel). A very stable behavior of the chip was observed, with an estimated ENC of 1200-1300e - at APD gain 100. The inter-channel noise dispersion and mean baseline variation is less than 8% and 0.5%, respectively. The spread in the gain between different channels is found to be 1.5%. Energy resolution of 16.5% at 511 keV and 12.8% at 662 keV has been measured. Timing measurements between the two APDs that readout the same crystal is extracted and compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations. At 511 keV the measured single photon time RMS resolution is 1.30 ns, in very good agreement with the expected value of 1.34 ns.

  14. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, M.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  15. Imaging properties of small-pixel spectroscopic x-ray detectors based on cadmium telluride sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Schulze, Julia; Zuber, Marcus; Rink, Kristian; Oelfke, Uwe; Butzer, Jochen; Hamann, Elias; Cecilia, Angelica; Zwerger, Andreas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic x-ray imaging by means of photon counting detectors has received growing interest during the past years. Critical to the image quality of such devices is their pixel pitch and the sensor material employed. This paper describes the imaging properties of Medipix2 MXR multi-chip assemblies bump bonded to 1 mm thick CdTe sensors. Two systems were investigated with pixel pitches of 110 and 165 μm, which are in the order of the mean free path lengths of the characteristic x-rays produced in their sensors. Peak widths were found to be almost constant across the energy range of 10 to 60 keV, with values of 2.3 and 2.2 keV (FWHM) for the two pixel pitches. The average number of pixels responding to a single incoming photon are about 1.85 and 1.45 at 60 keV, amounting to detective quantum efficiencies of 0.77 and 0.84 at a spatial frequency of zero. Energy selective CT acquisitions are presented, and the two pixel pitches' abilities to discriminate between iodine and gadolinium contrast agents are examined. It is shown that the choice of the pixel pitch translates into a minimum contrast agent concentration for which material discrimination is still possible. We finally investigate saturation effects at high x-ray fluxes and conclude with the finding that higher maximum count rates come at the cost of a reduced energy resolution. (paper)

  16. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, M., E-mail: marco.bomben@cern.ch [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, Genève (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown.

  17. Novel silicon n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC, the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness. The edgeless technology would allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We report on the development of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), making use of the active edge concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology and fabrication process, we present device simulations (pre- and post-irradiation) performed for different sensor configurations. First preliminary results obtained with the test-structures of the production are shown

  18. A high sensitivity 20Mfps CMOS image sensor with readout speed of 1Tpixel/sec for visualization of ultra-high speed phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, R.; Sugawa, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ultra-high speed (UHS) CMOS image sensors with on-chop analog memories placed on the periphery of pixel array for the visualization of UHS phenomena are overviewed in this paper. The developed UHS CMOS image sensors consist of 400H×256V pixels and 128 memories/pixel, and the readout speed of 1Tpixel/sec is obtained, leading to 10 Mfps full resolution video capturing with consecutive 128 frames, and 20 Mfps half resolution video capturing with consecutive 256 frames. The first development model has been employed in the high speed video camera and put in practical use in 2012. By the development of dedicated process technologies, photosensitivity improvement and power consumption reduction were simultaneously achieved, and the performance improved version has been utilized in the commercialized high-speed video camera since 2015 that offers 10 Mfps with ISO16,000 photosensitivity. Due to the improved photosensitivity, clear images can be captured and analyzed even under low light condition, such as under a microscope as well as capturing of UHS light emission phenomena.

  19. A Prototype of a New Generation Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for Pixel Detectors at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pacher, L.; Paternò, A; Panati, S; Demaria, L; Rivetti, A; Da Rocha Rolo, M; Dellacasa, G; Mazza, G; Rotondo, F; Wheadon, R; Loddo, F; Licciulli, F; Ciciriello, F; Marzocca, C; Gaioni, L; Traversi, G; Re, V; De Canio, F; Ratti, L; Marconi, S; Placidi, P; Magazzù, G; Stabile, A; Mattiazzo, S

    2018-01-01

    The prototype is composed of a matrix of 64×64 pixels with 50 μm × 50 μm cells featuring a compact design, low-noise and low-power performance. The pixel array integrates two diffe- rent analogue front-end architectures working in parallel, one with asynchronous and one with synchronous hit discriminators. Common characteristics are a compact layout able to fit int...

  20. Probing and irradiation tests of ALICE pixel chip wafers and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Cinausero, M; Antinori, F; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Galet, G; Lunardon, M; Manea, C; Marchini, S; Martini, S; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Riedler, P; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) project a system dedicated to the tests of the ALICE1LHCb chip wafers has been assembled and is now in use for the selection of pixel chips to be bump-bonded to sensor ladders. In parallel, radiation hardness tests of the SPD silicon sensors have been carried out using the 27 MeV proton beam delivered by the XTU TANDEM accelerator at the SIRAD facility in LNL. In this paper we describe the wafer probing and irradiation set-ups and we report the obtained results. (6 refs).

  1. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U.

    2017-11-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  2. Measurement of the two track separation capability of hybrid pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, F.J., E-mail: Francisca.MunozSanchez@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Battaglia, M. [University of California, Santa Cruz, United States of America (United States); CERN, The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Da Vià, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); La Rosa, A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, United States of America (United States); Dann, N. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-11

    Large Hadron Collider experiments face new challenges in Run-2 conditions due to the increased beam energy, the interest for searches of new physics signals with higher jet pT and the consequent longer decay length of heavy hadrons. In this new scenario, the capability of the innermost pixel sensors to distinguish tracks in very dense environment becomes crucial for efficient tracking and flavour tagging performance. In this work, we discuss the measurement in a test beam of the two track separation capability of hybrid pixel sensors using the interaction particles out of the collision of high energy pions on a thin copper target. With this method we are able to evaluate the effect of merged hits in the sensors under test due to tracks closer than the sensor spatial granularity in terms of collected charge, multiplicity and reconstruction efficiency. - Highlights: • Measurement of the two-track separation capability of hybrid pixel sensors. • Emulating track dense environment with a cooper target in a test beam. • Cooper target in between telescope arms to create vertices. • Validation of simulation and reconstruction algorithm for future vertex detectors. • New qualification method for pixel modules in track dense environments.

  3. Results from CHIPIX-FE0, a Small-Scale Prototype of a New Generation Pixel Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pacher, L.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Mazza, G.; Rotondo, F.; Wheadon, R.; Paternò, A.; Panati, S.; Loddo, F.; Licciulli, F.; Ciciriello, F.; Marzocca, C.; Gaioni, L.; Traversi, G.; Re, V.; De Canio, F.; Ratti, L.; Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Magazzù, G.; Stabile, A.; Mattiazzo, S.

    2018-01-01

    A prototype of a new-generation readout ASIC targeting High-Luminosity (HL) LHC pixel detector upgrades has been designed and fabricated as part of the Italian INFN CHIPIX65 project using a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology. This demonstrator, hereinafter referred to as CHIPIX-FE0, is composed of a matrix of 64 × 64 pixels with 50 μm × 50 μm pixel size embedding two different architectures of analog front-ends working in parallel. The final layout of the chip was submitted and accepted for fabrication on July 2016. Chips were received back from the foundry on October 2016 and successfully characterized before irradiation. Several irra- diation campaigns with X-rays have been accomplished during 2017 at Padova INFN and CERN EP/ESE facilities under different uniformity and temperature conditions up to 630 Mrad Total Ionizing Dose (TID). These studies corfirmed negligible degradation of analog front-ends per- formance after irradiation. First sample chips have been also bump-bonded to 50 μm × 50 μm and sin...

  4. A CMOS micromachined capacitive tactile sensor with integrated readout circuits and compensation of process variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Tsai, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Tien-Keng

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a capacitive tactile sensor fabricated in a standard CMOS process. Both of the sensor and readout circuits are integrated on a single chip by a TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS MEMS technology. In order to improve the sensitivity, a T-shaped protrusion is proposed and implemented. This sensor comprises the metal layer and the dielectric layer without extra thin film deposition, and can be completed with few post-processing steps. By a nano-indenter, the measured spring constant of the T-shaped structure is 2.19 kNewton/m. Fully differential correlated double sampling capacitor-to-voltage converter (CDS-CVC) and reference capacitor correction are utilized to compensate process variations and improve the accuracy of the readout circuits. The measured displacement-to-voltage transductance is 7.15 mV/nm, and the sensitivity is 3.26 mV/μNewton. The overall power dissipation is 132.8 μW.

  5. A Design of a New Column-Parallel Analog-to-Digital Converter Flash for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Chakir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS for the International Linear Collider (ILC vertex detector (VXD expresses stringent requirements on their analog readout electronics, specifically on the analog-to-digital converter (ADC. This paper concerns designing and optimizing a new architecture of a low power, high speed, and small-area 4-bit column-parallel ADC Flash. Later in this study, we propose to interpose an S/H block in the converter. This integration of S/H block increases the sensitiveness of the converter to the very small amplitude of the input signal from the sensor and provides a sufficient time to the converter to be able to code the input signal. This ADC is developed in 0.18 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The proposed ADC responds to the constraints of power dissipation, size, and speed for the MAPS composed of a matrix of 64 rows and 48 columns where each column ADC covers a small area of 35 × 336.76 μm2. The proposed ADC consumes low power at a 1.8 V supply and 100 MS/s sampling rate with dynamic range of 125 mV. Its DNL and INL are 0.0812/−0.0787 LSB and 0.0811/−0.0787 LSB, respectively. Furthermore, this ADC achieves a high speed more than 5 GHz.

  6. Implementation of an Optical Readout System for High-Sensitivity Terahertz Microelectromechanical Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    rod moves about the illumination scene, the pixels in the detector start to flicker . The ‘ flickering ’ effect is due to the metal rod blocking THz...still possible to mitigate convective heat exchange between the sensor and the ambient surroundings. To mitigate the effects of convective heat...detector start to flicker . The ‘ flickering ’ effect is due to the metal rod blocking THz radiation. This effect is more apparent in the video

  7. Performance of the Insertable B-Layer for the ATLAS Pixel Detector during Quality Assurance and a Novel Pixel Detector Readout Concept based on PCIe

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00356268; Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-07-27

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC the Pixel detector has been upgraded with a new 4th innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL will increase the tracking performance and help with higher than nominal luminosity the LHC will produce. The IBL is made up of 14 staves and in total 20 staves have been produced for the IBL. This thesis presents the results of the final quality tests performed on these staves in an detector-like environment, in order to select the 14 best of the 20 staves for integration onto the detector. The test setup as well as the testing procedure is introduced and typical results of each testing stage are shown and discussed. The overall performance of all staves is presented in regards to: tuning performance, radioactive source measurements, and number of failing pixels. Other measurement, which did not directly impact the selection of staves, but will be important for the operation of the detector or production of a future detector, are included. Based on the experienc...

  8. Pixel readout chips in deep submicron CMOS for ALICE and LHCb tolerant to 10 Mrad and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeys, W.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Cencelli, V.; Dinapoli, R.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lamanna, P.; Minervini, D.; Morel, M.; O'Shea, V.; Quiquempoix, V.; Bello, D.S.S.D.San Segundo; Van Koningsveld, B.; Wyllie, K.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB chip is a mixed-mode integrated circuit designed to read out silicon pixel detectors for two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 μmx425 μm pixel cells in the 256x32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32x32 array of 400 μmx425 μm cells. Radiation tolerance was enhanced through special circuit layout. Sensitivity to coupling of digital signals into the analog front end was minimized. System issues such as testability and uniformity further constrained the design. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 μm CMOS technology

  9. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Neng Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS. It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed.

  10. A 45 nm Stacked CMOS Image Sensor Process Technology for Submicron Pixel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Seiji; Huang, Yi-Min; Sze, Jhy-Jyi; Wu, Tung-Ting; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Tung-Hsiung; Liao, King; Kuo, Chin-Chia; Chen, Tzu-Hsiang; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Chuang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Keng-Yu; Chung, Chi-Hsien; Chou, Kuo-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Hsien; Wang, Chuan-Joung; Yaung, Dun-Nien

    2017-12-05

    A submicron pixel's light and dark performance were studied by experiment and simulation. An advanced node technology incorporated with a stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS) is promising in that it may enhance performance. In this work, we demonstrated a low dark current of 3.2 e - /s at 60 °C, an ultra-low read noise of 0.90 e - ·rms, a high full well capacity (FWC) of 4100 e - , and blooming of 0.5% in 0.9 μm pixels with a pixel supply voltage of 2.8 V. In addition, the simulation study result of 0.8 μm pixels is discussed.

  11. A measurement of Lorentz Angle of radiation-hard Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Aleppo, M

    2001-01-01

    Silicon pixel detectors developed to meet LHC requirements were tested in a beam at CERN in the framework of the ATLAS collaboration. The experimental behaviour of irradiated and not-irradiated sensors in a magnetic field is discussed. The measurement of the Lorentz angle for these sensors at different operating conditions is presented. A simple model of the charge drift in silicon before and after irradiation is presented. The good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results is shown.

  12. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, F Jiménez; Rosenberg, I; Hedin, E; Royle, G

    2015-06-07

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm(2). The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  13. High-speed imaging using CMOS image sensor with quasi pixel-wise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T.; Nagahara, H.; Endo, K.; Sugiyama, Y.; Taniguchi, R.

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies in compressive video sensing have realized scene capture beyond the fundamental trade-off limit between spatial resolution and temporal resolution using random space-time sampling. However, most of these studies showed results for higher frame rate video that were produced by simulation experiments or using an optically simulated random sampling camera, because there are currently no commercially available image sensors with random exposure or sampling capabilities. We fabricated a prototype complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with quasi pixel-wise exposure timing that can realize nonuniform space-time sampling. The prototype sensor can reset exposures independently by columns and fix these amount of exposure by rows for each 8x8 pixel block. This CMOS sensor is not fully controllable via the pixels, and has line-dependent controls, but it offers flexibility when compared with regular CMOS or charge-coupled device sensors with global or rolling shutters. We propose a method to realize pseudo-random sampling for high-speed video acquisition that uses the flexibility of the CMOS sensor. We reconstruct the high-speed video sequence from the images produced by pseudo-random sampling using an over-complete dictionary.

  14. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  15. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for Low Power, Highly Miniaturized Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1996-01-01

    The complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been developed over the past three years by NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and has reached a level of performance comparable to CCDs with greatly increased functionality but at a very reduced power level.

  16. Performance of capacitively coupled active pixel sensors in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology after irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigl, S

    2014-01-01

    In this ATLAS upgrade R and D project, we explore the concept of using a deep-submicron HV-CMOS process to produce a drop-in replacement for traditional radiation-hard silicon sensors. Such active sensors contain simple circuits, e.g. amplifiers and discriminators, but still require a traditional (pixel or strip) readout chip. This approach yields most advantages of MAPS (improved resolution, reduced cost and material budget, etc.), without the complication of full integration on a single chip. After outlining the basic design of the HV2FEI4 test ASIC, results after irradiation with X-rays to 862 Mrad and neutrons up to 10 16 (1 MeV n eq )/cm 2 will be presented. Finally, a brief outlook on further development plans is given

  17. Manufacture of a Polyaniline Nanofiber Ammonia Sensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the fabrication of a polyaniline nanofiber ammonia sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The micro ammonia sensor consists of a sensing resistor and an ammonia sensing film. Polyaniline prepared by a chemical polymerization method was adopted as the ammonia sensing film. The fabrication of the ammonia sensor needs a post-process to etch the sacrificial layers and to expose the sensing resistor, and then the ammonia sensing film is coated on the sensing resistor. The ammonia sensor, which is of resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. A readout circuit is employed to convert the resistance of the ammonia sensor into the voltage output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the ammonia sensor is about 0.88 mV/ppm at room temperature

  18. Active pixel sensors: the sensor of choice for future space applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Rao, Padmakumar R.; Wang, Xinyang; Xie, Ning

    2007-10-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at the University of Delft have shown that the imagers are very radiation tolerant even if made in a standard process without the use of special design rules. Furthermore it was shown that the 1/f noise associated with deep sub-micron imagers is reduced as compared to previous generations APS imagers due to the improved quality of the gate oxides. Considering that end of life performance will have to be guaranteed, limited budget for adding shielding metal will be available for most applications and lower power operations is always seen as a positive characteristic in space applications, deep sub-micron APS imagers seem to have a number of advantages over CCD's that will probably cause them to replace CCD's in those applications where radiation tolerance and low power operation are important

  19. Electrical characterization of thin edgeless N-on-p planar pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Marchiori, G; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Zorzi, N; Bosisio, L; Rosa, A La

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. Because of its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness, the n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for a large area pixel detector. The paper reports on the joint development, by LPNHE and FBK of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors, making use of the active trench concept for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, and presenting some sensors' simulation results, a complete overview of the electrical characterization of the produced devices will be given

  20. Development of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout IC for b-layer Upgrade and Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karagounis, M

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS hybrid pixel detector, a new Front-End (FE) IC is being developed in a 130nm technology to face the tightened requirements of the upgraded pixel system. The main design goals are the reduction of material and a decrease in power consumption combined with the capability to handle the higher hit rates that will result from the upgraded machine. New technology features like the higher integration density for digital circuits, better radiation tolerance and Triple-Well transistors are used for optimization and the implementation of new concepts. A description of the ongoing design work is given, focusing more on the analog part and peripheral design blocks.

  1. Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.

  2. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko, E-mail: thirono@uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Peric, Ivan [IPE, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Rozanov, Alexandre [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Rymaszewski, Piotr [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wang, Anqing [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  3. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach’s performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  4. A Novel Two-Wire Fast Readout Approach for Suppressing Cable Crosstalk in a Tactile Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Jianqing; Song, Aiguo

    2016-05-18

    For suppressing the crosstalk problem due to wire resistances and contacted resistances of the long flexible cables in tactile sensing systems, we present a novel two-wire fast readout approach for the two-dimensional resistive sensor array in shared row-column fashion. In the approach, two wires are used for every driving electrode and every sampling electrode in the resistive sensor array. The approach with a high readout rate, though it requires a large number of wires and many sampling channels, solves the cable crosstalk problem. We also verified the approach's performance with Multisim simulations and actual experiments.

  5. GOSSIP: A vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a CMOS readout pixel array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M. [CERN/MediPix Consortium, Geneva (Switzerland); Heijne, E.H.M. [CERN/MediPix Consortium, Geneva (Switzerland); Llopart, X. [CERN/MediPix Consortium, Geneva (Switzerland); Colas, P. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Giganon, A. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Giomataris, Y. [DAPNIA, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colijn, A.P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fornaini, A. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Graaf, H. van der [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl; Kluit, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Timmermans, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schmitz, J. [University of Twente/MESA (Netherlands)

    2006-05-01

    A small TPC has been read out by means of a Medipix2 chip as direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50{mu}m above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. With this new readout technology for gas-filled detectors we recorded many image frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as {delta}-rays. With a gas layer thickness of only 1mm, the device could be applied as vertex detector, outperforming all Si-based detectors.

  6. GOSSIP: A vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a CMOS readout pixel array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Llopart, X.; Colas, P.; Giganon, A.; Giomataris, Y.; Chefdeville, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Fornaini, A.; Graaf, H. van der; Kluit, P.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.; Schmitz, J.

    2006-01-01

    A small TPC has been read out by means of a Medipix2 chip as direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50μm above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. With this new readout technology for gas-filled detectors we recorded many image frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays. With a gas layer thickness of only 1mm, the device could be applied as vertex detector, outperforming all Si-based detectors

  7. GOSSIP: A vertex detector combining a thin gas layer as signal generator with a CMOS readout pixel array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Llopart, X.; Colas, P.; Giganon, A.; Giomataris, Y.; Chefdeville, M.; Colijn, A. P.; Fornaini, A.; van der Graaf, H.; Kluit, P.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.; Schmitz, J.

    2006-05-01

    A small TPC has been read out by means of a Medipix2 chip as direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50 μm above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. With this new readout technology for gas-filled detectors we recorded many image frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays. With a gas layer thickness of only 1 mm, the device could be applied as vertex detector, outperforming all Si-based detectors.

  8. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  9. Heavy Ion Transient Characterization of a Photobit Hardened-by-Design Active Pixel Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul W.; Byers, Wheaton B.; Conger, Christopher; Eid, El-Sayed; Gee, George; Jones, Michael R.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert; Pickel, Jim; Kniffin, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents heavy ion data on the single event transient (SET) response of a Photobit active pixel sensor (APS) four quadrant test chip with different radiation tolerant designs in a standard 0.35 micron CMOS process. The physical design techniques of enclosed geometry and P-channel guard rings are used to design the four N-type active photodiode pixels as described in a previous paper. Argon transient measurements on the 256 x 256 chip array as a function of incident angle show a significant variation in the amount of charge collected as well as the charge spreading dependent on the pixel type. The results are correlated with processing and design information provided by Photobit. In addition, there is a large degree of statistical variability between individual ion strikes. No latch-up is observed up to an LET of 106 MeV/mg/sq cm.

  10. Charge collection and non-ionizing radiation tolerance of CMOS pixel sensors using a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Min

    2016-09-01

    The proposed Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) will be primarily aimed for precision measurements of the discovered Higgs boson. Its innermost vertex detector, which will play a critical role in heavy-flavor tagging, must be constructed with fine-pitched silicon pixel sensors with low power consumption and fast readout. CMOS pixel sensor (CPS), as one of the most promising candidate technologies, has already demonstrated its excellent performance in several high energy physics experiments. Therefore it has been considered for R&D for the CEPC vertex detector. In this paper, we present the preliminary studies to improve the collected signal charge over the equivalent input capacitance ratio (Q / C), which will be crucial to reduce the analog power consumption. We have performed detailed 3D device simulation and evaluated potential impacts from diode geometry, epitaxial layer properties and non-ionizing radiation damage. We have proposed a new approach to improve the treatment of the boundary conditions in simulation. Along with the TCAD simulation, we have designed the exploratory prototype utilizing the TowerJazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process and we will verify the simulation results with future measurements.

  11. LePIX: First results from a novel monolithic pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, N.; Giubilato, P.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, C.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.; Wyss, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a monolithic pixel sensor developed in the framework of the LePIX project aimed at tracking/triggering tasks where high granularity, low power consumption, material budget, radiation hardness and production costs are a concern. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This maintains the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, but offers charge collection by drift from a depleted region and therefore an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional undepleted MAPS. Measurement results obtained with the first prototypes from laser, radioactive source and beam test experiments are described. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the capability of the device to separate the peaks in the spectrum of a 55 Fe source. We will also highlight the interaction between pixel cell design and architecture which points toward a very precise direction in the development of such depleted monolithic pixel devices for high energy physics

  12. Geant4-based simulations of charge collection in CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Allinson, N.M.; Price, T.; Anaxagoras, T.

    2017-01-01

    Geant4 is an object-oriented toolkit for the simulation of the interaction of particles and radiation with matter. It provides a snapshot of the state of a simulated particle in time, as it travels through a specified geometry. One important area of application is the modelling of radiation detector systems. Here, we extend the abilities of such modelling to include charge transport and sharing in pixelated CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs); though similar effects occur in other pixel detectors. The CMOS APSs discussed were developed in the framework of the PRaVDA consortium to assist the design of custom sensors to be used in an energy-range detector for proton Computed Tomography (pCT). The development of ad-hoc classes, providing a charge transport model for a CMOS APS and its integration into the standard Geant4 toolkit, is described. The proposed charge transport model includes, charge generation, diffusion, collection, and sharing across adjacent pixels, as well as the full electronic chain for a CMOS APS. The proposed model is validated against experimental data acquired with protons in an energy range relevant for pCT.

  13. Compact laser interferometer for translation and tilt measurement as optical readout for the LISA inertial sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2007-10-01

    The space mission LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) aims at detecting gravitational waves in the frequency range 30 μ Hz to 1Hz. Free flying proof masses inside the satellites act as inertial sensors and represent the end mirrors of the interferometer. In the current baseline design, LISA utilizes an optical readout of the position and tilt of the proof mass with respect to the satellite housing. This readout must have ~ 5pm/√Hz sensitivity for the translation measurement (for frequencies above 2.8mHz with an ƒ -2 relaxation down to 30 μHz) and ~ 10 nrad/√Hz sensitivity for the tilt measurement (for frequencies above 0.1mHz with an ƒ -1 relaxation down to 30 μHz). The University of Applied Sciences Konstanz (HTWG) - in collaboration with Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen, and the Humboldt-University Berlin - therefore develops a highly symmetric heterodyne interferometer implementing differential wavefront sensing for the tilt measurement. We realized a mechanically highly stable and compact setup. In a second, improved setup we measured initial noise levels below 5 pm/√Hz and 10 nrad/√Hz, respectively, for frequencies above 10mHz.

  14. Two-dimensional pixel image lag simulation and optimization in a 4-T CMOS image sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Junting; Li Binqiao; Yu Pingping; Xu Jiangtao [School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mou Cun, E-mail: xujiangtao@tju.edu.c [Logistics Management Office, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Pixel image lag in a 4-T CMOS image sensor is analyzed and simulated in a two-dimensional model. Strategies of reducing image lag are discussed from transfer gate channel threshold voltage doping adjustment, PPD N-type doping dose/implant tilt adjustment and transfer gate operation voltage adjustment for signal electron transfer. With the computer analysis tool ISE-TCAD, simulation results show that minimum image lag can be obtained at a pinned photodiode n-type doping dose of 7.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, an implant tilt of -2{sup 0}, a transfer gate channel doping dose of 3.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and an operation voltage of 3.4 V. The conclusions of this theoretical analysis can be a guideline for pixel design to improve the performance of 4-T CMOS image sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles; Recherche et developpement de capteurs actifs monolithiques CMOS pour la detection de particules elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    2007-09-15

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a {sup 55}Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 {mu}m x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 {mu}W) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 {mu}m OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  16. Experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system with 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed an experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system using 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor. The sensor has 3840 × 2160 effective pixels and is progressively scanned at 60 frames per second. We describe the color filter array and interpolation method to improve image quality with a high-pixel-count single-chip sensor. We also describe an experimental image acquisition system we used to measured spatial frequency characteristics in the horizontal direction. The results indicate good prospects for achieving a high quality single chip HDTV camera that reduces pseudo signals and maintains high spatial frequency characteristics within the frequency band for HDTV.

  17. Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan O Isikman

    Full Text Available We report Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color sensor-arrays such as CMOS imagers that exhibit Bayer color filter patterns. Without physically removing these color filters coated on the sensor chip, we synthesize pixel super-resolved lensfree holograms, which are then reconstructed to achieve ~350 nm lateral resolution, corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.8, across a field-of-view of ~20.5 mm(2. This constitutes a digital image with ~0.7 Billion effective pixels in both amplitude and phase channels (i.e., ~1.4 Giga-pixels total. Furthermore, by changing the illumination angle (e.g., ± 50° and scanning a partially-coherent light source across two orthogonal axes, super-resolved images of the same specimen from different viewing angles are created, which are then digitally combined to synthesize tomographic images of the object. Using this dual-axis lensfree tomographic imager running on a color sensor-chip, we achieve a 3D spatial resolution of ~0.35 µm × 0.35 µm × ~2 µm, in x, y and z, respectively, creating an effective voxel size of ~0.03 µm(3 across a sample volume of ~5 mm(3, which is equivalent to >150 Billion voxels. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of this lensfree optical tomographic microscopy platform on a color CMOS image sensor by creating tomograms of micro-particles as well as a wild-type C. elegans nematode.

  18. Pixel Sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084134; Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan Allen; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zoi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120~GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2x10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}/$cm$^2$ fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  19. Pixel sensors with slim edges and small pitches for the CMS upgrades for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieri, Caterina, E-mail: cvernier@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Zoi, Irene [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); University of Florence, Firenze, 50121 (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    Planar n-in-n silicon detectors with small pitches and slim edges are being investigated for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC experiments. Sensor prototypes compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated by Sintef, were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the Fermilab test beam facility before and after irradiation with up to 2×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} fluence. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented.

  20. Readout of micromechanical cantilever sensor arrays by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmeister, Jana; Fuss, Achim; Saurenbach, Frank; Berger, Ruediger; Helm, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air

  1. A 35fJ/Step differential successive approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit with quasi-dynamic operation

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Alhoshany, Abdulaziz; Alahmadi, Hamzah; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a successive-approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit that achieves 35fJ/Step energy efficiency FoM, which represents 4× improvement over the state-of-the-art. A fully differential architecture is employed to provide robustness

  2. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  3. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  4. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglieri, G; Cavicchioli, C; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Keil, M; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Tobon, C A Marin; Martinengo, P; Chalmet, P L; Mugnier, H; Chanlek, N; Collu, A; Marras, D; Giubilato, P; Mattiazzo, S; Kim, D; Kim, J; Lattuca, A; Mazza, G

    2013-01-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified

  5. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With one operational amplifier (op-amp in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements’ bypass currents, which were injected into array’s non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT’s measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  6. An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Qi; Li, Jian-Qing; Song, Ai-Guo

    2016-12-06

    With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements' bypass currents, which were injected into array's non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-amp in negative feedback to sample the total bypass current and calculate the precision resistance of the element being tested (EBT) with it. The improved setting non-scanned-electrode zero potential circuit (S-NSE-ZPC) was given as an example for analyzing and verifying the performance of the improved zero potential circuit. Secondly, in the S-NSE-ZPC and the improved S-NSE-ZPC, the effects of different parameters of the resistive sensor arrays and their readout circuits on the EBT's measurement accuracy were simulated with the NI Multisim 12. Thirdly, part features of the improved circuit were verified with the experiments of a prototype circuit. Followed, the results were discussed and the conclusions were given. The experiment results show that the improved circuit, though it requires one more op-amp, one more resistor and one more sampling channel, can access the EBT in the 2-D resistive sensor array more accurately.

  7. Electrical and functional characterisation with single chips and module prototypes of the 1.2 Gb/s serial data link of the monolithic active pixel sensor for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Bonora, Matthias; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Kim, Daehyeok; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Lattuca, Alessandra; Mazza, Giovanni; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Snoeys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System uses a newly developed monolithic active pixel sensor (ALPIDE) which will populate seven tracking layers surrounding the interaction point. Chips communicate with the readout electronics using a 1.2 Gb/s data link and a 40 Mb/s bidirectional control link. Event data are transmitted to the readout electronics over microstrips on a Flexible Printed Circuit and a 6 m long twinaxial cable. This paper outlines the characterisation effort for assessing the Data Transmission Unit performance of single sensors and prototypes of the detector modules. It describes the different prototypes used, the test system and procedures, and results of laboratory and irradiation tests.

  8. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  9. Monolithic pixel detectors in a 0.13μm CMOS technology with sensor level continuous time charge amplification and shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Cenci, R.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Rizzo, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the feasibility of a new implementation of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) for applications to charged particle tracking. As compared to standard three MOSFET MAPS, where the charge signal is readout by a source follower, the proposed front-end scheme relies upon a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), embedded in the elementary pixel cell, to perform charge-to-voltage conversion. The area required for the integration of the front-end electronics is mostly provided by the collecting electrode, which consists of a deep n-type diffusion, available as a shielding frame for n-channel devices in deep submicron, triple well CMOS technologies. Based on the above concept, a chip, which includes several test structures differing in the sensitive element area, has been fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS process. In this paper, the criteria underlying the design of the pixel level analog processor will be presented, together with some preliminary experimental results demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach

  10. Analog front-end for pixel sensors in a 3D CMOS technology for the SuperB Layer0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manazza, A.; Gaioni, L.; Re, V.

    2011-01-01

    This work is concerned with the design of two different analog channels for hybrid and monolithic pixels readout in view of applications to the SVT at the SuperB Factory. The circuits have been designed in a 130nm CMOS, vertically integrated technology, which, among others, may provide some advantages in terms of functional density and electrical isolation between the analog and the digital sections of the front-end.

  11. Spectral response characterization of CdTe sensors of different pixel size with the IBEX ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, P.; Radicci, V.; Trueb, P.; Disch, C.; Rissi, M.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Broennimann, C.

    2018-06-01

    We characterized the spectral response of CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes - namely 75, 150 and 300 μm - bonded to the latest generation IBEX single photon counting ASIC developed at DECTRIS, to detect monochromatic X-ray energy in the range 10-60 keV. We present a comparison of pulse height spectra recorded for several energies, showing the dependence on the pixel size of the non-trivial atomic fluorescence and charge sharing effects that affect the detector response. The extracted energy resolution, in terms of full width at half maximum or FWHM, ranges from 1.5 to 4 keV according to the pixel size and chip configuration. We devoted a careful analysis to the Quantum Efficiency and to the Spectral Efficiency - a newly-introduced measure that quantifies the impact of fluorescence and escape phenomena on the spectrum integrity in high- Z material based detectors. We then investigated the influence of the photon flux on the aforementioned quantities up to 180 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 and 50 ṡ 106 cts/s/mm2 for the 150 μm and 300 μm pixel case, respectively. Finally, we complemented the experimental data with analytical and with Monte Carlo simulations - taking into account the stochastic nature of atomic fluorescence - with an excellent agreement.

  12. Characterization of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2025, necessitates the replacement of the tracker of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence up to Φ{sub eq} = 2 . 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and an ionizing dose of ∼ 10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Silicon crystals grown with different methods and sensor designs are under investigation in order to optimize the sensors for such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good candidates to achieve this goal, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. Epitaxial pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of Φ{sub eq} = 1.3 . 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} have been characterized in laboratory measurements and beam tests at the DESY II facility. The active thickness of the strip sensors and pad diodes is 100 μm. In addition, strip sensors produced using other growth techniques with a thickness of 200 μm have been studied. In this talk, the results obtained for p-bulk sensors are shown.

  13. Analysis of 3D stacked fully functional CMOS Active Pixel Sensor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D; Servoli, L; Meroli, S

    2009-01-01

    The IC technology trend is to move from 3D flexible configurations (package on package, stacked dies) to real 3D ICs. This is mainly due to i) the increased electrical performances and ii) the cost of 3D integration which may be cheaper than to keep shrinking 2D circuits. Perspective advantages for particle tracking and vertex detectors applications in High Energy Physics can be envisaged: in this work, we will focus on the capabilities of the state-of-the-art vertical scale integration technologies, allowing for the fabrication of very compact, fully functional, multiple layers CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors. The main idea is to exploit the features of the 3D technologies for the fabrication of a ''stack'' of very thin and precisely aligned CMOS APS layers, leading to a single, integrated, multi-layers pixel sensor. The adoption of multiple-layers single detectors can dramatically reduce the mass of conventional, separated detectors (thus reducing multiple scattering issues), at the same time allowing for very precise measurements of particle trajectory and momentum. As a proof of concept, an extensive device and circuit simulation activity has been carried out, aiming at evaluate the suitability of such a kind of CMOS active pixel layers for particle tracking purposes.

  14. IR sensitivity enhancement of CMOS Image Sensor with diffractive light trapping pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Sozo; Oshiyama, Itaru; Ikeda, Harumi; Ebiko, Yoshiki; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Saito, Suguru; Oinoue, Takashi; Hagimoto, Yoshiya; Iwamoto, Hayato

    2017-06-19

    We report on the IR sensitivity enhancement of back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (BI-CIS) with 2-dimensional diffractive inverted pyramid array structure (IPA) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and deep trench isolation (DTI). FDTD simulations of semi-infinite thick c-Si having 2D IPAs on its surface whose pitches over 400 nm shows more than 30% improvement of light absorption at λ = 850 nm and the maximum enhancement of 43% with the 540 nm pitch at the wavelength is confirmed. A prototype BI-CIS sample with pixel size of 1.2 μm square containing 400 nm pitch IPAs shows 80% sensitivity enhancement at λ = 850 nm compared to the reference sample with flat surface. This is due to diffraction with the IPA and total reflection at the pixel boundary. The NIR images taken by the demo camera equip with a C-mount lens show 75% sensitivity enhancement in the λ = 700-1200 nm wavelength range with negligible spatial resolution degradation. Light trapping CIS pixel technology promises to improve NIR sensitivity and appears to be applicable to many different image sensor applications including security camera, personal authentication, and range finding Time-of-Flight camera with IR illuminations.

  15. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  16. A monolithic active pixel sensor for particle detection in 0.25 μm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velthuis, J.J.; Allport, P.P.; Casse, G.; Evans, A.; Turchetta, R.; Villani, G.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) for High Energy Physics applications. We have successfully produced 3 test structures. They feature several different pixel types including: standard 3MOS, 4MOS allowing Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), charge amplifier pixels and a flexible APS (FAPS). The FAPS has a 10 deep pipeline on each pixel. This is specifically designed with the beam structure of the TESLA proposal for the Linear Collider in mind. Results of a laser test on our first device and source test results on two more recent test structures will be presented

  17. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  18. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of ∼1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/μGy mm 2 , for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  19. A Sensitive Dynamic and Active Pixel Vision Sensor for Color or Neural Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, Diederik Paul; Corradi, Federico; Li, Chenghan; Bamford, Simeon A; Longinotti, Luca; Voigt, Fabian F; Berry, Stewart; Taverni, Gemma; Helmchen, Fritjof; Delbruck, Tobi

    2018-02-01

    Applications requiring detection of small visual contrast require high sensitivity. Event cameras can provide higher dynamic range (DR) and reduce data rate and latency, but most existing event cameras have limited sensitivity. This paper presents the results of a 180-nm Towerjazz CIS process vision sensor called SDAVIS192. It outputs temporal contrast dynamic vision sensor (DVS) events and conventional active pixel sensor frames. The SDAVIS192 improves on previous DAVIS sensors with higher sensitivity for temporal contrast. The temporal contrast thresholds can be set down to 1% for negative changes in logarithmic intensity (OFF events) and down to 3.5% for positive changes (ON events). The achievement is possible through the adoption of an in-pixel preamplification stage. This preamplifier reduces the effective intrascene DR of the sensor (70 dB for OFF and 50 dB for ON), but an automated operating region control allows up to at least 110-dB DR for OFF events. A second contribution of this paper is the development of characterization methodology for measuring DVS event detection thresholds by incorporating a measure of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). At average SNR of 30 dB, the DVS temporal contrast threshold fixed pattern noise is measured to be 0.3%-0.8% temporal contrast. Results comparing monochrome and RGBW color filter array DVS events are presented. The higher sensitivity of SDAVIS192 make this sensor potentially useful for calcium imaging, as shown in a recording from cultured neurons expressing calcium sensitive green fluorescent protein GCaMP6f.

  20. Development of edgeless n-on-p planar pixel sensors for future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomben, Marco, E-mail: marco.bomben@cern.ch [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, Luciano [Università di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Calderini, Giovanni [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Università di Pisa, and INFN Sez. di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Chauveau, Jacques [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Giacomini, Gabriele [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, Alessandro [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, Genève (Switzerland); Marchiori, Giovanni [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Énergies (LPNHE) Paris (France); Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM) Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    The development of n-on-p “edgeless” planar pixel sensors being fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), aimed at the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector for the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), is reported. A characterizing feature of the devices is the reduced dead area at the edge, achieved by adopting the “active edge” technology, based on a deep etched trench, suitably doped to make an ohmic contact to the substrate. The project is presented, along with the active edge process, the sensor design for this first n-on-p production and a selection of simulation results, including the expected charge collection efficiency after radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} comparable to those expected at HL-LHC (about ten years of running, with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}) for the outer pixel layers. We show that, after irradiation and at a bias voltage of 500 V, more than 50% of the signal should be collected in the edge region; this confirms the validity of the active edge approach. -- Highlights: ► We conceive n-on-p edgeless planar silicon sensors. ► These sensors are aimed at the Phase-II of the ATLAS experiment. ► Simulations show sensors can be operated well in overdepletion. ► Simulations show the sensor capability to collect charge at the periphery. ► Simulations prove the above statements to be true even after irradiation.

  1. A novel simulation method to evaluate the collection performance of a monolithic active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Min; Tang Zhen'an

    2011-01-01

    A novel simulation method is presented in this paper to evaluate the collection performance of monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) devices for minimum ionizing particle tracking. A simplified 3D matrix pixel structure is built using the computer aided design software Sentaurus. The virtual device is then divided into hundreds of parts and an independent customized X photon model is involved in each part to simulate the conditions under 55 Fe radiation. After data processing and analysis, charge collection efficiency, collection time and diffusion conditions can be estimated in detail. In order to verify the reliability of the method, comparisons are made between the simulations and experiments. Although there are some defects, it can be concluded that the proposed idea is a feasible method for the evaluation of the MAPS collection performance. (authors)

  2. Recent achievements of the ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors (PPS) project aims to prove the suitability of silicon detectors processed with planar technology to equip all layers of the pixel vertex detector proposed for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment for the future High Luminosity LHC at CERN (HL-LHC). The detectors need to be radiation tolerant to the extreme fluences expected to be received during the experimental lifetime, with optimised geometry for full coverage and high granularity and affordable in term of cost, due to the relatively large area of the upgraded ATLAS detector system. Here several solutions for the detector geometry and results with radiation hard technologies (n-in-n, n-in-p) are discussed

  3. CMOS pixel sensor development for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced with a fully silicon based detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) before the start of the High Luminosity-LHC project (HL-LHC) in 2026. To cope with the harsh environment expected at the HL-LHC, new approaches are being developed for pixel detectors based on CMOS technology. Such detectors can provide charge collection, analog amplification and digital processing in the same silicon wafer. The radiation hardness is improved thanks to multiple nested wells which give the embedded CMOS electronics sufficient shielding. The goal of this programme is to demonstrate that depleted CMOS pixels are suitable for high rate, fast timing and high radiation operation at the LHC . A number of alternative solutions have been explored and characterised. In this document, test results of the sensors fabricated in different CMOS processes are reported.

  4. First large DEPFET pixel modules for the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Felix; Avella, Paola; Kiesling, Christian; Koffmane, Christian; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Valentan, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, Ladislav; Richter, Rainer [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer excellent signal to noise ratio, resolution and low power consumption with a low material budget. They will be used at Belle II and are a candidate for an ILC vertex detector. The pixels are integrated in a monolithic piece of silicon which also acts as PCB providing the signal and control routings for the ASICs on top. The first prototype DEPFET sensor modules for Belle II have been produced. The modules have 192000 pixels and are equipped with SMD components and three different kinds of ASICs to control and readout the pixels. The entire readout chain has to be studied; the metal layer interconnectivity and routings need to be verified. The modules are fully characterized, and the operation voltages and control sequences of the ASICs are investigated. An overview of the DEPFET concept and first characterization results is presented.

  5. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  6. FDTD-based optical simulations methodology for CMOS image sensors pixels architecture and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirigoyen, Flavien; Crocherie, Axel; Vaillant, Jérôme M.; Cazaux, Yvon

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a new FDTD-based optical simulation model dedicated to describe the optical performances of CMOS image sensors taking into account diffraction effects. Following market trend and industrialization constraints, CMOS image sensors must be easily embedded into even smaller packages, which are now equipped with auto-focus and short-term coming zoom system. Due to miniaturization, the ray-tracing models used to evaluate pixels optical performances are not accurate anymore to describe the light propagation inside the sensor, because of diffraction effects. Thus we adopt a more fundamental description to take into account these diffraction effects: we chose to use Maxwell-Boltzmann based modeling to compute the propagation of light, and to use a software with an FDTD-based (Finite Difference Time Domain) engine to solve this propagation. We present in this article the complete methodology of this modeling: on one hand incoherent plane waves are propagated to approximate a product-use diffuse-like source, on the other hand we use periodic conditions to limit the size of the simulated model and both memory and computation time. After having presented the correlation of the model with measurements we will illustrate its use in the case of the optimization of a 1.75μm pixel.

  7. Test Beam Results of Geometry Optimized Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Becks, K H; Grah, C; Mättig, P; Rohe, T

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Chip-Module-Deposited (MCM-D) technique has been used to build hybrid pixel detector assemblies. This paper summarises the results of an analysis of data obtained in a test beam campaign at CERN. Here, single chip hybrids made of ATLAS pixel prototype read-out electronics and special sensor tiles were used. They were prepared by the Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration, IZM, Berlin, Germany. The sensors feature an optimized sensor geometry called equal sized bricked. This design enhances the spatial resolution for double hits in the long direction of the sensor cells.

  8. Time-of-flight camera via a single-pixel correlation image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tianyi; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji; Dai, Huidong; Ye, Ling; Gu, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    A time-of-flight imager based on single-pixel correlation image sensors is proposed for noise-free depth map acquisition in presence of ambient light. Digital micro-mirror device and time-modulated IR-laser provide spatial and temporal illumination on the unknown object. Compressed sensing and ‘four bucket principle’ method are combined to reconstruct the depth map from a sequence of measurements at a low sampling rate. Second-order correlation transform is also introduced to reduce the noise from the detector itself and direct ambient light. Computer simulations are presented to validate the computational models and improvement of reconstructions.

  9. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  10. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vigani, L.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  11. Readout ASIC for ILC-FPCCD vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Yosuke; Miyamoto, Akiya; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The concept of FPCCD (Fine Pixel CCD) whose pixel size is 5x5μm 2 has been proposed as vertex detector at ILC. Since FPCCD has 128 x20,000 pixels in one readout channel, its readout poses a considerable challenge. We have developed a prototype of readout ASIC to readout the large number of pixels during the inter-train gap of the ILC beam. In this paper, we report the design and performance of the readout ASIC.

  12. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  13. Pitch dependence of the tolerance of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors to non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, D.; Deveaux, M.; Domachowski, M.; Fröhlich, I.; Koziel, M.; Müntz, C.; Scharrer, P.; Stroth, J.

    2013-01-01

    CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) have demonstrated excellent performance as tracking detectors for charged particles. They provide an outstanding spatial resolution (a few μm), a detection efficiency of ≳99.9%, very low material budget (0.05%X 0 ) and good radiation tolerance (≳1Mrad, ≳10 13 n eq /cm 2 ) (Deveaux et al. [1]). This makes them an interesting technology for various applications in heavy ion and particle physics. Their tolerance to bulk damage was recently improved by using high-resistivity (∼1kΩcm) epitaxial layers as sensitive volume (Deveaux et al. [1], Dorokhov et al. [2]). The radiation tolerance of conventional MAPS is known to depend on the pixel pitch. This is as a higher pitch extends the distance, which signal electrons have to travel by thermal diffusion before being collected. Increased diffusion paths turn into a higher probability of loosing signal charge due to recombination. Provided that a similar effect exists in MAPS with high-resistivity epitaxial layer, it could be used to extend their radiation tolerance further. We addressed this question with MIMOSA-18AHR prototypes, which were provided by the IPHC Strasbourg and irradiated with reactor neutrons. We report about the results of this study and provide evidences that MAPS with 10μm pixel pitch tolerate doses of ≳3×10 14 n eq /cm 2

  14. Coded aperture detector: an image sensor with sub 20-nm pixel resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Mayer, Rafael; Wojdyla, Antoine; Vannier, Nicolas; Lesser, Ian; Aron-Dine, Shifrah; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-08-11

    We describe the coded aperture detector, a novel image sensor based on uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) with customizable pixel size, resolution, and operating photon energy regime. In this sensor, a coded aperture is scanned laterally at the image plane of an optical system, and the transmitted intensity is measured by a photodiode. The image intensity is then digitally reconstructed using a simple convolution. We present results from a proof-of-principle optical prototype, demonstrating high-fidelity image sensing comparable to a CCD. A 20-nm half-pitch URA fabricated by the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) nano-fabrication laboratory is presented that is suitable for high-resolution image sensing at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths.

  15. Characterisation of irradiated thin silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Brondolin, E. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); and others

    2017-08-15

    The high luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider, foreseen for 2026, necessitates the replacement of the CMS experiment's silicon tracker. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation, corresponding to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of up to Φ{sub eq} = 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and an ionising dose of ∼5 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Thin, planar silicon sensors are good candidates for this application, since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. In this paper, the results obtained from the characterisation of 100 and 200 μm thick p-bulk pad diodes and strip sensors irradiated up to fluences of Φ{sub eq} = 1.3 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} are shown. (orig.)

  16. Test beam results of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Schwenker, Benjamin [Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    New monolithic detector concepts are currently being explored for future particle physics experiments, in particular for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. Common to monolithic pixel detectors is the integration of the front-end circuitry and the sensor on the same silicon substrate. The DMAPS concept makes use of high resistive silicon as substrate. It enables the application of a high bias voltage to create a drift field for the charge collection in the sensor part as well as the full usage of CMOS logic in the same piece of silicon. DMAPS prototypes from several foundries are available since three years and have been extensively characterized in the lab. In this talk, results of test beam campaigns, with neutron irradiated prototypes implemented in the ESPROS process, are presented.

  17. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  18. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  19. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  20. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Vassiljev, N; Konstantinidis, A C; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2017-03-07

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm -1 ) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  1. Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67-3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31-122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5-20 cm2/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (sensor imager under 1 mR, indicating good image quality under low dose. A threefold reduction of current tomosynthesis dose is expected if proposed technology is combined with an advanced DBT image reconstruction method. The proposed a-IGZO APS x-ray imager with a pixel pitch6.67 lp/mm) and a low dose (<0.4 mGy) in next generation DBT systems.

  2. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  3. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The new ATLAS ITk pixel system will be installed during the LHC Phase-II shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The detector will consist of 5 layers of stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions, covering up to |η| < 4. While the outer 3 layers of the Pixel Detector are designed to operate for the full HL-LHC data taking period, the innermost 2 layers of the detector will be replaced around half of the lifetime. The ITk pixel detector will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance and radiation hardness compared to the current detector. Sensors will be read out by new ASICs based on the chip developed by the RD53 Collaboration. The pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system with a readout speed of up to 5 Gb/s per data link for the innermost layers. Results of extensive tests...

  4. Development of ultra-light pixelated systems based on CMOS sensors for future high precision vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Marc [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien - IPHC, 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors have demonstrated attractive performances in terms of spatial resolution and material budget. The recent emergence of high resistivity substrates in mass production CMOS processes has originated particularly high signal-to-noise ratios and improved the non-ionising radiation tolerance to fluences close to 10{sup 14} Neq/cm{sup 2}. These achievements, obtained with MIMOSA sensors developed at IPHC (Strasbourg) and IRFU (Saclay) will be overviewed and put in perspective of the numerous applications of the sensors. These include collider experiments at RHIC, LHC, ILC and CLIC. The development of ultra-light ladders composed of these sensors and featuring 0.1% to 0.3% of radiation length, will be summarised. The contribution to the conference will also address the evolution of these pixelated systems, including on-going R on multi-tier sensors exploiting vertical integration technologies. (author)

  5. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, G; Richards, M; Bennieston, A J; Ramachers, Y A

    2011-01-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  6. Characterization and Beam Tests Results of Non-Uniformly Irradiated 3D Pixel Sensors for HEP Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Grinstein, S.; Micelli, A.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-06-01

    3D Pixel detectors, with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate, offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the charge collection distance can be reduced independently of the bulk thickness. In the framework of the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) program, work has been carried out to study the suitability of 3D pixel devices for forward proton tracking. The AFP tracker unit will consist of an array of five pixel sensors placed at 2-3 mm from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) proton beam. The proximity to the beam is essential for the AFP physics program as it directly increases the sensitivity of the experiment. Thus, there are two critical requirements for the AFP pixel detector. First, the dead region of the sensor has to be minimized. Second, the device has to be able to cope with a very inhomogeneous radiation distribution. Recent results of the characterization and beam test studies of in-homogeneously irradiated 3D pixel sensors produced at CNM-Barcelona will be presented. (authors)

  7. Image sensor pixel with on-chip high extinction ratio polarizer based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Shishido, Sanshiro; Ando, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-05-06

    In this study, we demonstrate a polarization sensitive pixel for a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology. Using such a deep-submicron CMOS technology, it is possible to design fine metal patterns smaller than the wavelengths of visible light by using a metal wire layer. We designed and fabricated a metal wire grid polarizer on a 20 × 20 μm(2) pixel for image sensor. An extinction ratio of 19.7 dB was observed at a wavelength 750 nm.

  8. Pixel sensor evaluation and online event selection for the Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, Dorothea vom

    2017-10-27

    Despite having survived numerous experimental tests, the standard model of particle physics is not a complete description of nature. The Mu3e experiment tests theories beyond the standard model by searching for the lepton flavour violating decay μ→e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +}, aiming at a branching ratio sensitivity of 2.10{sup -15} in a first phase of the experiment. A high precision magnetic spectrometer combined with scintillation detectors will measure the momenta, vertices and timing of the decay products of 1.10{sup 8} μ/s stopped on a target. In this work, a prototype of the high voltage monolithic active pixel sensor envisaged for the spectrometer was characterised. With an efficiency >99% and a time resolution of 14 ns, it meets the requirements imposed on the final sensor. Furthermore, an online signal selection process was developed and implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU), keeping 98% of signal decays, while reducing the data rate of 80 Gbit/s by a factor of 140; resulting in a rate that can be stored to disk. With the computing performance achieved on the GPU, the selection process can run on the hardware planned for the experiment. Both the online selection and the silicon sensor are key aspects for the success of Mu3e.

  9. Towards real-time VMAT verification using a prototype, high-speed CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Hafiz M; Harris, Emma J; Osmond, John P F; Allinson, Nigel M; Evans, Philip M

    2013-05-21

    This work investigates the feasibility of using a prototype complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS) for real-time verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The prototype CMOS APS used region of interest read out on the chip to allow fast imaging of up to 403.6 frames per second (f/s). The sensor was made larger (5.4 cm × 5.4 cm) using recent advances in photolithographic technique but retains fast imaging speed with the sensor's regional read out. There is a paradigm shift in radiotherapy treatment verification with the advent of advanced treatment techniques such as VMAT. This work has demonstrated that the APS can track multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaves moving at 18 mm s(-1) with an automatic edge tracking algorithm at accuracy better than 1.0 mm even at the fastest imaging speed. Evaluation of the measured fluence distribution for an example VMAT delivery sampled at 50.4 f/s was shown to agree well with the planned fluence distribution, with an average gamma pass rate of 96% at 3%/3 mm. The MLC leaves motion and linac pulse rate variation delivered throughout the VMAT treatment can also be measured. The results demonstrate the potential of CMOS APS technology as a real-time radiotherapy dosimeter for delivery of complex treatments such as VMAT.

  10. 14C autoradiography with a novel wafer scale CMOS Active Pixel Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Allinson, N M; Larner, J

    2013-01-01

    14 C autoradiography is a well established technique for structural and metabolic analysis of cells and tissues. The most common detection medium for this application is film emulsion, which offers unbeatable spatial resolution due to its fine granularity but at the same time has some limiting drawbacks such as poor linearity and rapid saturation. In recent years several digital detectors have been developed, following the technological transition from analog to digital-based detection systems in the medical and biological field. Even so such digital systems have been greatly limited by the size of their active area (a few square centimeters), which have made them unsuitable for routine use in many biological applications where sample areas are typically ∼ 10–100 cm 2 . The Multidimensional Integrated Intelligent Imaging (MI3-Plus) consortium has recently developed a new large area CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (12.8 cm × 13.1 cm). This detector, based on the use of two different pixel resolutions, is capable of providing simultaneously low noise and high dynamic range on a wafer scale. In this paper we will demonstrate the suitability of this detector for routine beta autoradiography in a comparative approach with widely used film emulsion.

  11. Observation, modeling, and temperature dependence of doubly peaked electric fields in irradiated silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, M.; Allkofer, Y.; Bortoletto, D.; Cremaldi, L.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dorokhov, A.; Hoermann, C.; Kim, D.; Konecki, M.; Kotlinski, D.; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Son, S.; Speer, T.

    2006-01-01

    We show that doubly peaked electric fields are necessary to describe grazing-angle charge collection measurements of irradiated silicon pixel sensors. A model of irradiated silicon based upon two defect levels with opposite charge states and the trapping of charge carriers can be tuned to produce a good description of the measured charge collection profiles in the fluence range from 0.5x10^{14} Neq/cm^2 to 5.9x10^{14} Neq/cm^2. The model correctly predicts the variation in the profiles as the temperature is changed from -10C to -25C. The measured charge collection profiles are inconsistent with the linearly-varying electric fields predicted by the usual description based upon a uniform effective doping density. This observation calls into question the practice of using effective doping densities to characterize irradiated silicon.

  12. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 um process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Cousin, Loic; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Winter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 um thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering either the 3 innermost layers or all the 7 layers of the detector. The CPS being developed for the ITS upgrade at IPHC (Strasbourg) is derived from the MIMOSA 28 sensor realised for the STAR-PXL at RHIC in a 0.35 um CMOS process. In order to satisfy the ITS upgrade requirements in terms of readout speed and radiation tolerance, a CMOS process with a reduced feature size and a high resistivity epitaxial layer should be exploited. In this respect, the charged particle detection performance and radiation hardness of the TowerJa...

  13. Power and area efficient 4-bit column-level ADC in a CMOS pixel sensor for the ILD vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L; Morel, F; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 48 × 64 pixels prototype CMOS pixel sensor (CPS) integrated with 4-bit column-level, self triggered ADCs for the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (VTX) was developed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation. The ADCs accommodating the pixel read out in a rolling shutter mode complete the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. The design was optimised for power saving at sampling frequency. The prototype sensor is currently at the stage of being started testing and evaluation. So what is described is based on post simulation results rather than test data. This 4-bit ADC dissipates, at a 3-V supply and 6.25-MS/s sampling rate, 486 μW in its inactive mode, which is by far the most frequent. This value rises to 714 μW in case of the active mode. Its footprint amounts to 35 × 545 μm 2 .

  14. Prototype ATLAS IBL Modules using the FE-I4A Front-End Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J; Alimonti, Gianluca; Allport, Phil; Altenheiner, Silke; Ancu, Lucian; Andreazza, Attilio; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Bagolini, Alvise; Ballansat, Jacques; Barbero, Marlon; Barbier, Gérard; Bates, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Baudin, Patrick; Beau, Tristan; Beccherle, Roberto; Beck, Hans Peter; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, Jim; Bomben, Marco; Borri, Marcello; Boscardin, Maurizio; Botelho Direito, Jose Antonio; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George Russell Jr; Breugnon, Patrick; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buchholz, Peter; Buttar, Craig; Cadoux, Franck; Calderini, Giovanni; Caminada, Leah; Capeans, Mar; Casse, Gianluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Chauveau, Jacques; Chu, Ming-Lee; Ciapetti, Marco; Cindro, Vladimir; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan; Cobal, Marina; Coelli, Simone; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Colin, Daly; Collot, Johann; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; DaVia, Cinzia; David, Pierre-Yves; Debieux, Stéphane; Delebecque, Pierre; Devetak, Erik; DeWilde, Burton; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Dinu, Nicoleta; Dittus, Fridolin; Diyakov, Denis; Djama, Fares; Dobos, Daniel Adam; Doonan, Kate; Dopke, Jens; Dorholt, Ole; Dube, Sourabh; Dushkin, Andrey; Dzahini, Daniel; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrmann, Oswin; Elldge, David; Elles, Sabine; Elsing, Markus; Eraud, Ludovic; Ereditato, Antonio; Eyring, Andreas; Falchieri, Davide; Falou, Aboud; Fang, Xiaochao; Fausten, Camille; Favre, Yannick; Ferrere, Didier; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien; Flick, Tobias; Forshaw, Dean; Fougeron, Denis; Fritzsch, Thomas; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gaglione, Renaud; Gallrapp, Christian; Gan, K; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gariano, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Thibaut; Gemme, Claudia; Gensolen, Fabrice; George, Matthias; Ghislain, Patrick; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gibson, Stephen; Giordani, Mario Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Gjersdal, Håvard; Glitza, Karl Walter; Gnani, Dario; Godlewski, Jan; Gonella, Laura; Gorelov, Igor; Gorišek, Andrej; Gössling, Claus; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gray, Heather; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gromov, Vladimir; Grondin, Denis; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hansson, Per; Harb, Ali; Hartman, Neal; Hasi, Jasmine; Hegner, Franziska; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hessey, Nigel; Hetmánek, Martin; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hügging, Fabian; Husi, Coralie; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Idarraga, John; Ikegami, Yoichi; Janoška, Zdenko; Jansen, Jens; Jansen, Luc; Jensen, Frank; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Joseph, John; Kagan, Harris; Karagounis, Michael; Kass, Richard; Kenney, Christopher J; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kluit, Ruud; Kocian, Martin; Koffeman, Els; Kok, Angela; Korchak, Oleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Krieger, Nina; Krüger, Hans; Kruth, Andre; Kugel, Andreas; Kuykendall, William; La Rosa, Alessandro; Lai, Chung-Hang; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laporte, Didier; Lapsien, Tobias; Lounis, abdenour; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Yunpeng; Lubatti, Henry; Macchiolo, Anna; Mallik, Usha; Mandić, Igor; Marchand, Denis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Massol, Nicolas; Matthias, Wittgen; Mättig, Peter; Mekkaoui, Abderrazak; Menouni, Mohsine; Menu, Johann; Meroni, Chiara; Mesa, Javier; Micelli, Andrea; Michal, Sébastien; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mikuž, Marko; Mitsui, Shingo; Monti, Mauro; Moore, J; Morettini, Paolo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Murray, Peyton; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, David J; Nessi, Marzio; Neumann, Manuel; Nisius, Richard; Nordberg, Markus; Nuiry, Francois-Xavier; Oppermann, Hermann; Oriunno, Marco; Padilla, Cristobal; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pelleriti, Gabriel; Pernegger, Heinz; Piacquadio, Nicola Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Pohl, David; Polini, Alessandro; Popule, Jiří; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Povoli, Marco; Puldon, David; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Quadt, Arnulf; Quirion, David; Ragusa, Francesco; Rambure, Thibaut; Richards, Erik; Ristic, Branislav; Røhne, Ole; Rothermund, Mario; Rovani, Alessandro; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rummler, André; Ruscino, Ettore; Salek, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Sandaker, Heidi; Schipper, Jan-David; Schneider, Basil; Schorlemmer, Andre; Schroer, Nicolai; Schwemling, Philippe; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Šícho, Petr; Skubic, Patrick; Sloboda, Michal; Smith, D; Sood, Alex; Spencer, Edwin; Strang, Michael; Stugu, Bjarne; Stupak, John; Su, Dong; Takubo, Yosuke; Tassan, Jean; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Todorov, Theodore; Tomášek, Michal; Toms, Konstantin; Travaglini, Riccardo; Trischuk, William; Troncon, Clara; Troska, Georg; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsurin, Ilya; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Unno, Yoshinobu; Vacavant, Laurent; Verlaat, Bart; Vianello, Elisa; Vigeolas, Eric; von Kleist, Stephan; Vrba, Václav; Vuillermet, Raphaël; Wang, Rui; Watts, Stephen; Weber, Michele; Weber, Marteen; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Welch, Steven David; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Wiese, Andreas; Wittig, Tobias; Yildizkaya, Tamer; Zeitnitz, Christian; Ziolkowski, Michal; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zorzi, Nicola; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration will upgrade its semiconductor pixel tracking detector with a new Insertable B-layer (IBL) between the existing pixel detector and the vacuum pipe of the Large Hadron Collider. The extreme operating conditions at this location have necessitated the development of new radiation hard pixel sensor technologies and a new front-end readout chip, called the FE-I4. Planar pixel sensors and 3D pixel sensors have been investigated to equip this new pixel layer, and prototype modules using the FE-I4A have been fabricated and characterized using 120 GeV pions at the CERN SPS and 4 GeV positrons at DESY, before and after module irradiation. Beam test results are presented, including charge collection efficiency, tracking efficiency and charge sharing.

  15. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronic Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  16. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm 2 /V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10 −13 A) and OPD (<10 −8 A/cm 2 ) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the detector entrance

  17. The FoCal prototype—an extremely fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter using CMOS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, A. P.; Nooren, G.; Peitzmann, T.; Reicher, M.; Rocco, E.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; van den Brink, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.

    2018-01-01

    A prototype of a Si-W EM calorimeter was built with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors as the active elements. With a pixel size of 30 μm it allows digital calorimetry, i.e. the particle's energy is determined by counting pixels, not by measuring the energy deposited. Although of modest size, with a width of only four Moliere radii, it has 39 million pixels. In this article the construction and tuning of the prototype is described. Results from beam tests are compared with predictions of GEANT-based Monte Carlo simulations. The shape of showers caused by electrons is shown in unprecedented detail. Results for energy and position resolution are also given.

  18. Assembly procedure of the module (half-stave) of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, M; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Elia, D; Formenti, F; Fini, R A; Ghidini, B; Kluge, A; Lenti, V; Manzari, V; Meddi, F; Morel, M; Navach, F; Nilsson, P; Pepato, Adriano; Riedler, P; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Viesti, G; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). The detector includes 1200 readout ASICs, each containing 8192 pixel cells, bump-bonded to Si sensor elements. The thickness of the readout chip and the sensor element is 150mum and 200mum, respectively. Low-mass solutions are implemented for the bus and the mechanical support. In this contribution, we describe the basic module (half-stave) of the two SPD layers and we give an overview of its assembly procedure.

  19. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Anaxagoras, T; Speller, R D; Kanicki, J

    2015-12-07

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm(-1) and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  20. 3D monolithically stacked CMOS active pixel sensor detectors for particle tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Servoli, L; Meroli, S; Magalotti, D; Marras, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose an innovative approach to particle tracking based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors layers, monolithically integrated in an all-in-one chip featuring multiple, stacked, fully functional detector layers capable to provide momentum measurement (particle impact point and direction) within a single detector. This will results in a very low material detector, thus dramatically reducing multiple scattering issues. To this purpose, we rely on the capabilities of the CMOS vertical scale integration (3D IC) technology. A first chip prototype has been fabricated within a multi-project run using a 130 nm CMOS Chartered/Tezzaron technology, featuring two layers bonded face-to-face. Tests have been carried out on full 3D structures, providing the functionalities of both tiers. To this purpose, laser scans have been carried out using highly focussed spot size obtaining coincidence responses of the two layers. Tests have been made as well with X-ray sources in order to calibrate the response of the sensor. Encouraging results have been found, fostering the suitability of both the adopted 3D-IC vertical scale fabrication technology and the proposed approach for particle tracking applications.

  1. A 35fJ/Step differential successive approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit with quasi-dynamic operation

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2016-10-06

    We propose a successive-approximation capacitive sensor readout circuit that achieves 35fJ/Step energy efficiency FoM, which represents 4× improvement over the state-of-the-art. A fully differential architecture is employed to provide robustness against common mode noise and errors. An inverter-based amplifier with near-threshold biasing provides robust, fast, and energy-efficient operation. Quasi-dynamic operation is used to maintain the energy efficiency for a scalable sample rate. A hybrid coarse-fine capacitive DAC achieves 11.7bit effective resolution in a compact area. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the CMOS detector for protons. The

  3. Cantilever-based sensor with integrated optical read-out using single mode waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication and mechanical characterisation of an integrated optical read-out scheme for cantilever-based biosensors. A cantilever can be used as a biosensor by monitoring its bending caused by the surface stress generated due to chemical reactions occurring on its...... surface. Here, we present a novel integrated optical read-out scheme based on single-mode waveguides that enables the fabrication of a compact system. The complete system is fabricated in the polymer SU-8. This manuscript shows the principle of operation and the design well as the fabrication...

  4. Depth-of-interaction estimates in pixelated scintillator sensors using Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Diksha; Sze, Christina; Bhandari, Harish; Nagarkar, Vivek; Badano, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Image quality in thick scintillator detectors can be improved by minimizing parallax errors through depth-of-interaction (DOI) estimation. A novel sensor for low-energy single photon imaging having a thick, transparent, crystalline pixelated micro-columnar CsI:Tl scintillator structure has been described, with possible future application in small-animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging when using thicker structures under development. In order to understand the fundamental limits of this new structure, we introduce cartesianDETECT2, an open-source optical transport package that uses Monte Carlo methods to obtain estimates of DOI for improving spatial resolution of nuclear imaging applications. Optical photon paths are calculated as a function of varying simulation parameters such as columnar surface roughness, bulk, and top-surface absorption. We use scanning electron microscope images to estimate appropriate surface roughness coefficients. Simulation results are analyzed to model and establish patterns between DOI and photon scattering. The effect of varying starting locations of optical photons on the spatial response is studied. Bulk and top-surface absorption fractions were varied to investigate their effect on spatial response as a function of DOI. We investigated the accuracy of our DOI estimation model for a particular screen with various training and testing sets, and for all cases the percent error between the estimated and actual DOI over the majority of the detector thickness was ±5% with a maximum error of up to ±10% at deeper DOIs. In addition, we found that cartesianDETECT2 is computationally five times more efficient than MANTIS. Findings indicate that DOI estimates can be extracted from a double-Gaussian model of the detector response. We observed that our model predicts DOI in pixelated scintillator detectors reasonably well.

  5. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a ∼10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38

  6. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  7. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  8. Lithographed Superconducting Resonator Development for Next-Generation Frequency Multiplexing Readout of Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, F.; De Haan, T.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Neuhauser, B.; Plambeck, R.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.; Westbrook, B.

    2018-03-01

    Ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are undergoing a period of exponential growth. Current experiments are observing with 1000-10,000 detectors, and the next-generation experiment (CMB stage 4) is proposing to deploy approximately 500,000 detectors. This order of magnitude increase in detector count will require a new approach for readout electronics. We have developed superconducting resonators for next-generation frequency-domain multiplexing (fMUX) readout architecture. Our goal is to reduce the physical size of resonators, such that resonators and detectors can eventually be integrated on a single wafer. To reduce the size of these resonators, we have designed spiral inductors and interdigitated capacitors that resonate around 10-100 MHz, an order of magnitude higher frequency compared to current fMUX readout systems. The higher frequency leads to a wider bandwidth and would enable higher multiplexing factor than the current ˜ 50 detectors per readout channel. We will report on the simulation, fabrication method, characterization technique, and measurement of quality factor of these resonators.

  9. Analysis of test beam data of ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazareva, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has scheduled a major upgrade of its experimen- tal apparatus for the Long Shutdown 2 of LHC in 2019-2020. Within this enterprise, CERN is strongly involved in the development of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS will be based on Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), a cutting-edge technology that will allow to improve the detector performance signicantly. The nal sensor, called ALPIDE, is in production since December 2016. This project is focused on the characterization of irradiated ALPIDE sensors.

  10. "DNA Origami Traffic Lights" with a Split Aptamer Sensor for a Bicolor Fluorescence Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bauer, Jens; Steinmeyer, Jeannine; Kuzuya, Akinori; Niemeyer, Christof M; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2017-04-12

    A split aptamer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was embedded as a recognition unit into two levers of a nanomechanical DNA origami construct by extension and modification of selected staple strands. An additional optical module in the stem of the split aptamer comprised two different cyanine-styryl dyes that underwent an energy transfer from green (donor) to red (acceptor) emission if two ATP molecules were bound as target molecule to the recognition module and thereby brought the dyes in close proximity. As a result, the ATP as a target triggered the DNA origami shape transition and yielded a fluorescence color change from green to red as readout. Conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the topology change from the open form of the DNA origami in the absence of ATP into the closed form in the presence of the target molecule. The obtained closed/open ratios in the absence and presence of target molecules tracked well with the fluorescence color ratios and thereby validated the bicolor fluorescence readout. The correct positioning of the split aptamer as the functional unit farthest away from the fulcrum of the DNA origami was crucial for the aptasensing by fluorescence readout. The fluorescence color change allowed additionally to follow the topology change of the DNA origami aptasensor in real time in solution. The concepts of fluorescence energy transfer for bicolor readout in a split aptamer in solution, and AFM on surfaces, were successfully combined in a single DNA origami construct to obtain a bimodal readout. These results are important for future custom DNA devices for chemical-biological and bioanalytical purposes because they are not only working as simple aptamers but are also visible by AFM on the single-molecule level.

  11. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2010-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS pixel detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer having new electronics assembled an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth and also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. The talk will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  12. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, having new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  13. Study of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00531401

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (LS2 in 2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of $\\sim$10 m$^2$, thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The scope of this thesis is twofold; to report on the activity on the development and the characterisation of a MAPS for the ITS upgrade and to study the charge collection process using a first-principles Monte Carlo simulation. The performance of a MAPS depends on a large number of design and operational parameters, such as collection diode geometry, reverse bias voltage, and epitaxial layer thickness. I have studied this dependence by measuring the INVESTIGATOR chip response to X-rays emitted by an $^{55}$Fe source and to minimum ionising particles. In particular, I ha...

  14. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12μm to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6μm) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  15. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12{mu}m to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6{mu}m) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  16. A monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-180 nm High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. Standard FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to trapped charge in the buried oxide layer and charged interface states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180 nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation using a deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection. The design and measurement results from first prototypes are presented including radiation tolerance to total ionizing dose and charge collection properties of neutron irradiated samples.

  17. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemperek, Tomasz, E-mail: hemperek@uni-bonn.de; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  18. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  19. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Kanicki, J; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Anaxagoras, T

    2015-01-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm −1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm −1 . In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR i ) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (∼1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. (paper)

  20. TID-dependent current measurements of IBL readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, Karola [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik IV (Germany); CERN (Switzerland); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several subsystems with a hybrid pixel detector as the innermost component of the tracking system. The pixel detector has been composed of three layers of silicon sensor assemblies during the first data taking run of the LHC and has been upgraded with a new 4th layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), in summer 2014. Each silicon sensor of the IBL is connected to a Front End readout chip (FE-I4) via bump bonds. During the first year of data taking an increase of the LV current produced by the readout chips was observed. This increase could be traced back to radiation damage inside the silicon. The dependence of the current on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and temperature has been tested with X-ray irradiations and will be presented in this talk.

  1. Comparison of relevant parameters of multi-pixel sensors for tracker detectors after irradiation with high proton and neutron fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergholz, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    The further increase of the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires new sensors for the tracking detector of the Compact Muon Soleniod (CMS) experiment. These sensors must be more radiation hard and of a finer granularity to lower the occupancy. In addition the new sensor modules must have a lower material budget and have to be self triggering. Sensor prototypes, the so called ''MPix''-sensors, produced on different materials were investigated for their radiation hardness. These sensors were fully characterized before and after irradiation. Of particular interest was the comparison of different bias methods, different materials and the influence of various geometries. The degeneration rate differs for the different sensor materials. The increase of the dark current of Float-Zone-Silicon is stronger for thicker sensors and less than for Magnetic-Czochralski-Silicon sensors. Both tested bias structures are damaged by the irradiation. The poly silicon resistance increases after irradiation by fifty percent. The Punch-Through-Structure is more effected by irradiation. The punch-through voltage increase by a factor of two. Due to the higher pixel current, the working point of the sensor is shifted to smaller differential resistances.

  2. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, S.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Varner, G.; Yang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  3. Data acquisition at the front-end of the Mu3e pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Mu3e experiment - searching for the lepton-flavour violating decay of the muon into three electrons at an unprecedented sensitivity of one in 10{sup 16} decays - is based on a pixel tracking detector. The sensors are High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors, a technology which allows for very fast and thin detectors, and thus is an ideal fit for Mu3e where the trajectories of low-momentum electrons at high rates are to be measured. The detector will consist of about 275 million pixels and will be operated at up to 10{sup 9} muon stops per second. Therefore, a fast and trigger-less data readout is required. The pixel sensors feature zero-suppressed data output via high-speed serial links. The data is then buffered and sorted by time on a FPGA on the front-end before being processed to the following readout stage. In this talk, the readout of the Mu3e pixel detector at the front-end is introduced. Furthermore, a first firmware implementation of this concept in a beam telescope consisting of the current pixel sensor prototype MuPix7 is presented.

  4. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Rummler, Andr{e}; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown around 2025 by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The pixel detector will be composed by the five innermost layers, instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. Different designs of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel sensor-chip interconnection options are evaluated in collaboration with industrial partners to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150 μm thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off detector read-out electronics will be implemented in the frame...

  5. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  6. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Beimforde, Michael

    To extend the discovery potential of the experiments at the LHC accelerator a luminosity upgrade towards the super LHC (sLHC) with an up to ten-fold peak luminosity is planned. Within this thesis a new module concept was developed and evaluated for the operation within an ATLAS pixel detector at the sLHC. This module concept utilizes a novel thin sensor production process for thin n-in-p silicon sensors which potentially allow for a higher radiation hardness at a reduced cost. Furthermore, the new 3D-integration technology ICV-SLID is explored which will allow for increasing the active area of the modules and hence, for employing the modules in the innermost layer of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector.

  7. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.

  8. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  9. Probing Defects in a Small Pixellated CdTe Sensor Using an Inclined Mono Energetic X-Ray Micro Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröjdh, Erik; Fröjdh, C.; Gimenez, E. N.; Krapohl, D.; Maneuski, D.; Norlin, B.; O'Shea, V.; Wilhelm, H.; Tartoni, N.; Thungström, G.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    High quantum efficiency is important in X-ray imaging applications. This means using high-Z sensor materials. Unfortunately many of these materials suffer from defects that cause non-ideal charge transport. In order to increase the understanding of these defects, we have mapped the 3D response of a number of defects in two 1 mm thick CdTe sensors with different pixel sizes (55 μm and 110 μm) using a monoenergetic microbeam at 79 keV. The sensors were bump bonded to Timepix read out chips. Data was collected in photon counting as well as time-over-threshold mode. The time-over-threshold mode is a very powerful tool to investigate charge transport properties and fluorescence in pixellated detectors since the signal from the charge that each photon deposits in each pixel can be analyzed. Results show distorted electrical field around the defects, indications of excess leakage current and large differences in behavior between electron collection and hole collection mode. The experiments were carried out on the Extreme Conditions Beamline I15 at Diamond Light Source.

  10. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  11. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  12. Radiation hardness of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors manufactured in a 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnik, Benjamin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-MVD-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) are considered as the technology of choice for various vertex detectors in particle and heavy-ion physics including the STAR HFT, the upgrade of the ALICE ITS, the future ILC detectors and the CBM experiment at FAIR. To match the requirements of those detectors, their hardness to radiation is being improved, among others in a joined research activity of the Goethe University Frankfurt and the IPHC Strasbourg. It was assumed that combining an improved high resistivity (1-8 kΩcm) sensitive medium with the features of a 0.18 μm CMOS process, is suited to reach substantial improvements in terms of radiation hardness as compared to earlier sensor designs. This strategy was tested with a novel generation of sensor prototypes named MIMOSA-32 and MIMOSA-34. We show results on the radiation hardness of those sensors and discuss its impact on the design of future vertex detectors.

  13. Sensor Systems with Magnetic and Optomagnetic Readout of Rolling Circle Amplification Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Donolato, Marco; Fock, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    We are developing robust biosensors for homogeneous detection of rolling cirle amplification (RCA) products with magnetic and/or optomagnetic readouts based on surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Binding of RCA amplicons to nanoparticles modifies their ability to rotate in response...... to an applied oscillating magnetic field. As a result, magnetic or optical measurements of these changes in the rotational response of nanoparticles vs. frequency of the magnetic field can be used to quantitate the number of amplicons, and, hence, the concentration of target nucleic acid analytes. After...

  14. Laser Power Measurement Using Commercial MEMS Pressure Sensor along with PSoC Embedded Read-out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayapandian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state, gas, semiconductor and other types of lasers are extensively employed in industry for producing laser beams used in such wide ranging fields as machining, medicine and communications. In such applications, it is necessary to be able to accurately measure the power of the laser beam that is emitted by the laser. This paper describes a novel design technique which uses the diaphragm of a commercial MEMS pressure sensor as a target surface on which laser beam impinge, transfer heat and causes change in piezo resistance. The measured change in resistance was proportional to the intensity of laser beam in the range of 0 to 300 mW. The ratio metric embedded read-out design using a single chip programmable system on chip (PSoC has been used to acquire the resistance.

  15. The CRESST-III iStick veto. Stable operation of multiple transition edge sensors in one readout circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To enable complete rejection of holder-related events in the upcoming CRESST-III dark matter search experiment, the scintillating target crystals are held by calcium tungstate sticks (iSticks) instrumented with tungsten transition edge sensors (TESs). Since the iStick signals are used exclusively for vetoing, it is sufficient to register if an event happened in any stick, without knowing which one. This allows the operation of all iSticks in a single readout circuit, requiring just one SQUID magnetometer. The talk describes the effect of bias current heating and corresponding hysteresis phenomena known in single-TES circuits, and the resulting conditions for stability in multiple-TES circuits. The fundamentally different behaviour of parallel and series circuits and resulting design choices are explored.

  16. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L., E-mail: liang.zhang@iphc.cnrs.fr [School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Particle Irradiation, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, University of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3/UDS, 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2014-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm{sup 2}. The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors.

  17. A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CMOS pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Hu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    CMOS pixel sensors (CPS) have demonstrated performances meeting the specifications of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector (VTX). This paper presents a low-power and small-area 4-bit column-level analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS pixel sensors. The ADC employs a self-timed trigger and completes the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. As in the outer layers of the ILC vertex detector hit density is of the order of a few per thousand, in order to reduce power consumption, the ADC is designed to work in two modes: active mode and idle mode. The ADC is fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. It is implemented with 48 columns in a sensor prototype. Each column ADC covers an area of 35 ×545 μm 2 . The measured temporal noise and Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) are 0.96 mV and 0.40 mV, respectively. The power consumption, for a 3 V supply and 6.25 MS/s sampling rate, is 486 μW during idle time, which is by far the most frequently employed one. This value rises to 714 μW in the case of the active mode. The measured differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) are 0.49/−0.28 LSB and 0.29/−0.20 LSB, respectively. - Highlights: • CMOS sensor integrated with column-level ADC is proposed for ILC VTX outer layers. • A low-power and small-area column-level ADC for high frame-rate CPS is presented. • The test results demonstrate the power and area efficiency. • The architecture is suitable for the outer layer CMOS sensors

  18. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in bea