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Sample records for pituitary hormone deficiency

  1. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  2. Progression from isolated growth hormone deficiency to combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Manuela; Dattani, Mehul T

    2017-12-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can present at any time of life from the neonatal period to adulthood, as a result of congenital or acquired insults. It can present as an isolated problem (IGHD) or in combination with other pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). Pituitary deficits can evolve at any time from GHD diagnosis. The number, severity and timing of occurrence of additional endocrinopathies are highly variable. The risk of progression from IGHD to CPHD in children varies depending on the etiology (idiopathic vs organic). The highest risk is displayed by children with abnormalities in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary (H-P) region. Heterogeneous data have been reported on the type and timing of onset of additional pituitary hormone deficits, with TSH deficiency being most frequent and Diabetes Insipidus the least frequent additional deficit in the majority, but not all, of the studies. ACTH deficiency may gradually evolve at any time during follow-up in children or adults with childhood onset IGHD, particularly (but not only) in presence of H-P abnormalities and/or TSH deficiency. Hence there is a need in these patients for lifelong monitoring for ACTH deficiency. GH treatment unmasks central hypothyroidism mainly in patients with organic GHD, but all patients starting GH should have their thyroid function monitored closely. Main risk factors for development of CPHD include organic etiology, H-P abnormalities (in particular pituitary stalk abnormalities, empty sella and ectopic posterior pituitary), midline brain (corpus callosum) and optic nerves abnormalities, genetic defects and longer duration of follow-up. The current available evidence supports longstanding recommendations for the need, in all patients diagnosed with IGHD, of a careful and indefinite follow-up for additional pituitary hormone deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Blum (Werner); C.L. Deal (Cheri Lynn); A.G. Zimmermann (Alan); E.P. Shavrikova (Elena); C.J. Child (Christopher); C.A. Quigley (Charmian); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); G. Cutler (Gordon); R.G. Rosenfeld (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We assessed the characteristics of children initially diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) who later developed additional (multiple) pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Design: Data were analyzed for 5805 pediatric patients with idiopathic IGHD, who were

  4. Response of Indian growth hormone deficient children to growth hormone therapy: association with pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Vaman V; Prasad, Hemchand Krishna; Ekbote, Veena H; Rustagi, Vaishakhi T; Singh, Joshita; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain the impact of pituitary size as judged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), on response to Growth Hormone (GH) therapy in GH deficient children. Thirty nine children (9.1 ± 2.7 y, 22 boys) with non-acquired GH deficiency (21 Isolated GH deficiency and 18 Combined pituitary hormone deficiency) were consecutively recruited and followed up for one year. Clinical, radiological (bone age and MRI) and biochemical parameters were studied. Children with hypoplastic pituitary (pituitary height deficit (height for age Z-score -6.0 vs. -5.0) and retardation of skeletal maturation (bone age chronological age ratio of 0.59 vs. 0.48) at baseline as compared to children with normal pituitary heights (p growth hormone deficient children with hypoplastic pituitary respond better to therapy with GH in short term.

  5. Pituitary transcription factors in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäffle, R; Klammt, J

    2011-02-01

    The somatotropic axis is the central postnatal regulator of longitudinal growth. One of its major components--growth hormone--is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which also expresses and secretes five additional hormones (prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Proper development of the pituitary assures the regulation of critical processes such as metabolic control, puberty and reproduction, stress response and lactation. Ontogeny of the adenohypophysis is orchestrated by inputs from neighbouring tissues, cellular signalling molecules and transcription factors. Perturbation of expression or function of these factors has been implicated in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Mutations within the genes encoding for the transcription factors LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, and POU1F1 (PIT1) that act at different stages of pituitary development result in unique patterns of hormonal deficiencies reflecting their differential expression during organogenesis. In the case of LHX3 and LHX4 the phenotype may include extra-pituitary manifestations due to the function of these genes/proteins outside the pituitary gland. The remarkable variability in the clinical presentation of affected patients indicates the influence of the genetic background, environmental factors and possibly stochastic events. However, in the majority of CPHD cases the aetiology of this heterogeneous disease remains unexplained, which further suggests the involvement of additional genes. Identification of these factors might also help to close the gaps in our understanding of pituitary development, maintenance and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  7. Genetic and non-genetic causes of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency: Results of the HYPOPIT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C.G. de Graaff (Laura)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHypopituitarism, the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones, causes stunted growth and severe health problems. Understanding the etiology of pituitary hormone deficiencies is important for anticipation of clinical problems, for genetic counselling and for possible prevention. This

  8. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency in a girl with 48, XXXX and Rathke's cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Surabhi; Jee, Youn Hee; Lightbourne, Marissa; Han, Joan C; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-01-01

    Tetrasomy X is a rare chromosomal aneuploidy seen in girls, associated with facial dysmorphism, premature ovarian insufficiency and intellectual disability. A Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is a remnant of Rathke's pouch which may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies by exerting pressure on the pituitary gland in the sella. The patient was diagnosed with tetrasomy X by karyotyping during infancy. Brain MRI and multiple endocrine stimulation tests revealed RCC and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (growth hormone deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and central hypothyroidism) likely due to RCC. We report the first case in the literature of a girl with 48, XXXX and combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to Rathke's cyst.

  9. MRI features of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxian; Dong, Lina; Zhu, Bin; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due...

  10. MRI features of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxian; Dong, Lina; Zhu, Bin; Xin, Tao

    2017-06-01

    We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism; 38 cases (6.6%) of Rathke cleft cyst; 68 cases (11.8%) of empty sella syndrome; 16 cases (2.8%) of pituitary invasion from Langerhans cell histiocytosis; 2 cases (0.3%) of sellar regional arachnoid cyst and 39 cases (6.8%) of craniopharyngioma. MRI results showed that the height of anterior pituitary in patients was less than normal. Location, size and signals of posterior pituitary and pituitary stalk were normal in anterior pituitary dysplasia. In all cases pituitary hyperplasia was caused by hypothyroidism. MRI results showed that anterior pituitary was enlarged, and we detected upward apophysis and obvious homogeneous enhancement. There were no pituitary stalk interruption and abnormal signal. We also observed that after hormone replacement therapy the size of pituitary gland was reduced. Anterior pituitary atrophy was observed in Rathke cleft cyst, empty sella syndrome, sellar regional arachnoid cyst and craniopharyngioma. The microstructure of hypophysis and sellar region was studied with MRI. We detected pituitary lesions, and the characteristics of various pituitary diseases of GHD in children with short stature. It was concluded that in children with GHD caused by pituitary lesions, MRI was an excellent method for early diagnosis. This method offers clinical practicability and we believe it can be used for differential diagnosis and to monitor the therapeutic effects.

  11. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiency caused by Pit-I mutation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: There were challenges to management such as, inadequate facility for diagnosis, huge cost of treatment and little awareness about childhood endocrine conditions amongst health workers in a developing economy. Keywords: Multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), PIT-1 mutation, short stature, ...

  12. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolated autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency: an evolving pituitary deficit? A multicenter follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Primus E; Robinson, Iain C A F; Salemi, Souzan; Eblé, Andrée; Besson, Amélie; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Deladoey, Johnny; Simon, Dominique; Czernichow, Paul; Binder, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Four distinct familial types of isolated GH deficiency have been described so far, of which type II is the autosomal dominant inherited form. It is mainly caused by mutations within the first 6 bp of intervening sequence 3. However, other splice site and missense mutations have been reported. Based on in vitro experiments and transgenic animal data, there is strong evidence that there is a wide variability in phenotype in terms of the severity of GH deficiency. Therefore, we studied a total of 57 subjects belonging to 19 families suffering from different splice site as well as missense mutations within the GH-1 gene. The subjects presenting with a splice site mutation within the first 2 bp of intervening sequence 3 (5'IVS +1/+2 bp) leading to a skipping of exon 3 were found to be more likely to present in the follow-up with other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In addition, although the patients with missense mutations have previously been reported to be less affected, a number of patients presenting with the P89L missense GH form, showed some pituitary hormone impairment. The development of multiple hormonal deficiencies is not age dependent, and there is a clear variability in onset, severity, and progression, even within the same families. The message of clinical importance from these studies is that the pituitary endocrine status of all such patients should continue to be monitored closely over the years because further hormonal deficiencies may evolve with time.

  14. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  15. Optic nerve size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children with optic nerve hypoplasia, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, isolated growth hormone deficiency, and idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, Niels Holtum; Patel, Leena; Wright, Neville Bryce; Grigg, John Russell; Sinha, Smeeta; Hall, Catherine Margaret; Price, David Anthony; Lloyd, Ian Christopher; Clayton, Peter Ellis

    2004-10-01

    To objectively define criteria for intracranial optic nerve (ON) size in ON hypoplasia (ONH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Intracranial ON sizes from MRI were compared between 46 children with ONH diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy (group 1, isolated ONH, 8 children; and group 2, ONH associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and septum pellucidum, 38 children) and children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (group 3, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 14 children), isolated growth hormone deficiency (group 4, isolated growth hormone deficiency, 15 children), and idiopathic short stature (group 5, idiopathic short stature, 10 children). Intracranial ON size was determined by the cross-sectional area, calculated as [pi x (1/2) height x (1/2) width]. Groups 1 and 2 had lower intracranial ON size than did groups 3, 4, and 5 (P imaging of the ONs with cross-sectional area short child more than 12 months of age, with or without hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities, confirms the clinical diagnosis of ONH.

  16. Long-Term Outcomes, Genetics, and Pituitary Morphology in Patients with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: A Single-Centre Experience of Four Decades of Growth Hormone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, Julia; Drechsel, Hendrik; Tittel, Bettina; Hahn, Gabriele; Pfaeffle, Roland; Huebner, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been used to treat children with GH deficiency (GHD) since 1966. Using a combined retrospective and cross-sectional approach, we explored the long-term outcomes of patients with GHD, analysed factors influencing therapeutic response, determined persistence into adulthood, investigated pituitary morphology, and screened for mutations in causative genes. The files of 96 GH-deficient children were reviewed. In a subset of 50 patients, re-assessment in adulthood was performed, including GHRH-arginine testing, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and mutational screening for the growth hormone-1 gene (GH1) and the GHRH receptor gene (GHRHR) in isolated GHD (IGHD), and HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, and GLI2 in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) patients. GH was started at a height SDS of -3.2 ± 1.4 in IGHD patients and of -4.1 ± 2.1 in MPHD patients. Relative height gain was 0.3 SDS/year, absolute gain 1.6 SDS, and 1.2/2.6 SDS in IGHD/MPHD, respectively. Mid-parental target height was reached in 77%. Initial height SDS, bone age retardation and duration of GH replacement were correlated with height SDS gain. GHD persisted into adulthood in 19 and 89% of subjects with IGHD and MPHD, respectively. In 1/42 IGHD patients a GH1 mutation was detected; PROP1 mutations were found in 3/7 MPHD subjects. Anterior pituitary hypoplasia, combined with posterior pituitary ectopy and pituitary stalk invisibility on MRI, was an exclusive finding in MPHD patients. GH replacement successfully corrects the growth deficit in children with GHD. While the genetic aetiology remains undefined in most cases of IGHD, PROP1 mutations constitute a major cause for MPHD. Persistence of GHD into adulthood is related to abnormal pituitary morphology. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency due to a novel mutation R99Q in the hot spot region of prophet of Pit-1 presenting as constitutional growth delay

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Teresa C. [UNIFESP; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus Régios [UNIFESP; Cerutti, Janete Maria [UNIFESP; Brunner, Elisa [UNIFESP; Borges, M. [UNIFESP; Arnaldi, Liliane Aparecida Teixeira [UNIFESP; Kopp, P.; Abucham, Julio [UNIFESP

    2003-01-01

    Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is characterized by impaired production of GH and one or more of the other anterior pituitary hormones. Prophet of Pit-1 (PROP-1), one of the pituitary specific homeodomain transcription factors, is involved in the differentiation of the anterior pituitary cells (somatotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs, and gonadotrophs), and PROP-1 gene mutations may interfere with the development of these cells, resulting in CPHD.We performed molecular analyses of...

  18. Exploring the Spectrum of Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: Genotype, molecular mechanisms and phenotypic variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Gorbenko del Blanco (Darya)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractImportant functions in our body, such as development, growth, reproduction, metabolism, temperature or response to stress are regulated by molecules called hormones. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are the main regulators of all hormone signaling pathways and endocrine glands

  19. Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults with Pituitary Growth Hormone Deficiency (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article authors discussed the results of literature review, which has been dedicated to study of different complications of growth hormone deficiency in adults, referring to the literature of the last 10–15 years. Based on this analysis, the authors concluded that in adults with growth hormone deficiency there is an adverse profile of cardiovascular risk. Patients with growth hormone deficiency have an adverse lipid profile, elevated body mass index, increased waist circumference and a high risk of hypertension. These disorders are likely to explain the increased cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with hypopituitarism, regardless of the etiology of growth hormone deficiency in adults.

  20. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and pituitary size in children with short stature. Efficacy of GH therapy in GH-deficient children, depending on the pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Smyczynska, Joanna; Stawerska, Renata; Kaniewska, Danuta; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2005-10-01

    Certain relationships between pituitary size and growth hormone (GH) secretion have previously been observed, however they are still a matter of controversy. Organic abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region are important for predicting growth response to GH therapy. Evaluation of relations between GH secretion and the pituitary size in short children and estimation of the efficacy of GH therapy in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The analysis comprised 216 short children (159 boys). Two GH stimulation tests, as well as magnetic resonance image (MRI) examination, were performed in each patient. All the patients with GHD were treated with GH for, at least, one year. Significant correlations were found between pituitary height and GH secretion (p < 0.05). Patients were classified into three (3) groups: 1) pituitary hypoplasia (HP) for height age; 2) HP for the chronological age but not for the height age; 3) normal pituitary size. Significant differences in GH secretion were observed among the groups (6.1+/-5.3 vs. 8.1+/-4.4 vs. 12.3+/-9.1 ng/mL, respectively). There was a negative correlation between GH peak and height gain during GH therapy (r = -0.34). The highest growth improvement was noticed in patients with HP for the height age. Pituitary hypoplasia for the height age is related to more severe GH deficiency and the best response to GH therapy.

  1. Model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Stephanie C.; Malik, Raleigh E.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Rhodes, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of most pediatric hormone deficiency diseases is poorly understood. Children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have insufficient levels of multiple anterior pituitary hormones causing short stature, metabolic disease, pubertal failure, and often have associated nervous system symptoms. Mutations in developmental regulatory genes required for the specification of the hormone-secreting cell types of the pituitary gland underlie severe forms of CPHD. To better understand these diseases, we have created a unique mouse model of CPHD with a targeted knockin mutation (Lhx3 W227ter), which is a model for the human LHX3 W224ter disease. The LHX3 gene encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, which has essential roles in pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. The introduced premature termination codon results in deletion of the carboxyl terminal region of the LHX3 protein, which is critical for pituitary gene activation. Mice that lack all LHX3 function do not survive beyond birth. By contrast, the homozygous Lhx3 W227ter mice survive, but display marked dwarfism, thyroid disease, and female infertility. Importantly, the Lhx3 W227ter mice have no apparent nervous system deficits. The Lhx3 W227ter mouse model provides a unique array of hormone deficits and facilitates experimental approaches that are not feasible with human patients. These experiments demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 transcription factor is not required for viability. More broadly, this study reveals that the in vivo actions of a transcription factor in different tissues are molecularly separable. PMID:21149718

  2. Pituitary volume in children with growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic short stature and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Marion; Tenner, Michael; Frey, Michael; Noto, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the pituitary volume (PV) in pediatric patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (ISS) and normal controls. Sixty-nine patients (57 male, 12 female), with a mean age of 11.9 (±2.0), were determined to have IGHD. ISS was identified in 29 patients (20 male, 9 female), with a mean age of 12.7 (±3.7). Sixty-six controls (28 female, 38 male), mean age 9.8 (±4.7) were also included. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance images with contrast were obtained to accurately measure PV. There was a significant difference in the mean PV among the three groups. The IGHD patients had a mean PV 230.8 (±89.6), for ISS patients it was 286.8 (±108.2) and for controls it was 343.7 (±145.9) (pimaging (MRI) could assist in the diagnostic evaluation of the slowly growing child.

  3. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  4. A unique case of combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a PROP1 gene mutation (R120C) associated with normal height and absent puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Armando; Pernasetti, Flavia; Vasilyev, Vyacheslav V.; Amato, Paula; Yen, Samuel S. C.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We report a 28-year-old-female who presented with primary amenorrhoea, absence of puberty, obesity and normal stature. The subject was clearly short as a child, with a height more than 2 SD below normal until the age of 15 years. The pubertal growth spurt failed to develop. She continued growing at a prepubertal rate until growth ceased at the age of 20 years, reaching her final adult height of 157 cm (SDS −0.86) without hormonal treatment. A combined pituitary hormone stimulation test of anterior pituitary function showed deficiencies of GH, LH and FSH, and low normal serum levels of TSH and PRL. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypoplastic pituitary with markedly reduced pituitary height. In addition, a whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan showed high levels of body fat (54%). Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies with a hypoplastic pituitary suggested the diagnosis of a Prophet of Pit-1 (PROP1) gene mutation. Normal stature in this case, however, confounded this diagnosis. Sequencing of PROP1 revealed homozygosity for a single base-pair substitution (C to T), resulting in the replacement of an Arg by a Cys at codon 120 (R120C) in the third helix of the homeodomain of the Prop-1 protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a mutation in the PROP1 gene that attained normal height without hormonal treatment, indicating a new variability in the PROP1 phenotype, with important implications for the diagnosis of these patients. We suggest that this can be explained by (i) the presence of low levels of GH in the circulation during childhood and adolescence; (ii) the lack of circulating oestrogen delaying epiphyseal fusion, resulting in growth beyond the period of normal growth; and (iii) fusion of the epiphyseal plates, possibly as a result of circulating oestrogens originating from peripheral conversion of androgens by adipose tissue. PMID:12153609

  5. Pseudotumor Cerebri Resulting in Empty Sella Syndrome and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    REPORT TYPE 09/16/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudotu1nor Cercbri Rc~ulling in E1npty ~ella Syndrome and J\\ilultiple Pituitary Honnone...Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Se. TASK NUMBER Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 17352 10. SPONSOR

  6. Two missense mutations in KCNQ1 cause pituitary hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c.347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c.1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes. Co-expressing KCNQ1 with the KCNE2 β...

  7. Metabolic impact of adult-onset, isolated, growth hormone deficiency (AOiGHD due to destruction of pituitary somatotropes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul M Luque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH inhibits fat accumulation and promotes protein accretion, therefore the fall in GH observed with weight gain and normal aging may contribute to metabolic dysfunction. To directly test this hypothesis a novel mouse model of adult onset-isolated GH deficiency (AOiGHD was generated by cross breeding rat GH promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice (Cre with inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mice (iDTR and treating adult Cre(+/-,iDTR(+/- offspring with DT to selectively destroy the somatotrope population of the anterior pituitary gland, leading to a reduction in circulating GH and IGF-I levels. DT-treated Cre(-/-,iDTR(+/- mice were used as GH-intact controls. AOiGHD improved whole body insulin sensitivity in both low-fat and high-fat fed mice. Consistent with improved insulin sensitivity, indirect calorimetry revealed AOiGHD mice preferentially utilized carbohydrates for energy metabolism, as compared to GH-intact controls. In high-fat, but not low-fat fed AOiGHD mice, fat mass increased, hepatic lipids decreased and glucose clearance and insulin output were impaired. These results suggest the age-related decline in GH helps to preserve systemic insulin sensitivity, and in the context of moderate caloric intake, prevents the deterioration in metabolic function. However, in the context of excess caloric intake, low GH leads to impaired insulin output, and thereby could contribute to the development of diabetes.

  8. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiba, Yozo

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.)

  9. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  10. Cognitive impairments and mood disturbances in growth hormone deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; de Boer, H.; Blok, G.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish whether reported psychological complaints in hypopituitary adults are related to growth hormone (GH) deficiency or other pituitary hormone deficiencies, emotional well-being and cognitive performance were evaluated in 31 men with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD)

  11. Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. Loureiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

  12. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  13. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah; Laffan, Eoghan

    2012-01-01

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  14. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  15. Usefulness of magnetic resonance findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary region in the management of short children with growth hormone deficiency: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Maria A; Kalina-Faska, Barbara; Gruszczyńska, Katarzyna; Baron, Jan; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) region and response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment in short children with growth hormone deficiency, basing on changes of auxologic parameters, as well as to answer the question if MRI may serve for selecting and monitoring the rhGH responders. The study group comprised 85 children treated with rhGH, aged 7.3-18.7 years, followed for the mean period of 3.2 years (range, 2.1-9.5 years). Auxologic parameters (height deficit hSDS, deviation from the mid-parental height hSDS-mpSDS, bone delay index bone age/chronological age ratio (BA/CA)) were assessed before, during and at the end of rhGH treatment; growth velocity was calculated before and during rhGH therapy. Parameters were correlated with the MRI of the H-P region. Structural anomalies of the H-P region were found in 22 (25.9%) children: empty sella syndrome (ESS) in 12 (14.1%) patients, ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) in ten (11.8%). Patients' height deficit and their deviation from parental height before rhGH therapy was significantly greater in the EPP group (median hSDS = -3.8; hSDS-mpSDS = -2.5), bone age delay was the greatest in the ESS group (median BA/CA = 0.69), after therapy - in the EPP group (median BA/CA = 0.82). Growth velocity improved in the first year of the rhGH therapy in all groups; however, the most significant acceleration was observed in the EPP group (median delta hSDS = 0.9), then stabilised and was comparable in all groups. MRI may be helpful in predicting response to the rhGH treatment, providing midline abnormalities are taken into account.

  16. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  18. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003. Patient records, including clinical, imaging, and pathological and surgical characteristics were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (6 women and 15 men; mean age 46 years, range 26-73 years) were identified. Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Ten patients had elevated TSH preoperatively. Seven patients presented with headache, and 8 presented with visual field defects. All patients underwent imaging, of which 19 were available for imaging review. Sixteen patients had macroadenomas. Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the authors' institution, 2 patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery at another facility, and 1 was treated medically. Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism. Patients with TSH-immunostaining tumors were considered in remission if they had no residual tumor. Of these 18 patients, 9 (50%) were in remission following surgery. Seven patients had residual tumor; 2 of these patients underwent further transsphenoidal resection, 1 underwent a craniotomy, and 4 underwent postoperative radiation therapy (2 conventional radiation therapy, 1 Gamma Knife surgery, and 1 had both types of radiation treatment). Two patients had persistently elevated TSH levels despite the lack of evidence of residual tumor. On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone

  19. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  20. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II.

  1. The Meaning of Using «The Quality of Life Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults» Questionnaire in Patients with Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas and Various Tumors of Chiasmosellar Area in Pre- and Postoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have examined 136 patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD of various origins (pituitary tumors and ischemic heart disease — comparison group. The investigation of the quality of life on the basis of GHD questionnaire «Quality of Life Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults» (QoL-AGHDA in 136 patients showed, that in all groups the average score was higher than normal one (normal < 11, and most significantly it was observed in patients of first, third and fourth groups and second subgroup of the fifth group. Reliable correlation between low basal levels of somatotropic hormone (STH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 of blood plasma and average score by GHD questionnaire QoL-AGHDA was found in the first, second, third, and fourth groups of the second subgroup of the fifth group of patients, that confirms high efficacy of using GHD questionnaire QoL-AGHDA in patients with GHD of various origins. 36 patients in 3 months after transnasal hypophysectomy reported reliable increase in the average score by GHD questionnaire on the background of decreased levels of STH and IGF-1. This shows that in the early postoperative period in patients the severity of hypopituitarism increases and the question of the prescription of hormone replacement therapy arises.

  2. Hypothalamo-pituitary hormone insufficiency associated with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, A; Laron, Z

    1978-01-01

    Two male patients with congenital cleft lip and palate first seen at ages 10.2 and 21.5 years presented with typical signs of hypothalamic-interior pituitary hormone deficiencies. They were found to lack GH, LH, and FSH and to be partially deficient in TSH and ACTH. Several congenital defects may explain this rare syndrome affecting midline structures in the proximity of the maldeveloped palate, including Rathke's pouch, which migrates distally to develop into the anterior pituitary. PMID:747400

  3. Etiology of growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD can be isolated or associated with deficiency of other pituitary gland hormones. According to age at diagnosis, causes of GHD are divided into congenital or acquired, and according to etiology into recognized and unknown. Objective. We analyzed etiology and prevalence of GHD, demographic data at birth, age, body height (BH and bone age at diagnosis as well as the frequency of other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Methods. The study involved 164 patients (109 male. The main criterion for the diagnosis of GHD was inadequate response of GH after two stimulation tests. The patients were classified into three groups: idiopathic, congenital and acquired GHD. Results. Idiopathic GHD was confirmed in 57.9% of patients, congenital in 11.6% and acquired in 30.5%. The mean age at diagnosis of GHD was 10.1±4.5 years. The patients with congenital GHD had most severe growth retardation (-3.4±1.4 SDS, while the patients with idiopathic GHD showed most prominent bone delay (-3.6±2.3 SDS. The prevalence of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency was 56.1%, in the group with congenital GHD 73.7%, acquired GHD 54.0% and idiopathic GHD 53.7%. The frequency of thyrotropin deficiency ranged from 88.2-100%, of adrenocorticotrophin 57.1-68.8% and of gonadotrophins deficiency 57.1- 63.0%, while deficiency of antidiuretic hormone was 2.0-25.0%. Conclusion. Although regular BH measurements enable early recognition of growth retardation, patients’ mean age and degree of growth retardation indicate that GHD is still diagnosed relatively late. A high incidence of other pituitary hormone deficiencies requires a detailed investigation of the etiology of disorders and evaluation of all pituitary functions in each child with confirmed GHD.

  4. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular...

  5. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Smit, Jan W; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Romijn, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore evaluated TSH, GH and PRL secretion in 6 patients with up-to-date analytical and mathematical tools by 24-h blood sampling at 10-min intervals in a clinical research laboratory. The profiles were analyzed with a new deconvolution method, approximate entropy, cross-approximate entropy, cross-correlation and cosinor regression. TSH burst frequency and basal and pulsatile secretion were increased in patients compared with controls. TSH secretion patterns in patients were more irregular, but the diurnal rhythm was preserved at a higher mean with a 2.5 h phase delay. Although only one patient had clinical acromegaly, GH secretion and IGF-I levels were increased in two other patients and all three had a significant cross-correlation between the GH and TSH. PRL secretion was increased in one patient, but all patients had a significant cross-correlation with TSH and showed decreased PRL regularity. Cross-ApEn synchrony between TSH and GH did not differ between patients and controls, but TSH and PRL synchrony was reduced in patients. We conclude that TSH secretion by thyrotropinomas shares many characteristics of other pituitary hormone-secreting adenomas. In addition, abnormalities in GH and PRL secretion exist ranging from decreased (joint) regularity to overt hypersecretion, although not always clinically obvious, suggesting tumoral transformation of thyrotrope lineage cells.

  6. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  7. Pituitary Apoplexy After Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in a Patient with Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Fang Wang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare complication of pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 41-year-old female with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma, who developed pituitary apoplexy after a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH 200 mg intravenous injection stimulation test. Neither emergency computed tomography (CT scans nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, performed 6 hours and 12 hours, respectively, after the active episode, disclosed the evidence of acute hemorrhage or infarction. Two days later, the pituitary mass, removed by transsphenoidal approach, showed ischemic necrosis and acute hemorrhage. The TRH test is generally safe for evaluating pituitary function, but pituitary apoplexy may occur after the procedure. CT and MRI may miss the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy, especially if performed immediately after the acute episode.

  8. Hormones and the bone marrow: panhypopituitarism and pancytopenia in a man with a pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dianna; Mead, Jennifer S; Sykes, David B

    2015-05-01

    In rare cases, pancytopenia results from hormonal deficiencies that arise in the setting of panhypopituitarism. Here we describe the unusual case of a 60-year-old man who presented with progressive fatigue and polyuria, and whose laboratory workup revealed a deficiency of the five hormones associated with the action of the anterior pituitary (thyroid hormone, testosterone, cortisol, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor-1). Imaging of the pituitary demonstrated a cystic mass consistent with a pituitary adenoma replacing much of the normal pituitary tissue. His symptoms and hematologic abnormalities rapidly resolved with prednisone and levothyroxine supplementation. While the majority of reported cases of panhypopituitarism with bone marrow suppression are the result of peripartum sepsis or hemorrhage leading to pituitary gland necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome), it is also important to consider the diagnosis of hypopituitarism in patients with hypothyroidism, low cortisol levels, and pancytopenia. The causal relationship between pancytopenia and panhypopituitarism is not well understood, though it does reinforce the important influence of these endocrine hormones on the health of the bone marrow.

  9. Pituitary gland development and disease: from stem cell to hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Ellsworth, Buffy S; Peréz Millan, María Inés; Gergics, Peter; Schade, Vanessa; Foyouzi, Nastaran; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of pituitary development have become better understood in the past two decades. The signaling pathways regulating pituitary growth and shape have emerged, and the balancing interactions between the pathways are now appreciated. Markers for multipotent progenitor cells are being identified, and signature transcription factors have been discovered for most hormone-producing cell types. We now realize that pulsatile hormone secretion involves a 3D integration of cellular networks. About a dozen genes are known to cause pituitary hypoplasia when mutated due to their essential roles in pituitary development. Similarly, a few genes are known that predispose to familial endocrine neoplasia, and several genes mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas are documented. In the next decade, we anticipate gleaning a deeper appreciation of these processes at the molecular level, insight into the development of the hypophyseal portal blood system, and evolution of better therapeutics for congenital and acquired hormone deficiencies and for common craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency due to probable lymphocytic hypophysitis in a woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Hadj Kacem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with asthenia, weight loss and hypotension in which extensive pituitary and adrenal investigations were diagnostic of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD of pituitary origin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed a normal-sized pituitary, with no mass lesion. The diagnosis of IAD probably secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH was made.IAD is able to be the way of presentation of LYH, although the disease could or could not turn into a panhypopituitarism. Prompt recognition of this potentially fatal condition is important because of the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, regular endocrine and imaging follow up is important for patients with IAD and normal initial pituitary imaging results to detect early new-onset pituitary hormones deficiencies or imaging abnormalities.

  11. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D.; Merino, M.; Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs

  12. [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Bautista, Víctor M; Mendoza-Rojas, Víctor; Contreras-García, Gustavo A

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. His bone age was delayed, so he underwent full endocrinological panel. Central hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and low luteinizing hormone-follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies diagnosis was made. Basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin levels were normal. He received thyroid hormonal substitution. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies are an unusual feature of De Lange syndrome. We suggest evaluating all different endocrine axes in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  13. Growth retardation due to idiopathic growth hormone deficiencies: MR findings in 24 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, M.; Morikawa, M.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kinoshita, E.; Hayashi, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the pituitary-hypothalamic abnormalities of ''idiopathic growth hormone (GH) deficiency'' as demonstrated by MR imaging. Twenty-four patients were examined with a 1.5-T unit using spin echo T-1 weighted images. The patients were divided into two groups according to MR findings: those with ectopic posterior pituitary glands (12 patients), and those with normal posterior pituitary glands (12 patients). Ten patients in the former group and four in the latter group had small anterior pituitary glands. All patients in the former group but only four in the latter group had severe GH deficiencies. Multiple hormone deficiencies were found in eight patients in the former group, but in only two in the latter group. It is speculated that perinatal abnormalities can cause posterior pituitary ectopia and that there is a close correlation between breech delivery and the male disadvantage of posterior pituitary ectopia. Half of our patients with ''idiopathic GH deficiency'' had ectopic posterior pituitaries. GH deficiency with posterior pituitary ectopia should no longer be considered idiopathic because organic lesions can now be identified during life. (orig./GD)

  14. Growth hormone deficiency in cleft lip and palate patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin AbdollahiFakhim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure to thrive (FTT is relatively common among cleft patients, most commonly attributed to feeding problems during the first months of life. Close association between midline clefts and pituitary gland abnormalities prompted us to determine the frequency of growth hormone deficiency in cleft patients, which is easily treated. Methods: Any cleft patient with FTT was studied and when the patient’s height was under the 3rd percentile of normal, growth hormone was checked after clonidine administration. Growth hormone was checked before and 30, 60 and 90 minutes after clonidine use. Results: Of 670 patients with cleft lip or palate, 31 patients (4% had some kind of growth retardation according to weight, height or head circumstance. Eighteen patients were under the 3rd percentile of normal height. Growth hormone deficiency was detected in 8 patients out of 18 patients and overall frequency of growth hormone deficiency among cleft patients with growth retardation was 25.8% (8 out of 31. Seven patients of 8 were male whereas one was female and half of the patients were syndromic. Conclusion: Cleft patients have many problems with normal feeding and all kind of support should be provided to achieve near-normal feeding and they should be monitored for normal growth. Any patient with growth retardation, especially height decrease, should be assessed for growth hormone deficiency.

  15. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  16. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  17. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  18. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  19. Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Tania; Verhelst, Johan; Michotte, Alex; Abrams, Pascale; De Ridder, Dirk; Abs, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a subtype of adenomas characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression, although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time. Silent corticotroph adenomas are the classical example of this phenomenon. A series of about 500 pituitary adenomas seen over a period of 20 years were screened for modification in hormonal secretion. Biochemical and immunohistochemical data were reviewed. Two cases were retrieved, one silent somatotroph adenoma and one thyrotroph adenoma, both without specific clinical features or biochemical abnormalities, which presented 20 years after initial surgery with evidence of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, respectively. While the acromegaly was controlled by a combination of somatostatin analogs and growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist therapy, neurosurgery was necessary to manage the thyrotroph adenoma. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an increase in the number of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-immunoreactive cells compared to the first tissue. Apparently, the mechanisms responsible for the secretory modifications are different, being a change in secretory capacity in the silent somatotroph adenoma and a quantitative change in the silent thyrotroph adenoma. These two cases, one somatotroph and one thyrotroph adenoma, are an illustration that clinically silent pituitary adenomas may in rare circumstances evolve over time and become active, as previously demonstrated in silent corticotroph adenomas.

  20. Histological structure and hormonal profile of pituitary and thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of castration and iodine supplementaion on the histological structure of pituitary and thyroid glands and their related hormones in NZW male rabbits. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was supplemented with iodine as potassium iodide at a level of 400 ppm ...

  1. Optimized diagnostic performance of brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to search for correlations between anatomic changes in the pituitary gland and hormonal disturbances in children with short stature. Material and methods: Children with short stature were enrolled when criteria of pituitary growth hormone deficiency were partly or completely met. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 87 children and particular attention was given to the pituitary gland. Measurements were compared with pituitary dimensions accepted as normal in the literature. Contrast with GdDTPA was used to visualize the pituitary gland and associated structures (stalk, infundibulum). T1-weighted images in the sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. The results were statistically analyzed with non-parametric tests. Conclusions: 1. Magnetic resonance imaging is a very sensitive method for detecting changes in the pituitary gland and may well be recommended as a method of choice even though the percentage of changes detected with it is rather small. 2. The use of contrast agent may be abandoned to limit costs when searching for cause of growth deficit in children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, save for the following cases: hypoplasia or aplasia of the pituitary gland, transection of the stalk, empty sella syndrome or tumor in the central nervous system. 3. Pituitary volume and height appear to be of greatest diagnostic significance, while width (which varies little) can serve as an auxiliary parameter. (author)

  2. GROWTH HORMONE-, ALPHA-SUBUNIT AND THYROTROPIN-COSECRETING PITUITARY-ADENOMA IN FAMILIAL SETTING OF PITUITARY-TUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINKS, TP; MONKELBAAN, JF; DULLAART, RPF; VANHAEFTEN, TW

    1993-01-01

    A patient with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a growth hormone-, thyrotrophin- and alpha-subunit-secreting pituitary adenoma is described. His deceased father had suffered from a pituitary tumour, and was likely to have had acromegaly as well. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth

  3. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  4. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition CPHD panhypopituitarism Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ... Mody S, Brown MR, Parks JS. The spectrum of hypopituitarism caused by PROP1 mutations. Best Pract Res Clin ...

  5. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  6. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  7. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorisaem Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  8. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings. PMID:25077093

  9. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests that help detect GHD are performed after fasting overnight. These tests involve giving patients a substance ... Genetic Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health International Resource Center ...

  10. Silent pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Orhan; Ertorer, M Eda; Aydin, M Volkan; Erdogan, Bulent; Altinors, Nur; Zorludemir, Suzan; Guvener, Nilgun

    2005-04-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors showing heterogenous morphological features with no hormonal function observed clinically. To date no explanation has been provided as to why these tumors remain "silent". We report a case of a silent macroadenoma with both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) staining and secretion but with no clinical manifestations, in particular, the absence of features of acromegaly or hyperthyroidism. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  11. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  12. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating-hormone precursors in the pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of intermediates from the processing of ACTH-(1-39) [adrenocorticotropic hormone-(1-39)] to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was investigated in normal pig pituitaries by the use of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for ACTH-(1-13), ACTH-(1-14), ACTH-(1-13)-NH2 and ACTH-(1......) were detected in lower amounts in both the intermediate lobe and the anterior lobe. ACTH-(1-17), ACTH-(1-13) and their acetylated analogues could not be detected in the anterior lobe or the intermediate lobe. The results suggest that an endopeptidase initially cleaves ACTH-(1-39) at the Lys-16-Arg-17...... bond. ACTH-(1-16) is then processed by a pituitary carboxypeptidase to ACTH-(1-14) and ACTH-(17-39) by the aminopeptidase to ACTH-(18-39)....

  13. Gonadal Steroid Hormones and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Robert J.; Weiser, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, pr...

  14. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  15. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma immunoreactive for thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Cynthia T; Kovacs, Kalman; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Cusimano, Michael; Booth, Gillian L

    2012-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with an unusual plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with immunoreactivity for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. We report the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology findings of a patient symptomatic from a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma and describe her outcome after surgical treatment. A 60-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with headaches, blurry vision, fatigue, palpitations, sweaty hands, and weight loss. Her medical history was notable for hyperthyroidism, treated intermittently with methimazole. Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a pituitary macroadenoma (2.3 by 2.2 by 2.0 cm), and preoperative blood studies revealed elevated levels of TSH at 6.11 mIU/L, free thyroxine at 3.6 ng/dL, and free triiodothyronine at 6.0 pg/mL. She underwent an uncomplicated transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Immunostaining of tumor tissue demonstrated positivity for not only TSH but also growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and α-subunit. The Ki-67 index of the tumor was estimated at 2% to 5%, and DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase immunostaining was mostly negative. Electron microscopy showed the ultrastructural phenotype of a glycoprotein-producing adenoma. Postoperatively, her symptoms and hyperthyroidism resolved. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that 31% to 36% of adenomas may show evidence of secretion of multiple pituitary hormones. This case emphasizes the importance of considering pituitary causes of thyrotoxicosis and summarizes the clinical and pathology findings in a patient with a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone and its application in pituitary dysfunction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asolkar, S.V.; Sivaprasad, N.; Shah, K.B.; Mani, R.S.; Deshpande, A.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the measurement of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in serum samples. 123 I-labelled HGH has been used as a tracer and dextran coated charcoal system has been employed to separate antibody bound hormone from the unbound one. The assay offers sensitivity of 0.16 ng/ml with a reproducibility of 7% intraassay and inter-assay variations. Serum HGH levels were measured at fasting-resting state and during insulin stimulation test in (1) 15 normal subjects (controls) and (2) 31 patients with stunted growth, whereas (3) in 7 acromegalic patients the same were measured at fasting-resting state and after oral glucose administration. This procedure has been used to distinguish dwarfs due to growth hormone deficiency from other conditions unrelated to pituitary disease and to confirm acromegaly. (author)

  17. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2002-01-01

    Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth hormone (IGF)1 deficiency on ageing and lifespan are reviewed. Evidence is presented that isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) including GH, as well as primary IGE1 deficiency (GH resistance, Laron syndrome) present signs of early ageing such as thin and wrinkled skin, obesity, hyperglycemia and osteoporosis. These changes do not seem to affect the lifespan, as patients reach old age. Animal models of genetic MPHD (Ames and Snell mice) and GH receptor knockout mice (primary IGF1 deficiency) also have a statistically significant higher longevity compared to normal controls. On the contrary, mice transgenic for GH and acromegalic patients secreting large amounts of GH have premature death. In conclusion longstanding GH/IGF1 deficiency affects several parameters of the ageing process without impairing lifespan, and as shown in animal models prolongs longevity. In contrast high GH/IGF1 levels accelerate death.

  18. Radiation therapy alone for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plataniotis, G.A.; Kouvaris, J.R.; Vlahos, L.; Papavasiliou, C. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    We present our experience in the treatment of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas using irradiation alone. Between 1983 and 1991, 21 patients suffering from GH-secreting pituitary adenomas were treated with radiotherapy alone. Two bilateral opposing coaxial fields were used in 10 patients and in the remaining 11 a third frontovertex field was added. Treatment was given in 1.8-2 Gy daily fractions and total dose ranged between 45 and 54 Gy. Treatment was given using a cobalt unit. Four patients treated with somatostatin prior to and 14 patients treated after the end of radiotherapy experienced symptom relief for 6-28 weeks. The 5-year actuarial rate of disease control was 72%. Five out of six failed patients had macroadenomas. Hypopituitarism was observed in 5/21 (24%) patients. Whereas RT alone is effective in the treatment of microadenomas, this is not true for large infiltrative macroadenomas. (orig.)

  19. Radiation therapy alone for growth hormone-producing pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, G.A.; Kouvaris, J.R.; Vlahos, L.; Papavasiliou, C.

    1998-01-01

    We present our experience in the treatment of growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas using irradiation alone. Between 1983 and 1991, 21 patients suffering from GH-secreting pituitary adenomas were treated with radiotherapy alone. Two bilateral opposing coaxial fields were used in 10 patients and in the remaining 11 a third frontovertex field was added. Treatment was given in 1.8-2 Gy daily fractions and total dose ranged between 45 and 54 Gy. Treatment was given using a cobalt unit. Four patients treated with somatostatin prior to and 14 patients treated after the end of radiotherapy experienced symptom relief for 6-28 weeks. The 5-year actuarial rate of disease control was 72%. Five out of six failed patients had macroadenomas. Hypopituitarism was observed in 5/21 (24%) patients. Whereas RT alone is effective in the treatment of microadenomas, this is not true for large infiltrative macroadenomas. (orig.)

  20. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  1. Baseline characteristics and response to 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement of hypopituitary patients with GH deficiency due to adult-onset craniopharyngioma in comparison with patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: data from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, Johan; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Erfurth, Eva Marie; Price, David Anthony; Geffner, Mitchell; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Jönsson, Peter J; Wilton, Patrick; Abs, Roger

    2005-08-01

    In epidemiological studies, hypopituitary adults show increased mortality compared with population controls. Patients with hypopituitarism caused by a craniopharyngioma (CP) and/or its treatment have a higher mortality than patients with other etiologies, such as a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). To analyze this difference, we used the KIMS database (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) comparing CP and NFPA patients in terms of baseline characteristics and responses to GH replacement. Baseline characteristics were studied in 351 CP patients (189 men and 162 women; mean age, 42.5 yr) and compared with 370 NFPA patients, matched for age and sex (185 men and 185 women; mean age, 42.5 yr). The effects of 2 yr of GH replacement were analyzed in a subgroup of 183 CP and 209 NFPA patients. At baseline, both CP and NFPA patients had characteristic features of GH deficiency, with low serum IGF-I, increased body fat, dyslipidemia, and reduced quality of life. Male CP patients were significantly more obese (30.0 vs. 28.2 kg/m2; P = 0.0003) compared with NFPA patients, had a higher waist/hip ratio (P = 0.004), higher triglycerides (P = 0.003), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.03). Similar, but much smaller, differences were seen in female CP compared with NFPA patients, only reaching significance for waist/hip ratio (P = 0.05) and triglycerides (P = 0.0004). CP patients had more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route (68.8% vs. 30.9%; P NFPA patients (58.7% vs. 19.8%; P NFPA patients. After 2 yr of GH replacement therapy, similar significant improvements were evident in both groups in fat-free mass, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Quality-of-Life-Assessment in GH Deficient Adults score compared with baseline. In contrast to NFPA patients, CP patients had no significant decrease in body fat with GH therapy. In the KIMS database, patients with CP have more often undergone surgery by the transcranial route than

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of anterior pituitary hormones in S-100 protein-positive cells in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yatabe, Megumi; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In the anterior and intermediate lobes of the rat pituitary gland, non-hormone-producing cells that express S-100 protein coexist with various types of hormone-producing cells and are believed to function as phagocytes, supporting and paracrine-controlling cells of hormone-producing cells and stem cells, among other functions; however, their cytological characteristics are not yet fully understood. Using a transgenic rat that expresses green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the S100β protein gene, we immunohistochemically detected expression of the luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and proopiomelanocortin by S-100 protein-positive cells located between clusters of hormone-producing cells in the intermediate lobe. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that S-100 protein-positive cells are capable of differentiating into hormone-producing cells in the adult rat pituitary gland.

  3. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-01-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was...

  4. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

  5. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, J.; Sokolska, V.; Sasiadek, M.; Sozanski, T.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. (authors)

  6. Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on IGF-related parameters and on the pituitary-gonadal axis in GH-deficient males. A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Andersson, A M; Pedersen, S A

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that growth hormone (GH) may play a regulatory role in male reproductive function. To express full anabolic effect in immature boys testosterone apparently requires the presence of GH. In GH-deficient adults, GH replacement therapy exerts a variety of anabolic actions, some...... study in 13 young males with childhood-onset GH deficiency of which 6 had isolated GH deficiency. GH treatment significantly increased serum levels of total IGF-I from 98 (68) to 323 (126) microg/l, free IGF-I from 0.48 (0.47) to 2.24 (1.66) microg/l, IGFBP-3 from 1,874 (1,178) to 3,520 (778) microg...... in hypogonadal patients substituted with androgens, but GH had no effect on inhibin-B levels. In conclusion, GH replacement therapy in 13 GH-deficient young adult males resulted in significant increases in total and free IGF-I as well as in ALS levels in all patients, but had no significant effect on: (1...

  7. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults; Silla turca vacia asociada a disfuncion hormonal en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain); Merino, M. [Hospital General Yague (Spain); Delgado, A. [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Sox21 deletion in mice causes postnatal growth deficiency without physiological disruption of hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leonard Y M; Okano, Hideyuki; Camper, Sally A

    2017-01-05

    The hypothalamic-pituitary axes are the coordinating centers for multiple endocrine gland functions and physiological processes. Defects in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can cause reduced growth and severe short stature, affecting approximately 1 in 4000 children, and a large percentage of cases of pituitary hormone deficiencies do not have an identified genetic cause. SOX21 is a protein that regulates hair, neural, and trophoblast stem cell differentiation. Mice lacking Sox21 have reduced growth, but the etiology of this growth defect has not been described. We studied the expression of Sox21 in hypothalamic-pituitary development and examined multiple endocrine axes in these mice. We find no evidence of reduced intrauterine growth, food intake, or physical activity, but there is evidence for increased energy expenditure in mutants. In addition, despite changes in pituitary hormone expression, hypothalamic-pituitary axes appear to be functional. Therefore, SOX21 variants may be a cause of non-endocrine short stature in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pituitary adenomas in mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human GH-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both GH and PRL, by 8 months of age. We now report that GRH transgenic mice 10-24 months of age develop pituitary...... adenomas, which we characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. Of 13 animals examined, all developed GH-immunoreactive neoplasms that had diffuse positivity for GH mRNA by in situ hybridization. Eleven also contained PRL immunoreactivity; in situ...

  10. Genetic disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, W M

    1985-01-01

    This survey deals with disorders caused by genetically disturbed function of the anterior pituitary gland. Genetic Dwarfism may be caused by isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or panpituitary diseases, such as congenital absence of the pituitary or familial panhypopituitarism. Genetic disturbances of isolated pituitary hormone secretion without dwarfism may occur as isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IGD), isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency ("fertile eunuch"), Kallmann syndrome (olfactogenital dysplasia), isolated thyrotropin deficiency (ITD) and isolated corticotropin deficiency (ICD). Pituitary dysfunction may also be associated with other genetic disease entities.

  11. Pituitary tumour causing gigantism. Morphology and in vitro hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniko, M; Ritzén, E M

    1986-01-01

    True gigantism with overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy. The clinical history indicated that the tumour had caused an oversecretion of GH since the age of 4-5 years. At diagnosis, the sella turcica was markedly enlarged. No infiltrative growth was noted at surgery. Endocrine investigations showed elevated GH and PRL secretion. Light and electron microscopy of tumour tissue revealed densely packed pleomorphic cells of both GH and PRL type. In addition, oncocyte-like cells were observed. Organ culture of pieces of tumour tissue demonstrated continued secretion of GH and PRL into the medium for more than 5 days in vitro. Addition of bromocriptine to the medium caused a rapid decline in PRL secretion while GH secretion remained the same. X-ray irradiation in vitro also caused a decrease in PRL secretion. These effects of bromocriptine and X-ray on hormone secretion in vitro mirrored the corresponding effect of treatment, when the patient showed signs of tumour recurrence after pituitary surgery. It is concluded that also in childhood, the in vitro response of tumour tissue to various treatments may be explored as a possible way to predict the efficacy of pharmacological or irradiation treatment of pituitary tumours.

  12. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  13. Patient reported out-come in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency: results from The Danish National Study on Posttraumatic Hypopituitarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Janukonyté, Jurgita

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Patients with TBI had significant detriments in QoL. Impairment (mainly physical scales) related to pituitary deficiency, although only partially confirmed after adjustment for demographic differences. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to several QoL scores. Increasing impairments were...... observed with declining total testosterone concentrations (men), but not free testosterone concentrations or any other hormone concentrations. Total testosterone was not independently related to impaired QoL and fatigue, after adjustment for demographics, and treatment with antidiabetics, opioids...

  14. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, R.H.; Schriock, E.A.; Kaplan, S.L.; Grumbach, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  15. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  16. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary-adrenal hormones in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W B; Gurewitsch, E D; Goland, R S

    1995-02-01

    We hypothesized that maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in chronic hypertension and that elevations modulate maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal function. Venous blood samples and 24-hour urine specimens were obtained in normal and hypertensive pregnancies at 21 to 40 weeks of gestation. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and total estriol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean hormone levels were compared by unpaired t test or two-way analysis of variance. Plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels were elevated early in hypertensive pregnancies but did not increase after 36 weeks. Levels of pituitary and adrenal hormones were not different in normal and hypertensive women. However, maternal plasma estriol levels were lower in hypertensive pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. Fetal 16-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, the major precursor to placental estriol production, has been reported to be lower than normal in hypertensive pregnancies, possibly explaining the decreased plasma estriol levels reported here. Early stimulation of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone production or secretion may be related to accelerated maturation of placental endocrine function in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

  17. The "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertoghe, T

    2005-12-01

    In the human body, the productions, levels and cell receptors of most hormones progressively decline with age, gradually putting the body into various states of endocrine deficiency. The circadian cycles of these hormones also change, sometimes profoundly, with time. In aging individuals, the well-balanced endocrine system can fall into a chaotic condition with losses, phase-advancements, phase delays, unpredictable irregularities of nycthemeral hormone cycles, in particular in very old or sick individuals. The desynchronization makes hormone activities peak at the wrong times and become inefficient, and in certain cases health threatening. The occurrence of multiple hormone deficits and spilling through desynchronization may constitute the major causes of human senescence, and they are treatable causes. Several arguments can be put forward to support the view that senescence is mainly a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome: First, many if not most of the signs, symptoms and diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, dementia) of senescence are similar to physical consequences of hormone deficiencies and may be caused by hormone deficiencies. Second, most of the presumed causes of senescence such as excessive free radical formation, glycation, cross-linking of proteins, imbalanced apoptosis system, accumulation of waste products, failure of repair systems, deficient immune system, may be caused or favored by hormone deficiencies. Even genetic causes such as limits to cell proliferation (such as the Hayflick limit of cell division), poor gene polymorphisms, premature telomere shortening and activation of possible genetic "dead programs" may have links with hormone deficiencies, being either the consequence, the cause, or the major favoring factor of hormone deficiencies. Third, well-dosed and -balanced hormone supplements may slow down or stop the progression of signs, symptoms, or diseases of senescence and may often

  18. Growth hormone deficiency in a Nigerian child with Turner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    Growth hormone treatment early in the course of management of a child with Turner syndrome may help achieve normal final height. Keywords: Turner's syndrome, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone ..... cognitive deficit.

  19. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling [Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong). Depts. of Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-02-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  20. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling

    1996-01-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Growth hormone deficiency in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oświęcimska, Joanna; Roczniak, Wojciech; Mikołajczak, Agata; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-09-13

    Growth hormone (GH) is a naturally occurring polypeptide hormone produced by somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. The main function of somatotropin is stimulation of linear growth, but it also affects carbohydrate metabolism, increases bone mass and has potent lipolytic, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effects. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may occur both in children and in adults. At the moment there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of GHD, and the diagnosis should take into account clinical, auxological, biochemical and radiological changes and, if necessary, genetic testing. Recent studies have highlighted that the biochemical diagnosis of GH deficiency is still imperfect. Stimuli used in the tests are non-physiological, and various substances are characterized by a different mechanism of action and potency. A few years ago it was thought that GHD treatment in children must be completed at the end of linear growth. Studies performed in the last two decades have shown that GHD deficiency in adults may result in complex clinical problems, and if untreated shortens the life expectancy and worsens its comfort. Discontinuation of GH therapy after the final height has been reached in fact negatively impacts the physiological processes associated with the transition phase, which is the period of human life between achieving the final height and 25-30 years of age. Given the adverse metabolic effects of GH treatment interruption after linear growth has been completed, the latest recommendations propose reassessment of GH secretion in the period at least one month after cessation of treatment and continuation of the therapy in case of persistent deficit.

  2. Growth hormone deficiency in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Oświęcimska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a naturally occurring polypeptide hormone produced by somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. The main function of somatotropin is stimulation of linear growth, but it also affects carbohydrate metabolism, increases bone mass and has potent lipolytic, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effects. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD may occur both in children and in adults. At the moment there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of GHD, and the diagnosis should take into account clinical, auxological, biochemical and radiological changes and, if necessary, genetic testing. Recent studies have highlighted that the biochemical diagnosis of GH deficiency is still imperfect. Stimuli used in the tests are non-physiological, and various substances are characterized by a different mechanism of action and potency. A few years ago it was thought that GHD treatment in children must be completed at the end of linear growth. Studies performed in the last two decades have shown that GHD deficiency in adults may result in complex clinical problems, and if untreated shortens the life expectancy and worsens its comfort. Discontinuation of GH therapy after the final height has been reached in fact negatively impacts the physiological processes associated with the transition phase, which is the period of human life between achieving the final height and 25-30 years of age. Given the adverse metabolic effects of GH treatment interruption after linear growth has been completed, the latest recommendations propose reassessment of GH secretion in the period at least one month after cessation of treatment and continuation of the therapy in case of persistent deficit.

  3. Low FT4 Concentrations around the Start of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment: Predictor of Congenital Structural Hypothalamic-Pituitary Abnormalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, L. (Laura); H.M. Van Santen (Hanneke M.); van Zandwijken, G.R.J. (Gladys R.J.); N. Zwaveling-Soonawala (Nitash); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); A.S.P. van Trotsenburg (Paul)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Growth hormone (GH) treatment may unmask central hypothyroidism (CeH). This was first observed in children with GH deficiency (GHD), later also in adults with GHD due to acquired “organic” pituitary disease. We hypothesized that newly diagnosed CeH in children after starting

  4. Low FT4 Concentrations around the Start of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment: Predictor of Congenital Structural Hypothalamic-Pituitary Abnormalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Laura; van Santen, Hanneke M.; Zandwijken, Gladys R. J.; Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment may unmask central hypothyroidism (CeH). This was first observed in children with GH deficiency (GHD), later also in adults with GHD due to acquired "organic" pituitary disease. We hypothesized that newly diagnosed CeH in children after starting GH treatment for

  5. MRI of pituitary macroadenomas with reference to hormonal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, P.; Nyman, R. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Burmann, P. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Lundberg, P.O. (Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Neurology)

    1992-02-01

    In 115 patients with pituitary macroadenomas, the findings on mid-field MRI were correlated with the hormonal activity of the tumours. Adenomas secreting growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and clinically nonsecretory adenomas were studied. Tumour size, invasiveness and signal intensity patterns were recorded. Relaxation times and ratios of signal intensity and proton density (relative to the corpus callosum) were analysed in areas of apparently solid tissue in a subgroup of 59 previously untreated patients. Invasiveness was more common in PRL- and GH-secreting adenomas than in the nonsecreting ones. Diffuse invasion of the base of the skull was most common in prolactinomas, and associated with a lower frequency of suprasellar tumour extension. In prolactinomas, a correlation was found between the maximum serum PRL level and tumour size. Haemorrhagic, cystic or necrotic areas were less common in GH-secreting tumours than in the other types. Haemorrhage was more common in prolactinomas than in nonsecreting tumours. MR parameters were similar in prolactinomas and nonsecreting adenomas, but indicated a smaller amount of water in GH-secreting tumours. (orig.).

  6. Adipocyte Versus Pituitary Leptin in the Regulation of Pituitary Hormones: Somatotropes Develop Normally in the Absence of Circulating Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Angela K.; Haney, Anessa; Allensworth-James, Melody; Akhter, Noor

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine produced by white fat cells, skeletal muscle, the placenta, and the pituitary gland among other tissues. Best known for its role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure, leptin is produced largely by and in proportion to white fat cells. Leptin is also important to the maintenance and function of the GH cells of the pituitary. This was shown when the deletion of leptin receptors on somatotropes caused decreased numbers of GH cells, decreased circulating GH, and adult-onset obesity. To determine the source of leptin most vital to GH cells and other pituitary cell types, we compared two different leptin knockout models with Cre-lox technology. The global Lep-null model is like the ob/ob mouse, whereby only the entire exon 3 is deleted. The selective adipocyte-Lep-null model lacks adipocyte leptin but retains pituitary leptin, allowing us to investigate the pituitary as a potential source of circulating leptin. Male and female mice lacking adipocyte leptin (Adipocyte-lep-null) did not produce any detectable circulating leptin and were infertile, suggesting that the pituitary does not contribute to serum levels. In the presence of only pituitary leptin, however, these same mutants were able to maintain somatotrope numbers and GH mRNA levels. Serum GH trended low, but values were not significant. However, hypothalamic GHRH mRNA was significantly reduced in these animals. Other serum hormone and pituitary mRNA differences were observed, some of which varied from previous results reported in ob/ob animals. Whereas pituitary leptin is capable of maintaining somatotrope numbers and GH mRNA production, the decreased hypothalamic GHRH mRNA and low (but not significant) serum GH levels indicate an important role for adipocyte leptin in the regulation of GH secretion in the mouse. Thus, normal GH secretion may require the coordinated actions of both adipocyte and pituitary leptin. PMID:25116704

  7. Pituitary gonadotropic hormones in women with oligo/amenorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, A.; Nadir, S.

    2008-01-01

    Any abnormality of menstrual cycle makes women worried and requires proper evaluation. Oligomenorhea is one of the indicators of Polycystic Disease of the Ovary (PCO) which is associated not only with reproductive failure but it also has metabolic and cardiovascular complications. The recent study was conducted to find out the role of Pituitary Gonadotropins in the diagnosis. After diagnosing and finding out the cause for menstrual irregularities and chronic anovulation one can explain the prognosis and management of these disorders. Fifty patients were studied in the year 2005-06 in the outpatient department of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. A history Performa was duly completed in all subjects. Blood sample was collected for hormonal essay during first ten days of the cycle. Hormonal essay was performed by Microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) on AXSYM system of Abbott. Age ranged from 13-45 years, 82% of the women were infertile, 60% had infrequent periods and 22% of the women had amenorrhea, 30% patients were overweight while 48% were obese. Physical examination revealed hersuitism in 24%, acne in 8% and galactorrhea in 6% of the patients. Ultrasound examination showed classical picture of PCO in 28% patients while 32% women had multiple small follicles and 16 % women were devoid of follicles. Elevated LH levels were found in 36% women. FSH level were found normal in 64% patients while in 16% women the levels were in menopausal range. LH/FSH ratio of more than two was observed in 52% women. Prolactin level was raised in 22% women. TSH level was below normal in 16% and higher in 22% women. Hormonal essays are mandatory in the evaluation of women presenting with Oligomenorhea/amenorrhea and chronic anovulatory infertility for finding out the cause and explaining the prognosis of the disease to the patient. (author)

  8. Regional differences in the pituitary distribution of luteinizing hormone in the gonadectomized and proestrous female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous data have shown regional differences in the presence of anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) that generally correlate with comparable disparities in the distribution of gonadotropes throughout the gland. In female rats, the differences are apparent over the estro...

  9. A FSH-Secreting Pituitary Macroadenoma Causing A Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas can affect sexual and reproductive function. In this article, we have reported the case of a 32-year-old male with secondary infertility. The patient had sexual and reproductive disturbances. The test results of the blood samples indicated obviously decreased testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels. Based on previous hormonal results, the patient received pituitary stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG tests. Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH showed low response during the pituitary stimulation test. The results of the hCG test indicated that T/E2 could recover to a normal level. In addition, this patient was diagnosed with pituitary macroadenoma, which was supported by the pituitary MRI. The man’s sexual and reproductive functions recovered following surgery. The pathological results confirmed that the tumor tissue was an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by immunohistochemical staining. The purpose of this report was to review the relative literature and discuss the influence of FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas on hormones through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis.

  10. Sensitivity of T-Lymphocytes to Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishevskaya, N V; Gevorkyan, N M; Kozlova, N I

    2017-01-01

    The review provides information about the features of the sensitivity of thymocytes, lymphoid organs' cells and T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood to the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland's cells: growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin. Some aspects of the T-lymphocytes's response to humoral signals from the hypophysis are shown in the article. Also the pituitary hormones' role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production of T-lymphocytes in normal and pathological conditions of the organism being discussed.

  11. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Loche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 1985 growth hormone (GH was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD. With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, deletions/mutations of the SHOX gene, as well as in short children born small for gestational age and with idiopathic short stature. Available data from controlled trials indicate that GH treatment increases adult height in patients with Turner syndrome, in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and in short children born small for gestational age. Patients with SHOX deficiency seem to respond to treatment similarly to Turner syndrome. GH treatment in children with idiopathic short stature produces a modest mean increase in adult height but the response in the individual patient is unpredictable. Uncontrolled studies indicate that GH treatment may be beneficial also in children with Noonan syndrome. In patients with Prader-Willi syndrome GH treatment normalizes growth and improves body composition and cognitive function. In any indication the response to GH seems correlated to the dose and the duration of treatment. GH treatment is generally safe with no major adverse effects being recorded in any condition.

  12. Interactions of vitamin A and iodine deficiencies: effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency (VAD) and the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect > 30% of the global population and these deficiencies often coexist in vulnerable groups. VAD has multiple effects on the pituitary-thyroid axis; VA status modulates thyroid gland metabolism, peripheral metabolism of

  13. All Hormone-Producing Cell Types of the Pituitary Intermediate and Anterior Lobes Derive From Prop1-Expressing Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Keisler, Jessica L; Pérez-Millán, María I; Schade, Vanessa; Camper, Sally A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in PROP1, the most common known cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans, can result in the progressive loss of all hormones of the pituitary anterior lobe. In mice, Prop1 mutations result in the failure to initiate transcription of Pou1f1 (also known as Pit1) and lack somatotropins, lactotropins, and thyrotropins. The basis for this species difference is unknown. We hypothesized that Prop1 is expressed in a progenitor cell that can develop into all anterior lobe cell types, and not just the somatotropes, thyrotropes, and lactotropes, which are collectively known as the PIT1 lineage. To test this idea, we produced a transgenic Prop1-cre mouse line and conducted lineage-tracing experiments of Prop1-expressing cells. The results reveal that all hormone-secreting cell types of both the anterior and intermediate lobes are descended from Prop1-expressing progenitors. The Prop1-cre mice also provide a valuable genetic reagent with a unique spatial and temporal expression for generating tissue-specific gene rearrangements early in pituitary gland development. We also determined that the minimal essential sequences for reliable Prop1 expression lie within 10 kilobases of the mouse gene and demonstrated that human PROP1 can substitute functionally for mouse Prop1. These studies enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease in patients with PROP1 mutations.

  14. The evolution of radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency in adults is determined by the baseline growth hormone status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toogood, A.A.; Ryder, W.D.J.; Beardwell, C.G.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    Recent studies of GH replacement have suggested several beneficial effects for GH deficient adults. It would therefore be helpful to predict the time of onset of GH deficiency after external pituitary irradiation. We have studied the evolution of GH deficiency with time in patients irradiated for pituitary adenomas and other hypothalamic pituitary tumours. The results provide an insight into the pattern of the decline in GH secretion following radiotherapy in patients with pituitary disease and the factors affecting it. This information will help the clinician predict the frequency and timing of GH deficiency in patients irradiated for pituitary disease and the potential need for GH replacement therapy. (Author).

  15. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  16. A case of myxedema coma caused by isolated thyrotropin stimulating hormone deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a rare, but often fatal endocrine emergency. The majority of cases that occur in elderly women with long-standing primary hypothyroidism are caused by particular triggers. Conversely, MC of central origin is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of MC with both central and primary origins. A 56-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital due to loss of consciousness; a chest x-ray demonstrated severe cardiomegaly. Low body temperature, bradycardia, and pericardial effusion suggested the presence of hypothyroidism. Endocrinological examination revealed undetectable levels of serum free thyroxine (T(4)) and free triiodothyronine (T(3)), whereas serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were not elevated. The woman's serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody tests were positive, indicating that she had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Provocative tests to the anterior pituitary revealed that she had TSH and growth hormone (GH) deficiency; however, GH levels were restored after supplementation with levothyroxine for 5 months. This was not only a rare case of MC with TSH deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis; the patient also developed severe osteoporosis and possessed transient elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). This atypical case may suggest the role of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, as well as hypothyroidism, in the regulation of bone metabolism.

  17. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-02-28

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion.

  18. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion

  19. Inhibition of rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) release by subclinical levels of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camoratto, A.M.; White, L.M.; Lau, Y.S.; Moriarty, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Lead toxicity has been associated with short stature in children. Since growth hormone is a major regulator of growth, the effects of chronic exposure to subclinical lead levels on pituitary function were assessed. Timed pregnant rats were given 125 ppm lead (as lead nitrate) in their drinking water beginning on day 5 of gestation. After weaning, pups were continued on lead until sacrifice at 7 weeks of age. The average blood lead level at this time was 18.9 ug/dl (range 13.7-27.8). On the day of sacrifice the pituitary was removed, hemisected and incubated with vehicle or 40 nM hGRH (human growth hormone releasing hormone). Pituitaries from chronically lead-treated pups were 64% less responsive to GRH than controls. In contrast, no difference in responsiveness was observed in pituitaries from the dams. The specific binding of GRH was also examined. Control animals showed a dose-dependent displacement of 125I-GRH by unlabeled ligand (10-1000 nM). In the pituitaries of lead-treated pups binding of labeled ligand was markedly reduced by unlabeled GRH (less than 100 nM). Chronic exposure to lead had no effect on serum GH or prolactin levels or on pituitary content of GH. These data suggest that one mechanism by which lead can affect growth is by inhibition of GH release

  20. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan

    1989-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  1. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism. (author)

  2. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with isolated growth hormone deficiency: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Traficante, Giovanna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Marilena; Becciani, Sabrina; Mortilla, Marzia; Seminara, Salvatore; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-10-19

    Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital abnormality, sporadically reported to be associated with a combined congenital hypopituitarism. Nevertheless, only a few cases have been extensively described, and none of these have been characterized by an isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Here, we describe a 17-year old boy referred to our hospital for fatigue, decreased muscle strength and severe headache reported after the cessation of rhGH treatment for a GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 2 years and 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an adenohypophyseal hypoplasia with a lack of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, whereas MRI angiography indicated the absence of a normal flow void in the left ICA. Endocrinological tests confirmed the GH deficiency (GH peak after growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) + arginine: 2.42 ng/mL) with a very low IGF-I value (31 ng/mL) and normal function of other pituitary axes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first confirmed case of an isolated GH deficiency in a patient with ICA agenesis. The presence of an isolated pituitary deficit is unlike to be considered only as an effect of hemodynamic mechanism, suggesting a role for genetic factor(s) as a common cause of these two rare birth defects. Further studies could clarify this issue and the underlying mechanisms to better understand the etiopathogenetic characteristics of this disorder.

  3. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  4. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  5. Dental caries and vitamin D3 in children with growth hormone deficiency: A STROBE compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dorota; Krzewska, Aleksandra; Szalewski, Leszek; Pietryka-Michałowska, Elżbieta; Szalewska, Magdalena; Krzewski, Szymon; Pels, Elżbieta; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D may prevent dental caries. To date, no attempts have been made to examine the correlation between the incidence of caries and the concentrations of vitamin D in children with pituitary growth hormone deficiency.The study observed patients of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the University Paediatric Hospital of the Medical University of Lublin treated with human recombinant growth hormone for pituitary growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015. The study group consisted of 121 children and adolescents (6-17 years old), including 56 children from rural areas and 65 children from urban areas. The study group was stratified by area of residence.In our study, the increase in vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels reduced the D component by 0.66 per each 10 ng/mL of vitamin D3 concentration. The percentage of children with active caries in rural areas is 91.07% (n = 51), which is significantly higher than the percentage of children with active caries in urban areas (81.54%, n = 53).To date, information regarding the potential possibility of reducing the incidence of dental caries by means of increasing the levels of vitamin D was sidelined by paediatricians and dentists alike. Therefore, this aspect of caries prevention should be highlighted.

  6. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M

    1986-08-04

    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  7. Treatment of intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak of patients with hormone active pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yu Grigoriev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak are common during the transnasal transsphenoidal interven tions. In certain cases, it is a feature of these interventions. However, its amplification needs a mandatory treatment. In this article, we describe the technique for closure dural defects that have developed during the transnasal removal of hormone active pituitary adenomas, using thrombin and fibrinogen containing colla genic sponge.

  8. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1996-01-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  9. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  10. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  11. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  12. Hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to a thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Lack of hormonal response to bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H E; Linfoot, J A; Braunstein, G D; Kovacs, K; Young, R T

    1983-05-01

    A 47-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism was found to have an inappropriately normal serum thyrotropin level (1.5 to 2.5 microU/ml) that responded poorly to thyrotropin-releasing hormone but showed partial responsiveness to changes in circulating thyroid hormones. Serum alpha-subunit levels were high-normal and showed a normal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Growth hormone and thyrotropin hypersecretion persisted despite radiotherapy and bromocriptine treatment. Selective trans-sphenoidal removal of a pituitary adenoma led to normalization of both growth hormone and thyrotropin levels. Both thyrotropes and somatotropes were demonstrated in the adenoma by the immunoperoxidase technique and electron microscopy.

  13. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  14. Labelling and standardizing some pituitary hormones for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    1976-11-01

    Optimum conditions for efficient 125 I labelling of human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) using chloramine-T have been established for radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of the hormone, chloramine-T, 125 I, and the reaction time were, respetively, controlled evaluating the yield and the bindability of the labelled hormone to its antibody. To measure the bindability, the labelled hormone was incubated together with its antibody for a definite temperature. In the separation of the free hormone (F) from the antibody bound (B), a double antibody technique was applied comparing with the chromatoelectrophoresis. For the efficient separation of the labelled hormone, two methods of separation such as gel filtration and gel electrophoresis were compared in the sensitivity and in the immunological activity points of view. Experiments for the production of HCG antibody were also conducted. The produced antisera were tested in two ways; i.e., the incubation test with the labelled hormone, and the Ouchterlony test. Using the produced anti-HCG serum and the purchased anti-FSH serum, standard dose-response curves were plotted correlating with the international standard preparation of the hormones

  15. Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Hormone and Semen Analysis in Narcotic Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is associated with numerous complications including hormonal disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenic disorders. We have compared the hormone concentration of pituitary-gonadal axis and the semen analysis in opioid-dependent and non-opioid-dependent men.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, serum concentration of pituitary- gonadal axis hormones and semen analysis in 48 opioid-dependent men as eligible to participate in the study were compared with those in 12 non-dependent men.Results: Free testosterone concentration in all test groups was significantly less than that in control group. Furthermore, the concentration of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS in all test groups except those addicted to heroin was less than in those in control group. Concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, SHBG, progesterone and estradiol, normal and abnormal sperm count in test groups were significantly different from control group. However, in all test groups, sperm motility rate was less than control group. No significant relationship was found between the concentration of sex hormones and the status of sperms motility. Conclusion: Chronic use of opioids will affect testosterone hormone and sperm, and it will cause hypogonadism and impairment of sperm motility.

  16. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  17. Importance of radioimmunological determinations of hormones of pituitary gland in praxi usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, W.; Knappe, G.

    1977-01-01

    A short introduction into the radioimmunoassay technique as a modern method for hormone determination is given. Some general problems related to the use of the radioimmunoassay technique are discussed. The clinical application of this technique to the determination of hormones of the anterior pituitary such as HGH, PRL, ACTH, MSH, TSH, LH and FSH in combination with dynamic tests are reviewed and illustrated by own results for the determination of HGH, LH and FSH. Analytical problems of the special hormones are mentioned only. (author)

  18. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... GHR variant showed significant association of the GHRd3 deletion allele with CAD (OR 0.48, ...... against scarcity of food supply in this population (Millar et ..... hormone treatment reduces hypertension and obesity induced by.

  20. Growth hormone and prolactin radioimmunoassay in early diagnosis of pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gembicki, M.; Kosowicz, J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of prolactin and HGH determination in basal conditions and following stimulation tests in the group of 68 patients with pituitary or suprasellar tumors are presented. In acromegaly elevated level of HGH in fasting state, lack of supression after glucose loading and parodoxical drop of HGH after L-dopa administration were observed. In pituitary tumors without acromegaly determinations of HGH during insulin induced hypoglycemia revealed lack of HGH response to such stimulation in 25 cases which indicated hypopituitarism. In 10 cases elevated prolactin levels (48 - 1000 ng/ml) were observed, this indicates that some of so-called inactive tumors are in fact hormonally active. (author)

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  2. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ...

  3. Pituitary cell differentiation from stem cells and other cells: toward restorative therapy for hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Christophe; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary gland, key regulator of our endocrine system, produces multiple hormones that steer essential physiological processes. Hence, deficient pituitary function (hypopituitarism) leads to severe disorders. Hypopituitarism can be caused by defective embryonic development, or by damage through tumor growth/resection and traumatic brain injury. Lifelong hormone replacement is needed but associated with significant side effects. It would be more desirable to restore pituitary tissue and function. Recently, we showed that the adult (mouse) pituitary holds regenerative capacity in which local stem cells are involved. Repair of deficient pituitary may therefore be achieved by activating these resident stem cells. Alternatively, pituitary dysfunction may be mended by cell (replacement) therapy. The hormonal cells to be transplanted could be obtained by (trans-)differentiating various kinds of stem cells or other cells. Here, we summarize the studies on pituitary cell regeneration and on (trans-)differentiation toward hormonal cells, and speculate on restorative therapies for pituitary deficiency.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone [GH] is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A) + RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A) + RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with [ 3 H]uridine, and quantitating [ 3 H]GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones

  5. Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery of Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuka, David; Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Belšán, Tomáš; Marek, Josef; Kršek, Michal; Hána, Václav; Ježková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    The effect of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the extent of sellar region tumors treated endonasally has been described in previous research. However, the effects of iMRI on endocrinologic outcome of growth hormone-secreting adenomas have been studied in only a few small cohort studies. Inclusion criteria were primary transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting adenoma from January 2009 to December 2014, a minimum follow-up of 1 year, complete endocrinologic data, at least 1 iMRI, and at least 2 postoperative magnetic resonance images. The cohort consisted of 105 patients (54 females, 51 males) with a mean age of 48.3 years (range, 7-77 years). There were 16 microadenomas and 89 macroadenomas. Endocrinologic remission in the whole cohort was achieved in 64 of the patients (60.9%). Resection after iMRI was attempted in 22 of the cases (20.9%). Resection after iMRI led to hormonal remission in 9 cases (8.6%). Endocrinologic postoperative deficit was observed in 10 cases (12.5%). Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage indicated the necessity to reoperate in 3 cases (3.8%). No neurologic deterioration was observed. iMRI influences not only the morphologic extent of pituitary adenomas resection but also the endocrinologic results. We encourage the routine application of iMRI in pituitary adenoma surgery, including hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    Sweat secretion is often disturbed in patients with GH secretory disorders. Hyperhidrosis is a classic feature of acromegaly, and it has recently been shown that GH-deficient patients exhibit decreased sweating capacity after pilocarpine stimulation of the skin. Thus, patients with GH-deficiency ...

  7. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  8. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jie; Li, Yukun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...

  9. T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia within an adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone positive pituitary adenoma: A cytohistological correlation emphasizing importance of intra-operative squash smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh K; Saran, Ravindra K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Jagetia, Anita; Garg, Lalit; Sharma, Mehar C

    2017-08-01

    We present a rare case of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia (T-LBL) in association with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) expressing pituitary adenoma in a 55-year-old woman highlighting the importance of intra-operative squash smears examination. The patient presented with complaints of headache, diminution of vision and recent onset altered sensorium. MRI revealed a mass lesion in the sellar-suprasellar region with non-visualization of pituitary gland separately, extending to involve adjacent structures diagnosed as invasive pituitary macroadenoma. Intra-operative tissue was sent for squash smear examination. The cytology showed a tumor comprising of sheets of immature lymphoid cells intermixed with clusters of pituitary acinar cells with many mitoses and tingible body macrophages. A diagnosis of presence of immature lymphoid cells within the pituitary was offered and differentials of infiltration by lymphoma cells from systemic disease versus primary central nervous lymphoma-like lymphoma arising in the pituitary adenoma were considered. Later paraffin section examination and immunohistochemistry corroborated with the squash findings and a final diagnosis of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia in association with ACTH and TSH expressing pituitary adenoma was made. To date, only six cases of primary pituitary T cell lymphomas, including three T-LBL cases, have been reported. This is the seventh case and first one additionally describing cytohistological correlation and importance of intra-operative cytology. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  10. A novel heterozygous SOX2 mutation causing congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaroli, Annamaria; Kelberman, Daniel; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Drury, Suzanne; Islam, Lily; Giangiobbe, Sara; Ironi, Gabriele; Lench, Nicholas; Sowden, Jane C; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Cavallo, Luciano; Gasperi, Maurizio; Faienza, Maria Felicia

    2014-01-25

    Heterozygous de novo mutations in SOX2 have been reported in approximately 10-20% of patients with unilateral or bilateral anophthalmia or microphthalmia. An additional phenotype of hypopituitarism, with anterior pituitary hypoplasia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, has been reported in patients carrying SOX2 alterations. We report a novel heterozygous mutation in the SOX2 gene in a male affected with congenital bilateral anophthalmia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation we describe is a cytosine deletion in position 905 (c905delC) which causes frameshift and an aberrant C-terminal domain. Our report highlights the fact that subjects affected with eye anomalies and harboring SOX2 mutations are at high risk for gonadotropin deficiency, which has important implications for their clinical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isotocin Regulates Growth Hormone but Not Prolactin Release From the Pituitary of Ricefield Eels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin (Oxt has been shown to stimulate prolactin (Prl synthesis and release from the adenohypophysis in rats. However, little is known about the functional roles of Oxt-like neuropeptides in the adenohypophysis of non-mammalian vertebrates. In this study, cDNAs encoding ricefield eel oxytocin-like receptors (Oxtlr, namely isotocin (Ist receptor 1 (Istr1 and 2 (Istr2, were isolated and specific antisera were generated, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis detected the presence of both Istr1 and Istr2 in the brain and pituitary, but differential expression in some peripheral tissues, including the liver and kidney, where only Istr1 was detected. In the pituitary, immunoreactive Istr1 and Istr2 were differentially distributed, with the former mainly in adenohypophyseal cell layers adjacent to the neurohypophysis, whereas the latter in peripheral areas of the adenohypophysis. Double immunofluorescent images showed that immunostaining of Istr1, but not Istr2 was localized to growth hormone (Gh cells, but neither of them was expressed in Prl cells. Ist inhibited Gh release in primary pituitary cells of ricefield eels and increased Gh contents in the pituitary gland of ricefield eels at 6 h after in vivo administration. Ist inhibition of Gh release is probably mediated by cAMP, PKC/DAG, and IP3/Ca2+ pathways. In contrast, Ist did not affect either prl gene expression or Prl contents in primary pituitary cells. Results of this study demonstrated that Ist may not be involved in the regulation of Prl, but inhibit Gh release via Istr1 rather than Istr2 in ricefield eels, and provided evidence for the direct regulation of Gh cells by oxytocin-like neuropeptides in the pituitary of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  12. Isotocin Regulates Growth Hormone but Not Prolactin Release From the Pituitary of Ricefield Eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Shi, Boyang; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin (Oxt) has been shown to stimulate prolactin (Prl) synthesis and release from the adenohypophysis in rats. However, little is known about the functional roles of Oxt-like neuropeptides in the adenohypophysis of non-mammalian vertebrates. In this study, cDNAs encoding ricefield eel oxytocin-like receptors (Oxtlr), namely isotocin (Ist) receptor 1 (Istr1) and 2 (Istr2), were isolated and specific antisera were generated, respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis detected the presence of both Istr1 and Istr2 in the brain and pituitary, but differential expression in some peripheral tissues, including the liver and kidney, where only Istr1 was detected. In the pituitary, immunoreactive Istr1 and Istr2 were differentially distributed, with the former mainly in adenohypophyseal cell layers adjacent to the neurohypophysis, whereas the latter in peripheral areas of the adenohypophysis. Double immunofluorescent images showed that immunostaining of Istr1, but not Istr2 was localized to growth hormone (Gh) cells, but neither of them was expressed in Prl cells. Ist inhibited Gh release in primary pituitary cells of ricefield eels and increased Gh contents in the pituitary gland of ricefield eels at 6 h after in vivo administration. Ist inhibition of Gh release is probably mediated by cAMP, PKC/DAG, and IP3/Ca2+ pathways. In contrast, Ist did not affect either prl gene expression or Prl contents in primary pituitary cells. Results of this study demonstrated that Ist may not be involved in the regulation of Prl, but inhibit Gh release via Istr1 rather than Istr2 in ricefield eels, and provided evidence for the direct regulation of Gh cells by oxytocin-like neuropeptides in the pituitary of non-mammalian vertebrates.

  13. Prevalence of Pituitary Hormone Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome, and Impaired Quality of Life in Retired Professional Football Players: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, Charlene; Evans, Diana; Mathews, Amy; Cohan, Pejman; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Sim, Myung-Shin; Lee, Jihey; Wright, Mathew J.; Kernan, Claudia; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Yuen, Kevin C.J.; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypopituitarism is common after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we address the association between mild TBI (mTBI) and pituitary and metabolic function in retired football players. Retirees 30–65 years of age, with one or more years of National Football League (NFL) play and poor quality of life (QoL) based on Short Form 36 (SF-36) Mental Component Score (MCS) were prospectively enrolled. Pituitary hormonal and metabolic syndrome (MetS) testing was performed. Using a glucagon stimulation test, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) was defined with a standard cut point of 3 ng/mL and with a more stringent body mass index (BMI)-adjusted cut point. Subjects with and without hormonal deficiency (HD) were compared in terms of QoL, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, metabolic parameters, and football career data. Of 74 subjects, 6 were excluded because of significant non-football-related TBIs. Of the remaining 68 subjects (mean age, 47.3±10.2 years; median NFL years, 5; median NFL concussions, 3; mean BMI, 33.8±6.0), 28 (41.2%) were GHD using a peak GH cutoff of <3 ng/mL. However, with a BMI-adjusted definition of GHD, 13 of 68 (19.1%) were GHD. Using this BMI-adjusted definition, overall HD was found in 16 (23.5%) subjects: 10 (14.7%) with isolated GHD; 3 (4.4%) with isolated hypogonadism; and 3 (4.4%) with both GHD and hypogonadism. Subjects with HD had lower mean scores on the IIEF survey (p=0.016) and trended toward lower scores on the SF-36 MCS (p=0.113). MetS was present in 50% of subjects, including 5 of 6 (83%) with hypogonadism, and 29 of 62 (46.8%) without hypogonadism (p=0.087). Age, BMI, median years in NFL, games played, number of concussions, and acknowledged use of performance-enhancing steroids were similar between HD and non-HD groups. In summary, in this cohort of retired NFL players with poor QoL, 23.5% had HD, including 19% with GHD (using a BMI-adjusted definition), 9% with hypogonadism, and

  14. Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Pearl, D; Glaser, R

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated hormonal changes and problem-solving behaviors in 90 newlywed couples who were admitted to a hospital research unit for 24 hours. The subjects were selected on the basis of stringent mental and physical health criteria, and admissions were scheduled during the follicular phase of the woman's menstrual cycle. For frequent, unobtrusive endocrine sampling during the interaction tasks, a long polyethylene tube was attached to a heparin well, allowing nurses to draw blood samples at set intervals, out of subjects' sight. Five blood samples were obtained before, during, and after a 30-minute structured problem-solving or conflict task. The conflict session was recorded on videotapes that were later scored for problem-solving behaviors using the Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS). Marital conflict and MICS-coded hostile or negative behavior during conflict was closely linked to changes in serum hormonal levels across five of the six hormones we studied, in spite of the high marital satisfaction of our newlywed couples and the healthy lifestyles demanded by our exclusion criteria. Hostile behavior was associated with decreased levels of prolactin (PRL) and increases in epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NEPI), ACTH, and growth hormone (GH), but not cortisol. These data suggest that the endocrine system may be an important mediator between personal relationships and health.

  15. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of pituitary growth hormone adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Ling; Dou, Jing-Tao; Lü, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Wen-Wen; Ba, Jian-Ming; Jin, Du; Lu, Ju-Ming; Pan, Chang-Yu; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Subclinical apoplexy of pituitary functional adenoma can cause spontaneous remission of hormone hypersecretion. The typical presence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) adenoma is gigantism and/or acromegaly. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous partial remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of GH adenoma. Six patients with spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, endocrinological evaluation and imageological characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. In these cases, the initial clinical presences were diabetes mellitus or hypogonadism. No abrupt headache, vomiting, visual function impairment, or conscious disturbance had ever been complained of. The base levels of GH and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were normal or higher, but nadir GH levels were all still > 1 µg/L in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Magnetic resonance imaging detected enlarged sella, partial empty sella and compressed pituitary. The transsphenoidal surgery was performed in 2 cases, and the other patients were conservatively managed. All the patients were in clinical remission. When the clinical presences, endocrine evaluation, biochemical examination and imageology indicate spontaneous remission of GH hypersecretion in patients with gigantism or acromegaly, the diagnosis of subclinical apoplexy of pituitary GH adenoma should be presumed. To these patients, conservative therapy may be appropriate.

  16. Ghrelin receptor expression and colocalization with anterior pituitary hormones using a GHSR-GFP mouse line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alex; Steyn, Frederik J; Sleeman, Mark W; Andrews, Zane B

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and robustly stimulates GH release from the anterior pituitary gland. Ghrelin also regulates the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones including TSH, LH, prolactin (PRL), and ACTH. However, the relative contribution of a direct action at the GHSR in the anterior pituitary gland vs. an indirect action at the GHSR in the hypothalamus remains undefined. We used a novel GHSR-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter mouse to quantify GHSR coexpression with GH, TSH, LH, PRL, and ACTH anterior pituitary cells in males vs. females and in chow-fed or calorie-restricted (CR) mice. GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells were only observed in anterior pituitary. The number of GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells was higher in male compared with females, and CR did not affect the GHSR-eGFP cell number. Double staining revealed 77% of somatotrophs expressed GHSR-eGFP in both males and females. Nineteen percent and 12.6% of corticotrophs, 21% and 9% of lactotrophs, 18% and 19% of gonadotrophs, and 3% and 9% of males and females, respectively, expressed GHSR-eGFP. CR increased the number of TSH cells, but suppressed the number of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, expressing GHSR-eGFP compared with controls. These studies support a robust stimulatory action of ghrelin via the GHSR on GH secretion and identify a previously unknown sexual dimorphism in the GHSR expression in the anterior pituitary. CR affects GHSR-eGFP expression on lactotrophs, gonadotrophs, and thyrotrophs, which may mediate reproductive function and energy metabolism during periods of negative energy balance. The low to moderate expression of GHSR-eGFP suggests that ghrelin plays a minor direct role on remaining anterior pituitary cells.

  17. Glycoprotein hormone α subunit secretion by pituitary adenomas: influence of external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, I.A.; Beardwell, C.G.; Shalet, S.M.; Darbyshire, P.J.; Hayward, E.; Sutton, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    In ninety-nine patients with pituitary adenomas, forty-six with acromegaly, the serum level of the glycoprotein hormone α subunit was elevated in eighteen cases. Thirteen of these were acromegalic and one had an FSH-producing tumour. Alpha levels varied little during the day, from one day to the next and over a 6 month period. In twenty-five patients with a variety of other hypothalamic-pituitary disorders examined, one patient with a craniopharyngioma had a mildly elevated α level. External pituitary irradiation was followed by an acute and often transient fall in α level in several of these patients. Of the fifty-four patients with pituitary adenomas who had received external irradiation before testing, only five had elevated α subunit levels compared with thirteen patients of the forty-five who had not been irradiated. This difference in incidence of elevated α level was statistically significant (P<0.025). It is concluded that external irradiation may reduce α subunit level chronically in many patients with pituitary adenoma. (author)

  18. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  19. Proteome and radioimmunoassay analyses of pituitary hormones and proteins in response to feed restriction of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Albrecht, Dirk; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Viergutz, Torsten; Nürnberg, Gerd; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-12-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system controls homeostasis during feed energy reduction. In order to examine which pituitary proteins and hormone variants are potentially associated with metabolic adaptation, pituitary glands from ad libitum and energy restrictively fed dairy cows were characterized using RIA and 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS. We found 64 different spots of regulatory hormones: growth hormone (44), preprolactin (16), luteinizing hormone (LH) (1), thyrotropin (1), proopiomelanocortin (1) and its cleavage product lipotropin (1), but none of these did significantly differ between feeding groups. Quantification of total pituitary LH and prolactin concentrations by RIA confirmed the results obtained by proteome analysis. Also, feed energy restriction provoked increasing non-esterified fatty acid, decreasing prolactin, but unaltered glucose, LH and growth hormone plasma concentrations. Energy restriction decreased the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, triosephosphate isomerase, purine-rich element-binding protein A and elongation factor Tu, whereas it increased expression of proline synthetase co-transcribed homolog, peroxiredoxin III, β-tubulin and annexin A5 which is involved in the hormone secretion process. Our results indicate that in response to feed energy restriction the pituitary reservoir of all posttranslationally modified hormone forms remains constant. Changing plasma hormone concentrations are likely attributed to a regulated releasing process from the gland into the blood. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary-ovarian hormones in peritoneal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.; Milanov, S.; Kekhajova, M.

    1987-01-01

    LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone and corisol concentrations in periotoneal fluid of 64 women with histologically verified endometriosis were determined by a personally developed radioimmunologic method. A significant raise in estradiol and progesterone concentrations was observed, exceeding the plasma levels 9 times (estradiol) and 15 times (progesterone). Reliable diagnostic criteria for confirming a diagnosis of endometriosis, based on the hormonal link between endometriosis and the ovulatory processes, have for the first time been found

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  2. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of single-dose radiation on cell survival and growth hormone secretion by rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Z.; Kuten, A.; Hertz, P.; Tatcher, M.; Kedar, A.; Benderly, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has been shown to impair growth hormone secretion in children. In this study a cell culture of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells was exposed to single doses of radiation in the range of 100 to 1500 rad. Survival curves were obtained for the different anterior pituitary cell lines, and growth hormone secretion was measured in the tissue culture medium. Both survival and growth hormone secretion curves showed an initial shoulder in the range of 0 to 300 rad, followed by a decline between 300 to 750 rad. It is concluded that growth hormone secreting acidophilic pituicytes are sensitive to radiation at single doses greater than 300 rad

  4. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Whitehead, E.; Chapman, A.J.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  5. Effect of alcohol and glucose infusion on pituitary-gonadal hormones in normal females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    after 8 h. Four of the women participated in a control experiment with infusion of an equal volume of glucose 5.5%. Venous blood samples were drawn 5 times during the 24-h follow up period. Serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones decreased in both ethanol and control experiments...... and the results did not differ significantly. The lowest hormone concentrations were observed 1-5 h after the start of infusion. Oestradiol, oestrone and oestrone-sulphate concentrations decreased 24-46% compared to basal values. 5 alpha-dihydro-testosterone levels decreased 23-31%, androstenedione...

  6. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    -deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum.......001]. Consequently, the core temperatures of the patients increased significantly after exercise compared with those of the CTs [38.3 C (0.10 C) (MPD) and 38.1 C (0.06 C) (isolated GH deficiency) vs. 37.5 C (0.2 C) (CTs) (P temperature increased significantly during exercise in the patients...... but remained unaltered in the CTs. Sweat secretion rates, as determined by the pilocarpine method, were significantly lower in the MPD patients [77 (SE +/- 10) mg/30 min] than in the CTs [115 (SE +/- 7) mg/30 min] (P

  7. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  8. Long-Term Follow-up of a Case with Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency: Transient Diabetes Mellitus with Intervening Diabetic Ketoacidosis During Growth Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönç, E. Nazlı; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2017-09-01

    Proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) deficiency is a very rare disease characterized by severe intractable diarrhea in the first years of life, followed by obesity and several hormonal deficiencies later. Diabetes mellitus requiring insulin treatment and diabetic ketoacidosis have not been reported in this disorder. We herein present a girl with PC1/3 deficiency who has been followed from birth to 17 years of age. She developed deficiencies of all pituitary hormones over time as well as diabetes mellitus while receiving growth hormone (GH) therapy. She was complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis during dietary management of diabetes mellitus, thus insulin treatment was initiated. Insulin requirement to regulate hyperglycemia was short-lived. Repeat oral glucose tolerance test five years later was normal. The findings of this patient show that diabetes mellitus can develop at any time during follow-up of cases with proportein convertase 1/3 deficiency especially under GH therapy.

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy with associated growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, T.; Mahmood, A.; Shams, S.

    2003-01-01

    A patient with duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and growth hormone (GH) deficiency is described who had no clinical evidence of muscular weakness before initiation of GH replacement therapy. Treatment with human GH resulted in appearance of symptoms of easy fatigability and muscle weakness. Thorough investigations including serum creating phosphokinase (CK) levels in recommended in every patient with GH deficiency before starting GH replacement therapy. (author)

  10. Radioiodinated nondegradable gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: new probes for the investigation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C; Munson, P J; Rodbard, D

    1979-12-01

    Studies of pituitary plasma membrane gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors using [125I]-iodo-GnRH suffer major disadvantages. Only a small (less than 25%) proportion of specific tracer binding is to high affinity sites, with more than 70% bound to low affinity sites (Ka = 1 x 10(6) M-1). [125I]Iodo-GnRH is also inactivated during incubation with pituitary plasma membrane preparations. Two superactive analongs of GnRH, substituted in positions 6 and 10, were used as the labeled ligand to overcome these problems. Both analogs bound to the same high affinity sites as GnRH on bovine pituitary plasma membranes, though the affinity of the analogs was higher than that of the natural decapeptide (Ka = 2.0 x 10(9), 6.0 x 10(9), and 3.0 x 10(8) M-1 for [D-Ser(TBu)6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, [D-Ala6]des-Gly10-GnRH ethylamide, and GnRH, respectively. The labeled analogs bound to a single class of high affinity sites with less than 15% of the specific binding being to low affinity sites (Ka approximately equal to 1 x 10(6) M-1). The labeled analogs were not inactivated during incubation with the pituitary membrane preparations. Using the analogs as tracer, a single class of high affinity sites (K1 = 4.0 x 10(9) M-1) was also demonstrated on crude 10,800 x g rat pituitary membrane preparations. Use of these analogs as both the labeled and unlabeled ligand offers substantial advantages over GnRH for investigation of GnRH receptors, allowing accurate determination of changes in their numbers and affinities under various physiological conditions.

  11. Hypothalamic control of pituitary and adrenal hormones during hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, C; Miyazaki, M; Kuriyama, K

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate neuroendocrinological mechanisms of hypothermia, we determined the changes in plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CS), prolactin (PRL), and thyrotropin (TSH), and their correlations with alterations in hypothalamic dopamine (DA) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), in rats restrained and immersed in a water bath at various temperatures. A graded decrease of body temperature induced a progressive increase in the plasma level of CS, whereas that of PRL showed a drastic decrease. The plasma level of TSH also showed an increase during mild hypothermia (about 35 degrees C), but this increase was not evident during profound hypothermia (below 24 degrees C). The changes in these hormones were readily reversed by rewarming animals. Although DA content in the hypothalamus was not affected, its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), showed an increase following the decrease of body temperature. Pretreatment of the animals with sulpiride, a D2-antagonist, prevented the hypothermia-induced inhibition of PRL release. Hypothalamic TRH was significantly decreased during mild hypothermia, and it returned to control levels after rewarming. These results suggest that the decrease in plasma PRL induced by hypothermia may be associated with the activation of hypothalamic DA neurons, whereas the increase in plasma TSH during mild hypothermia seems to be caused by the increased release of TRH in the hypothalamus.

  12. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  13. Characterization of pituitary growth hormone and its receptor in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Carranza, Martha; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) has been studied in most vertebrate groups; however, only a few studies have been carried out in reptiles. Little is known about pituitary hormones in the order Squamata, to which the green iguana (gi) belongs. In this work, we characterized the hypophysis of Iguana iguana morphologically. The somatotrophs (round cells of 7.6-10 μm containing 250- to 300-nm secretory granules where the giGH is stored) were found, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, exclusively in the caudal lobe of the pars distalis, whereas the lactotrophs were distributed only in the rostral lobe. A pituitary giGH-like protein was obtained by immuno-affinity chromatography employing a heterologous antibody against chicken GH. giGH showed molecular heterogeneity (22, 44, and 88 kDa by SDS-PAGE/Western blot under non-reducing conditions and at least four charge variants (pIs 6.2, 6.5, 6.9, 7.4) by isoelectric focusing. The pituitary giGH cDNA (1016 bp), amplified by PCR and RACE, encodes a pre-hormone of 218 aa, of which 190 aa correspond to the mature protein and 28 aa to the signal peptide. The giGH receptor cDNA was also partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences of giGH and giGHR homologs in vertebrates suggest a parallel evolution and functional relationship between the GH and its receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor deficiency following cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of synthetic human pancreatic tumour GH releasing factor (hp GRF1-44) on GH release has been studied in 10 patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency and four normal subjects. All 10 patients showed subnormal GH responses to both an ITT (median peak GH 3.2 mU/1) and to arginine stimulation (median peak GH 2.9 mU/1), although the remainder of pituitary function was intact. Following an acute intravenous bolus (100 μg) of hp GRF1-44, there was no GH response in two patients and a subnormal but definite GH response in a further four. The remaining four patients showed a significant GH response (median peak GH level 29 mU/1; range 22-57 mU/1) to hp GRF1-44, similar in magnitude and timing to that seen in th four normals. This strongly suggests that in these four subjects, the discrepancy in GH responses to hp GRF1-44, ITT and to arginine was a result of radiation-induced hypothalamic damage leading to a deficiency of endogenous GRF. The availability of synthetic hp GRF capable of stimulating GH secretion means that the distinction between hypothalamic and pituitary causes of GH deficiency will be of considerable therapeutic importance in the future. (author)

  15. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  16. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of four pituitary peptide hormones: human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH), growth hormone (hGH), follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH), and luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been carried out using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor. A commercial SPR biosensor was employed. The immobilization of the hormones was optimized and monoclonal antibodies were selected in order to obtain the best sensor performance. Assay parameters as running buffer and regeneration solution composition or antibody concentration were adjusted to achieve a sensitive analyte detection. The performance of the assays was assessed in buffer solution, serum and urine, showing sensitivity in the range from 1 to 6 ng/mL. The covalent attachment of the hormones ensured the stability of the SPR signal through repeated use in up to 100 consecutive assay cycles. Mean intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were all <7%, while batch-assay variability using different sensor surfaces was <5%. Taking account both the excellent reutilization performance and the outstanding reproducibility, this SPR immunoassay method turns on a highly reliable tool for endocrine monitoring in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings.

  17. Pituitary disorders and their extra-pituitary implications : observations in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and the IGSF1 deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we explored pituitary functioning and extra-pituitary implications of two pituitary disorders in humans. In part A, we focused on the long-term consequences of the diagnosis and treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) on hypothalamic regulation of circadian

  18. Pegvisomant treatment in gigantism caused by a growth hormone-secreting giant pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, K; Gallwitz, B; Honegger, J; Strasburger, C J; Bidlingmaier, M; Machicao, F; Bornemann, A; Ranke, M B; Häring, H-U; Petersenn, S

    2007-03-01

    Gigantism is rare with the majority of cases caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Treatment options for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas have been widened with the availability of long-acting dopamine agonists, depot preparations of somatostatin analogues, and recently the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. A 23-year-old male patient presented with continuous increase in height during the past 6 years due to a GH-secreting giant pituitary adenoma. Because of major intracranial extension and failure of octreotide treatment to shrink the tumour, the tumour was partially resected by a trans-frontal surgical approach. At immunohistochemistry, the tumour showed a marked expression of GH and a sparsely focal expression of prolactin. Somatostatin receptors (sst) 1-5 were not detected. Tumour tissue weakly expressed dopamine receptor type 2. The Gs alpha subunit was intact. Conversion from somatostatin analogue to pegvisomant normalized insulin-like-growth-factor-I (IGF-I) levels and markedly improved glucose tolerance. Pegvisomant is a potent treatment option in patients with pituitary gigantism. In patients who do not respond to somatostatin analogues, knowledge of the SST receptor status may shorten the time to initiation of pegvisomant treatment.

  19. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-08-03

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies.

  20. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  1. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone inactivation by purified pituitary plasma membranes: effects of receptor-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Duncan, J A; Marshall, J C

    1979-05-01

    Inactivation of LHRH by purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes was studied in vitro. After incubation of [125I]iodo-LHRH with plasma membranes, the amount of tracer bound to the pellet was measured, and the integrity of the unbound tracer in the supernatant was assessed. Reduction in ability to bind to anti-LHRH serum and to rebind to plasma membranes together with altered electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gels showed that the unbound [125I]iodo-LHRH was inactivated. LHRH inactivation occurred rapidly and was dependent upon membrane concentration and incubation temperature. These results indicate that hormone inactivation must be taken into account in the interpretation of LHRH-receptor interactions. During 37 C incubations, the apparent absence of specific LHRH binding can be explained by inactivation of tracer hormone. Significant LHRH inactivation also occurred at 0 C, which in part explains the insensitivity of LHRH receptor assays. Assessment of LHRH inactivation by different particulate subcellular fractions of pituitary tissue showed that the inactivating enzyme was associated with the plasma membranes; other organelles did not alter LHRH. The enzyme appeared to be an integral part of the plasma membrane structure, since enzymic activity could not be removed by washing without reducing specific LHRH binding. Additionally, reduction of LHRH inactivation by the inhibitors Bacitracin and Trasylol and by magnesium was also accompanied by reduced LHRH binding. Previous studies have shown that the majority of LHRH binding to pituitary plasma membranes is to the low affinity site (approximately 10(-6) M), but the significance of this binding has been uncertain. Our findings indicate that low affinity binding probably represents binding of LHRH to the inactivating enzyme. The LHRH analog, D-Ser6(TBu), des Gly10, ethylamide, has greater biological activity than LHRH and is not inactivated to a significant extent by pituitary plasma membranes. The

  2. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  3. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    OpenAIRE

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy. However, because pituitary dwarfism is a recessively inherited disorder and carriers do not differ phenotypically from non-carriers, genetic testing is required to prevent mating of 2 carriers. But...

  4. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  5. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  6. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  7. Growth hormone deficiency and central hypogonadism in retired professional football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor László Kovács

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the possible impact of multiple mild head traumas sustained during a long-term football career on the presence of central hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH deficiency. Methods: Twenty-seven retired, former professional male football players were investigated. All subjects were assessed for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH and total testosterone (TT. Quality of life was quantified using the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire. Results: Subjects had a median age of 48.0 (42.0 – 53.0 years and a median football career of 29.0 years (22.0 – 32.0. One subject had central hypogonadism and none had growth hormone deficiency. Nine subjects reported sport-related head injuries. We found a negative correlation between sport-related head injuries and serum LH (p = -0.459, P = 0.016. Subjects with a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 3.3 U/L (2.7 – 3.6, while those without a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 4.1 (U/L (3.6 – 5.7, P = 0.017. However, there were no differences in other hormones between the two groups. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between the duration of the player’s career nor their field position with hormone profiles or QoL-AGHDA. Conclusion: Although retired footfall players with a history of sport-related head injury had lower LH levels, we did not find strong evidence of an increased prevalence of central hypogonadism or GH deficiency in these patients. Our results suggest that a long-term football career, which includes headings and repetitive mild head traumas, does not damage the most vulnerable anterior pituitary cells.

  8. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and growth-hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, G; Russo, A; Sciotto, A; Distefano, G; Vigo, R [Catania Univ. (Italy). 1. and 2. Paediatric Clinics

    1976-11-06

    Measurements have been made of the growth hormone (GH) responses of nine children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to the insulin and arginine tolerance tests. All the patients had received induction treatment with prednisone, vincristine and doxorubicin ('Adriamycin') for 4 weeks followed by 2400 rad of orthovoltage cranial irradiation plus five intrathecal injections of methotrexate. During the study all the children were in complete remission, which had been maintained with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for 4 to 26 months. No pulses of steroids were used in remission. Five patients in early remission did not respond to either stimulation test, three having longer remissions showed a late and low response to the insulin test and the one patient with the longest remission (26 months) had a normal GH response. Heights and bone ages were normal. These results, which suggest the possibility of a gradual recovery after the end of CNS treatment including orthovoltage cranial irradiation, are contrasted with those for megavoltage treatment reported by Shalet et al. (Shalet, S.M., Beardwell, C.G., Morris-Jones, P.H., Pearson, D., Archs. Dis. Childh., 1976, vol. 51, 489).

  9. The morpho-functional parameters of rat pituitary hormone producing cells after genistein treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trifunović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of steroid–like compounds that occur naturally in many plants. There are various types of phytoestrogens, including the best-researched isoflavones which are commonly found in soy. The consumption of soy products has many health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease and osteoporosis. In contrast, use of hormonally active compounds-isoflavones may unfortunately interfere with the endocrine system and can have far-reaching consequences. Genistein, the most abundant soy-bean derived isoflavone, possesses a ring system similar to estrogens and acts through an estrogen receptor (ER-mediated mechanism, by increasing or decreasing the transcription of ER-dependent target genes. Also, genistein can act on cells through ER non-dependent mechanisms, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. It is well known, that estrogen is important for development of the neuroendocrine system in both sexes. At the pituitary level, estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all hormone producing (HP cells, by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Due to structural and functional resemblance to estrogen, the question may arise of whether and how genistein affects the morphofunctional features of pituitary HP cells. This review deals with the consequences of genistein’s effects on morphological, stereological and hormonal features of HP cells within the anterior pituitary gland. Transparency on this issue is needed because isoflavones are presently highly consumed. Inter alia, genistein as well as other isoflavones, are present in various dietary supplements and generally promoted as an accepted alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Potential isoflavone biomedical exploitation is not

  10. Preparation of high-quality iodine-125-labeled pituitary luteinizing hormone for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Higa, O.Z.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Werner, R.S.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    High quality pituitary luteinizing hormone labeled with 125 I was obtained after separating out the more heavily iodinated fractions, through starch gel electrophoresis, using the cathodal component (fraction 1) which was further purified on Sephadex G-100, with the obtention of an almost pure 125 I-LH preparation, presenting excellent immunoreactivity and low levels of damage on incubation in plasma. The quality control of the steps of the technique was done with plasma-coated talc (200 mg) which compared favorably, as far indicating undamaged labeled LH, with the more time-consuming chromatoelectrophoresis

  11. Changes of Pituitary Hormones after Injection of Naloxone in the Hypotensive Phase of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Gyu; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Tae [Hallym Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-09-15

    The opiate antagonist, naloxone, was injected for the reversal of hypotension due to Korean hemorrhagic fever, and the authors observed changes in pituitary hormones. In the hypotensive phase of the Korean hemorrhagic fever, the beta-endorphin was high, and normalized gradually in the diuretic and convalescent period. The naloxone raised the pulse rate and the blood pressure within 30 minutes without change in the central venous pressure. Around 30 minuted after the injection of the naloxone, the beta-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol rose. The prolactin fell down 60 minutes after the naloxone injection.

  12. Calcium-independent phosphatidylinositol response in gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-stimulated pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Z; Molcho, J; Zakut, H; Yavin, E

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, gonadoliberin) on phospholipid metabolism in cultured rat pituitary cells. The cells were incubated with [32P]Pi to label endogenous phospholipids (10-60 min) and then stimulated with GnRH for up to 60 min. Cellular phospholipids were separated by two-dimensional t.l.c. and the radioactivity was determined. Phosphatidylinositol (PI), a minor constituent of cellular phospholipids (7.7%), was the major labelled phospholipi...

  13. Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R

    2008-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion.

  14. Growth hormone deficiency in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Morris-Jones, P.; Bamford, F.N.; Ribeiro, G.G.; Pearson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Nine children with brain tumors are described who have received various combinations of treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Many of the children were noted to be of short stature. Endocrine assessment was carried out from 2 to 10 years after treatment. The combined results of insulin tolerance and Bovril stimulation tests show an impaired growth hormone response in six of the nine children. Bone age is retarded in all cases, and the present height is below the 10th percentile in five of the six. The cause of this growth hormone deficiency is obscure, but further studies are in progress

  15. Features of changes in concentration of pituitary thyroid hormone and thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after operations with N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, T.S.; Topuzyan, V.O.

    2013-01-01

    The features of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and thyroid hormones in the blood of rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after injections of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester were investigated. A sharp increase of pituitary thyroid hormone level and a sharp decrease of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with hypothyroidism have been established. Under the action of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl--α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester the decrease of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and the increase of thyroid hormones level in the rats' blood have been observed and reached their values in intact animals

  16. Grass Carp Follisatin: Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization, Dopamine D1 Regulation at Pituitary Level, and Implication in Growth Hormone Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. K. Fung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Activin is involved in pituitary hormone regulation and its pituitary actions can be nullified by local production of its binding protein follistatin. In our recent study with grass carp, local release of growth hormone (GH was shown to induce activin expression at pituitary level, which in turn could exert an intrapituitary feedback to inhibit GH synthesis and secretion. To further examine the activin/follistatin system in the carp pituitary, grass carp follistatin was cloned and confirmed to be single-copy gene widely expressed at tissue level. At the pituitary level, follistatin signals could be located in carp somatotrophs, gonadotrophs, and lactotrophs. Functional expression also revealed that carp follistatin was effective in neutralizing activin’s action in stimulating target promoter with activin-responsive elements. In grass carp pituitary cells, follistatin co-treatment was found to revert activin inhibition on GH mRNA expression. Meanwhile, follistatin mRNA levels could be up-regulated by local production of activin but the opposite was true for dopaminergic activation with dopamine (DA or its agonist apomorphine. Since GH stimulation by DA via pituitary D1 receptor is well-documented in fish models, the receptor specificity for follistatin regulation by DA was also investigated. Using a pharmacological approach, the inhibitory effect of DA on follistatin gene expression was confirmed to be mediated by pituitary D1 but not D2 receptor. Furthermore, activation of D1 receptor by the D1-specific agonist SKF77434 was also effective in blocking follistatin mRNA expression induced by activin and GH treatment both in carp pituitary cells as well as in carp somatotrophs enriched by density gradient centrifugation. These results, as a whole, suggest that activin can interact with dopaminergic input from the hypothalamus to regulate follistatin expression in carp pituitary, which may contribute to GH regulation by activin/follistatin system

  17. In vivo and in vitro effects of chromium VI on anterior pituitary hormone release and cell viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Machiavelli, Leticia I.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2007-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) is a highly toxic metal and an environmental pollutant. Different studies indicate that Cr VI exposure adversely affects reproductive functions. This metal has been shown to affect several tissues and organs but Cr VI effects on pituitary gland have not been reported. Anterior pituitary hormones are central for the body homeostasis and have a fundamental role in reproductive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cr VI at the pituitary level both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that Cr VI accumulates in the pituitary and hypothalamus, and decreases serum prolactin levels in vivo but observed no effects on LH levels. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, the effect of Cr VI on hormone secretion followed the same differential pattern. Besides, lactotrophs were more sensitive to the toxicity of the metal. As a result of oxidative stress generation, Cr VI induced apoptosis evidenced by nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Our results indicate that the anterior pituitary gland can be a target of Cr VI toxicity in vivo and in vitro, thus producing a negative impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the normal endocrine function

  18. In vivo and in vitro effects of chromium VI on anterior pituitary hormone release and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A; Poliandri, Ariel H B; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2007-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) is a highly toxic metal and an environmental pollutant. Different studies indicate that Cr VI exposure adversely affects reproductive functions. This metal has been shown to affect several tissues and organs but Cr VI effects on pituitary gland have not been reported. Anterior pituitary hormones are central for the body homeostasis and have a fundamental role in reproductive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cr VI at the pituitary level both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that Cr VI accumulates in the pituitary and hypothalamus, and decreases serum prolactin levels in vivo but observed no effects on LH levels. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, the effect of Cr VI on hormone secretion followed the same differential pattern. Besides, lactotrophs were more sensitive to the toxicity of the metal. As a result of oxidative stress generation, Cr VI induced apoptosis evidenced by nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Our results indicate that the anterior pituitary gland can be a target of Cr VI toxicity in vivo and in vitro, thus producing a negative impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the normal endocrine function.

  19. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  20. Bartter syndrome and growth hormone deficiency: three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukcelik, Mithat; Keskin, Mehmet; Kilic, Beltinge Demircioglu; Kor, Yilmaz; Balat, Ayse

    2012-11-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemia, salt loss, and metabolic alkalosis. Short stature is one of the clinical manifestations in these children. Although polyuria, polydipsia, hypokalemia, and salt loss may be responsible for growth retardation, the exact pathogenesis of short stature in Bartter syndrome is not known. In this study, we present three children diagnosed as having Bartter syndrome with short stature and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. After recombinant human growth hormone therapy (rhGH), their growth velocities were improved. These results indicate that GH deficiency may contribute to short stature in children with Bartter syndrome, and rhGH therapy would be an excellent adjunctive treatment for short children with this syndrome whose condition is resistant to conventional therapies in terms of growth.

  1. [The ultradian rhythm of sleep: diverse relations with pituitary and adrenal hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, G

    2003-11-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the ultradian rhythm of sleep and the secretory episodes of pituitary-adrenal hormones. Prolactin (PRL) and TSH exhibited opposite phase relationships with delta waves, PRL increasing and TSH decreasing when delta waves developed. Delta waves never increased together with an increase in cortisol secretion. They oscillated independently from each other throughout the 24 hour period, but when they were present at the same time, they oscillated in opposing phases. Concerning growth hormone (GH), its major peak which occurred shortly after sleep onset in association with the first slow wave sleep episode was blunted during sleep deprivation. However, this blunting was compensated during the day, so that the amount of GH secreted during a 24-hr period was similar whether or not a person had slept during the night. The physiological significance and the clinical implications of the various relationships of the endocrine systems with sleep are poorly known.

  2. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ji-wen Wang,1,2 Ying Li,3 Zhi-gang Mao,1,2 Bin Hu,1,2 Xiao-bing Jiang,1,2 Bing-bing Song,4 Xin Wang,4 Yong-hong Zhu,4 Hai-jun Wang1,21Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Key Laboratory of Pituitary Adenoma in Guangdong Province, 3State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Excessive growth hormone (GH is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG and octreotide long-acting release (LAR, and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated

  3. Cockayne syndrome: a case with hyperinsulinemia and growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. K.; Chang, S. H.; Cho, S. B.; Baek, H. S.; Lee, D. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of childhood characterized by cachectic dwarfism with senile-like appearance, mental retardation, photosensitive dermatitis, loss of adipose tissue, pigmentary degeneration of retina, microcephaly, deafness, skeletal and neurologic abnormalities. We describe here an 18 year old boy with Cockayne syndrome who had, in addition to the typical features of the disorder, fasting hyperinsulinemia and growth hormone deficiency.

  4. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the .... 4,3 cm (-2,4 SOS for bone age 8,5 years at age 12); the girl's height at age 7 years was 77,5 cm (-8,0 SOS, height ... of serum incubated with '25I-labelled human growth hormone and expressed as relative specific binding ...

  5. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  6. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 25-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she...

  7. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...

  8. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...

  9. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Growth Hormone Deficiency Is Highly Dependent on the Diagnostic Set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne Christina; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jourgita

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Recent international guidelines suggest pituitary screening in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Predominantly isolated GH deficiency (GHD) was reported in the literature, raising the question of potential methodological bias. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to...

  10. Dose dependency of time of onset of radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, P.E.; Shalet, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia was assessed on 133 occasions in 82 survivors of childhood malignant disease. All had received cranial irradiation with a dose range to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of 27 to 47.5 Gy (estimated by a schedule of 16 fractions over 3 weeks) and had been tested on one or more occasions between 0.2 and 18.9 years after treatment. Results of one third of the GH tests were defined as normal (GH peak response, greater than 15 mU/L) within the first 5 years, in comparison with 16% after 5 years. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that dose (p = 0.007) and time from irradiation (p = 0.03), but not age at therapy, had a significant influence on peak GH responses. The late incidence of GH deficiency was similar over the whole dose range (4 of 26 GH test results normal for less than 30 Gy and 4 of 25 normal for greater than or equal to 30 Gy after 5 years), but the speed of onset over the first years was dependent on dose. We conclude that the requirement for GH replacement therapy and the timing of its introduction will be influenced by the dose of irradiation received by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  11. Mechanisms for pituitary tumorigenesis: the plastic pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Melmed, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland integrates the repertoire of hormonal signals controlling thyroid, adrenal, reproductive, and growth functions. The gland responds to complex central and peripheral signals by trophic hormone secretion and by undergoing reversible plastic changes in cell growth leading to hyperplasia, involution, or benign adenomas arising from functional pituitary cells. Discussed herein are the mechanisms underlying hereditary pituitary hypoplasia, reversible pituitary hyperplas...

  12. Baraitser and Winter syndrome with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Zellagui, Hadjer

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BWS), first reported in 1988, is apparently due to genetic abnormalities that are still not well-defined, although many gene abnormalities are already discovered and de novo missense changes in the cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes (called ACTB and ACTG1) have been recently discovered. The syndrome combines facial and cerebral malformations. Facial malformations totally or partially present in the same patient are: Iris coloboma, bilateral ptosis, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds. The various brain malformations are probably responsible for growth and mental retardation. To the best of our knowledge, the syndrome is very rare as few cases have been reported so far. Our aim was to describe a child with a phenotype that looks like BWS with proved partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency which was not reported before. A girl aged 7-year-old of consanguineous parents was referred for short stature and mental retardation. Clinical examination showed dwarfism and a delay in her mental development. Other clinical features included: Strabismus, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, and brain anomalies such as lissencephaly, bilateral hygroma, and cerebral atrophy. Hormonal assessment showed partial GH deficiency without other endocrine disorders. Our case looks exactly like BWS. However, apart from facial and cerebral abnormalities, there is a partial GH deficiency which can explain the harmonious short stature. This case seems worth to be reported as it adds GH deficiency to the very rare syndrome.

  13. Effects of low-dose cranial radiation on growth hormone secretory dynamics and hypothalamic-pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, G.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics and hypothalamic-pituitary function were studied in 16 long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were aged 9 to 15 1/2 years and had been treated with prophylactic central nervous system radiation and combined chemotherapy. At the time of study, the mean height was -1.5 SD score below the mean, less than genetic potential, and significantly less than the mean pretreatment height of -0.25 SD score. Height velocity was subnormal for age and sexual stage in all patients. Two patients had compensated hypothyroidism, and four had evidence of gonadal failure. In 11 patients, the peak GH level after two provocative tests was below 10 micrograms/L, which was consistent with GH deficiency. In ten of 13 patients tested, spontaneous GH secretion determined by a 24-hour GH concentration (GHC), GH pulse amplitude, frequency of GH pulses greater than or equal to 5 micrograms/L, and GH peak during wake and sleep hours was significantly less than in normal height controls. Although in three pubertal patients the 24-hour GHC was within normal limits, the GHC during sleep hours, GH pulse amplitude during 24 hours and sleep hours, and peak GH during wake hours were significantly less than in normal height controls. In all pubertal and in two of the prepubertal patients, the somatomedin C (SmC) level was significantly less than in controls. The 24-hour GHC correlated well with the GHC during sleep, peak-stimulated GH level, gonadal steroid level, and the SmC level, but not with height velocity, dose of radiation, or age at radiation. A significant increase in height velocity and the SmC level was noted in all patients treated with GH. These results indicate that GH deficiency occurs after 18 to 24 Gy of cranial radiation and that the puberty-associated growth spurt may mask the decline in height velocity owing to GH deficiency

  14. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ultradian rhythms in pituitary and adrenal hormones: their relations to sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronfier, C; Brandenberger, G

    1998-02-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both influence the 24-h profiles of the main pituitary and adrenal hormones. From studies using experimental strategies including complete and partial sleep deprivation, acute and chronic shifts in the sleep period, or complete sleep-wake reversal as occurs with transmeridian travel or shift-work, it appears that prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) profiles are mainly sleep related, while cortisol profile is mainly controlled by the circadian clock with a weak influence of sleep processes. Thyrotropin (TSH) profile is under the dual influence of sleep and circadian rhythmicity. Recent studies, in which we used spectral analysis of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) rather than visual scoring of sleep stages, have evaluated the temporal associations between pulsatile hormonal release and the variations in sleep EEG activity. Pulses in PRL and in GH are positively linked to increases in delta wave activity, whereas TSH and cortisol pulses are related to decreases in delta wave activity. It is yet not clear whether sleep influences endocrine secretion, or conversely, whether hormone secretion affects sleep structure. These well-defined relationships raise the question of their physiological significance and of their clinical implications.

  16. Possible stimulatory effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is found in various types of foods such as apples, red onions, grapes, berries, citrus fruits, cherries, broccoli, tea etc. It is characterized by antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory effects on the animal organism. The aim of our study was to examine its effect on endocrine system of the rabbit in vivo. Twenty healthy adult female rabbits were divided into four groups (control group and three experimental groups. Various concentrations of quercetin (10, 100 and 1000 µg/kg body weight were intramuscularly administrated to rabbits in experimental groups during 30 days. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of selected hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, luteinizing hormone – LH, prolactin – PRL after 30 days of administration. Non-significant differences between groups were found after application of different quercetin concentrations. Stimulatory effect was observed on FSH secretion by higher dose of quercetin. Similarly, LH and PRL increased at concentration 100 µg/kg and 1000 µg/kg. Our results indicate the possible effect of quercetin on secretion of selected pituitary hormones.

  17. A heterozygous microdeletion of 20p12.2-3 encompassing PROKR2 and BMP2 in a patient with congenital hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Samuel J H; Wright, Neville B; Burkitt-Wright, Emma; Skae, Mars S; Murray, Phillip G

    2017-08-01

    Congenital growth hormone deficiency is a rare disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. Pituitary development is under the control of a multitude of spatiotemporally regulated signaling molecules and transcription factors. Mutations in the genes encoding these molecules can result in hypopituitarism but for the majority of children with congenital hypopituitarism, the aetiology of their disease remains unknown. The proband is a 5-year-old girl who presented with neonatal hypoglycaemia and prolonged jaundice. No definitive endocrine cause of hypoglycaemia was identified in the neonatal period. She was born of normal size at 42 weeks but demonstrated growth failure with a progressive reduction in height to -3.2 SD by age 4.5 years and failed a growth hormone stimulation test with a peak growth hormone of 4.2 mcg/L. MRI of the pituitary gland demonstrated a hypoplastic anterior lobe and ectopic posterior lobe. Array CGH demonstrated an inherited 0.2 Mb gain at 1q21.1 and a de novo 4.8 Mb heterozygous deletion at 20p12.2-3. The deletion contained 17 protein coding genes including PROKR2 and BMP2, both of which are expressed during embryological development of the pituitary gland. PROKR2 mutations have been associated with hypopituitarism but a heterozygous deletion of this gene with hypopituitarism is a novel observation. In conclusion, congenital hypopituitarism can be present in individuals with a 20p12.3 deletion, observed with incomplete penetrance. Array CGH may be a useful investigation in select cases of early onset growth hormone deficiency, and patients with deletions within this region should be evaluated for pituitary hormone deficiencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  19. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue. An analysis of morphology and hormone secretion in an in vitro model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniko, M [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology; Arndt, J [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiophysics, Radiumhemmet; Raehn, T [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Werner, S [Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (/sup 60/Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance.

  20. Dual control of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone secretion by thyroxine and triiodothyronine in athyreotic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E. M.; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Larisch, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patient responses to levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy vary considerably. We sought to differentiate contributions of FT4 and FT3 in controlling pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. Methods: We retrospectively assessed the relationships between TSH and thyroid hormones in 319 patients with thyroid carcinoma through 2914 visits on various LT4 doses during follow-up for 5.5 years (median, IQR 4.2, 6.9). We also associated patient complaints with the relationships. Results: Under varying dose requirements (median 1.84 µg/kg, IQR 1.62, 2.11), patients reached TSH targets below 0.4, 0.1 or 0.01 mIU/l at 73%, 54% and 27% of visits. While intercept, slope and fit of linearity of the relationships between lnTSH and FT4/FT3 varied between individuals, gender, age, LT4 dose and deiodinase activity influenced the relationships in the cohort (all p < 0.001). Deiodinase activity impaired by LT4 dose significantly affected the lnTSH–FT4 relationship. Dose increase and reduced conversion efficiency displaced FT3–TSH equilibria. In LT4-treated patients, FT4 and FT3 contributed on average 52% versus 38%, and by interaction 10% towards TSH suppression. Symptomatic presentations (11%) accompanied reduced FT3 concentrations (–0.23 pmol/l, p = 0.001) adjusted for gender, age and BMI, their relationships being shifted towards higher TSH values at comparable FT3/FT4 levels. Conclusions: Variation in deiodinase activity and resulting FT3 levels shape the TSH–FT4 relationship in LT4-treated athyreotic patients, suggesting cascade control of pituitary TSH production by the two hormones. Consequently, measurement of FT3 and calculation of conversion efficiency may identify patients with impaired biochemistry and a resulting lack of symptomatic control. PMID:28794850

  1. Simultaneous measurement of hormone release and secretagogue binding by individual pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; Neill, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantitative relationship between receptor binding and hormone secretion at the single-cell level was investigated in the present study by combining a reverse hemolytic plaque assay for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from individual pituitary cells with an autoradiographic assay of 125 I-labeled gonadontropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist binding to the same cells. In the plaque assay, LH secretion induces complement-mediated lysis of the LH-antibody-coated erythrocytes around the gonadotropes, resulting in areas of lysis (plaques). LH release from individual gonadotropes was quantified by comparing radioimmunoassayable LH release to hemolytic area in similarly treated cohort groups of cells; plaque area was linearly related to the amount of LH secreted. Receptor autoradiography was performed using 125 I-labeled GnRH-A (a superagonist analog of GnRH) both as the ligand and as the stimulant for LH release in the plaque assay. The grains appeared to represent specific and high-affinity receptors for GnRH because (i) no pituitary cells other than gonadotropes bound the labeled ligand and (ii) grain development was progressively inhibited by coincubation with increasing doses of unlabeled GnRH-A. The authors conclude that GnRH receptor number for any individual gonadotrope is a weak determinant of the amount of LH it can secrete; nevertheless, full occupancy of all its GnRH receptors is required for any gonadotrope to reach its full LH-secretory capacity. Apparently the levels of other factors comprising the steps along the secretory pathway determine the secretory capacity of an individual cell

  2. A novel loss-of-function mutation in OTX2 in a patient with anophthalmia and isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Liat; Lebenthal, Yael; Wyatt, Alexander W; Ragge, Nicola K; Dateki, Sumito; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2010-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the gene encoding transcription factor OTX2 were recently shown to be responsible for ocular as well as pituitary abnormalities. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral anophthalmia and short stature. Endocrine evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis revealed isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) with small anterior pituitary gland, invisible stalk, ectopic posterior lobe, and right anophthalmia on brain magnetic resonance imaging. DNA was analyzed for mutations in the HESX1, SOX2, and OTX2 genes. Molecular analysis yielded a novel heterozygous OTX2 mutation (c.270A>T, p.R90S) within the homeodomain. Functional analysis revealed that the mutation inhibited both the DNA binding and transactivation activities of the protein. This novel loss-of-function mutation is associated with anophthalmia and IGHD in a patient of Sephardic Jewish descent. We recommend that patients with GH deficiency and ocular malformation in whom genetic analysis for classic transcription factor genes (PROP1, POU1F1, HESX1, and LHX4) failed to identify alterations should be checked for the presence of mutations in the OTX2 gene.

  3. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  4. Stem cell therapy and its potential role in pituitary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Reimer, Ronald; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-08-01

    The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells. Stem cell therapy has been successfully applied to a plethora of other disorders, and is a promising alternative to hormonal supplementation for resumption of normal hormone homeostasis. In this review, we describe the common causes for pituitary deficiencies and the advances in cellular therapy to restore the physiological pituitary function.

  5. Do deficiencies in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) shorten or prolong longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2005-02-01

    Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency on aging and lifespan are controversial. Studying untreated patients with either isolated GH deficiency due to GH gene deletion, patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency due to PROP-1 gene mutation and patients with isolated IGF-I deficiency due to deletions or mutations of the GH receptor gene (Laron syndrome); it was found, that these patients despite signs of early aging (wrinkled skin, obesity, insulin resistance and osteopenia) have a long life span reaching ages of 80-90 years. Animal models of genetic GH deficiencies such as Snell mice (Pit-1 gene mutations) the Ames mice (PROP-1 gene mutation) and the Laron mice (GH receptor gene knock-out) have a statistically significant higher longevity compared to normal controls. On the contrary, mice transgenic for GH and acromegalic patients secreting high amounts of GH have premature death. Those data raise the question whether pharmacological GH administration to adults is deleterious, in contrast to policies advocating such therapies.

  6. A radioreceptor assay of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor and characterization of LHRH binding to pituitary receptors in Shao duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peixin; Wu Meiwen; Chen Ziyuan

    2000-01-01

    The properties of Shao duck pituitary luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors were analyzed in pituitary membrane preparation and isolated pituitary cells prepared by enzymatic dispersion with collagenase and trypsin, by using a super-agonist analog of (D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. High binding of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH to 10 6 cultured cells of Shao duck was observed after a 90 minute incubation at 4 degree C, while binding was significantly reduced after a 24h incubation. Binding of the radioligand was a function of tissue concentration of Shao duck pituitary membrane preparation, with a positive correlation over the range of 1-2 pituitary per-tube. Specific binding for 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH increased with the increase in the amount of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. The Scatchard analysis of data revealed a linear relationship between the amount of specific binding and the ratio of specific binding to free 1 '2 5 I(D-Lys 6 )LHRH, indicating a single class of high affinity sites. Equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.34 nM in pituitary membrane preparation and 0.43 nM in isolated pituitary cells. Both Kd values were near and the maximum binding capacity (B max ) was great in isolated cells, suggesting no significant loss of the LHRH receptor population caused by the enzymatic procedure employed for cell dispersion in the present study. Addition of 9D-Lys 6 ) LHRH displaced bound 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. These results demonstrated the presence and provided characterization of LHRH receptors in Shao duck pituitary

  7. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  8. The Disorders of Growth Hormone Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared to Patients with the Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study — to investigate the disorders of growth hormone (GH secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS compared to patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPA. Under our supervision during period from September 2015 to March 2016, there were 15 female outpatients of childbearing age with PCOS and 15 — with NFPA. Average age of patients was 25.5 and 28.9 years, respectively. The duration of disease ranged from 7 months to 9 years. It was found that in both groups, there were neuroendocrine disorders typical for each pathology. So, in the first group of patients with PCOS, the following violations were most often: obesity, striae, acanthosis, аcne, hyperandrogenemia, hyperpolyme­norrhea, and in the second one — secondary amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, panhypopituitarism. In both groups, there was anovulation, as well as decline of GH and insulin-like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1 secretion. In addition, patients with NFPA had significantly decreased basal levels of tropic hormones — GH, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH on the background of hyperprolactinemia and normal values of IGF‑1, while in patients with PCOS, the levels of GH, LH, FSH were reduced on the background of hyperandrogenemia and IGF‑1 decline. Thus, it was found that in the group of patients with PCOS, there was the most significant reduction of basal IGF‑1 levels, whereas GH deficiency was less frequent. Patients with NFPA had panhypopituitarism, namely combined deficiency of GH, LH, FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, while IGF‑1 deficiency was less frequent. Disorders of GH and IGF‑1 secretion identified in our study confirm the literature data that patients with PCOS have a reduction in the levels of GH and IGF‑1 on the background of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenaemia.

  9. Pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P W; Silink, M; Johnston, I; Cowell, C T; Jimenez, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of pituitary gigantism resulting from a pituitary adenoma which secreted growth hormone is described. The patient was successfully treated by surgery, which led to the normalisation of endogenous growth hormone secretion. An acceptable final height was achieved with high dose intramuscular testosterone treatment. Images Figure 1 PMID:1520009

  10. Pituitary gigantism.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, P W; Silink, M; Johnston, I; Cowell, C T; Jimenez, M

    1992-01-01

    A case of pituitary gigantism resulting from a pituitary adenoma which secreted growth hormone is described. The patient was successfully treated by surgery, which led to the normalisation of endogenous growth hormone secretion. An acceptable final height was achieved with high dose intramuscular testosterone treatment.

  11. Effect of aging on GHRF-induced growth hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spik, K.W.; Boyd, R.L.; Sonntag, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Five criteria were developed to validate the primary cell culture model for comparison of GRF-induced release of growth hormone in pituitary tissue from aging animals. Pituitaries from young (5-mo), middle-aged (14-mo), and old (24-mo) male Fischer 344 rats were dispersed using either trypsin/trypsin inhibitor or dispase and compared with respect to the number of pituitary cells recovered, cell viability, 3H-leucine incorporation into total protein, time course for recovery of optimal response to GRF, and the dose-relationship for GRF-induced release of growth hormone 2, 4, and 6 days after dispersal. Results indicated that direct comparison of cellular responses between tissues from young, middle-aged, and old rats in primary cell culture is confounded by variations in time for recovery of optimal responses, the effects of the enzymes used for dispersal, and the methods used to express the data

  12. Investigation of Responsiveness to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate how the paradoxical response of GH secretion to TRH changes according to tumor volumes. Methods. Patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly were classified as either TRH responders or nonresponders according to the results of a TRH stimulation test (TST, and their clinical characteristics were compared according to responsiveness to TRH and tumor volumes. Results. A total of 41 acromegalic patients who underwent the TST were included in this study. Between TRH responders and nonresponders, basal GH, IGF-I levels, peak GH levels, and tumor volume were not significantly different, but the between-group difference of GH levels remained near significant over the entire TST time. during the TST were significantly different according to the responsiveness to TRH. Peak GH levels and during the TST showed significantly positive correlations with tumor volume with higher levels in macroadenomas than in microadenomas. GH levels over the entire TST time also remained significantly higher in macroadenomas than in microadenomas. Conclusion. Our data demonstrated that the paradoxical response of GH secretion to TRH in GH-producing pituitary adenomas was not inversely correlated with tumor volumes.

  13. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  14. Longitudinal changes in pituitary-adrenal hormones in South African women with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Shirra L; Panz, Vanessa R; Joffe, Barry I; Havlik, Ivan; Moch, Jonathan D

    2003-08-01

    The authors' goal was to document baseline pituitary-adrenal hormonal and related metabolic variables in 16 female patients with burnout. Then, following stress management intervention, to compare the changes with an equal number of untreated control subjects. At monthly intervals for 4 mo, 24-h urine samples were obtained for determination of free cortisol excretion. In addition, fasting blood samples were analyzed for levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), ACTH, aldosterone, and catecholamines. Other biochemical measurements included growth hormone, prolactin, insulin, glucose, and lipid components. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, General Health Questionnaire- 28, and Zung depression rating scale were completed on each consecutive visit. The most striking finding was the reduction of urine free-cortisol excretion in the patients compared with controls. Initial urinary free cortisol was significantly lower in the patients (mean +/- SEM = 47.2 +/- 11.0 vs 79.0 +/- 6.8 nmol/L, p = 0.02) and remained significantly reduced at 4 mo (mean +/- SEM = 44.0 +/- 6.1 vs 91.1 +/- 8.8 nmol/L, p = 0.0001). There were no significant changes in the other hormonal and biochemical data. We conclude that there is functional hypocortisolism in burnout, which is not immediately restored on stress management intervention despite clinical and psychological improvement.

  15. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  16. Focus on growth hormone deficiency and bone in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) exerts several effects on the skeleton, mediated either directly or indirectly, leading to increased bone formation and resorption rates. Patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) of adult onset have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some, but not all, studies have found that adults with childhood onset GHD also have lower BMD than healthy controls. Adults with GHD of childhood onset have smaller bone dimensions, leading to possible underestimation of areal BMD (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), thus potentially confounding the interpretation of densitometric data. Available data suggest that patients with childhood onset GHD are at increased fracture risk. Prospective studies and some clinical trials found that GH replacement for at least 18-24 months leads to increased BMD. Retrospective and prospective data suggest that GH replacement is associated with decreased fracture risk in adults. However, data from randomized clinical trials are lacking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  18. Irisin inhibition of growth hormone secretion in cultured tilapia pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Anji; Li, Xin; Jiang, Quan

    2017-01-05

    Irisin, the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) gene, is well-documented to be a regulator of energy metabolism. At present, not much is known about its biological function in non-mammalian species. In this study, a full-length tilapia FDNC5 was cloned and its tissue expression pattern has been confirmed. Based on the sequence obtained, we produced and purified recombinant irisin which could induce uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in tilapia hepatocytes. Further, the rabbit polyclonal irisin antiserum was produced and its specificity was confirmed by antiserum preabsorption. In tilapia pituitary cells, irisin inhibited growth hormone (GH) gene expression and secretion and triggered rapid phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, irisin-inhibited GH mRNA expression could be prevented by inhibiting PI3K/Akt, MEK1/2, and p38 MAPK, respectively. Apparently, fish irisin can act directly at the pituitary level to inhibit GH transcript expression via multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  20. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young; See-Sung, Choi; Kim, Jong Duck

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  1. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  2. Pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones after prolonged residence at extreme altitude in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, M; Pal, K; Prasad, R; Malhotra, A S; Rao, K S; Sawhney, R C

    1997-06-01

    High altitude-induced alterations in pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied in (i) eugonadal men from the armed forces who were resident at sea level (SL), (ii) SL residents staying at an altitude of 3542 m for periods ranging from 3 to 12 months (acclimatized lowlanders, ALL), (iii) ALL who stayed at 6300 m for 6 months, (iv) ALL who trekked from 3542 to 5080 m and stayed at an altitude of more than 6300 m in the glacier region for 6 months, and (v) high-altitude natives (HAN) resident at an altitude of 3300-3700 m. Circulating levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone in ALL at 3542 m and in HAN were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the SL control values. When the ALL living at 3542 m trekked to an extreme altitude of 5080 m, their testosterone levels showed a significant decrease (p 0.05) from the SL values. The LH levels after trekking to 5080 m were significantly higher (p 0.05) from the SL values. Plasma progesterone levels tended to increase on arrival at 5080 m but a significant increase (p < 0.001) was evident only after a 6-month stay at extreme altitude. These observations suggest that prolonged residence at lower as well as at extreme altitude does not appreciably alter blood levels of pituitary, gonadal or adrenal hormones except for plasma levels of progesterone. The exact mechanism and significance of this increase remains unknown, but may be important in increasing the sensitivity of the hypoxic ventilatory response and activation of haemoglobin synthesis.

  3. Relative contributions of pituitary-adrenal hormones to the ontogeny of behavioral inhibition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kim, H

    1995-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups exhibit deficits in behavioral inhibition. Furthermore, administration of exogenous corticosterone (CORT) restores behavioral inhibition in ADX pups. Although these studies suggest that CORT has an important role in the development of behavioral inhibition, the relative behavioral effects of elevated pituitary hormone secretion induced by ADX are not known. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the potential behavioral effects of elevated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion induced by ADX and to further evaluate the contribution of endogenous CORT to the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 1., we verified that 10-day-old ADX rats exhibit high levels of plasma ACTH throughout the preweaning period associated with the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 2, 10-day-old pups were hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and ADX and were compared behaviorally to sham-operated controls on day 14. When tested in the presence of an anesthetized unfamiliar adult male rat, HYPOX + ADX pups exhibited low levels of freezing accompanied by ultrasonic vocalizations. These pups also had reduced concentrations of plasma ACTH and CORT. In Experiment 3, 10-day-old pups were HYPOX and tested for behavioral inhibition on day 14. In comparison to sham-operated controls, HYPOX rats exhibited significantly lower levels of freezing and had reduced plasma concentrations of ACTH and CORT. Results demonstrate clearly that deficits in freezing occur even in the presence of low plasma ACTH concentrations. Therefore, elevated secretion of pituitary hormones is not a major factor that contributes to the ADX-induced deficits in behavioral inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Serum concentrations of pituitary and adrenal hormones in female pigs exposed to two photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeling, R R; Rampacek, G B; Mabry, J W; Cunningham, F L; Pinkert, C A

    1983-11-01

    Serum concentrations of pituitary and adrenal hormones were determined in lactating sows and ovariectomized (OVX) gilts exposed to 8 h (8L:16D) or 16 h of light (16L:8D). In addition serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were determined after a thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) challenge. At 103 +/- 2 d of gestation or 3 wk after ovariectomy of nulliparous gilts on d 7 to 9 of the estrous cycle (d - 10), blood samples were collected from jugular vein cannulae at 30-min intervals for 8 h beginning at 0800 h. Immediately after the last sample, 13 sows and five OVX gilts were assigned to 8L:16D and 14 sows and five OVX gilts were assigned to 16L:8D/d and placed in two identical chambers in the farrowing house. Blood sampling was repeated on d 7, 14 and 21 of lactation in the sows and on d 7, 14, 21 and 28 in the OVX gilts. In Exp. 1, serum cortisol (C) concentrations were similar for sows exposed to 8L:16D (n = 7) and 16L:8D (n = 6) treatments, whereas in Exp. 2, serum C concentrations for sows exposed to 8L:16D (n = 6) were lower than those exposed to 16L:8D (n = 6) on d 7, 14 and 21. Photoperiod failed to influence serum concentrations of PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone in the lactating sows or PRL in the OVX gilts. Photoperiod also failed to affect mean basal serum concentrations, peak height and peak frequency for PRL and LH in the lactating sows or for PRL in the OVX gilts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Proteomic and functional profiles of a follicle-stimulating hormone positive human nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Guo, Tianyao; Peng, Fang; Long, Ying; Mu, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ye, Ningrong; Li, Xuejun; Zhan, Xianquan

    2015-06-01

    Nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is highly heterogeneous with different hormone-expressed subtypes in NFPA tissues including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) positive, luteinizing hormone-positive, FSH/luteinizing hormone-positive, and negative types. To analyze in-depth the variations in the proteomes among different NFPA subtypes for our long-term goal to clarify molecular mechanisms of NFPA and to detect tumor biomarker for personalized medicine practice, a reference map of proteome of a human FSH-expressed NFPA tissue was described here. 2DE and PDQuest image analysis were used to array each protein. MALDI-TOF PMF and human Swiss-Prot databases with MASCOT search were used to identify each protein. A good 2DE pattern with high level of between-gel reproducibility was attained with an average positional deviation 1.98 ± 0.75 mm in the IEF direction and 1.62 ± 0.68 mm in the SDS-PAGE direction. Approximately 1200 protein spots were 2DE-detected and 192 redundant proteins that were contained in 141 protein spots were PMF-identified, representing 107 nonredundant proteins. Those proteins were located in cytoplasm, nucleus, plasma membrane, extracellular space, and so on, and those functioned in transmembrane receptor, ion channel, transcription/translation regulator, transporter, enzyme, phosphatase, kinase, and so on. Several important pathway networks were characterized from those identified proteins with DAVID and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis systems, including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell-cycle alteration, MAPKsignaling system, immune response, TP53-signaling, VEGF-signaling, and inflammation signaling pathways. Those resulting data contribute to a functional profile of the proteome of a human FSH-positive NFPA tissue, and will serve as a reference for the heterogeneity analysis of NFPA proteomes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Malignant Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses: Long-Term Outcome and Morbidity With Emphasis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyers, An; Janssens, Geert; Twickler, Marcel B.; Hermus, Ad R.; Takes, Robert P.; Kappelle, Arnoud C.; Merkx, Matthias A.W.; Dirix, Piet; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome after surgery and radiotherapy for patients with sinonasal cancer and assess late toxicity, with special emphasis on hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 168 patients treated for sinonasal cancer in a single institute between 1986 and 2006. A more detailed analysis was performed on a subgroup of 76 patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma treated with curative intent. Long-term survivors were evaluated for late toxicity by a multidisciplinary team using the late effects of normal tissues (LENT SOMA) scoring system. Additional endocrinologic tests were performed for assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary function. Results: Five-year actuarial local control and overall survival rates were 62% and 35% for all patients and 64% and 42% for the subgroup with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In multivariate analysis, T stage was the only significant factor predicting local relapse (79% at 5 years for T1-T3 vs. 53% for T4; p = 0.006). Sinonasal mucosal melanomas had the highest rate of regional failure (33% at 5 years). Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) evaluated at the late morbidity clinic had hormonal disturbances, of whom 5 (24%) had definitive evidence of hypopituitarism with multiple hormonal deficiencies. Conclusion: Local failure is the dominant cause of treatment failure for patients with sinonasal cancer, with T4 stage the only independent predictor. Because of a high rate of radiation-induced hypopituitarism, we recommend endocrinologic surveillance for these patients

  7. In vivo correlation between c-Fos expression and corticotroph stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretagogues in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Shu; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, c-Fos expression is evoked by various stimuli. However, whether c-Fos expression is directly related to the stimulation of anterior pituitary cells by hypothalamic secretagogues is unclear. To confirm whether the reception of hormone-releasing stimuli evokes c-Fos expression in anterior pituitary cells, we have examined c-Fos expression of anterior pituitary glands in rats administered with synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously or subjected to restraint stress. Single intravenous administration of CRH increases the number of c-Fos-expressing cells, and this number does not change even if the dose is increased. Double-immunostaining has revealed that most of the c-Fos-expressing cells contain adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH); corticotrophs that do not express c-Fos in response to CRH have also been found. However, restraint stress evokes c-Fos expression in most of the corticotrophs and in a partial population of lactotrophs. These results suggest that c-Fos expression increases in corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues, including CRH. Furthermore, we have found restricted numbers of corticotrophs expressing c-Fos in response to CRH. Although the mechanism underlying the different responses to CRH is not apparent, c-Fos is probably a useful immunohistochemical marker for corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues.

  8. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  9. Pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormone concentrations before and during a hypoglycemic clamp after sleep deprivation in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jauch-Chara

    Full Text Available Total sleep deprivation (TSD exerts strong modulatory effects on the secretory activity of endocrine systems that might be related to TSD-induced challenges of cerebral glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate whether TSD affects the course of male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis related hormones during a subsequent 240-min hypoglycemic clamp. Ten healthy men were tested on 2 different conditions, TSD and 7-hour regular sleep. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone, prolactin (PRL, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxin (fT4 were measured during baseline and a subsequent hypoglycemic clamp taking place in the morning. Basal, i.e. at 07:00 am measured, concentrations of total testosterone (P = 0.05 and PRL (P<0.01 were lower while the values of TSH (P = 0.02, fT3 (P = 0.08, and fT4 (P = 0.04 were higher after TSD as compared to regular sleep. During the subsequent hypoglycemic clamp (all measurements from baseline to the end of the clamp analyzed total testosterone concentrations in the regular sleep (P<0.01 but not in the TSD condition (P = 0.61 decreased, while PRL levels increased (P = 0.05 irrespectively of the experimental condition (P = 0.31. TSH concentrations decreased during hypoglycemia (P<0.01, with this decrease being more pronounced after TSD (P = 0.04. However, at the end of the hypoglycemic clamp concentrations all of the above mentioned hormones did not differ between the two sleep conditions. Our data indicate a profound influence of TSD on male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones characterized by reduced basal testosterone and PRL levels and increased TSH levels. However, since concentrations of these hormones measured at the end of the 240-min hypoglycemic clamp were not affected by TSD it can be speculated that the influence of TSD on the two endocrine axes is rather short lived or does not interact in an additive

  10. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  11. Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH. PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH. This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood.

  12. Response to growth hormone therapy in adolescents with familial panhypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, B; Eunice, M; Ammini, A C

    2010-04-01

    Familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a rare endocrine disorder. We describe growth patterns of four children (3 females and 1 male) from two families with combined pituitary hormone deficiency. These children received growth hormone at ages ranging from 14.5 years to 19 years. While all the female siblings reached their target height, the male sibling was much shorter than mid parental height. The reasons for sexual dimorphism in growth patterns in these children are unclear.

  13. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenson, M.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion

  14. A case of functional growth hormone deficiency and early growth retardation in a child with IFT172 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Herald, Angela K; Kinning, Esther; Iida, Aritoshi; Wang, Zheng; Miyake, Noriko; Ikegawa, Shiro; McNeilly, Jane; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2015-04-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of rare conditions that present through a wide range of manifestations. Given the relative common occurrence of defects of the GH/IGF-I axis in children with short stature and growth retardation, the association between ciliopathies and these defects needs further attention. Our patient is a boy who was born at term and noted to have early growth retardation and weight gain within the first 18 months of life. Biochemical tests demonstrated low IGF-I but a normal peak GH on stimulation and an adequate increase in IGF-I on administration of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed pituitary hypoplasia and an ectopic posterior pituitary. His growth responded well to rhGH therapy. Subsequently he also developed a retinopathy of his rods and cones, metaphyseal dysplasia, and hypertension with renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Whole-exome sequencing demonstrated compound heterozygous mutations of IFT172, thus consistent with a ciliopathy. This is the first reported case of a child with a mutation in IFT172 who presented with growth retardation in early childhood and was initially managed as a case of functional GH deficiency that responded to rhGH therapy. This case highlights the importance of ciliary function in pituitary development and the link between early onset growth failure and ciliopathies.

  15. Influence of ascorbic acid on in vivo amidation of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in guinea pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Hilsted, L

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid depletion on the amidation of alphamelanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) was studied in vivo in guinea pig pituitary. After four weeks, the concentration of ascorbic acid was 1.20 +/- 0.11 mumol/g tissue (mean +/- SD) in the pituitary and 0.34 +/- 0.07 mumol......-39) immunoreactivity was observed in the depleted guinea pigs. Gel chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance luquid chromatography showed that the alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14) immunoreactivity was of low molecular weight and partly mono- or diacetylated. Depletion of ascorbic acid had no influence on the degree...... of acetylation of alpha MSH and ACTH (1-14). It is concluded that depletion of ascorbic acid reduces the in vivo amidation of ACTH (1-14) in the guinea pig pituitary....

  16. Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI, etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months. The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5% had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5% and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI.

  17. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-wen; Li, Ying; Mao, Zhi-gang; Hu, Bin; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Song, Bing-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Yong-hong; Wang, Hai-jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs) and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) and octreotide long-acting release (LAR), and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated with presurgical SA may be achieved, although controversy of such adjuvant therapy exists. Combination of SA and pegvisomant or cabergoline shows advantages in some specific cases. Thus, an individual treatment program should be established for each patient under a full evaluation of the risks and benefits. PMID:24421637

  18. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  19. The causes of hypopituitarism in the absence of abnormal pituitary imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V; Mallipedhi, A; Stephens, J W; Redfern, R M; Price, D E

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism in the absence of a history of pituitary pathology or abnormal pituitary imaging is rare. To identify the cause of hypopituitarism in individuals in whom pituitary imaging was normal. Retrospective analysis of electronic patient record. A review of the pituitary function in the 506 patients on the Morriston Hospital pituitary database revealed 230 had some degree of hypopituitarism and of these, 21 (9%) had normal pituitary imaging. Of this group, six patients had a past medical history of subarachnoid haemorrhage, head injury or meningitis, and mainly suffered from a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone. One patient had a stroke resulting in multiple anterior hormone deficiencies and six individuals had idiopathic cranial diabetes insipidus (DI). Subsequent investigations of the remaining eight patients with normal pituitary imaging revealed that two had neurosarcoidosis both of whom had panhypopituitarism. Four patients had haemochromatosis which resulted in gonadotropin deficiency in two, DI in one and panhypopituitarism in the other. There were two individuals with confirmed hypopituitarism and multiple hormone deficiencies in which no cause could be identified. These results show that hypopituitarism in the absence of pituitary pathology or an identifiable cause is rare. In patients with multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies haemochromatosis and sarcoidosis should be considered.

  20. Ghrelin increases intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration in the various hormone-producing cell types of the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mami; Aizawa, Sayaka; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2012-09-20

    Ghrelin, isolated from the stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has potent growth hormone release ability in vivo and in vitro. Although GHS-R is abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland, there is no direct evidence of a relationship between hormone-producing cells and functional GHS-R in the pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to determine which anterior pituitary cells respond to ghrelin stimulation in male rats. We performed Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis using isolated pituitary cells, and performed immunocytochemistry to identify the type of pituitary hormone-producing cells. In Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis, ghrelin administration increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in approximately 50% of total isolated anterior pituitary cells, and 20% of these cells strongly responded to ghrelin. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that 82.9 ± 1.3% of cells that responded to ghrelin stimulation were GH-immunopositive. On the other hand, PRL-, LH-, and ACTH-immunopositive cells constituted 2.0 ± 0.3%, 12.6 ± 0.3%, and 2.5 ± 0.8% of ghrelin-responding pituitary cells, respectively. TSH-immunopositive cells did not respond to ghrelin treatment. These results suggest that ghrelin directly acts not only on somatotrophs, but also on mammotrophs, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs in the rat pituitary gland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and S...

  2. A FEEDBACK MODEL FOR TESTICULAR-PITUITARY AXIS HORMONE KINETICS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE REGULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The testicular-hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulates male reproductive system functions. A model describing the kinetics and dynamics of testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and luteinizing hormone (LH) was developed based on a model by Barton and Anderson (1997). The mode...

  3. Long-term consequences of growth hormone replacement and cranial radiation on pituitary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha Mireille

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the consequences of cranial irradiation of non-pituitary tumors, eg nasopharyngeal carcinoma, on pituitary function. In chapter 2 we have performed a meta-analysis of available data reported in literature on pituitary function after cranial radiotherapy for head and neck and

  4. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K

    2010-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  6. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S.; Luisiri, A.; Garibaldi, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of the responsiveness of pituitary gland to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in rats in the period of 8:00 to 12:00 a.m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, V.C.; Nicolau, W.; Bojarczuk, C.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The functional pituitary capacity for the secretion thyrotropin in rats, in relation to the period of time 8:00-12:00 a.m. was studied by means of the administration of synthetic TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone). The highest pituitary response to the hypothalamic hormone attains its peak between 9:50 and 10:30 a.m., a time in which the gland denotes a high and practically constant level of TSH secretion [pt

  8. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... (GH) deficiency (aged 4.2 to 13.5 years, mean age 8.9 years). Boys had higher median values for SSR than girls (pre-pubertal children: 92.7 vs 64.5 mg 30 min-1 pubertal children: 110.3 vs 73.1 mg 30 min-1), and men showed higher values than women (135.5 vs 49.2 mg 30 min-1). In addition, the change...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECEPTOR FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN THE PITUITARY OF THE AFRICAN CATFISH, CLARIAS-GARIEPINUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, R.; Conn, P. M.; van't Veer, C.; Goos, H. J.; van Oordt, P. G.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were characterized using a radioligand prepared from a superactive analog of salmon GnRH (sGnRH), D-Arg(6)-Pro(9)-sGnRH-NEt (sGnRHa). Binding of(125)I-sGnRHa to catfish pituitary membrane fractions reached equilibrium after 2 h incubation at 4°C.

  10. Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, N; Holzmann, PJ; ter Maaten, JC; Stuurman, LM; Roos, JC; Lips, P

    2005-01-01

    Long-term GH treatment in GH-deficient men resulted in a continuous increase in bone turnover as shown by histomorphometry. BMD continuously increased in all regions of interest, but more in the regions with predominantly cortical bone. Introduction: Adults with growth hormone (GH) deficiency have

  11. Effect of E-cadherin Expression on Hormone Production in Rat Anterior Pituitary Lactotrophs In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumoto, Kenji; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Kawanishi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Cadherins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. A change in cadherin type in cells, i.e., cadherin switching, induces changes in the character of the cell. Recent studies of the developing rat adenohypophysis found that primordial cells co-expressed E- and N-cadherins, but that hormone-producing cells lost E-cadherin and ultimately possessed only N-cadherin. In the present study, we examined the roles of cadherin switching in cytogenesis of anterior pituitary cells by observing prolactin mRNA and protein expression in lactotrophs that were transformed with an E-cadherin expression vector. In hormone-producing cells that were transfected with a pIRES2-ZsGreen1 plasmid with a full-length E-cadherin cDNA (rE-cad-IZ) insert in primary culture, we detected E- and N-cadherins on plasma membrane and E-cadherin in cytoplasm. In these rE-cad-IZ-transfected cells, in situ hybridization revealed prolactin mRNA signals that were at a level identical to that in control cells, while prolactin protein was barely detectable using immunocytochemistry. The mean signal intensity of prolactin protein in rE-cad-IZ-transfected cells was approximately one fourth that in intact cells and in null-IZ-transfected cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that the expression of E-cadherin does not affect prolactin mRNA transcription; rather, it reduces prolactin protein content, presumably by affecting trafficking of secretory granules

  12. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly projected and impeccably created, the endocrine system precisely regulates the most delicate immune processes. The immune and neuroendocrine systems are two essential physiological components of mammalian organisms important for protection from the infection and disease on one hand, and on the other, for regulation of metabolism and other physiological activities; namely, the evidence has been found indicating that there is active and dynamic collaboration of these systems in the execution of their designated functions [1, 2,4]. These interactions occur at many stages of embryonic and neonatal development, and they are a continual part of normal homeostatic balance necessary to preserve health. There is communication between neuroendocrine and immune system via cytokines, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones which act, in both systems, through the same receptor molecules (Scheme 1. Many investigators have reported the increased thymic weight in experimental animals due to both castration and adrenalectomy [4]. The discovery from 1898 revealing that thymus was enlarged in castrated rabbits has been considered the embryo of hybrid medical discipline, i.e. the immunoendocrinology [1]. In the actual literature, at least in that available to us, it has not been noted that the appearance of the eunuchs, i.e. the castrates, stimulated the analytical approach to this phenomenon. Endocrine influences appear to be a part of bidirectional circuitry, namely, thymic hormones also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. Physiologically, thymus is under neuroendocrine control. It is apparent that the circulating levels of distinct peptide hormones are necessary to maintain a series of biological functions related both to micro environmental and lymphoid cells of the organ. The neuroendocrine control of the thymus appears to be extremely complex, with apparent presence of complete intrathymic biological circuitry involving the

  13. Growth hormone modulates hypothalamic inflammation in long-lived pituitary dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagurski, Marianna; Landeryou, Taylor; Cady, Gillian; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Bartke, Andrzej; Miller, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Mice in which the genes for growth hormone (GH) or GH receptor (GHR(-/-) ) are disrupted from conception are dwarfs, possess low levels of IGF-1 and insulin, have low rates of cancer and diabetes, and are extremely long-lived. Median longevity is also increased in mice with deletion of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), which leads to isolated GH deficiency. The remarkable extension of longevity in hypopituitary Ames dwarf mice can be reversed by a 6-week course of GH injections started at the age of 2 weeks. Here, we demonstrate that mutations that interfere with GH production or response, in the Snell dwarf, Ames dwarf, or GHR(-/-) mice lead to reduced formation of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) projections to the main hypothalamic projection areas: the arcuate nucleus (ARH), paraventricular nucleus (PVH), and dorsomedial nucleus (DMH). These mutations also reduce hypothalamic inflammation in 18-month-old mice. GH injections, between 2 and 8 weeks of age, reversed both effects in Ames dwarf mice. Disruption of GHR specifically in liver (LiGHRKO), a mutation that reduces circulating IGF-1 but does not lead to lifespan extension, had no effect on hypothalamic projections or inflammation, suggesting an effect of GH, rather than peripheral IGF-1, on hypothalamic development. Hypothalamic leptin signaling, as monitored by induction of pStat3, is not impaired by GHR deficiency. Together, these results suggest that early-life disruption of GH signaling produces long-term hypothalamic changes that may contribute to the longevity of GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Induction of chronic growth hormone deficiency by anti-GH serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Smith, A. T.; Ellis, S.; Evans, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The observations reported indicate that the growth rate of neonatal rats can be specifically inhibited for at least 78 days following the administration of antisera against growth hormone (GH) for only four days after birth. The inhibition can be correlated with a marked deficit of tibial growth promoting activity in the pituitary but not with the plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive GH.

  15. Catch-up growth in early treated patients with growth hormone deficiency. Dutch Growth Hormone Working Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, B; Rikken, B; Wit, J M

    1995-01-01

    Catch-up growth of 26 children with growth hormone deficiency during four years of growth hormone treatment, which was started young (< 3 years), was compared with that of 16 children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet. In children with growth hormone deficiency mean (SD) height SD score increased from -4.3 (1.8) to -1.9 (1.4) and in patients with coeliac disease from -1.8 (0.9) to -0.1 (0.8). Height SD score after four years correlated positively with injection frequency and height S...

  16. Neurotrophins and their receptors in the rat pituitary gland: regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA levels by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, J; Soinila, S; Persson, H; Honkaniemi, J; Hökfelt, T; Pelto-Huikko, M

    1994-12-01

    We studied the expression of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in the rat pituitary gland and examined the influence of adrenal hormones on their mRNA levels, using in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. The only neurotrophin present at detectable levels in the pituitary was brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which was observed in the anterior and intermediate lobes. Several transcripts of the putative receptor for BDNF, trkB, were present in the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. A low amount of trkC mRNA was found in both the anterior and the intermediate lobe. Dexamethasone treatment decreased both BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Adrenalectomy had no effect on trkB expression, but it decreased BDNF mRNA levels in comparison to the control animals. This effect could not be reversed by dexamethasone substitution, suggesting that BDNF, mRNA levels may be regulated not only by glucocorticoids but also by other adrenal hormones. These results demonstrate that BDNF, trkB and trkC are expressed in the pituitary gland and that glucocorticoids and possibly other adrenal hormones may modulate pituitary functions by regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. Whether BDNF acts as a secreted hormone, a trophic factor, or has autocrine/paracrine functions within the pituitary through its receptor, trkB, remains to be studied.

  17. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, Foxd1, Is Necessary for Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Expression in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, Jason H.; Patterson, Elizabeth M.; Owusu, Sarah A.; Kabat, Brock E.; Jung, Deborah O.; Simmons, Jasmine; Hopkins, Torin; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. PMID:23284914

  18. Pituitary tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than normal level of growth hormone in adults) Nipple discharge and irregular or absent menstrual periods in women Decreased sexual function in men Symptoms caused by pressure from a larger pituitary ...

  19. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  20. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of LβT2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature αT3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA. PMID:15128600

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone regulates expression of the DNA damage repair gene, Fanconi anemia A, in pituitary gonadotroph cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-09-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse L beta T2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regulation of gene expression and differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify and isolate hormonally induced changes. This approach identified Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a gene implicated in DNA damage repair, as a differentially expressed transcript. Mutations in Fanca account for the majority of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a recessively inherited disease identified by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, infertility, and cancer susceptibility. We confirmed expression and hormonal regulation of Fanca mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR, which showed that GnRH induced a rapid, transient increase in Fanca mRNA. Fanca protein was also acutely upregulated after GnRH treatment of L beta T2 cells. In addition, Fanca gene expression was confined to mature pituitary gonadotrophs and adult mouse pituitary and was not expressed in the immature alpha T3-1 gonadotroph cell line. Thus, this study extends the expression profile of Fanca into a highly specialized endocrine cell and demonstrates hormonal regulation of expression of the Fanca locus. We suggest that this regulatory mechanism may have a crucial role in the GnRH-response mechanism of mature gonadotrophs and perhaps the etiology of FA.

  2. Comorbidity and cardiovascular risk factors in adult GH deficiency following treatment for Cushing's disease or non-functioning pituitary adenomas during childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Höybye, Charlotte; Jönsson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) and non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) are rare in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe long-term consequences in adults with GH deficiency (GHD) treated for CD or NFPA during childhood.......Cushing's disease (CD) and non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) are rare in paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe long-term consequences in adults with GH deficiency (GHD) treated for CD or NFPA during childhood....

  3. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, Michaela; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas

  4. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, Michaela E-mail: michaela.riedl@akh-wien.ac.at; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas.

  5. Effects of growth hormone treatment on the pituitary expression of GHRH receptor mRNA in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Susana; Rodríguez, Julián; Santos, Fernando; Weruaga, Ana; Fernández, Marta; Carbajo, Eduardo; García, Enrique

    2002-09-01

    A decreased ability of pituitary cells to secrete growth hormone (GH) in response to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulation has been shown in young uremic rats. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of uremia and GH treatment on pituitary GHRH receptor expression. Pituitary GHRH receptor mRNA levels were analyzed by RNase protection assay in young female rats made uremic by subtotal nephrectomy, either untreated (UREM) or treated with 10 IU/kg/day of GH (UREM-GH), and normal renal function animals fed ad libitum (SAL) or pair-fed with the UREM group (SPF). Rats were sacrificed 14 days after the second stage nephrectomy. Renal failure was confirmed by concentrations (X +/- SEM) of serum urea nitrogen (mmol/L) and creatinine (micromol/L) in UREM (20 +/- 1 and 89.4 +/- 4.5) and UREM-GH (16 +/- 1 and 91.4 +/- 6.9) that were much higher (P growth retarded as shown by a daily longitudinal tibia growth rate below (P growth rate acceleration (213 +/- 6 microm/day). GHRH receptor mRNA levels were no different among the SAL (0.43 +/- 0.03), SPF (0.43 +/- 0.08) and UREM (0.44 +/- 0.04) groups, whereas UREM-GH rats had significantly higher values (0.72 +/- 0.07). The status of pituitary GHRH receptor is not modified by nutritional deficit or by severe uremia causing growth retardation. By contrast, the growth promoting effect of GH administration is associated with stimulated GHRH receptor gene expression.

  6. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  7. Dental Abnormalities in Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Franco; Blasi, Sergio; Crippa, Rolando; Angiero, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by a reduced level of trophic hormones that may be consequent on different destructive processes. The clinical manifestations depend on the type of hormone involved. A deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in children causes the lack of growth known as pituitary dwarfism. The case is reported of a patient with pituitary dwarfism, multiple dental anomalies, functional prosthetic problems, and a revision of the literature. She was subjected to prosthetic rehabil...

  8. [Clinical study on the postburn change in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-mian; Liang, Zi-qian; Luo, Zuo-jie

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the postburn dynamic changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormones in severely burned patients. Fifty burn patients were enrolled in the study. The plasma contents of total GC (cortisol), ACTH and aldosterone (ALDO) and urinary contents of 17-OHO and 17-KS were determined with radio-immunological assay (RIA) method after burn injury to compare with the normal values which were well established clinically. The postburn plasma and urinary contents of the above indices were increased evidently with two peak values in shock and infectious stages, whilst the majority of he indices were lower than the normal values after 6 postburn weeks (PBWs). The values of these hormones were the lowest in dying patients. On the other hand, the values approached normal levels in those patients whose burn wounds were healing. Increases of the plasma and urinary levels of hypothalamus-pituitary -adrenal hormones in severely burned patients were constantly seen. Burn shock and infection seemed to be the two major factors in inducing postburn stress reaction in burn victims. Abrupt decrease of the hormone levels in plasma and or urine indicated adrenal failure predicting a poor prognosis of the burn patients.

  9. Clinical, biological and genetic analysis of 8 cases of congenital isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu-Ly Pham

    Full Text Available Congenital isolated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH deficiency may be rare, but it could be an underestimated cause of neonatal death. Our objective was to shorten the time between first symptoms and diagnosis.This single-centre retrospective case-cohort study was carried out on eight consecutive patients.Two had the neonatal form and 6 the late onset form. Six were admitted to an intensive care unit at least once for seizures with hypoglycemia, major hypothermia, fever, and/or collapsus. The 2 neonatal cases presented with hypoglycemia and in a state of "apparent death" at birth or hypothermia (29°C at 6 days. All 6 late onset cases had also been admitted to an emergency department 1-3 times, but had left hospital incorrectly diagnosed. Their first symptoms were noted at 3-12.3 years, and they were diagnosed at 3.3-14.4 years. All had hypoglycemia, and 4 had had seizures. The presenting symptoms were vomiting and/or abdominal pain, asthenia, irritability, difficulty with physical activities, and anorexia. The school performance of 4 deteriorated. Two underwent psychotherapy and treatment for depression, which was stopped when Hydrocortisone® replacement therapy began. The plasma concentrations in spontaneous hypoglycemia were: ACTH<5 to 17.1 pg/mL, with concomitant cortisol <3.5 to 37 ng/mL. The plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS concentrations were low in the 7 evaluated. The coding sequence of TPIT was normal in all.Several unexplained symptoms in a child, mainly gastro-intestinal symptoms and seizures due to hypoglycemia, may indicate ACTH deficiency. A low or normal basal plasma ACTH despite concomitant low cortisol at 8 a.m. and/or in spontaneous hypoglycemia, associated with low DHAS, in a patient not given corticosteroids is highly suggestive of ACTH deficiency. The isolated character of ACTH deficiency must be confirmed by determining the other hypothalamic-pituitary functions, and Hydrocortisone® replacement therapy

  10. The effect of growth hormone replacement in patients with hypopituitarism on pituitary tumor recurrence, secondary cancer, and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, Sina; Alahdab, Fares; Ahmed, Ahmed T; Tamhane, Shrikant U; Sharma, Anu; Donegan, Diane; Nippoldt, Todd B; Murad, M Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone replacement therapy has benefits for patients with hypopituitarism. The safety profile in regard to tumor recurrence or progression, development of secondary malignancies, or cerebrovascular stroke is still an area of debate. A comprehensive search of multiple databases-MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus was conducted through August 2015. Eligible studies that evaluated long-term adverse events in adult patients with hypopituitarism treated with growth hormone replacement therapy and reported development of pituitary tumor recurrence or progression, secondary malignancies, or cerebrovascular stroke were selected following a predefined protocol. Reviewers, independently and in duplicate, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool relative risks and 95 % confidence intervals. We included 15 studies (published 1995-2015) that reported on 46,148 patients. Compared to non-replacement, growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with hypopituitarism was not associated with statistically significant change in pituitary tumor progression or recurrence (relative risk, 0.77; 95 % confidence interval, 0.53-1.13) or development of secondary malignancy (relative risk, 0.99; 95 % confidence interval, 0.70-1.39). In two retrospective studies, there was higher risk of stroke in patients who did not receive replacement (relative risk, 2.07; 95 % confidence interval, 1.51-2.83). The quality of evidence is low due to study limitations and imprecision. This systematic review and meta-analysis supports the overall safety of growth hormone therapeutic use in adults with hypopituitarism with no clear evidence of increased risk of pituitary tumor recurrence, malignancy, or stroke.

  11. Growth hormone deficiency in treated acromegaly and active Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Anna Maria; Maffezzoni, Filippo; Doga, Mauro; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Giustina, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is characterized by reduced quality of life and physical fitness, skeletal fragility, increased weight and cardiovascular risk. It may be found in (over-) treated acromegaly as well as in active Cushing's syndrome. Hypopituitarism may develop in patients after definitive treatment of acromegaly, although the exact prevalence of GHD in this population is still uncertain because of limited awareness, and scarce and conflicting data so far available. Because GHD associated with acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome may yield adverse consequences on similar target systems, the final outcomes of some complications of both acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome may be further affected by the occurrence of GHD. It is still largely unknown, however, whether GHD in patients with post-acromegaly or active Cushing's syndrome (e.g. pharmacologic glucocorticoid treatment) may benefit from GH replacement. We review the diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of GHD in adults treated for acromegaly and in those with active Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gitelman syndrome combined with complete growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Ra Min

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gitelman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy, that manifests as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 12(sodium/chloride transporters, member 3 (SLC12A3 gene encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter channel (NCCT in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. It is associated with muscle weakness, cramps, tetany, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and growth retardation. The incidence of growth retardation, the exact cause of which is unknown, is lower than that of Bartter syndrome. Herein, we discuss the case of an overweight 12.9-year-old girl of short stature presenting with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The patient, on the basis of detection of a heterozygous mutation in the SLC12A3 gene and poor growth hormone (GH responses in two provocative tests, was diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome combined with complete GH deficiency. GH treatment accompanied by magnesium oxide and potassium replacement was associated with a good clinical response.

  13. A Case With Short Stature, Growth Hormone Deficiency and 46, XX, Xq27-qter Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Şule; Topaloğlu, Naci; Tekin, Mustafa; Sılan, Fatma

    2017-10-01

    We report a case of 11-year-old girl with growth retardation and 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion. The endocrinologic evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency. In karyotype analysis  46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion was determined. The deletion of terminal region of chromosome 27 is most commonly being detected during the evaluation of infertility, premature ovarian insufficiency or in screening for fragile X carrier status. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion and growth hormone deficiency. Furthermore, this case might facilitate future search for candidate genes involved in growth hormone deficiency.

  14. Facial morphometry of Ecuadorian patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency/Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G B; Rosenbloom, A L; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Campbell, E A; Ullrich, F; Patil, K; Frias, J L

    1994-01-01

    Facial morphometry using computerised image analysis was performed on patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) from an inbred population of southern Ecuador. Morphometrics were compared for 49 patients, 70 unaffected relatives, and 14 unrelated persons. Patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency showed significant decreases in measures of vertical facial growth as compared to unaffected relatives and unrelated persons with short stature from other causes. This report validates and quantifies the clinical impression of foreshortened facies in growth hormone receptor deficiency. Images PMID:7815422

  15. Data on the characterization of follicle-stimulating hormone monoclonal antibodies and localization in Japanese eel pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Jung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica; rec-FSH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA Sepharose column chromatography.In support of our recent publication, ''Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica'' [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of eel follicle-stimulating hormone antibodies. Here, the production and ELISA system of these monoclonal antibodies are presented. The affinity-purified monoclonal antibodies specifically detected eel rec-FSH in ELISA and on western blots of rec-FSH produced from CHO cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that FSH staining was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. Keywords: Japanese eel, FSH, Monoclonal Antibody

  16. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  17. Quality of life in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency: association with growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Alexandra; Lass, Nina; Reinsch, Nicole; Uysal, Yvonne; Singer, Viola; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Reinehr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) as it is related with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a matter of controversy. We analyzed QoL in 95 children aged 8-18 years with isolated GHD (72% male) treated with growth hormone (GH). These children were compared to 190 age- and gender-matched healthy children with similar height [height children of normal stature (control group 2: CG2). QoL was measured by the KINDL® questionnaire referring to six domains (physical well-being, emotional well-being, self-esteem, family, friends, and school). QoL was significantly reduced in CG1 (effect-size 0.21) compared to CG2, while QoL was not significantly altered in children with GHD. In multiple linear regression analyses adjusted to age, gender, BMI, migration background, and socioeconomic status, decreasing height-SDS was associated with poorer QoL (especially emotional well-being), and treatment with GH was related significantly to better self-esteem. Increase of height-SDS in children treated with GH was associated positively with QoL and all its subscales except family and school. These findings suggest psychological consequences of short stature in children and an improvement of QoL in children treated with GH with the focus on self-esteem and emotional well-being. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of forced swimming stress on thyroid function, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone and hypothalamus thyrotropin releasing hormone expression in adrenalectomy Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiuyan; Liu, Aihua; Ma, Yanan; Wang, Anyi; Guo, Xinhong; Teng, Weiping; Jiang, Yaqiu

    2016-11-01

    In order to study the impact that is imposed on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of adrenalectomy male Wistar rats by stress caused by swimming, the blood level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the expression of TSHβ mRNA at the pituitary and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured. A total of 50 male Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks of age and with an average weight of 190-210 grams were randomly divided into the following two groups: The surgical (without adrenal glands) and non-surgical (adrenalectomy) group. These two groups were then divided into the following five groups, according to the time delay of sacrifice following forced swim (10 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h) and control (not subjected to swimming) groups. A bilateral adrenalectomy animal model was established. Serum TSH in the blood was measurement by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and cerebrum tissue were excised for the measurement of TRH expression using an immunohistochemistry assay. In addition, pituitaries were excised for the extraction of total RNA. Finally, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for quantitation of TSHβ. Following swimming, the serum T3, T4 and TSH, the TSHβ mRNA expression levels in the pituitary and the TRH expression in the PVN of the surgical group were gradually increased. In the non-surgical group, no significant differences were observed in the serum T3, T4 and TSH levels compared with the control group. The TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary showed a similar result. Furthermore, the TRH expression at PVN was gradually increased and stress from swimming could increase the blood T4, T3 and TSH levels, TSHβ mRNA expression at the pituitary and TRH expression at the PVN in adrenalectomy Wistar rats. Moreover, the index in the surgical group changed significantly compared with the non-surgical group. In conclusion, the results

  19. Meta-analysis of melanin-concentrating hormone signaling-deficient mice on behavioral and metabolic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenkichi Takase

    Full Text Available The demand for meta-analyses in basic biomedical research has been increasing because the phenotyping of genetically modified mice does not always produce consistent results. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH has been reported to be involved in a variety of behaviors that include feeding, body-weight regulation, anxiety, sleep, and reward behavior. However, the reported behavioral and metabolic characteristics of MCH signaling-deficient mice, such as MCH-deficient mice and MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1-deficient mice, are not consistent with each other. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of the published data related to MCH-deficient and MCHR1-deficient mice to obtain robust conclusions about the role of MCH signaling. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling enhanced wakefulness, locomotor activity, aggression, and male sexual behavior and that MCH signaling deficiency suppressed non-REM sleep, anxiety, responses to novelty, startle responses, and conditioned place preferences. In contrast to the acute orexigenic effect of MCH, MCH signaling deficiency significantly increased food intake. Overall, the meta-analysis also revealed that the deletion of MCH signaling suppressed the body weight, fat mass, and plasma leptin, while MCH signaling deficiency increased the body temperature, oxygen consumption, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure. The lean phenotype of the MCH signaling-deficient mice was also confirmed in separate meta-analyses that were specific to sex and background strain (i.e., C57BL/6 and 129Sv. MCH signaling deficiency caused a weak anxiolytic effect as assessed with the elevated plus maze and the open field test but also caused a weak anxiogenic effect as assessed with the emergence test. MCH signaling-deficient mice also exhibited increased plasma corticosterone under non-stressed conditions, which suggests enhanced activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To the best of our

  20. Combination growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog therapy in 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anurag; Kabra, Madhulika; Menon, P S N

    2006-06-01

    Diagnosis of 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made in a boy at the age of 2 1/2 years on the basis of peripheral precocious puberty, growth acceleration (height standard deviation score +4.4) with advanced skeletal maturation (bone age 8.4 years) and elevated deoxycortisol levels. Glucocorticoid supplementation led to normalization of blood pressure but was associated with progression to central precocious puberty and increase in bone age resulting in decrease in predicted adult height to 133.7 cm (target height 163 cm). The child was started on GnRH analog (triptorelin 3.75 mg every 28 days), which led to improvement in predicted adult height by 3.1 cm over 15 months. Addition of growth hormone (0.1 IU/kg/day) resulted in improvement in predicted adult height (151 cm) and height deficit (12 cm) over the next 3.6 years. Final height (151 cm) exceeded predicted height at the initiation of GnRH analog treatment by 17.3 cm. This report suggests that combination GH and GnRH analog treatment may be useful in improving height outcome in children with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency and compromised final height.

  1. MRI of congenital pituitary insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Magalhaes, Alvaro C. de; Uehara, Karla C.; Iezzi, Denise

    1995-01-01

    We compare 1,5 T magnetic resonance (MR) image findings in 193 patients with congenital pituitary congenital insufficiency. One hundred and thirty nine of the MR studies were obtained in patients who had isolated growth hormone deficiency. Other fifth - four patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. On MR images, normal anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary glands can be clearly differentiated because the posterior lobe has a characteristic high intensity on TI-weighted images. In fifty-four patients, the high- intensity of the posterior lobe was not seen, but a similar high signal intensity was observed at the proximal stump in fifty-one patients. this high- intensity area is the newly formed ectopic posterior lobe, which also secrets anti-diuretic hormone just as the posterior lobe would. MR imaging can demonstrate the transection of the pituitary stalk and the formation of the ectopic lobe, revealing to be a useful diagnostic tool in the definition of the type of alteration in growth defects of endocrine origin. (author)

  2. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Ravaja, N; Räikkönen, K; Hautanen, A; Adlercreutz, H

    1998-12-01

    We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH) and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the cortisol response to dexamethasone (DXM) suppression and intravenous ACTH stimulation was also measured. We found that the basal ACTH level during the OGTT was positively associated with the cortisol response to ACTH at 60 minutes, the fasting insulin level, and the insulin to glucose ratio among exhausted and high DB men, while the reverse was true for nonexhausted and low DB men. Also, a high cortisol response to ACTH, a low cortisol level during the OGTT, and a high ratio of these cortisol determinations (cortisol ratio) were associated with high fasting insulin and glucose levels, the summed insulin values, and the insulin to glucose ratio only among nonexhausted and low DB men; among exhausted and high DB men, these associations were less pronounced, absent, or in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that VE and DB have a moderating influence on the relationships among the hormonal and metabolic parameters studied. Psychosocial stress may affect the pituitary-adrenocortical system in complex ways, contributing thereby to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

  3. Isolation of the pituitary gonadotrophic α-subunit hormone of the giant amazonian fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, M T; Carvalho, R F; Sevilhano, T C A; Oliveira, N A J; Silva, C F P; Oliveira, J E; Soares, C R J; Garcez, R; Santo, P R E; Bartolini, P

    2013-06-01

    The cDNAs of the α-subunit of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones (GTHα) of fish of the order Osteoglossiformes or the superorder Osteoglossomorpha have never been sequenced. For a better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of PGHα in fish and for future biotechnological synthesis of the gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH), of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world, its GTHα cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction starting from total pituitary RNA. The ag-GTHα-subunit was found to be encoded by 348 bp, corresponding to a protein of 115 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature peptide of 91 amino acids. Ten cysteine residues, responsible for forming 5 disulfide linkages, 2 putative N-linked glycosylation sites and 3 proline residues, were found to be conserved on the basis of the known sequences of vertebrate gonadotrophic hormones. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of 38 GTHα-subunits, revealed the highest identity of A. gigas with members of the Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes and Cypriniformes (87.1-89.5 %) and the lowest with Gadiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (55.0 %). The obtained phylogenetic tree agrees with previous analysis of teleostei, since A. gigas, of the order of Osteoglossiformes, appears as the sister group of Clupeocephala, while Elopomorpha forms the most basal group of all other teleosts.

  4. Growth hormone effects on cortical bone dimensions in young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, L; Conway, G S; Racz, K

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency has beneficial effects on bone mass. The present study shows that cortical bone dimensions also benefit from GH treatment, with endosteal expansion and increased cortical thickness leading to improved bone strength....... INTRODUCTION: In young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO GHD), GH treatment after final height is reached has been shown to have beneficial effects on spine and hip bone mineral density. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of GH on cortical bone dimensions. METHODS...

  5. Intra and latero-sellar carotid aneurysm mimicking a pituitary adenoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 46-year-old women, followed for infertility last 5 years, which presents a secondary amenorrhea 6 months ago, without functional signs of anterior pituitary deficiency or signs of intracranial hypertension or galactorrhea. hormonal analysis shows hyperprolactinemia to 97 ng/ml. Hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance ...

  6. Pituitary dwarfism in Saarloos and Czechoslovakian wolfdogs is associated with a mutation in LHX3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, AMWY; Leegwater, Peter; Kooistra, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Pituitary dwarfism in German Shepherd Dogs is associated with autosomal recessive inheritance and a mutation in LHX3, resulting in combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Congenital dwarfism also is encountered in breeds related to German Shepherd Dogs, such as Saarloos and Czechoslovakian

  7. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly and Cushing’s disease following pituitary apoplexy: Two case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Lindert, E.J. van; Ven, A.C. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this double case report, we present two special cases of pituitary apoplexy. First, we describe a patient with growth hormone deficiency despite clinical suspicion of acromegaly. Imaging showed evidence of a recent pituitary apoplexy, which might have caused spontaneous remission of the

  8. Hearing loss in children with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, John S; Weir, Forest W; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Bowlby, Deborah A; Discolo, Christopher M; Meyer, Ted A

    2017-09-01

    Although insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be important for inner-ear development in animal models, little is known about the otologic and audiologic findings of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, type, and severity of hearing impairment in children with GHD. Audiologic, otologic, and demographic data were recorded for children with a diagnosis of GHD in the AudGen database. Data for each patient were selected based on the first encounter with available complete audiometric data or the first encounter with a type of hearing loss documented. The patients were then stratified by type and severity of hearing loss, and otologic issues were documented. A separate cohort comprised of children with GHD without hearing loss was compared as a control. 209 children with GHD met inclusion criteria. 173 (83%) of these patients had hearing loss. 79% of losses were bilateral and 21% were unilateral (309 total ears with hearing loss). 293 of the 309 ears with hearing loss had audiograms with ear-specific thresholds; 47 had conductive, 24 had sensorineural, 65 had mixed and 157 had undefined hearing loss with incomplete audiograms. Pure-tone averages (PTA) were higher among patients with mixed hearing loss compared to patients with all other loss types. Hearing loss is prevalent in children with GHD with a predisposition to be bilateral. These findings suggest the need for increased awareness and routine hearing screening for patients with GHD. Further studies may elucidate the etiology of the hearing impairment in children with GHD to better aid pediatricians, endocrinologists, otolaryngologists and audiologists when assessing and managing these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven K.

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD) mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal) or late (postpubertal) time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostruc...

  10. The effects of subchronic acrylamide exposure on gene expression, neurochemistry, hormones, and histopathology in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis of male Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, J.F.; Latendresse, J.R.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Muskhelishvili, L.; Warbritton, A.R.; Thomas, M.; Tareke, E.; McDaniel, L.P.; Doerge, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is an important industrial chemical that is neurotoxic in rodents and humans and carcinogenic in rodents. The observation of cancer in endocrine-responsive tissues in Fischer 344 rats has prompted hypotheses of hormonal dysregulation, as opposed to DNA damage, as the mechanism for tumor induction by AA. The current investigation examines possible evidence for disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis from 14 days of repeated exposure of male Fischer 344 rats to doses of AA that range from one that is carcinogenic after lifetime exposure (2.5 mg/kg/d), an intermediate dose (10 mg/kg/d), and a high dose (50 mg/kg/d) that is neurotoxic for this exposure time. The endpoints selected include: serum levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones; target tissue expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis, release, and receptors; neurotransmitters in the CNS that affect hormone homeostasis; and histopathological evaluation of target tissues. These studies showed virtually no evidence for systematic alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and do not support hormone dysregulation as a plausible mechanism for AA-induced thyroid cancer in the Fischer 344 rat. Specifically, there were no significant changes in: 1) mRNA levels in hypothalamus or pituitary for TRH, TSH, thyroid hormone receptor α and β, as well 10 other hormones or releasing factors; 2) mRNA levels in thyroid for thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodide symporter, or type I deiodinases; 3) serum TSH or T3 levels (T4 was decreased at high dose only); 4) dopaminergic tone in the hypothalamus and pituitary or importantly 5) increased cell proliferation (Mki67 mRNA and Ki-67 protein levels were not increased) in thyroid or pituitary. These negative findings are consistent with a genotoxic mechanism of AA carcinogenicity based on metabolism to glycidamide and DNA adduct formation. Clarification of this mechanistic dichotomy may be useful in human cancer risk

  11. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    OpenAIRE

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of sp...

  12. Negative Feedback Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A basic understanding of the endocrinology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of anuran larvae is necessary for predicting the consequences of HPT perturbation by thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) on the whole organism. This project examined negative feedback con...

  13. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  14. Correlation of serum androgens and pituitary hormone levels with serum PSA less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikerim, Mustafa; Oruç, Ozgür; Eskicorapci, Sadettin; Guliyev, Fuat; Ozen, Haluk

    2007-07-27

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations 40 years of age visiting our urology outpatient clinics. PSA was correlated to age (r = 0.23, p = 0.019), but there none between serum testosterone and age. No significant correlation was noted between testosterone or free testosterone and serum PSA levels, and none between serum FSH or LH and PSA. In age specific reference groups (41-49; 50-59; 60-69 years), we found no significant correlation between PSA and hormone concentrations. In this population of eugonadal men with serum PSA values less than 2.5 ng/ml, serum androgens and pituitary hormones do not appear to correlate with serum PSA.

  15. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement on Peripheral Muscle and Exercise Capacity in Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gonzalez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of growth hormone therapy (rGH on mitochondrial function on peripheral muscle and to correlate with exercise capacity in subjects with severe adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD.DesignSix months, double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous rGH in 17 patients with GHD.MeasurementsQuadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months to measure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH to assess mitochondrial activity. Exercise capacity was measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Lipids, glycemic parameters, and body fat levels were also measured.ResultsSerum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 levels reduced fat mass by 3.2% (p < 0.05 and normalized with rGH in the active phase (p < 0.005. Patients showed an increase in SDH (p < 0.01 from base line that differed between placebo and rGH therapy treatment groups (p < 0.05: those treated by rGH followed by placebo showed a significant increase in SDH (p < 0.001 followed by a decrease, with a significant between group difference at the end of 6 months (p < 0.05. No significant improvements or correlation with exercise capacity was found.ConclusionShort-term rGH for 3 months normalized IGF1 levels, reduced fat mass, and had a significant effect on mitochondrial function, but exercise capacity was unchanged.Clinical Trial RegistrationNumber ISRCTN94165486.

  16. Outcome of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in combination with somatostatin analogues in patients with growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Wang, Fuyu; Meng, Xianghui; Ba, Jianmin; Wei, Shaobo; Xu, Bainan

    2014-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of endoscopic surgery in combination with long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSAs) in treating patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumor. We performed retrospective analysis of 133 patients with GH producing pituitary adenoma who underwent pure endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in our center from January 2007 to July 2012. Patients were followed up for a range of 3-48 months. The radiological remission, biochemical remission and complication were evaluated. A total of 110 (82.7%) patients achieved radiological complete resection, 11 (8.2%) subtotal resection, and 12 (9.0%) partial resection. Eighty-eight (66.2%) patients showed nadir GH level less than 1 ng/mL after oral glucose administration. No mortality or severe disability was observed during follow up. Preoperative long-acting SSA successfully improved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and blood glucose in three patients who subsequently underwent success operation. Long-acting SSA (20 mg every 30 days) achieved biochemical remission in 19 out 23 (82.6%) patients who showed persistent high GH level after surgery. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery can biochemically cure the majority of GH producing pituitary adenoma. Post-operative use of SSA can improve biochemical remission.

  17. Radioautography of the central nervous system and pituitary after 3H steroid hormones injection into different mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, M.

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system and pituitary of various mammals were examined by radioautography after injection of different tritiated steroid hormones. After injection of 3 H estradiol into ovariectomized mice, radioautograms revealed a significant labelling in cells of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus preopticus medialis, the nuclei arcuatus and ventro-medialis. After injection of 3 H testosterone into castrated rats, the central nervous system and the anterior pituitary contained labelled cells. In the hypothalamus, the distribution pattern of androgen-neurons appears to be similar from the estrogen-neuron areas. After injection of 3 H progesterone into castrated estrogen-primed guinea-pigs, labelled neurons have been in the regions of nucleus arcuatus and nucleus preopticus suprachiasmaticus. After injection of 3 H corticosterone into adrenalectomized male rats, radioactivity was found to be selectively concentrated in neurons of septum, hippocampal complex indusium griseum, amygdala and in certain areas of the cortex. Most of the silver grains were localized in the nuclei of labelled cells. On the other hand, after injection of 3 H dexamethasone radioactivity concentration was high in the medial basal hypothalamus, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland. Differences appear to exist in the topographic distribution of dexamethasone and corticosterone-concentrating cells [fr

  18. Occurrence of FSH, inhibin and other hypothalamic-pituitary-intestinal hormones in normal fertility, subfertility, and tumors of human testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M K; Garde, S V; Sheth, A R

    1995-01-01

    To compare the distribution of peptide hormones in presumably normal human testicular tissues and specimens exhibiting any of five pathologies. Biopsies from patients having testicular malfunctions were prepared as sections and specifically immunohistochemically stained for inhibin, FSH, serotonin, AUP, and oxytocin. Immunocytochemical studies revealed the presence of various hypophysial-pituitary-intestinal hormones, viz., FSH, inhibin, arginine vasopressin (AVP), calcitonin, serotonin, oxytocin, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), gastrin, secretin, and somatostatin in human testicular biopsies exhibiting normal spermatogenesis, Sertoli-cell-only syndrome, spermatogenic arrest, Leydig cell hyperplasia, Leydig cell tumor, and seminoma. Intensity of immunostaining for all peptides except FSH was stronger in cases of subfertile as compared to normal testis. Intensity of immunostaining with inhibin was maximum in Leydig cell tumor. These regulatory peptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of the testes.

  19. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Morano, Francesca; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release from the pituitary of birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of orthologous GnIH peptides on the reproductive axis of fish is still uncertain, and their actions on the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction (i.e., GnRHs, kisspeptins) have received little attention. In a recent study performed in the European sea bass, we cloned a cDNA encoding a precursor polypeptide that contained C-terminal MPMRFamide (sbGnIH-1) and MPQRFamide (sbGnIH-2) peptide sequences, developed a specific antiserum against sbGnIH-2, and characterized its central and pituitary GnIH projections in this species. In this study, we analyzed the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on brain and pituitary expression of reproductive hormone genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3, kiss1, kiss2, gnih, lhbeta, fshbeta), and their receptors (gnrhr II-1a, gnrhr II-2b, kiss1r, kiss2r, and gnihr) as well as on plasma Fsh and Lh levels. In addition, we determined the effects of GnIH on pituitary somatotropin (Gh) expression. The results obtained revealed the inhibitory role of sbGnIH-2 on brain gnrh2, kiss1, kiss2, kiss1r, gnih, and gnihr transcripts and on pituitary fshbeta, lhbeta, gh, and gnrhr-II-1a expression, whereas sbGnIH-1 only down-regulated brain gnrh1 expression. However, at different doses, central administration of both sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 decreased Lh plasma levels. Our work represents the first study reporting the effects of centrally administered GnIH in fish and provides evidence of the differential actions of sbGnIH-1 and sbGnIH-2 on the reproductive axis of sea bass, the main inhibitory role being exerted by the sbGnIH-2 peptide. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN WOMEN WITH GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY WHO HAVE A HISTORY OF ACROMEGALY VERSUS OTHER DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valassi, Elena; Brick, Danielle J.; Johnson, Jessica C.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the response in quality of life (QoL) to growth hormone (GH) replacement in women with GH deficiency (GHD) and a history of acromegaly with that in women with GHD of other causes. Methods Fifty-five women with GHD were studied: 17 with prior acromegaly and 38 with other causes of GHD. We compared two 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of GH therapy in women with hypopituitarism conducted with use of the same design—one in women with a history of acromegaly and one in women with no prior acromegaly. QoL was assessed with the following questionnaires: the QoL-Assessment of Growth Hormone deficiency in Adults (AGHDA), the Symptom Questionnaire, and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The 2 groups had comparable mean pretreatment age, body mass index, and QoL scores and comparable mean GH dose at 6 months (0.61 ± 0.30 versus 0.67 ± 0.27 mg daily). After 6 months of GH replacement therapy, women with GHD and prior acromegaly demonstrated a greater improvement in AGHDA score, four SF-36 subscales (Role Limitations due to Physical Health, Energy or Fatigue, Emotional Well-Being, and Social Functioning), and the Somatic Symptoms subscale of the Symptom Questionnaire than did women with GHD of other causes. Poorer pretreatment QoL was associated with a greater improvement in QoL after administration of GH. Conclusion In this study, GH replacement therapy improved QoL in women with GHD and a history of acromegaly but not in women with GHD due to other hypothalamic and pituitary disorders. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term risks versus benefits of GH replacement in patients who develop GHD after definitive treatment for acromegaly. PMID:22440981

  2. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-06-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 {mu}g corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  3. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 μg corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  4. Investigação neurorradiológica de pacientes com deficiência idiopática de hormônio do crescimento Neuroradiological investigation in patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice N. Bordallo

    2004-06-01

    anormalidades observadas à ressonância magnética pode sugerir a presença de deficiência múltipla de hormônio do crescimento.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the type and frequency of cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging anomalies in patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD, and also to investigate the possible relationship between neuroradiological images and the presence of isolated GH or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. METHODS: Magnetic resonance and computed tomography images were obtained for 37 patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with isolated GH (group A and patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (group B. RESULTS: Computed tomography was normal in 25(68%, and abnormal in 12(32% patients. We observed empty sella in 50%, partially empty sella in 17% and anterior pituitary hypoplasia in 33% patients. MRI studies revealed normal findings in the hypothalamus-pituitary area in 17 (46% and abnormal in 20 (54% patients. We didn't observed differences in the frequency of computed tomography alterations when groups A and B were compared (p = 0.55. With magnetic resonance imaging we observed, empty sella in 10%, partially empty sella in 15% and anterior pituitary hypoplasia in 75% patients. Among those patients whose magnetic resonance images were altered, the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland was identified in an abnormal position in 70%, and the hypophyseal stalk was thin or interrupted in 60%. The patients from group B presented a higher frequency of magnetic resonance imaging anomalies (90% when compared to group A (10%, p = 0.03. There was disagreement between the two methods in 43% of cases, but we didn't observe a difference in the frequency of alterations when computed tomography was compared with magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent defects observed using magnetic resonance imaging are

  5. Lessons from monogenic causes of growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brue, Thierry; Saveanu, Alexandru; Jullien, Nicolas; Fauquier, Teddy; Castinetti, Frédéric; Enjalbert, Alain; Barlier, Anne; Reynaud, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Through the multicentric international GENHYPOPIT network, 10 transcription factor genes involved in pituitary development have been screened in more than 1200 patients with constitutional hypopituitarism over the past two decades. The present report summarizes the main lessons learned from this phenotype-based genetic screening: (1) genetically determined hypopituitarism does not necessarily present during childhood; (2) constitutional hypopituitarism may be characterized by a pure endocrine phenotype or by various combinations of endocrine deficits and visceral malformations; (3) syndromic hypopituitarism may also be observed in patients with POU1F1 or PROP1 mutations; (4) in cases of idiopathic hypopituitarism, extensive genetic screening identifies gene alterations in a minority of patients; (5) functional studies are imperfect in determining the involvement of an allelic variant in a specific pituitary phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in Plasma Prolactin and Growth Hormone Level and Visual Problem after radiation Therapy(RT) of Pituitary Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Kwon, Hyung Chul; Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Bahk, Yong Whee; Son, Ho Young; Kang, Joon Ki; Song, Jin Un

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four cases of pituitary adenoma, 13 males and 11 females with the age ranging from 11 to 65 years, received radiation therapy(RT) on the pituitary area with 6MV linear accelerator during past 25 months at the Division of Radiation Therapy, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Of 24 case of RT, 20 were postoperative and 4 primary. To evaluate the effect of RT, we analyzed the alteration of the endocrinological tests, neurologic abnormalities, major clinical symptoms, endocrinological changes and improvement in visual problems after RT. The results were as follows ; 1. Major clinical symptoms were headache, visual defects, diabetes insipidus, hypogonadisms and general weakness in decreasing order of frequency. 2. All but the one with Nelson syndrome showed abnormal neuroradiologic changes in the sella turcica with an invasive tumor mass around supra and para-sellar area. 3. Endocrinological classifications of the patient were 11 prolactinoma, 4 growth hormonesecreting tumors, 3 ACTH-secreting tumors consisting of one Cushing disease and two Nelson syndrome, and 6 nonfunctioning tumors. 4. Eleven of 14 patients, visual problems were improved after treatment but remaining 3 were unchanged. 5. Seven of 11 prolactinomas returned to normal hormonal level after postoperative and primary RT and 3 patients are being treated with bromocriptine (BMCP) but on lost case. 6. Two of 4 growth hormone-secreting tumor returned to normal level after RT but the remaining 2 are being treated with BMCP, as well

  7. Ultrastructural modifications and changes in the expression of hormonal genes produced by indomethacin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, L A; Rivolta, C; Machiavelli, G A; Burdman, J A

    1995-10-01

    Indomethacin decreases the level of prolactin (50%) and growth hormone (70%) mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Actin mRNA increases (59%). Ultrastructurally there is a decrease in the number of secretory granules. Indomethacin also prevents the increase in prolactin secretory granules produced by the administration of estradiol. The results indicate that indomethacin inhibits hormonal synthesis in the APG at a transcriptional level. This effect appears selective because mRNA level for actin synthesis in the pituitary gland was higher than in nontreated rats.

  8. Treatment of pituitary gigantism with the growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Naila; Racine, Michael S; Thomas, Pamela; Degnan, Bernard; Chandler, William; Barkan, Ariel

    2008-08-01

    Treatment of pituitary gigantism is complex and the results are usually unsatisfactory. The objective of the study was to describe the results of therapy of three children with pituitary gigantism by a GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant. This was a descriptive case series of up to 3.5 yr duration. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Patients included three children (one female, two males) with pituitary gigantism whose GH hypersecretion was incompletely controlled by surgery, somatostatin analog, and dopamine agonist. The intervention was administration of pegvisomant. Plasma IGF-I and growth velocity were measured. In all three children, pegvisomant rapidly decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations. Growth velocity declined to subnormal or normal values. Statural growth fell into lower growth percentiles and acromegalic features resolved. Pituitary tumor size did not change in two children but increased in one boy despite concomitant therapy with a somatostatin analog. Pegvisomant may be an effective modality for the therapy of pituitary gigantism in children. Titration of the dose is necessary for optimal efficacy, and regular surveillance of tumor size is mandatory.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid related hormones in evaluation of secondary hypothyroidism in pituitary dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gembicki, M.; Kosowicz, J.; Sobieszczyk, S.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of our studies was the evaluation of thyroid function in 32 patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism. Serum T 4 , T 3 , reverse T 3 /rT 3 / and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. T 4 in pituitary dwarfs ranged from 0.6 to 7.6 ug/dl, T 3 was between 41 and 124 ng/dl and rT 3 ranged from 5 to 24 ng/dl. The ranges of T 4 , T 3 and rT 3 concentration were lower comparing with controls. In 18 patients a normal rise of TSH after TRH stimulation was observed, in 14 patients the response to TRH was absent or markedly decreased. Seven days administration of TRH, 200 mcg daily i.v. did not enhance pituitary response to TRH stimulation. These results indicate that in a nearly half of patients with idiopathic dwarfism secondary hypthyroidism develops as a results of insufficient TSH secretion. (Author)

  10. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  11. Growth Hormone Improves Cardiopulmonary Capacity and Body Composition in Children With Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Donatella; Barbieri, Flavia; Improda, Nicola; Giallauria, Francesco; Di Pietro, Elisa; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Di Mase, Raffaella; Vigorito, Carlo; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2017-11-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children may be associated with early cardiovascular risk factors and alterations in left ventricular (LV) structure and function; data on cardiopulmonary functional capacity are lacking. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of GHD and growth hormone (GH) therapy on cardiopulmonary functional capacity, left and right cardiac structure and function, and body composition in children and adolescents. Prospective, case-control study. Twenty-one untrained GHD children (11.3 ± 0.8 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, before and after 12 months of GH therapy. Twenty-one controls matched for sex, pubertal status, body mass index, and physical activity (PA) were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year. At baseline, GHD patients showed reduced LV mass (LVM; 63.32 ± 7.80 vs 80.44 ± 26.29 g/m2, P = 0.006), peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; 22.92 ± 4.80 vs 27.48 ± 6.71 mL/Kg/min, P = 0.02), peak workload (80.62 ± 29.32 vs 103.76 ± 36.20 W, P = 0.02), and O2 pulse (4.93 ± 1.30 vs 7.67 ± 2.93 mL/beat, P = 0.0003), compared with controls. GHD patients also exhibited lower lean body mass (LBM 65.36 ± 7.84% vs 76.13 ± 8.23%, P controls. GH therapy resulted in a significant increase of LVM (72.01 ± 15.88, P = 0.03), VO2peak (26.80 ± 4.97; P = 0.01), peak workload (103.67 ± 32.24, P = 0.001), O2 pulse (6.64 ± 1.68, P = 0.0007), and LBM (75.36 ± 7.59%, P = 0.0001), with a reduction in FM (22.62 ± 7.73%, P = 0.001). No difference was found in either left or right ventricular function. Our results suggest that cardiac structure, body composition and cardiopulmonary functional capacity are impaired in children with untreated GHD and can be restored after short-term GH replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. GnRH Neuron Activity and Pituitary Response in Estradiol-Induced vs Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marina A; Burger, Laura L; DeFazio, R Anthony; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-02-01

    During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon, coincident with a daily luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced. We hypothesized GnRH neuron activity is greater during the proestrous-preovulatory surge than the estradiol-induced surge. GnRH neuron activity was monitored by extracellular recordings from fluorescently tagged GnRH neurons in brain slices in the late afternoon from diestrous, proestrous, and OVX+E mice. Mean GnRH neuron firing rate was low on diestrus; firing rate was similarly increased in proestrous and OVX+E mice. Bursts of action potentials have been associated with hormone release in neuroendocrine systems. Examination of the patterning of action potentials revealed a shift toward longer burst duration in proestrous mice, whereas intervals between spikes were shorter in OVX+E mice. LH response to an early afternoon injection of GnRH was greater in proestrous than diestrous or OVX+E mice. These observations suggest the lower LH surge amplitude observed in the OVX+E model is likely not attributable to altered mean GnRH neuron activity, but because of reduced pituitary sensitivity, subtle shifts in action potential pattern, and/or excitation-secretion coupling in GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  13. Study on changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrome due to the stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianfei; Yan Songqin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-target axis hormones in patients with insomnia of fire-symdrom due to the stagnation of liver-qi. Methods: Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), free thyroxine (FT 4 ), cortisol levels were measured with immunoradioassay (IMRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 30 patients with this type of insomnia and 30 controls. Results: The serum TSH levels were significantly lower and serum TRH, GH, cortisol FT 4 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: This insomnia syndrome was closely related to the dysfunction of mpothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and adrenal axis. (authors)

  14. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan Kılınç; Deniz Gökalp; Cihan Akgül Özmen

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhyp...

  15. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    -nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...

  16. Análise molecular dos genes PROP1 e HESX1 em pacientes com displasia septo-ótica e/ou deficiência hormonal hipofisária

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Juliana B. [UNESP; Nunes, Vânia dos Santos [UNESP; Clara, Sueli A. [UNESP; Perone, Denise [UNESP; Kopp, Peter; Nogueira, Célia Regina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the PROP1 and HESX1 genes in a group of patients with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) and pituitary hormone deficiency (combined – CPHD; isolated GH deficiency – GHD). Eleven patients with a clinical and biochemical presentation consistent with CPHD, GHD or SOD were evaluated. Subjects and methods: In all patients, the HESX1 gene was analyzed by direct sequence analysis and in cases of CPHD the PROP1 gene was also sequenced. Results: A polymorphism...

  17. Efficacy of growth hormone therapy in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hye Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeGrowth hormone (GH plays a key role in the regulation of body composition, lipid metabolism, and quality of life in adults with GH deficiency (GHD. This study investigated changes in laboratory findings and body composition after GH recommencement for adult GHD and analyzed correlation between GH interruption period and endocrine or anthropometric parameters.MethodsA total of 45 patients (17 females and 28 males diagnosed with childhood-onset GHD (CO-GHD were investigated and all patients had organic brain lesions. Patients diagnosed CO-GHD were retested to confirm adult GHD at age 20.4±5.0 years (18.0-32.1 years. Recombinant human GH was administered at a dose of 0.44 mg/day. Clinical and laboratory parameters such as weight, height, body mass index (BMI, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were compared between baseline and 12 months after treatment using paired t-test. In addition, correlation between GH interruption period and clinical parameters including BMI, lipid profile, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3, was analyzed.ResultsOf 45 patients, 33 patients had GH interruption period of 4.3±3.6 years (0.7-12.5 years. Serum HDL-cholesterol level increased significantly, whereas LDL-cholesterol decreased after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. However, body weight and BMI showed no significant changes after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. There were no significant correlations between GH interruption period and lipid profile or anthropometric parameters.ConclusionBMI and body weight were not affected by GH replacement. However, GH replacement in adults with GHD offers benefits in lipid metabolism.

  18. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: structural elucidation of the sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have elucidated the structures of the anionic asparagine-linked oligosaccharides present on the glycoprotein hormones lutropin (luteinizing hormone), follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone), and thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone). Purified hormones, isolated from bovine, ovine, and human pituitaries, were digested with N-glycanase, and the released oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB[ 3 H] 4 . The 3 H-labeled oligosaccharides from each hormone were then fractionated by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into populations differing in the number of sulfate and/or sialic acid moieties. The sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures, which together comprised 67-90% of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones, were highly heterogeneous and displayed hormone- as well as animal species-specific features. A previously uncharacterized dibranched oligosaccharide, bearing one residue each of sulfate and sialic acid, was found on all of the hormones except bovine lutropin. In this study, they describe the purification and detailed structural characterizations of the sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated oligosaccharides found on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin from several animal species

  19. Is further evaluation for growth hormone (GH) deficiency necessary in fibromyalgia patients with low serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C J; Bennett, Robert M; Hryciw, Cheryl A; Cook, Marie B; Rhoads, Sharon A; Cook, David M

    2007-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances; symptoms that resemble the adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency syndrome. Many FM patients have low serum GH levels, with a hypothesized aetiology of dysregulated GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis. The aim of this study was to assess the GH reserve in FM patients with low serum IGF-I levels using the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-arginine test. We retrospectively reviewed the GHRH-arginine data of 77 FM patients with low serum IGF-I levels referred to our tertiary unit over a 4-year period. Of the 77 FM patients, 13 patients (17%) failed the GHRH-arginine test. Further evaluation with pituitary imaging revealed normal pituitary glands (n=7), coincident microadenomas (n=4), empty sella (n=1) and pituitary cyst (n=1), and relevant medical histories such as previous head injury (n=4), Sheehan's syndrome (n=1), and whiplash injury (n=1). In contrast, the remaining 64 patients (83%) that responded to the GHRH-arginine test demonstrated higher peak GH levels compared to age and BMI-matched controls (n=24). Our data shows that a subpopulation of FM patients with low serum IGF-I levels will fail the GHRH-arginine test. We, thus, recommend that the GH reserve of these patients should be evaluated further, as GH replacement may potentially improve the symptomatology of those with true GH deficiency. Additionally, the increased GH response rates to GHRH-arginine stimulation in the majority of FM patients with low serum IGF-I levels further supports the hypothesis of a dysregulated GH/IGF-I axis in the pathophysiology of FM.

  20. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, E.D.; Baenziger, J.U.

    1988-01-01

    The asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and thyrotropin (TSH) consist of a heterogeneous array of neutral, sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures. In this study, the authors determined the relative quantities of the various asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on LH, FSH, and TSH from these three animal species. The proportions of sulfated versus sialylated oligosaccharides varied markedly among the different hormones. Both hormone- and animal species-specific differences in the types and distributions of sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures were evident. In particular, LH and FSH, which are synthesized in the same pituitary cell and bear α-subunits with the identical amino acid sequence, contained significantly different distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. For all three animal species, the ratio of sialylated to sulfated oligosaccharides differed by >10-fold for LH and FSH, with sulfated structures dominating on LH and sialylated structures on FSH. Sialylated oligosaccharides were also heterogeneous with respect to sialic acid linkage (α2,3 versus α2,6). The differences in oligosaccharide structures among the various pituitary glycoprotein hormones as well as among the various glycosylation sites within a single hormone support the hypothesis that glycosylation may serve important functional roles in the expression and/or regulation of hormone bioactivity

  1. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Scranton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of the hormones in the pituitary-ovarian axis in patients with endometriosis externa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, St.; Maleeva, A.; Gunev, V.; Kurtev, I.; Kekhajova, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new method was developed for determining the concentration of the following gonadotropins and steroid hormones in peritoneal liquid of women with endometriosis externa: luteinzing hormone (LH), folliculostimulating hormone (FSH), cortisol, estradiol, progesterone. The results showed that disorders in hypophysis and ovaries play an important role for the arising of the endometriose and should be regarded as a reliable criterion for diagnosis, therapy and recovering of the patients

  3. Transcription elongation factors are involved in programming hormone production in pituitary neuroendocrine GH4C1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2010-05-05

    Transcription elongation of many eukaryotic genes is regulated. Two negative transcription elongation factors, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) and negative elongation factor (NELF) are known to stall collaboratively RNA polymerase II promoter proximally. We discovered that DSIF and NELF are linked to hormone expression in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. When NELF-E, a subunit of NELF or Spt5, a subunit of DSIF was stably knocked-down, prolactin (PRL) expression was increased both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, stable knock-down of only Spt5 abolished growth hormone (GH) expression. Transient NELF-E knock-down increased coincidentally PRL expression and enhanced transcription of a PRL-promoter reporter gene. However, no direct interaction of NELF with the PRL gene could be demonstrated by chromatin immuno-precipitation. Thus, NELF suppressed PRL promoter activity indirectly. In conclusion, transcription regulation by NELF and DSIF is continuously involved in the control of hormone production and may contribute to neuroendocrine cell differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The corticotropin-releasing hormone network and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: molecular and cellular mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan José; Inda, Carolina; Refojo, Damián; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in adjusting the basal and stress-activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). CRH is also widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits, where it acts as a neuroregulator to integrate the complex neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral adaptive response to stress. Hyperactive and/or dysregulated CRH circuits are involved in neuroendocrinological disturbances and stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. This review describes the main physiological features of the CRH network and summarizes recent relevant information concerning the molecular mechanism of CRH action obtained from signal transduction studies using cells and wild-type and transgenic mice lines. Special focus is placed on the MAPK signaling pathways triggered by CRH through the CRH receptor 1 that plays an essential role in CRH action in pituitary corticotrophs and in specific brain structures. Recent findings underpin the concept of specific CRH-signaling pathways restricted to specific anatomical areas. Understanding CRH action at molecular levels will not only provide insight into the precise CRH mechanism of action, but will also be instrumental in identifying novel targets for pharmacological intervention in neuroendocrine tissues and specific brain areas involved in CRH-related disorders. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Pediatric Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calcaterra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a biochemical growth hormone (GH deficiency and to evaluate therapeutic result in a six-year-old male with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD. Methods. GH peak was evaluated after response to arginine and insulin. Bone age was evaluated according to Greulich and Pyle method. Results. The GH-supplementary therapy was very effective in terms of growth gain. Conclusion. The possibility of a growth hormone deficiency and treatment with GH in patients with BMD cannot be excluded, especially considering the good therapeutic response.

  6. Prevalence of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Silvia A.; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Autoimmune hypophysitis can result in GH deficiency (GHD) and is associated with other autoimmune endocrine diseases like Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Recent studies suggest a high prevalence (5%) of GHD in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Objective: Our objective was to establish the prevalence of GHD

  7. Effects of growth hormone therapy on thyroid function of growth hormone-deficient adults with and without concomitant thyroxine-substituted central hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J O; Pedersen, S A; Laurberg, P

    1989-01-01

    Administration of human GH to GH-deficient patients has yielded conflicting results concerning its impact on thyroid function, ranging from increased resting metabolic rate to induction of hypothyroidism. However, most studies have been casuistic or uncontrolled and have used pituitary-derived GH...

  8. IGF-I levels reflect hypopituitarism severity in adults with pituitary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Toledano, Yoel; Masri-Iraqi, Hiba; Eizenberg, Yoav; Tzvetov, Gloria; Hirsch, Dania; Benbassat, Carlos; Robenshtok, Eyal; Shimon, Ilan

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) as a surrogate marker of severity of hypopituitarism in adults with pituitary pathology. We performed a retrospective data analysis, including 269 consecutive patients with pituitary disease attending a tertiary endocrine clinic in 1990-2015. The medical files were reviewed for the complete pituitary hormone profile, including IGF-I, and clinical data. Age-adjusted assay reference ranges of IGF-I were used to calculate IGF-I SDS for each patient. The main outcome measures were positive and negative predictive values of low and high IGF-I SDS, respectively, for the various pituitary hormone deficiencies. IGF-I SDS correlated negatively with the number of altered pituitary axes (p hypopituitarism in adults with pituitary disease, and thus can serve as a marker of hypopituitarism severity.

  9. Classic Bartter syndrome complicated with profound growth hormone deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masanori; Tajima, Toshihiro; Muroya, Koji; Asakura, Yumi

    2013-12-30

    Classic Bartter syndrome is a salt-wasting tubulopathy caused by mutations in the CLCNKB (chloride channel Kb) gene. Although growth hormone deficiency has been suggested as a cause for persistent growth failure in patients with classic Bartter syndrome, in our opinion the diagnoses of growth hormone deficiency has been unconvincing in some reports. Moreover, Gitelman syndrome seems to have been confused with Bartter syndrome in some cases in the literature. In the present work, we describe a new case with CLCNKB gene mutations and review the reported cases of classic Bartter syndrome associated with growth hormone deficiency. Our patient was a Japanese boy diagnosed as having classic Bartter syndrome at eight months of age. The diagnosis of Bartter syndrome was confirmed by CLCNKB gene analysis, which revealed compound heterozygous mutations with deletion of exons 1 to 3 (derived from his mother) and ΔL130 (derived from his father). His medical therapy consisted of potassium (K), sodium chloride, spironolactone, and anti-inflammatory agents; this regime was started at eight months of age. Our patient was very short (131.1cm, -4.9 standard deviation) at 14.3 years and showed profoundly impaired growth hormone responses to pharmacological stimulants: 0.15μg/L to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and 0.39μg/L to arginine. His growth response to growth hormone therapy was excellent. The present case strengthens the association between classic Bartter syndrome and growth hormone deficiency. We propose that growth hormone status should be considered while treating children with classic Bartter syndrome.

  10. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  11. Effects of spaceflight on hypothalamic peptide systems controlling pituitary growth hormone dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1992-01-01

    Possible effects of reduced gravity on central hypophysiotropic systems controlling growth hormone (GH) secretion were investigated in rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and 2044 biosatellites. Immunohistochemical (IHC)staining for the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), somatostatin (SS), and other hypothalamic hormones was performed on hypothalami obtained from rats. IHC analysis was complemented by quantitative in situ assessments of mRNAs encoding the precursors for these hormones. Data obtained suggest that exposure to microgravity causes a preferential reduction in GRF peptide and mRNA levels in hypophysiotropic neurons, which may contribute to impared GH secretion in animals subjected to spaceflight. Effects of weightlessness are not mimicked by hindlimb suspension in this system.

  12. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  13. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  14. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...

  15. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  16. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  17. Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to 1 per million children. Only 2 - 6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are of two types mainly, craniopharyngiomas and adenomas; craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causing hormonal deficiencies and producing mass effects on surrounding tissues and the brain; adenomas produce a variety of hormonal conditions such as hyperprolactinemia, Cushing disease and acromegaly or gigantism. Little is known about the genetic causes of sporadic lesions, which comprise the majority of pituitary tumors, but in children, more frequently than in adults, pituitary tumors may be a manifestation of genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), and McCune-Albright syndrome. The study of pituitary tumorigenesis in the context of these genetic syndromes has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of pituitary tumors and may lead to new therapeutic developments. PMID:18416659

  18. An investigation on body weights, blood glucose levels and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones in diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Pournaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which affects whole body systems including reproductive system. Diabetes is also a contributing factor to infertility. Metformin is one of the most common drugs to control hyperglycemia. In this study, 36 adult Sprague-Dawley female rats (170-210 g were divided into 3 groups (control, diabetic and diabetic-treated by metformin. In second and third groups, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (45 mg kg-1, IP and the third group was treated by metformin hydrochloride (100 mg kg-1 day-1, PO for 8 weeks. Body weights were compared and blood glucose, gonadotropins and sexual hormones were measured. In diabetic group the blood glucose level significantly (P < 0.05 increased in comparison with that of control and metformin-treated diabetic rats. The results also revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the mean body weights and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. Although there were significant (P < 0.05 reduction in mean body weights in metformin-treated diabetic rats, reduction in pituitary-gonadal axis hormones was not as sharp as in untreated diabetic rats and only level of progesterone was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. The results of this investigation revealed that there was a clear relationship between experimental diabetes with body weight and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, and treatment with metformin relatively restored diabetic complications.

  19. Adipose tissue deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase causes fatty liver in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Cai, Guo He; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Mitchell, Grant A; Wu, Jiang Wei

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver is a major health problem worldwide. People with hereditary deficiency of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are reported to develop fatty liver. In this study, systemic and tissue-specific HSL-deficient mice were used as models to explore the underlying mechanism of this association. We found that systemic HSL deficient mice developed fatty liver in an age-dependent fashion between 3 and 8 months of age. To further explore the mechanism of fatty liver in HSL deficiency, liver-specific HSL knockout mice were created. Surprisingly, liver HSL deficiency did not influence liver fat content, suggesting that fatty liver in HSL deficiency is not liver autonomous. Given the importance of adipose tissue in systemic triglyceride metabolism, we created adipose-specific HSL knockout mice and found that adipose HSL deficiency, to a similar extent as systemic HSL deficiency, causes age-dependent fatty liver in mice. Mechanistic study revealed that deficiency of HSL in adipose tissue caused inflammatory macrophage infiltrates, progressive lipodystrophy, abnormal adipokine secretion and systemic insulin resistance. These changes in adipose tissue were associated with a constellation of changes in liver: low levels of fatty acid oxidation, of very low density lipoprotein secretion and of triglyceride hydrolase activity, each favoring the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, HSL-deficient mice revealed a complex interorgan interaction between adipose tissue and liver: the role of HSL in the liver is minimal but adipose tissue deficiency of HSL can cause age-dependent hepatic steatosis. Adipose tissue is a potential target for treating the hepatic steatosis of HSL deficiency.

  20. Same Phenotype in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioimo, Irene; Guarracino, Carmen; Meazza, Cristina; Domené, Horacio M.

    2018-01-01

    By definition, about 2.5% of children show a short stature due to several causes. Two clinical conditions are characterized by serum IGF-I low levels, idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), and GH insensitivity (GHI), and the phenotypic appearance of these patients may be very similar. We studied two children with short stature and similar phenotypes. The first case showed frontal bossing, doll face, acromicria, and truncal obesity, with a GH peak Laron syndrome was confirmed after the molecular analysis of the GH receptor (GHR) gene. IGHD type IA and Laron syndrome is characterized by opposite circulating levels of GH, while both have reduced levels of IGF-I, with an overlapping clinical phenotype, lacking the effects of IGF-I on cartilage. These classical cases show the importance of differential diagnosis in children with severe short stature. PMID:29850346

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of thyroid hormone feedback in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Eric; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Alkemade, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    A major change in thyroid setpoint regulation occurs in various clinical conditions such as critical illness and psychiatric disorders. As a first step towards identifying determinants of these setpoint changes, we have studied the distribution and expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)

  2. The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency among children of short stature in Jordan and its relationship with consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Mustafa Ali, Moaath K; Al-Ani, Mohammad A; Momani, Munther S; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) among short-statured children in Jordan, where consanguineous marriage (CM) is common, is unknown. No studies have investigated the relationship between degrees of consanguinity and IGHD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IGHD among short-statured children referred to a university hospital in Jordan and its relationship with different degrees of consanguinity. We conducted a 24-month cross-sectional observational trial at an outpatient tertiary care center in Amman, Jordan. We obtained detailed family histories, medical evaluations and laboratory tests for 94 short-statured children (50 boys and 44 girls aged 6-16 years). Complete and partial GHD were defined as peak GH responses of 5 and 7 μg/l (15 and 21 mIU/l) [IRMA/DiaSorin®], respectively, in both exercise and insulin tolerance tests. GHD was diagnosed in 69·1% of the short children, including 86% (43/50) of the children of consanguineous parents (83·3%, 93·8% and 81·8% of children of first cousins, first cousins once removed and second cousins, respectively) and 50% (20/44) of the children of nonconsanguineous parents (P = 0·039, 0·002 and 0·013, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of small pituitary MRI between GH-deficient children of consanguineous parents and those of nonconsanguineous parents (28·6% vs 13·6%, P = 0·3). The prevalence of IGHD among referred short children in Jordan was exceptionally high and significantly higher in the children of CM. In countries where CM is common, preconception counselling and rigorous surveillance for GHD in short children may be indicated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Lpxrfa) system's regulation of reproduction in the brain-pituitary axis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Zmora, Nilli; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Gothilf, Yoav; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-05-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (LPXRFamide (Lpxrfa) peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary. In the preoptic area, Lpxrfa fibers interact with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3) soma. In pituitary explants, zebrafish peptide Lpxrfa-3 downregulated luteinizing hormone beta subunit and common alpha subunit expression. In addition, Lpxrfa-3 reduced gnrh3 expression in brain slices, offering another pathway for Lpxrfa to exert its effects on reproduction. Receptor activation studies, in a heterologous cell-based system, revealed that all three zebrafish Lpxrfa peptides activate Lpxrf-R2 and Lpxrf-R3 via the PKA/cAMP pathway. Receptor activation studies demonstrated that, in addition to activating Lpxrf receptors, zebrafish Lpxrfa-2 and Lpxrfa-3 antagonize Kisspeptin-2 (Kiss2) activation of Kisspeptin receptor-1a (Kiss1ra). The fact that kiss1ra-expressing neurons in the preoptic area are innervated by Lpxrfa-ir fibers suggests an additional pathway for Lpxrfa action. Therefore, our results suggest that Lpxrfa may act as a reproductive inhibitory neuropeptide in the zebrafish that interacts with Gnrh3 neurons in the brain and with gonadotropes in the pituitary, while also potentially utilizing the Kiss2/Kiss1ra pathway. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ghrelin-stimulation test in the diagnosis of canine pituitary dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, S F M; De Vliegher, S P; Mol, J A; Van Ham, L M L; Kooistra, H S

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether ghrelin, a potent releaser of growth hormone (GH) secretion, is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of canine pituitary dwarfism. The effect of intravenous administration of ghrelin on the release of GH and other adenohypophyseal hormones was investigated in German shepherd dogs with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency and in healthy Beagles. Analysis of the maximal increment (i.e. difference between pre- and maximal post-ghrelin plasma hormone concentration) indicated that the GH response was significantly lower in the dwarf dogs compared with the healthy dogs. In none of the pituitary dwarfs, the ghrelin-induced plasma GH concentration exceeded 5 microg/l at any time. However, this was also true for 3 healthy dogs. In all dogs, ghrelin administration did not affect the plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, TSH, LH and PRL . Thus, while a ghrelin-induced plasma GH concentration above 5 microg/l excludes GH deficiency, false-negative results may occur.

  5. Thyroid hormone receptor beta2 is strongly up-regulated at all levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroidal axis during late embryogenesis in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommen, Sylvia V H; Arckens, Lutgarde; Theuwissen, Tim; Darras, Veerle M; De Groef, Bert

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we tried to elucidate the changes in thyroid hormone (TH) receptor beta2 (TRbeta2) expression at the different levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis during the last week of chicken embryonic development and hatching, a period characterized by an augmented activity of the HPT axis. We quantified TRbeta2 mRNA in retina, pineal gland, and the major control levels of the HPT axis - brain, pituitary, and thyroid gland - at day 18 of incubation, and found the most abundant mRNA content in retina and pituitary. Thyroidal TRbeta2 mRNA content increased dramatically between embryonic day 14 and 1 day post-hatch. In pituitary and hypothalamus, TRbeta2 mRNA expression rose gradually, in parallel with increases in plasma thyroxine concentrations. Using in situ hybridization, we have demonstrated the presence of TRbeta2 mRNA throughout the diencephalon and confirmed the elevation in TRbeta2 mRNA expression in the hypophyseal thyrotropes. In vitro incubation with THs caused a down-regulation of TRbeta2 mRNA levels in embryonic but not in post-hatch pituitaries. The observed expression patterns in pituitary and diencephalon may point to substantial changes in TRbeta2-mediated TH feedback active during the perinatal period. The strong rise in thyroidal TRbeta2 mRNA content could be indicative of an augmented modulation of thyroid development and/or function by THs toward and after hatching. Finally, THs proved to exert an age-dependent effect on pituitary TRbeta2 mRNA expression.

  6. Same Phenotype in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ioimo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By definition, about 2.5% of children show a short stature due to several causes. Two clinical conditions are characterized by serum IGF-I low levels, idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD, and GH insensitivity (GHI, and the phenotypic appearance of these patients may be very similar. We studied two children with short stature and similar phenotypes. The first case showed frontal bossing, doll face, acromicria, and truncal obesity, with a GH peak <0.05 ng/ml after stimuli and undetectable serum IGF-I levels. After PCR amplification of the whole GH1 gene, type IA idiopathic GHD was diagnosed. The second case had cranium hypoplasia, a large head, protruding forehead, saddle nose, underdeveloped mandible, and a micropenis. Basal GH levels were high (28.4 ng/ml while serum IGF-I levels were low and unchangeable during the IGF-I generation test. Laron syndrome was confirmed after the molecular analysis of the GH receptor (GHR gene. IGHD type IA and Laron syndrome is characterized by opposite circulating levels of GH, while both have reduced levels of IGF-I, with an overlapping clinical phenotype, lacking the effects of IGF-I on cartilage. These classical cases show the importance of differential diagnosis in children with severe short stature.

  7. Urinary growth hormone level and insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score (IGF-SDS) can discriminate adult patients with severe growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirohata, Toshio; Saito, Nobuhito; Takano, Koji; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Yamada, Shoko M; Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Hoya, Katsumi; Murakami, Mineko; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Matsuno, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (AGHD) in Japan is diagnosed based on peak GH concentrations during GH provocative tests such as GHRP-2 stimulation test. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (sIGF-1) and urinary GH (uGH) at the time of awakening to diagnose AGHD. Fifty-nine patients with pituitary disease (32 men and 27 women; age 20-85 y (57.5 ± 15.5, mean ± SD) underwent GHRP-2 stimulation and sIGF-1 testing. Thirty-six and 23 patients were diagnosed with and without severe AGHD, respectively based on a peak GH response of standard deviation score (IGF-1 SDS) based on age and sex. We determined whether uGH levels in urine samples from 42 of the 59 patients at awakening were above or below the sensitivity limit. We evaluated IGF-1 SDS and uGH levels in a control group of 15 healthy volunteers. Values for IGF-1 SDS were significantly lower in patients with, than without (-2.07 ± 1.77 vs.-0.03 ± 0.92, mean ± SD; p -1.4. IGF-1 SDS discriminated AGHD more effectively in patients aged ≤60 years. The χ2 test revealed a statistical relationship between uGH and AGHD (test statistic: 7.0104 ≥ χ2 (1; 0.01) = 6.6349). When IGF-1 SDS is < -1.4 or uGH is below the sensitivity limit, AGHD can be detected with high sensitivity.

  8. Aged PROP1 deficient dwarf mice maintain ACTH production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O Nasonkin

    Full Text Available Humans with PROP1 mutations have multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD that typically advance from growth insufficiency diagnosed in infancy to include more severe growth hormone (GH deficiency and progressive reduction in other anterior pituitary hormones, eventually including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH deficiency and hypocortisolism. Congenital deficiencies of GH, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone have been reported in the Prop1(null (Prop1(-/- and the Ames dwarf (Prop1(df/df mouse models, but corticotroph and pituitary adrenal axis function have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we report that the C57BL6 background sensitizes mutants to a wasting phenotype that causes approximately one third to die precipitously between weaning and adulthood, while remaining homozygotes live with no signs of illness. The wasting phenotype is associated with severe hypoglycemia. Circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels are elevated in juvenile and aged Prop1 mutants, indicating activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Despite this, young adult Prop1 deficient mice are capable of responding to restraint stress with further elevation of ACTH and corticosterone. Low blood glucose, an expected side effect of GH deficiency, is likely responsible for the elevated corticosterone level. These studies suggest that the mouse model differs from the human patients who display progressive hormone loss and hypocortisolism.

  9. Pseudotumor Cerebri Resulting in Empty Sella Syndrome and Multiple Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    A 17 year old male was referred to pediatric endocrinology with concerns for stalled puberty in the setting of known PTC. He was diagnosed with PTC...size led to a preliminary laboratory evaluation. This resulted In a referral to pediatric endocrinology for significantly low testosterone and an...studies were reviewed and a partially empty sella was appreciated by a pediatric radiologist on retrospective evaluation (Image 1 ). There were no

  10. Hypopituitarism after stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Lee Vance, Mary; Schlesinger, David; Sheehan, Jason P

    2013-04-01

    Studies of new-onset Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)-induced hypopituitarism in large cohort of pituitary adenoma patients with long-term follow-up are lacking. We investigated the outcomes of SRS for pituitary adenoma patients with regard to newly developed hypopituitarism. This was a retrospective review of patients treated with SRS at the University of Virginia between 1994 and 2006. A total of 262 patients with a pituitary adenoma treated with SRS were reviewed. Thorough endocrine assessment was performed immediately before SRS and in regular follow-ups. Assessment consisted of 24-hour urine free cortisol (patients with Cushing disease), serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, testosterone (men), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free T(4). Endocrine remission occurred in 144 of 199 patients with a functioning adenoma. Tumor control rate was 89%. Eighty patients experienced at least 1 axis of new-onset SRS-induced hypopituitarism. The new hypopituitarism rate was 30% based on endocrine follow-up ranging from 6 to 150 months; the actuarial rate of new pituitary hormone deficiency was 31.5% at 5 years after SRS. On univariate and multivariate analyses, variables regarding the increased risk of hypopituitarism included suprasellar extension and higher radiation dose to the tumor margin; there were no correlations among tumor volume, prior transsphenoidal adenomectomy, prior radiation therapy, and age at SRS. SRS provides an effective and safe treatment option for patients with a pituitary adenoma. Higher margin radiation dose to the adenoma and suprasellar extension were 2 independent predictors of SRS-induced hypopituitarism.

  11. Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Miyako; Ieki, Yasuhiko; Takazakura, Eisuke; Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Wakasugi, Takanobu; Shimatsu, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. GH replacement therapy (GHRT) was resumed when she was 26 years old. She developed mild adrenocortical insufficiency at 31 years old. She succeeded in becoming pregnant and delivered twice. GHRT was partially continued during pregnancy and stopped at the end of the second trimester without any complications. PMID:28250299

  12. Structural studies of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and a novel β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone from the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hugh P. J.; Lowry, Philip J.; McMartin, Colin; Scott, Alexander P.

    1974-01-01

    A melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been isolated from extracts of the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. It had approximately 1% of the potency of mammalian α-MSH on bioassays in vitro on frog skin and dogfish skin. Sequence analysis revealed it to be a hexadecapeptide with the following primary structure: Asp-Gly-Asp-Asp-Tyr-Lys-Phe-Gly-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Ser-Val-Pro-Leu. It appears to be related to the β-MSH species of mammalian species but has only the sequence -His-Phe-Arg-Trp- in common with the heptapeptide core -Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly- which is characteristic not only of the MSH peptides but also of the adrenocorticotrophins and lipotrophins studied so far. An α-MSH was also isolated, 50% of which was amidated at the C-terminus group. Sequence data from this study taken in conjunction with those from a previous study (Lowry & Chadwick, 1970b) revealed it to be a tridecapeptide which is identical with the N-terminal sequence of dogfish adrenocorticotrophin. PMID:4375978

  13. Sex-dependent effects of restraint on nociception and pituitary-adrenal hormones in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, A M; Steenbergen, H L; van de Poll, N E; Farabollini, F

    1994-05-01

    The sex-dependent effects of acute restraint (RT) on nociceptive and pituitary-adrenal responses were investigated in the rat. In a first experiment, the effect of 30 min RT on pain sensitivity was evaluated through repeated use of the tail withdrawal test during and after treatment. RT induced an increase in the nociceptive threshold, i.e., analgesia, in males and females, but the duration and time-course of this effect varied between sexes. The latencies returned to approximately control values in females in the second half of RT, but in males they remained higher for the whole period of RT and immediately afterwards. Twenty-four hours later, males displayed longer latencies than controls in response to simple reexposure to the environment. In a second experiment, ACTH and corticosterone plasma levels were measured immediately after 15 or 30 min of RT. ACTH and corticosterone were higher in restrained animals than in controls after both periods of treatment, and in both sexes; however, females showed higher basal and stress corticosterone levels than males. The role played by corticosteroids in the nociceptive responses of the two sexes is discussed.

  14. Effects of nalbuphine on anterior pituitary and adrenal hormones and subjective responses in male cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletiani, Nathalie V; Mendelson, Jack H; Sholar, Michelle B; Siegel, Arthur J; Skupny, Alicja; Mello, Nancy K

    2007-04-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, and 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1+/-7.1 ng/ml and 54.1+/-11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of "Sick," "Bad" and "Dizzy" were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05-.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05-.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol.

  15. Growth and adult height in GH-treated children with nonacquired GH deficiency and idiopathic short stature: the influence of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, R; Rouleau, S; Despert, F; Magontier, N; Loisel, D; Limal, J M

    2001-10-01

    We analyzed the final height of 146 short children with either nonacquired GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. Our purpose was 1) to assess growth according to the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in the 63 GH-treated children with GH deficiency and 2) to compare the growth of the GH-deficient patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (n = 48) to that of 32 treated and 51 untreated children with idiopathic short stature (GH peak to provocative tests >10 microg/liter). The mean GH dose was 0.44 IU/kg.wk (0.15 mg/kg.wk), given for a mean duration of 4.6 yr. Among the GH-deficient children, 15 had hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities (stalk agenesis), all with total GH deficiency (GH peak imaging, had better catch-up growth (+2.7 +/- 0.9 vs. +1.3 +/- 0.8 SD score; P imaging, there was no difference in catch-up growth and final height between partial and total GH deficiencies. GH-deficient subjects with normal magnetic resonance imaging and treated and untreated patients with idiopathic short stature had comparable auxological characteristics, age at evaluation, and target height. Although they had different catch-up growth (+1.3 +/- 0.8, +0.9 +/- 0.6, and +0.7 +/- 0.9 SD score, respectively; P imaging findings show the heterogeneity within the group of nonacquired GH deficiency and help to predict the response to GH treatment in these patients. The similarities in growth between the GH-deficient children with normal magnetic resonance imaging and those with idiopathic short stature suggest that the short stature in the former subjects is at least partly due to factors other than GH deficiency.

  16. Clinical and radiological features of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe diagnosis of pituitary stalk lesion has been based on clinical feature, radiologic assessment for its critical location and role. This study aimed to investigate clinical symptoms, endocrine disturbance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents and to evaluate differences between neoplastic lesions with the others.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of patients under 18 years old with pituitary stalk lesions diagnosed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2013, by a text search for head MRI reports by using 'pituitary stalk', 'infundibulum', and 'infundibular stalk', as keywords.ResultsFor the 76 patients, sixteen patients (21.1% had congenital lesions, and 52 (68.4% had neoplasms. No inflammatory lesions were found. Diabetes insipidus (DI was the most common endocrine defect, diagnosed in 38 patients (50%. There was male predominance especially in neoplastic group. Thickened pituitary stalk was, but enhancement of lesion was not, associated with neoplasm. DI was more prevalent in neoplastic stalk lesions. Anterior pituitary dysfunction such as growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiencies were less prevalent in neoplastic lesions of pituitary stalk.ConclusionIn conclusion, the etiology of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents is diverse and different from that in adults. Neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions can be differentiated from nonneoplastic lesions by systemic evaluation of clinical, hormonal, radiological findings.

  17. Use of the Dexamethasone-Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Test to Assess Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function may be abnormal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A pilot study in 7 patients suggested impaired glucocorticoid feedback in some patients after the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH test. This study aimed to investigate the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing factor test in a larger group of patients and relate the results to characteristics of the disease. Methods. Outpatients with active RA (≥3 swollen and tender joints and C-reactive protein > 10 mg/L took dexamethasone (1.5 mg at 23:00 hour in the evening. Next day, baseline saliva and plasma samples were collected, CRH was infused at 11:00 hour, and 4 serial blood and saliva samples were collected. Plasma samples were stored at −80∘C and a radioimmunoassay performed for saliva and plasma cortisol. Results. All 20 participants showed normal dexamethasone suppression and mounted no response to the CRH challenge. In samples with measurable cortisol, there was a strong correlation between saliva and plasma values (r = 0.876, n = 26, P<.01. Conclusion. No abnormalities were found in the Dexamethasone-CRH test in RA patients in contrast to a previous pilot study. Salivary cortisol measurement may offer an alternative noninvasive technique to plasma cortisol in RA patients in future studies.

  18. Down-regulation of E-cadherin and catenins in human pituitary growth hormone-producing adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Toshiaki; Rong, Qian Zhi; Kagawa, Noriko; Yamada, Shozo

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary adenomas can be ultrastructurally divided into two major types: densely granulated and sparsely granulated. The latter type of adenoma characteristically exhibits globular accumulations of cytokeratin filaments known as fibrous bodies, which are immunohistochemically identifiable as juxtanuclear dot-like immunoreactivity. We hypothesize that the formation of fibrous body might be related to dysfunction of adhesion molecules, because of the functional relationship between intermediate filaments and the cadherin-catenin complex and frequent observation of loss of cohesiveness of the adenoma cells. Our recent immunohistochemical study showed that expression of E-cadherin and its undercoat proteins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin, in GH cell adenomas with prominent fibrous bodies was significantly reduced compared with GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies and the normal adenohypophysial cells. Although no mutation of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene was found in any GH cell adenomas with fibrous bodies, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the E-cadherin promoter region was methylated in 37.5% of these adenomas, two of which displayed total methylation, but not in GH cell adenomas without fibrous bodies. We conclude that the decreased expression of the E-cadherin-catenin complex and methylation of the E-cadherin gene promoter region are events associated with the formation of fibrous bodies in GH cell adenomas. It remains to be clarified to explain the mechanism by which down-regulation of adhesion molecules is involved in the abnormal assembly of intermediate filaments.

  19. A desk evaluation review of project MYA/6/015 hormonal studies on pituitary adrenal disorders. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Snake-bite is one of the high priority health problems in Myanmar, causing high mortality and mobility rates among the rural population. In 1982 the Department of Medical Research (DMR) of the Ministry of Health launched a research programme for the comprehensive studies of snake (Russell's viper) bites and since then various research divisions of the DMR have been actively engaged in both basic and clinical studies aimed at obtaining adequate knowledge of the biochemical, clinical and pathophysiological mechanisms to guide rational management of snake-bite cases. Also, a clinical research unit has been established in a particular area where the incidence of Russell's viper bite is quite high. Project MYA/6/015 was initiated in 1989 with the objective of determining the incidence, facilitating early diagnosis and assessing the value of therapy in hypopituitarism following snake bite, through the measurements of pituitary and adreno-cortical hormones in serum and their changes in response to dynamic tests. The project was completed in July 1993. The review was undertaken upon request by the Asia and Pacific Section, to assess the overall performance of the project

  20. What can we know from pituitary-adrenal hormones about the nature and consequences of exposure to emotional stressors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Antonio; Daviu, Núria; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Rabasa, Cristina; Fuentes, Silvia; Belda, Xavier; Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to stress induces profound physiological and behavioral changes in the organisms and some of these changes may be important regarding stress-induced pathologies and animal models of psychiatric diseases. Consequences of stress are dependent on the duration of exposure to stressors (acute, chronic), but also of certain characteristics such as intensity, controllability, and predictability. If some biological variables were able to reflect these characteristics, they could be used to predict negative consequences of stress. Among the myriad of physiological changes caused by stress, only a restricted number of variables appears to reflect the intensity of the situation, mainly plasma levels of ACTH and adrenaline. Peripheral hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones (ACTH and corticosterone) are also able to reflect fear conditioning. In contrast, the activation of the HPA axis is not consistently related to anxiety as evaluated by classical tests such as the elevated plus-maze. Similarly, there is no consistent evidence about the sensitivity of the HPA axis to psychological variables such as controllability and predictability, despite the fact that: (a) lack of control over aversive stimuli can induce behavioral alterations not seen in animals which exert control, and (b) animals showed clear preference for predictable versus unpredictable stressful situations. New studies are needed to re-evaluate the relationship between the HPA axis and psychological stress characteristics using ACTH instead of corticosterone and taking advantages of our current knowledge about the regulation of this important stress system.

  1. A desk evaluation review of project MYA/6/015 hormonal studies on pituitary adrenal disorders. Project desk evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-09

    Snake-bite is one of the high priority health problems in Myanmar, causing high mortality and mobility rates among the rural population. In 1982 the Department of Medical Research (DMR) of the Ministry of Health launched a research programme for the comprehensive studies of snake (Russell`s viper) bites and since then various research divisions of the DMR have been actively engaged in both basic and clinical studies aimed at obtaining adequate knowledge of the biochemical, clinical and pathophysiological mechanisms to guide rational management of snake-bite cases. Also, a clinical research unit has been established in a particular area where the incidence of Russell`s viper bite is quite high. Project MYA/6/015 was initiated in 1989 with the objective of determining the incidence, facilitating early diagnosis and assessing the value of therapy in hypopituitarism following snake bite, through the measurements of pituitary and adreno-cortical hormones in serum and their changes in response to dynamic tests. The project was completed in July 1993. The review was undertaken upon request by the Asia and Pacific Section, to assess the overall performance of the project.

  2. A functional thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with a ultrastructurally monomorphic feature: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y; Kameya, T; Kasuga, A; Naritaka, H; Kanda, N; Maruyama, H; Saruta, T

    1998-04-01

    A 38-yr-old female with a TSH- and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma is described, who had both overt symptoms, hyperthyroidism and acromegaly. Her serum TSH was not suppressed despite high concentrations of free T3 and free T4, and her alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio was high. Her serum GH was consistently high, and was not suppressed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Preoperative testing revealed that, although the TSH response was impaired, TSH, alpha-subunit and GH were increased by TRH injection, and that these hormones were reduced by bromocriptine or somatostatin analog. Although she did not have hyperprolactinemia, the in vitro culture and immunohistochemical studies revealed that the adenoma cells produced and released PRL, in addition to TSH, alpha-subunit and GH. Immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of GH in the cytoplasm of many adenoma cells. TSH beta-positive adenoma cells were less frequently seen than GH-positive adenoma cells. No cells showed the coexistence of GH and TSH beta, and a few cells were positive for PRL. By electron microscopy, the adenoma was found to be composed of a single cell type resembling thyrotrophs, and did not have any characteristics of somatotrophs. This case was considered to be of interest, because the adenoma was ultrastructurally monomorphous, but immunohistochemically polymorphous.

  3. Role of the pituitary-adrenal hormones in the acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R; Levine, S

    1989-06-01

    Adrenalectomized female rats failed to develop schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). Dexamethasone (DEX) injections failed to reinstate SIP in adrenalectomized rats. They did not prevent intact rats from acquiring SIP but interfered with subsequent expression of this behavior. In contrast, corticosterone, the rats' normally occurring glucocorticoid, fully restored the acquisition and subsequent expression of SIP in adrenalectomized rats. This strongly suggests that corticosterone plays an essential role in the normal acquisition and development of this behavior. Data are interpreted in the context of current information concerning adrenal hormone receptors. It is hypothesized SIP acquisition is at least partly regulated by the Type I (mineralocorticoid) receptor.

  4. Growth hormone replacement normalizes impaired fibrinolysis: new insights into endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljic, D; Miljic, P; Doknic, M; Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Cvijovic, G; Micic, D; Popovic, V

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypopituitarism is increased. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors leading to endothelial dysfunction and impaired fibrinolysis has also been reported and may account for progression to overt vascular changes in these patients. However, effect of long lasting GH replacement therapy on fibrinolytic capacity in GH deficient patients has not been investigated so far. To investigate fibrinolysis before and after challenge with venous occlusion in GHD patients with hypopituitarism before and during one year of growth hormone replacement. Hospital based, interventional, prospective study. Twenty one patient with GHD and fourteen healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric, metabolic and fibrinolytic parameters were measured at the start and after three, six and twelve months of treatment with human recombinant GH. At baseline GHD patients had significantly impaired fibrinolysis compared to healthy persons. During treatment with GH, significant changes were observed in insulin like growth factor 1(IGF-1) [from baseline 6.9(2.4-13.5) to 22.0(9.0-33.0) nmol/l after one month of treatment; p<0.01] and fibrinolysis. Improvement in fibrinolysis was mostly attributed to improvement of stimulated endothelial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in response to venous occlusion [from baseline 1.1(0.4-2.6) to 1.9(0.5-8.8) after one year of treatment; p<0.01]. Growth hormone replacement therapy has favorable effects on t-PA release from endothelium and net fibrinolytic capacity in GHD adults, which may contribute to decrease their risk of vascular complications. © 2013.

  5. The rationale and design of TransCon Growth Hormone for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennett Sprogøe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge of developing a long-acting growth hormone (LAGH is to create a more convenient growth hormone (GH dosing profile while retaining the excellent safety, efficacy and tolerability of daily GH. With GH receptors on virtually all cells, replacement therapy should achieve the same tissue distribution and effects of daily (and endogenous GH while maintaining levels of GH and resulting IGF-1 within the physiologic range. To date, only two LAGHs have gained the approval of either the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the European Medicines Agency (EMA; both released unmodified GH, thus presumably replicating distribution and pharmacological actions of daily GH. Other technologies have been applied to create LAGHs, including modifying GH (for example, protein enlargement or albumin binding such that the resulting analogues possess a longer half-life. Based on these approaches, nearly 20 LAGHs have reached various stages of clinical development. Although most have failed, lessons learned have guided the development of a novel LAGH. TransCon GH is a LAGH prodrug in which GH is transiently bound to an inert methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG carrier. It was designed to achieve the same safety, efficacy and tolerability as daily GH but with more convenient weekly dosing. In phase 2 trials of children and adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD, similar safety, efficacy and tolerability to daily GH was shown as well as GH and IGF-1 levels within the physiologic range. These promising results support further development of TransCon GH.

  6. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  7. Effect of Imatinib on the Oogenesis and Pituitary -Ovary Hormonal Axis in Female Wistar Rat

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    Parichehreh Yaghmaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecular analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATPthat potently inhibits tyrosine kinase activities of Bcr–Abl, PDGFR-β, PDGFR-α, c-Fms, Argand c-kit, is one of the novel molecularly targeted drugs being introduced into cancer therapy.We tested the effect of imatinib on the ovarian histological structure and the concentration ofestrogen and progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSHin the serum of female Wistar rats.Materials and Methods: Two groups of rats (180 ± 15 grams were gavaged with doses of 50and 100 mg/kg body weight imatinib dissolved in distilled water for 14 days. The control groupreceived sterile water. On day 7, after termination of the treatment, blood serum concentrationwas measured with the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Also, sections (5 μm thick of ovariesstained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E were investigated histologically.Results: Progesterone concentration in the experimental groups was increased (p<0.001,estrogen and FSH concentrations were decreased (p<0.01, and the LH concentration decreasedbut was not statistically different in comparison with the control group. The weight of ovaries andnumber of atretic follicles in the experimental groups was increased compared with the controlgroup (p<0.05. The diameter of corpus lutea were increased but the number of corpus luteadecreased in both experimental groups (p<0.01.Conclusion: These findings suggest that administration of imatinib may have profound effects onfemale fertility.

  8. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  9. [Issues related to secondary osteoporosis associated with growth hormone deficiency in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kužma, Martin; Jackuliak, Peter; Killinger, Zdenko; Vaňuga, Peter; Payer, Juraj

    Growth hormone (GH) increases linear bone growth through complex hormonal reactions, mainly mediated by insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) that is produced mostly by hepatocytes under influence of GH and stimulates differentiation of epiphyseal prechondrocytes. IGF1 and GH play a key role in the linear bone growth after birth and regulation of bone remodelation during the entire lifespan. It is known that adult GH deficient (GHD) patients have decreased BMD and increased risk of low-impact fractures. Most data gathered thus far on the effect of GH replacement on bone status comprise the measurement of quantitative changes of bone mass. Some animal studies with GHD showed that the bone microarchitecture, measured using computed tomography methods, is significantly compromised and improve after GH replacement. However, human studies did not show significantly decreased bone microarchitecture, but limited methodological quality does not allow firm conclusions on this subject.Key words: bone mass - bone quality - fracture - growth hormone - IGF1.

  10. Cobalt deficiency effects on trace elements, hormones and enzymes involved in energy metabolism of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Kirchgessner, M

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physiological consequences of long-term moderate cobalt deficiency in beef cattle, which have not hitherto been studied in detail. Cobalt deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals either a basal corn silage-based diet that was moderately low in cobalt (83 micrograms Co/kg), or the same diet supplemented with cobalt to a total of 200 micrograms per kg, for 43 weeks. Cobalt deficiency was induced, as judged by inappetance, diminished growth gain and a markedly reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver. The long-term cobalt deprivation which was primarily a combination of reduced feed intake and a tissue vitamin B12 deficiency did not show evidence of a significant dysfunction of energy metabolism. The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in liver remained unaffected by cobalt deficiency, nor was there a significant change in serum glucose level of cattle on the cobalt-deprived diet. However, analysis of thyroid hormone status indicated a slight reduction of type I thyroxine monodeiodinase activity in liver accompanied by a significant reduction of the triiodothyronine level in serum. The diminished liver vitamin B12 level resulted in significantly reduced folate level in this tissue, reduced concentrations of heme-depending blood parameters. Moreover cobalt deficiency or rather vitamin B12 deficiency was accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of the trace elements iron and nickel in liver. These results indicate that long-term moderate cobalt deficiency may induce a number of physiological changes in cattle, but a follow-up study, which excluded different feed levels by including a pair-fed control group, will be necessary to actually obtain the single effect of cobalt deficiency in cattle.

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  12. Addison's disease concomitant with corticotropin deficiency and pituitary CRH resistance - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Malicka, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Katarzyna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. About seven months later she was euthyroid on L-thyroxine (TSH 1.51 mIU/mL) but was admitted with hypotension, hyponatraemia (sodium 109 mmol/L), and low morning cortisol (119 nmol/L). Further investigations confirmed primary adrenal failure with ACTH concentration of 779 pg/mL (ref. range 0-60) prior to the dose of hydrocortisone. About nine years later she complained about tiredness. Clinically she was normotensive and not pigmented. BMI 22.3 kg/m². Periods were regular. ACTH concentration was surprisingly low (ACTH 8.53 pg/mL, ref. range 0-46), despite very low cortisol (3.37 nmol/L). She was admitted for further assessment. Pituitary MRI scan was unremarkable. An insulin tolerance test was performed and showed a clear increase of ACTH (from 15.2 to 165 pg/mL). There was, however, hardly any increase of ACTH after CRH stimulation (from 6.05 pg/mL to 10.2 pg/mL), thus demonstrating central CRH resistance. In summary, this patient developed secondary adrenal failure in the setting of previous Addison's disease. Interestingly, hypoglycaemia (but not CRH) provided a stimulus for ACTH release, thus demonstrating CRH resistance. The case confirms that besides CRH, other factors are responsible for stimulation of the ACTH-cortisol axis during insulin tolerance test.

  13. A case of pituitary abscess presenting without a source of infection or prior pituitary pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Adams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a relatively uncommon cause of pituitary hormone deficiencies and/or a suprasellar mass. Risk factors for pituitary abscess include prior surgery, irradiation and/or pathology of the suprasellar region as well as underlying infections. We present the case of a 22-year-old female presenting with a spontaneous pituitary abscess in the absence of risk factors described previously. Her initial presentation included headache, bitemporal hemianopia, polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her pituitary showed a suprasellar mass. As the patient did not have any risk factors for pituitary abscess or symptoms of infection, the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively. She underwent transsphenoidal resection and purulent material was seen intraoperatively. Culture of the surgical specimen showed two species of alpha hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus capitis and Prevotella melaninogenica. Urine and blood cultures, dental radiographs and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to show any source of infection that could have caused the pituitary abscess. The patient was treated with 6 weeks of oral metronidazole and intravenous vancomycin. After 6 weeks of transsphenoidal resection and just after completion of antibiotic therapy, her headache and bitemporal hemianopsia resolved. However, nocturia and polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus and amenorrhoea from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism persisted.

  14. Pituitary disease in childhood: utility of magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela, A. C.; Oleaga, L.; Ibanez, A. M.; Campo, M.; Grande, D.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the study of pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary disease. We studied 18 patients aged 7 to 18 years.Fifteen had hormonal disturbances, two presented amenorrhea and 1 complained of headache, fever and symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. All the patients were examined using a Siemens SP 42 1-Tesla MRI scanner. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo images were obtained; in addition T2-weighted spin-echo or fast spin-echo imaging was performed in ten cases and intravenous gadolinium was administered in nine. We found 9 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesis, 2 with germinoma, 2 cases of pituitary hemosiderosis in patients with thalassemia, 2 cases of microadenoma, one abscess, one case of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus and one of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. MR enabled us to assess pituitary structural alterations in children with hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies. In our series of patients, hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesiss was the most frequent cause of adenohypophyseal deficiencies, and most cases of central diabetes insipidus were secondary to masses in the sellar and suprasellar region. In patients with thalassemia, T2-weighted MR images showed the amount of iron deposited in adenophypophysis. Gadolinium-enhanced studies were useful in the study of masses and when the presence of microadenoma was suspected. (Author) 26 refs

  15. Low parathyroid hormone levels in bedridden geriatric patients with vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Mikko P; Sorva, Antti J; Risteli, Juha; Tilvis, Reijo S

    2009-06-01

    To identify the clinical conditions associated with low parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with vitamin D deficiency and to evaluate the stability of the blunted PTH response to vitamin D deficiency over 6 months. Secondary analysis of a randomized double-blind controlled vitamin D supplementation trial. Four long-term care hospitals in Helsinki, Finland. Two hundred eighteen chronically bedridden patients. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), intact PTH, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), activities of daily living (ADLs), and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data. PTH was within reference values (8-73 ng/L) despite low 25-OHD level (bedridden patients with vitamin D deficiency. Attenuated parathyroid function appears to be associated with immobilization that causes accelerated bone resorption. Further studies addressing the possible adverse effects of low PTH are warranted.

  16. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lepob/ob mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Motohiro; Yahagi, Naoya; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Gotoda, Takanari; Nagai, Ryozo; Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic β-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- ) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic β-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep ob/ob /HSL -/- developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep ob/ob /HSL +/+ in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep +/+ background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep ob/ob islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep ob/ob mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  17. Dental Abnormalities in Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Ferrante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by a reduced level of trophic hormones that may be consequent on different destructive processes. The clinical manifestations depend on the type of hormone involved. A deficiency of growth hormone (GH in children causes the lack of growth known as pituitary dwarfism. The case is reported of a patient with pituitary dwarfism, multiple dental anomalies, functional prosthetic problems, and a revision of the literature. She was subjected to prosthetic rehabilitation without surgical intervention, using zirconium substructures, thus eliminating the potential complications that may require trauma surgery. The therapeutic approach adopted led to excellent results and restored an aesthetic smile.

  18. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary dwarfism: Comparison between MR imaging and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghnie, M.; Larizza, D.; Severi, F.; Triulzi, F.; Scotti, G.; Beluffi, G.; Cecchini, A.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging was carried out on 33 patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency, in 22 of whom CT scan had been carried out previously. Twenty-one patients presented some complications at birth. Both MR and CT were positive in the evaluation of the sella. MR imaging exhibited a higher degree of accuracy than CT in the evaluation of pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and brain anomalies. (orig.)

  20. Effect of cancer treatment on hypothalamic-pituitary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Elizabeth; Gleeson, Helena; Benghiat, Helen; Sanghera, Paul; Toogood, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    The past 30 years have seen a great improvement in survival of children and young adults treated for cancer. Cancer treatment can put patients at risk of health problems that can develop many years later, most commonly affecting the endocrine system. Patients treated with cranial radiotherapy often develop dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. A characteristic pattern of hormone deficiencies develops over several years. Growth hormone is disrupted most often, followed by gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones, leading to abnormal growth and puberty in children, and affecting general wellbeing and fertility in adults. The severity and rate of development of hypopituitarism is determined by the dose of radiotherapy delivered to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Individual growth hormone deficiencies can develop after a dose as low as 10 Gy, whereas multiple hormone deficiencies are common after 60 Gy. New techniques in radiotherapy aim to reduce the effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by minimising the dose received. Patients taking cytotoxic drugs do not often develop overt hypopituitarism, although the effect of radiotherapy might be enhanced. The exception is adrenal insufficiency caused by glucocorticosteroids which, although transient, can be life-threatening. New biological drugs to treat cancer can cause autoimmune hypophysitis and hypopituitarism; therefore, oncologists and endocrinologists should be vigilant and work together to optimise patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  2. Biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in hypothalamic-pituitary unit of anoestrous and cyclic ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, M O; Łapot, M; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Przekop, F

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP). Radioimmunoassay has also been used to define changes in plasma LH concentrations. The study provides evidence that the levels of GnRH in the whole hypothalamus of anoestrous ewes were lower than that in sheep during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle (POA: p pituitary unit, as well as LH level, in the blood in anoestrous ewes were significantly lower than those detected in animals of both cyclic groups. Our data suggest that decrease in LH secretion during the long photoperiod in sheep may be due to low translational activity of genes encoding both GnRH and GnRHR.

  3. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and agonistic interactions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Barna, I; Kovács, J L

    1994-08-01

    The effects of adrenergic activation on aggressiveness and the aggression induced endocrine changes were tested in rats. Alpha 2 adrenoceptor blockers were used for enhancing activation of the adrenergic system, and changes in aggressiveness were tested in resident-intruder contests. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, saline injected rats responded to the presence of an opponent by aggression and the increase in plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg CH-38083 (an alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist) produced a several fold increase in clinch fighting and mutual upright scores, and also further enhanced the plasma ACTH and corticosterone response. In experiment 2, the effect of three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) of three different alpha 2 adrenoceptor blockers CH-38083, idazoxan and yohimbine were tested. All the substances increased aggression at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg; at 2 mg/kg the effect of idazoxan and yohimbine disappeared, while with CH-38083 an additional increase was obtained. In yohimbine treated animals the enhancement of aggression was reduced already at 1 mg/kg. In experiment 3, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of the catecholamine-induced ACTH release completely abolished the effects of the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist CH-38083: the intensity of agonistic interactions, as well as ACTH and corticosterone plasma concentrations, returned to control levels. The possible role of catecholamines and the stress hormones in the activation of aggression is discussed.

  4. Receptors of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian-Axis Hormone in Uterine Myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Plewka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the expression of GnRH, FSH, LH, ER-α, ER-β, and PR receptors was examined in uterine myomas of women in reproductive and perimenopausal age. In cases of GnRH and tropic hormones a membranous and cytoplasmic immunohistochemical reaction was detected, in cases of ER-α and PR the reaction was located in cell nucleus, and in the case of ER-β it manifested also a cytoplasmic location. In some of the examined cases the expression was detected in endometrium, myocytes, and endothelium of blood vessels, in uterine glands and myoma cells. In myometrium the level of GnRH and LH receptors increases with age, whereas the level of progesterone and both estrogen receptors decreases. In myomas of women in reproductive age, independently of their size, expression of GnRH, FSH, and LH receptors was more pronounced than in myometrium. In women of perimenopausal age, independently of myoma size, expression of LH and estrogen α receptors was higher while expression of GnRH receptors was lower than in myometrium. FSH receptor expression was not observed. Expression of estrogen receptor β was not affected by age of the woman or size of myoma. Analysis of obtained results indicates on existing in small myomas local feedback axis between GnRH-LH-progesterone.

  5. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake

  6. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke

    1993-01-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author)

  7. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author).

  8. Relationship between nitric oxide- and calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in growth hormone release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Davis, Philip J; Pemberton, Joshua G; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) are two of the many intracellular signal transduction pathways mediating the control of growth hormone (GH) secretion from somatotropes by neuroendocrine factors. We have previously shown that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) elicits Ca(2+) signals in identified goldfish somatotropes. In this study, we examined the relationships between NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction mechanisms in GH secretion from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. Morphologically identified goldfish somatotropes stained positively for an NO-sensitive dye indicating they may be a source of NO production. In 2h static incubation experiments, GH release responses to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) were attenuated by CoCl2, nifedipine, verapamil, TMB-8, BHQ, and KN62. In column perifusion experiments, the ability of SNP to induce GH release was impaired in the presence of TMB-8, BHQ, caffeine, and thapsigargin, but not ryanodine. Caffeine-elicited GH secretion was not affected by the NO scavenger PTIO. These results suggest that NO-stimulated GH release is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) availability and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) that possess BHQ- and/or thapsigargin-inhibited sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, as well as TMB-8- and/or caffeine-sensitive, but not ryanodine-sensitive, Ca(2+)-release channels. Calmodulin kinase-II also likely participates in NO-elicited GH secretion but caffeine-induced GH release is not upstream of NO production. These findings provide insights into how NO actions many integrate with Ca(2+)-dependent signalling mechanisms in goldfish somatotropes and how such interactions may participate in the GH-releasing actions of regulators that utilize both NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Peganum harmala on Pituitary-thyroid Hormones in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E HOssini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Peganum harmala from the Jigo Phalluses family has compounds such as: alkaloid,saponine steroid and lignin which is used as a traditional medicine witht antibacterial, anti tumor, inhibition of MAO enzyme, and stimulation of the nerve system. It also serves as a modulator to endocrine activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Peganum harmala on plasma levels of pituitary-thyroid’s hormones of adult rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, which was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical sciences in 2009, 50 adult Mala rats with the approximate weight of 260+30 grams were divided into 5 groups: the control group, the sham group, and 3 experimental groups. The control group did not take any medicine. The sham group received 1 mL of distilled water daily for 17 consecutive days. The experimental groups took 90 mg/kg, 180mg/kg, or 270 mg/kg of Peganum harmala extract daily respectively for 17 consecutive days. In the 18th day, by collecting the blood samples of the animals, plasma level of TSH, T4, and T3 was measured using radioimmunoassay method. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: This study revealed that the minimum and maximum dose of the Peganum harmala extract reduces the TSH level and average and maximum dose of the extract significantly reduces the level of T4 and T3 in rats. Conclusion: results of this study indicate that by further study the Peganum harmala extract might be used for treatment hyperthyroidism. However further study is needed to explore this concept.

  10. Molecular genetics of growth hormone deficient children: correlation with auxology and response to first year of growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Vaman; Phadke, Nikhil; Khatod, Kavita; Ekbote, Veena; Gupte, Supriya Phanse; Nadar, Ruchi; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-05-24

    With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year. Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score imaging (MRI) brain scan was done in all. Genetic mutations were tested for in GH1, GHRH, LHX3, LHX4 and PROP1, POU1F1 and HESX1 genes. Mean age at presentation was 9.7±5.1 years. Thirty-seven children (Group A) had no genetic mutation detected. Six children (Group B) had mutations in the GH releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) gene, while eight children (Group C) had mutation in the GH1 gene. In two children, one each had a mutation in PROP1 and LHX3. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline height, weight and BMI for age z-score and height velocity for age z-score (HVZ). HVZ was significantly lower, post 1 year GH treatment in the group with homozygous GH1 deletion than in children with no genetic defect. Response to GH at the end of 1 year was poor in children with the homozygous GH1 deletion as compared to those with GHRHR mutation or without a known mutation.

  11. The effects of growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement therapy on intellectual ability, personality and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga González, B; Ferrández Longás, A; Oyarzábal, M; Nosas, R

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, it has been assumed that intellectual development in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is distributed between ranges of a normal population based on the observation that it does not differ substantially from that of children of the same age. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated this assumption. This Spanish Collaborative study was prospectively planned with two main purposes: to study a possible influence of GHD on intelligence quotient (IQ), personality traits and adaptative capacity and to study the evolution of these parameters during substitution therapy with growth hormone (GH). Although the overall intellectual ability of children with GHD is comparable to that of a normal reference population, some areas such the motor-component scale (evaluated by McCarthy test) and performance IQ (evaluated by WISC-R) were below the mean at the beginning of the study, showing significant improvement during therapy. Emotional adjustment (normal at study start) also improved significantly during treatment. Females showed better adjustment capacity before and during GH therapy. Longer studies with an increased number of cases are needed to confirm these effects of GHD and its treatment in children.

  12. A case of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency: a rare but possible cause of hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harano Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yumi Harano,1 Atsuko Kitano,2 Yurika Akiyama,1 Lisa Kotajima,1 Kazufumi Honda,1 Hiroko Arioka11Department of General Internal Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, St Luke’s International Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A 52-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of epigastric pain, nausea, and weight loss. One year before, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. During the postoperative chemotherapy, she developed epigastric pain and nausea. As a result, she gradually lost 12 kg of her body weight. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which revealed mild erosive gastritis. After the treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, her symptoms persisted. Before the admission, mild hypercalcemia was pointed out. Fluid replacement didn't improve hypercalcemia. We assessed adrenocortical function, which showed that her serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone were decreased. Through loading tests, we established diagnosis of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency. She was treated with hydrocortisone. Soon after the treatment, her serum calcium level returned to normal and her symptoms improved. In a case of hypercalcemia unresponsive to fluid replacement, we recommend ruling out adrenal insufficiency after excluding more common diseases which induce hypercalcemia.Keywords: hypercalcemia, breast cancer, chemotherapy, adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency, adrenocortical insufficiency

  13. Body Mass Disorders in Healthy Short Children and in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Majcher, Anna; Pyrżak, Beata; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We found that there were no significant differences in %FAT and the incidence of body weight disorders depending on gender or diagnosis. %FAT deficit was observed in 12-21% of the participants and underweight in almost every fourth child. Overweight involved 3-14% of the participants and obesity was diagnosed in isolated cases (0-3%); both were considerably lower compared to the estimates based on %FAT. Using the cut-off points of WHtR, abdominal adiposity was observed in 3-15% of the participants. In conclusion, quite a large number of short children (between 25 and 50%) are characterized by abnormal body fat or body mass index values. The results indicate a limited usefulness of BMI in evaluating the incidence of overweight and obesity in children characterized by a height deficit.

  14. The different requirement of L-T4 therapy in congenital athyreosis compared with adult-acquired hypothyroidism suggests a persisting thyroid hormone resistance at the hypothalamic-pituitary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattini, Brunella; Cosmo, Caterina Di; Montanelli, Lucia; Piaggi, Paolo; Ciampi, Mariella; Agretti, Patrizia; Marco, Giuseppina De; Vitti, Paolo; Tonacchera, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Levothyroxine (l-T4) is commonly employed to correct hormone deficiency in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and in adult patients with iatrogenic hypothyroidism. To compare the daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 in athyreotic adult patients affected by CH and adult patients with thyroid nodular or cancer diseases treated by total thyroidectomy. A total of 36 adult patients (27 females and nine males) aged 18-29 years were studied; 13 patients (age: 21.5±2.1, group CH) had athyreotic CH treated with l-T4 since the first days of life. The remaining 23 patients (age: 24±2.7, group AH) had hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy (14 patients previously affected by nodular disease and nine by thyroid carcinoma with clinical and biochemical remission). Patient weight, serum free thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg, and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured. Required l-T4 dosage was evaluated. At the time of the observations, all patients presented free thyroid hormones within the normal range and TSH between 0.8 and 2 μIU/ml. Patients had undetectable Tg and anti-thyroid antibodies. The daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 to reach euthyroidism in patients of group CH was significantly higher than that in those of group AH (2.16±0.36 vs 1.73±0.24 μg/kg, Phypothyroidism, patients of group CH required a daily l-T4 dose/kg higher than group AH patients, despite higher levels of TSH. The different requirement of replacement therapy between adult patients with congenital and those with surgical athyroidism could be explained by a lack of thyroid hormones since fetal life in CH, which could determine a different set point of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound /sup 125/I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor.

  16. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125 I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125 I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor

  17. Clinical study on the relationship between FENG syndrome and pituitary-adrenal axis hormones at the onset of acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Shaoxia; Chen Jianfei; Ma Yaling

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find the relationship between FENG syndrome and pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH, corticosteroid CS) at the onset of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Methods: Using the table of syndrome quantitative diagnosis formulated according to the experiences of apoplectic experts to score the patient at the onset for 151 cases, the patients were divided into two groups: those of FENG syndrome (score ≥ 7 n=77) and NON-FENG syndrome (score<7 n=74). Levels of plasma ACTH and CS in there two groups and 60 healthy subject were determined with RIA. Results: 1) The levels of plasma ACTH and CS in the FENG group were very significantly higher than those in the NON-FENG group (p<0.001); the same result existed between patients and healthy subjects (p<0.001). 2) Highly positive cor-relationship existed between the scores of 77 FENG syndrome cases and the levels of plasma ACTH (r=0.89, t=14.61); moderately positive cor-relationship existed between the scores of FENG syndrome cases and the levels of plasma CS (r=0.53, t=4.83). Conclusion: There is a positive cor-relationship between FENG syndrome and pituitary adrenal axis hormones (ACTH, CS), the levels of plasma ACTH and CS can be regarded as index to differentiate FENG syndrome from NON-FENG syndrome

  18. STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH PITUITARY TUMOURS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.

  19. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  20. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith

    2016-03-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes recent data on the role of ovarian hormones and sex in inflammation-related hypertension. What advances does it highlight? The adaptive immune system has recently been implicated in the development of hypertension in males but not in females. The role of the immune system in the development of hypertension in women and its relationship to ovarian hormone production are highlighted. The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  1. Growth Hormone Deficiency in a Child with Neurofibromatosis-Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurallı, Doğuş; Gönç, Nazlı; Vidaud, Dominique; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2016-03-05

    Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome (NFNS) is a distinct entity which shows the features of both NF1 (neurofibromatosis 1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). While growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been relatively frequently identified in NF1 and NS patients, there is limited experience in NFNS cases. The literature includes only one case report of a NFNS patient having GHD and that report primarily focuses on the dermatological lesions that accompany the syndrome and not on growth hormone (GH) treatment. Here, we present a 13-year-old girl who had clinical features of NFNS with a mutation in the NF1 gene. The case is the first NFNS patient reported in the literature who was diagnosed to have GHD and who received GH treatment until reaching final height. The findings in this patient show that short stature is a feature of NFNS and can be caused by GHD. Patients with NFNS who show poor growth should be evaluated for GHD.

  2. Effects of gender, body weight, and blood glucose dynamics on the growth hormone response to the glucagon stimulation test in patients with pituitary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica R; Utz, Andrea L; Devin, Jessica K

    2016-02-01

    Body weight blunts the growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli. The appropriate GH cut-off to confirm GH deficiency in obese and overweight patients undergoing the glucagon stimulation test (GST) has recently been questioned. We hypothesized that the peak GH would be inversely related to the nadir blood glucose (BG) after glucagon and that this may be a mechanism influencing peak GH in overweight patients. This retrospective study examined effects of gender, body weight, and BG dynamics on GH response to GST in patients evaluated in our Pituitary Center. Adult patients who underwent GST from September 2009-2014 were included. Continuous variable comparisons were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and categorical data by Fisher's Exact Test. Spearman correlation was used to determine associations between continuous variables. 42 patients (N=28, 66.7% female) had sufficient data for analysis. Obese patients (N=26) had a reduced GH response, summarized as GH area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.03 vs. non-obese patients) and higher BG during GST, summarized as AUC (pAUC (rs=-0.45; p=0.01), peak GH response (rs=-0.42; p=0.02) and nadir BG (rs=0.48; pAUC (rs=-0.38; p=0.03) and peak GH (rs=-0.37; p=0.04) such that patients (N=32) with higher nadir BG had lower peak GH in response to glucagon. Obese patients, particularly women, do not respond as robustly to glucagon stimulation. These data suggest that there exists an altered BG profile during GST in obese individuals, and that a less robust hypoglycemic stimulus may contribute to an impaired GH response. We suggest measuring BG levels during glucagon stimulation testing to assist with clinical interpretation of GH dynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of the GST in patients with known disorders in glucose metabolism and those taking anti-diabetic medications deserves further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in achieving biochemical cure of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas among patients with cavernous sinus invasion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Vanessa; Zaidi, Hasan A; Doucette, Joanne A; Onomichi, Kaho B; Alreshidi, Amer; Mekary, Rania A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in adults can result in severe craniofacial disfigurement and potentially fatal medical complications. Surgical resection leading to remission of the disease is dependent on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Lesions that invade the cavernous sinus may not be safely accessible via an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and the rates of biochemical remission of patients with residual disease vary widely in the literature. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of biochemical remission after TSS among patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas with and without cavernous sinus invasion. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant publications. Fourteen studies with 972 patients with biochemically confirmed growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were included in the meta-analysis. The overall remission prevalence under a fixed-effect model was 47.6% (95% CI = 40.8-54.4%) for patients with invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 74.6%, p < 0.01); 76.4% (95% CI = 72.2-80.1%) for patients with non-invasive macroadenomas (I 2  = 59.6%, p = 0.03); and 74.2% (95% CI = 66.3-80.7%) for patients with non-invasive microadenomas (I 2  = 36.4, p = 0.10). The significant difference among the three groups resulted from the difference between patients with or without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.01) and not from the size of adenomas among those without cavernous sinus invasion (p = 0.66). The prevalence of biochemical remission in patients with cavernous sinus invasion was lower than in patients without cavernous sinus invasion after TSS for acromegaly.

  4. An unusual case of hypopituitarism and transient thyrotoxicosis following asymptomatic pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masanori; Murakami, Miho; Ueda, Harumi; Miyata, Misaki; Takahashi, Norio; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Although pituitary function is often impaired in pituitary apoplexy, the development of thyrotoxicosis is rare. We describe an unusual case of hypopituitarism due to pituitary apoplexy coexisting with transient hyperthyroidism. A 74-year-old woman presented with severe fatigue, palpitation, appetite loss, hypotension, and hyponatremia. Endocrine studies showed hyperthyroidism and anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. A magnetic resonance imaging suggested recent-onset pituitary apoplexy in a pituitary tumor, although the patient had no apoplectic symptoms such as headache and visual disturbance. Thyrotoxicosis and adrenal insufficiency worsened her general condition. Glucocorticoid supplementation improved her clinical symptoms and hyponatremia. Serum anti-thyrotropin receptor and thyroid-stimulating antibody titers were negative, and her thyroid function was spontaneously normalized without antithyroid medication, suggesting painless thyroiditis. Thereafter, her thyroid function decreased because of central hypothyroidism and 75 µg of levothyroxine was needed to maintain thyroid function at the euthyroid stage. The pituitary mass was surgically removed and an old hematoma was detected in the specimen. Considering that painless thyroiditis develops as a result of an autoimmune process, an immune rebound mechanism due to adrenal insufficiency probably caused painless thyroiditis. Although the most common type of thyroid disorder in pituitary apoplexy is central hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis should be considered even if the patient has pituitary deficiencies. Because thyrotoxicosis with adrenal insufficiency poses a high risk for a life-threatening adrenal crisis, prompt diagnosis and treatment are critical.

  5. Netherton Syndrome in a Neonate with Possible Growth Hormone Deficiency and Transient Hyperaldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatziioannidis Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Netherton syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is classified as an ichthyosiform syndrome. In this report we present the case of a neonate with erythroderma shortly after birth, accompanied by severe hypernatremia, recurrent infections, transient hyperaldosteronism, and signs of growth hormone (GH deficiency. DNA molecular analysis in the SPINK5 gene revealed heterozygosity in our index patient for 238insG and 2468delA frameshift mutations in exons 4 and 26, respectively, in the maternal allele and 1431-12G>A splice-site mutation in intron 15 in the paternal allele as well as the missense variation E420K in homozygous state. Combination of the identified mutations along with transient hyperaldosteronism and possible GH deficiency have not been described before. Accordingly, the importance of early multidisciplinary approach is highlighted, in order to reach accurate diagnosis, initiate prompt treatment, and ensure survival with fewer disease complications.

  6. Cushing's disease: pituitary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.; Ammini, A.C.; Bhatia, R.; Gupta, R.; Berry, M.; Sarkar, C.; Mahajan, H.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolism underwent pituitary scanning with computed axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography revealed pituitary macroadenomas in two patients, pituitary hyperplasia in one and suspicion of pituitary microadenoma in one. Thirteen patients underwent MRI. One with a macroadenoma diagnosed on CT did not undergo MRI. The MRI revealed a pituitary macroadenoma in one, microadenoma in three and hyperplasia in two cases. Magnetic resonance imaging following gadolinium diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement revealed four more pituitary microadenomas. All patients who had pituitary adenomas (micro and macro) and hyperplasia underwent trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. One of the two patients, who had an enlarged pituitary on imaging but no demonstrable adenoma, was found to have a microadenoma at surgery. It is concluded that patients with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism should undergo MRI of the pituitary gland to identify/localize corticotroph pituitary ademonas. The study should include Gd-DTPA enhancement in cases where the scan is normal. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  7. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) and estrogen on RNA synthesis in anterior pituitary and different brain regions of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, J.

    1978-01-01

    Estradiol-17beta caused a marked reduction of RNA content in the cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, hypothalamus and RNA synthesis in the pituitary. LH-RH had facilitatory effect on the cortical and inhibitory influence on the hypothalamic RNA synthesis in vitro, and suppressed the pituitary RNA synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. The possible regulatory role of the LH-RH in the nucleic acid metabolism is discussed. (author)

  8. Regulation of hormone release by cultured cells from a thyrotropin-growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Direct inhibiting effects of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and dexamethasone on thyrotropin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, S W; Oosterom, R; Verleun, T; Krenning, E P; Assies, H

    1984-08-01

    The regulation of TSH and GH secretion was investigated in cultured tumor cells prepared from a mixed TSH/GH secreting pituitary tumor. The tumor tissue had been removed transsphenoidally from a patient with hyperthyroidism and inappropriately high serum TSH levels and acromegaly. TSH and GH secretion by cultured cells were stimulated in a parallel way by TRH (300 nM) and LHRH (50 nM), but were unaffected by bromocriptine (10 nM). Exposure of the tumor cells to dexamethasone (0.1 microM) or T3 (50 nM) had differential effects on hormone secretion. GH secretion was greatly stimulated by dexamethasone, but unaffected by T3. TSH secretion was inhibited both by T3 and by dexamethasone. So, T3 and glucocorticoids inhibit TSH release by the human pituitary tumor cells studied at least partly by means of a direct effect.

  9. Function of the anterior pituitary gland following surgical and radiotherapeutical management for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakisch, B.; Poier, E.; Stuecklschweiger, G.; Hackl, A.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.; Warnkross, H.; Leb, G.; Mokry, M.; Clarici, G.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-five adult patients with adenoma of the pituitary gland (20/55 with hyperfunctional tumors, 21/55 with endocrine inactive tumors, and 14/55 with hormonal deficits at the time of diagnosis) were studied retrospectively in terms of their endocrine outcome after surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty-two percent of the patients developed new hormone deficiency after surgery and 33% after radiotherapy. After a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 44/53 patients had a pituitary dysfunction and 35/44 a gonadotropin deficiency. There seems to be a correlation between the daily single dose given and the development of endocrine dysfunction, as 15/35 (43%) of those patients who received 2.0 Gy per day developed hormonal deficiencies, compared to 6/20 (30%) of those who received 1.8 Gy per day. The median time from radiotherapy to onset of endocrine abnormalities was 19.7 months. Normalization of the prolactin levels occurred in 55% of the cases, and that of hGH levels in 80%. An ongoing hormone replacement was necessary in 69% of the patients. (orig.) [de

  10. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kristensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal or late (postpubertal time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS controls (P<0.001. GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp. than the GHS controls (P<0.001. Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P<0.05. Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD.

  11. Pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae: possible cause for late childhood onset growth disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Satoru; Okamoto, Shingo; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Otake, Shoichiro; Fujioka, Masayuki; Hirohashi, Shinji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae and clinical or laboratory findings in short stature children. We retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance images of the pituitary gland and pituitary stalk for 34 short stature children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and 24 age-matched control cases. We evaluated the degree of pituitary stalk compression caused by the dorsum sellae. Body height, GH level, pituitary height and onset age of the short stature were statistically compared between cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. Compression of the pituitary stalk with associated stalk deformity was seen in nine cases within the short stature group. There were no cases observed in the control group. There were no significant differences found for body height, GH level and pituitary height between the cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. However, a significant difference was seen in the onset age between cases with and without stalk compression. Pituitary stalk compression with stalk deformity caused by the dorsum sellae was significantly correlated with late childhood onset of short stature.

  12. Pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides in the pig pituitary: alpha- and gamma 1-melanocyte-stimulating hormones and their glycine-extended forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1988-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-related peptides in extracts of anterior and neurointermediate pituitary lobes from pigs were characterized by gel chromatography, reversed-phase chromatography and radioimmunoassays. The peptide content was ca. 3-fold greater in the anterior lobe compared...... to the neurointermediate lobe (19.8 nmol POMC/anterior lobe vs 7.0 nmol/neurointermediate lobe). In the neurointermediate lobe 93% of POMC was processed to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and analogs exclusively of low molecular weight. Most of the remaining adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH...... as alpha-MSH and analogs (94%). However, more than 95% of these peptides were of high molecular weight. In the anterior lobe 2.3% of N-POMC was processed and 94% was amidated gamma-MSH of only high molecular weight. These results show that gamma-MSH and alpha-MSH are amidated to the same extent...

  13. A five year prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: is hypopituitarism long-term after head trauma associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; De Bellis, Annamaria; Ulutabanca, Halil; Bizzarro, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio A; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Amoresano Paglionico, Vanda; Dalla Mora, Liliana; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recently recognized as a common cause of pituitary dysfunction. However, there are not sufficient numbers of prospective studies to understand the natural history of TBI induced hypopituitarism. The aim was to report the results of five years' prospective follow-up of anterior pituitary function in patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI. Moreover, we have prospectively investigated the associations between TBI induced hypopituitarism and presence of anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Twenty five patients (20 men, five women) were included who were prospectively evaluated 12 months and five years after TBI, and 17 of them also had a third-year evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficit at one, three, and five years after TBI. Although most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies improve over time, there were substantial percentages of pituitary hormone deficiencies at the fifth year (28% GH, 4% adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and 4% gonadotropin deficiencies). Pituitary dysfunction was significantly higher in strongly AHA- and APA-positive (titers ≥1/16) patients at the fifth year. In patients with mild and moderate TBI, ACTH and GH deficiencies may improve over time in a considerable number of patients but, although rarely, may also worsen over the five-year period. However in severe TBI, ACTH and GH status of the patients at the first year evaluation persisted at the fifth year. Therefore, screening pituitary function after TBI for five years is important, especially in patients with mild TBI. Moreover, close strong associations between the presence of high titers of APA and/or AHA and hypopituitarism at the fifth year were shown for the first time.

  14. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  15. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a long-term condition, therefore creating ongoing partnerships with families is a fundamental part of the role of a paediatric endocrine nurse specialist (PENS). Teaching children, young people and their families about GHD and exploring what it means to them and how they can manage their ongoing treatment is central to building positive relationships. Educating children about the management of their growth hormone treatment (GHT) is an ongoing process and professionals must respond to the changing needs for that information children may have as they grow and develop. Long-term relationships with families are strengthened by recognising and respecting the developing expertise of families as they gain confidence and competence to manage GHT. This article is the second of two parts. Part one was published in the February issue of Nursing Children and Young People and covered an overview of growth hormone, causes and clinical presentation of GHD, development and availability of GHT and the role of the PENS in building partnerships with parents. The focus of this article is the education role of the PENS and the importance of providing information that is appropriate to the child or young person's developmental age.

  17. Effects of up to 15 years of recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement on bone metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): the Leiden Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Claessen, Kim M J A; Hamdy, Neveen A T; Pereira, Alberto M; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adulthood may be associated with a decreased bone mineral density (BMD), a decreased bone mineral content (BMC) and an increased fracture risk. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) replacement induces a progressive increase in BMD for up to 5-7 years of treatment. Data on longer follow-up are, however, scarce. Two hundred and thirty-adult GHD patients (mean age 47·1 years, 52·6% female), of whom 88% patients had adult-onset (AO) GHD, receiving rhGH replacement for ≥5 years were included in the study. Most patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Bone turnover markers, BMC and BMD and T-scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were evaluated at baseline, and after 5, 10 and 15 years of rhGH replacement. In addition, clinical fracture incidence was assessed. Mean lumbar spine BMD, lumbar spine BMC and T-scores gradually increased during the first 10 years of rhGH replacement and remained stable thereafter. Largest effects of rhGH supplementation were found in men. In the small subset of patients using bisphosphonates, use of bisphosphonates did not impact additional beneficial effects in the long term. Low baseline BMD positively affected the change in BMD and BMC over time, but there was a negative effect of high GH dose at 1 year on the change in BMD and BMC over time. Clinical fracture incidence during long-term rhGH replacement was 20.1/1000 py. Fifteen years of rhGH replacement in GHD adults resulted in a sustained increase in BMD values at the lumbar spine, particularly in men, and stabilization of BMD values at the femoral neck. Clinical fracture incidence was suggested not to be increased during long-term rhGH replacement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Radiation and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littley, M.D.; Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on radiation therapy which is an essential treatment in the management of many conditions. It is important to appreciate the high incidence of subsequent endocrine morbidity, however, if the hypothalamic pituitary region is within the radiation fields. This is very much more common with external radiation therapy than with other forms of radiation treatment. The dose and fractional of administered radiation are important determinants of the endocrine deficits, their time on onset, and severity. Irradiation of large volumes of brain and hypothalamus may increase the risk of hormonal abnormalities as may preceding surgery in the treatment of pituitary disease. The phenomena observed in children and adults illustrate that there may be damage to pituitary, hypothalamus, and higher centers. In patients who have received a significant radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, regular follow-up is mandatory. In adults, surveillance will include pituitary function testing on an annual basis for at least 10 years. In children careful monitoring of growth and pubertal development and early treatment of radiation-induced GH deficiency are vital

  19. Receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pituitary: Binding characteristics and autoradiographic localization to immunocytochemically defined proopiomelanocortin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, G.; Vauquelin, G.; Moons, L.; Smitz, J.; Kloeppel, G. (Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium))

    1991-08-01

    Using autoradiography combined with immunocytochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the target cells of CRH in the human pituitary were proopiomelanocortin cells. Scatchard analysis of (125I)Tyr0-oCRH saturation binding revealed the presence of one class of saturable, high affinity sites on pituitary tissue homogenate. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (125I)Tyr0-oCRH ranged from 1.1-1.6 nM, and the receptor density was between 200-350 fmol/mg protein. Fixation of cryostat sections with 4% paraformaldehyde before tracer incubation improved both tissue preservation and localization of the CRH receptor at the cellular level. Additional postfixation with 1% glutaraldehyde inhibited tracer diffusion during subsequent immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. (125I)Tyr0-oCRH was found in cytoplasmic inclusions or at the cell periphery of ACTH/beta-endorphin cells in the anterior pituitary. Single cells of the posterior pituitary were also CRH receptor positive. Cells staining for PRL or GH were CRH receptor negative. They conclude that CRH binds only to high affinity receptors on ACTH/{beta}-endorphin cells in the human pituitary.

  20. Accuracy of episodic autobiographical memory in children with early thyroid hormone deficiency using a staged event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Willoughby

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is a highly constructive cognitive process that often contains memory errors. No study has specifically examined AM accuracy in children with abnormal development of the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for AM retrieval. Thus, the present study investigated AM accuracy in 68 typically and atypically developing children using a staged autobiographical event, the Children's Autobiographical Interview, and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The atypically developing group consisted of 17 children (HYPO exposed during gestation to insufficient maternal thyroid hormone (TH, a critical substrate for hippocampal development, and 25 children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH, who were compared to 26 controls. Groups differed significantly in the number of accurate episodic details recalled and proportion accuracy scores, with controls having more accurate recollections of the staged event than both TH-deficient groups. Total hippocampal volumes and anterior hippocampal volumes were positively correlated with proportion accuracy scores, but not total accurate episodic details, in HYPO and CH. In addition, greater severity of TH deficiency predicted lower proportion accuracy scores in both HYPO and CH. Overall, these results indicate that children with early TH deficiency have deficits in AM accuracy and that the anterior hippocampus may play a particularly important role in accurate AM retrieval.

  1. Genetic regulation of pituitary gland development in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C A F; Dattani, Mehul T

    2009-12-01

    Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke's pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndromic disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia, combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, and isolated hormone deficiencies, of which the commonest is GH deficiency. The highly variable clinical phenotypes can now in part be explained due to research performed over the last 20 yr, based mainly on naturally occurring and transgenic animal models. Mutations in genes encoding both signaling molecules and transcription factors have been implicated in the etiology of hypopituitarism, with or without other syndromic features, in mice and humans. To date, mutations in known genes account for a small proportion of cases of hypopituitarism in humans. However, these mutations have led to a greater understanding of the genetic interactions that lead to normal pituitary development. This review attempts to describe the complexity of pituitary development in the rodent, with particular emphasis on those factors that, when mutated, are associated with hypopituitarism in humans.

  2. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  3. Effect of Local Vibration and Passive Exercise on the Hormones and Neurotransmitters of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Hindlimb Unloading Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Huiqin; Huang, Yunfei; Li, Jian; Sun, Lianwen; Fan, Yubo

    2018-04-01

    Astronauts are severely affected by spaceflight-induced bone loss. Mechanical stimulation through exercise inhibits bone resorption and improves bone formation. Exercise and vibration can prevent the degeneration of the musculoskeletal system in tail-suspended rats, and long-term exercise stress will affect endocrine and immune systems that are prone to fatigue. However, the mechanisms through which exercise and vibration affect the endocrine system remain unknown. This study mainly aimed to investigate the changes in the contents of endocrine axis-related hormones and the effects of local vibration and passive exercise on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related hormones in tail-suspended rats. A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups (n = 8 per group): tail suspension (TS), TS + 35Hz vibration, TS + passive exercise, and control. The rats were placed on a passive exercise and local vibration regimen for 21 days. On day 22 of the experiment, the contents of corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the rats were quantified with kits in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Histomorphometry was applied to evaluate histological changes in the hypothalamus. Results showed that 35Hz local vibration cannot cause rats to remain in a stressed state and that it might not inhibit the function of the HPA axis. Therefore, we speculate that this local vibration intensity can protect the function of the HPA axis and helps tail-suspended rats to transition from stressed to adaptive state.

  4. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C

    1985-01-01

    in untrained (25 +/- 6 mU X l-1) subjects (P less than 0.05). Levels of thyrotropin (TSH) changed in neither of the groups. It is concluded that, in contrast to what has been formerly proposed, training does not result in a general increase in secretory capacity of the anterior pituitary gland. TSH responds......We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...

  5. Vitamin D across growth hormone (GH) disorders: From GH deficiency to GH excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between vitamin D and the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I system is very complex and to date it is not fully understood. GH directly regulates renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity, although the action of GH in modulating vitamin D metabolism may also be IGF-I mediated. On the other hand, vitamin D increases circulating IGF-I and the vitamin D deficiency should be normalized before measurement of IGF-I concentrations to obtain reliable and unbiased IGF-I values. Indeed, linear growth after treatment of nutritional vitamin D deficiency seems to be mediated through activation of the GH/IGF-I axis and it suggests an important role of vitamin D as a link between the proliferating cartilage cells of the growth plate and GH/IGF-I secretion. Vitamin D levels are commonly lower in patients with GH deficiency (GHD) than in controls, with a variable prevalence of insufficiency or deficiency, and this condition may worsen the already known cardiovascular and metabolic risk of GHD, although this finding is not common to all studies. In addition, data on the impact of GH treatment on vitamin D levels in GHD patients are quite conflicting. Conversely, in active acromegaly, a condition characterized by a chronic GH excess, both increased and decreased vitamin D levels have been highlighted, and the interplay between vitamin D and the GH/IGF-I axis becomes even more complicated when we consider the acromegaly treatment, both medical and surgical. The current review summarizes the available data on vitamin D in the main disorders of the GH/IGF-I axis, providing an overview of the current state of the art. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery of pituitary-gonadal function in male and female rats after prolonged administration of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Srkalovic, G; Szepeshazi, K; Schally, A V

    1991-08-01

    The reversibility of the antifertility effects induced by long-term administration of the LH-RH antagonistic analog [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]-LH-RH (SB-75) was investigated in male and female rats. Male rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing 50 micrograms of SB-75/day for 60 days. The control rats were implanted with minipumps containing only vehicle. The treatment with the antagonist caused a significant decrease in the weights of the testes, seminal vesicles and ventral prostates (p less than 0.01) and reduced serum LH and testosterone levels (p less than 0.01). The histology of the testes from the treated rats showed that spermatogenesis was totally depressed. No mature elongated or round spermatids were found in the seminiferous tubules, spermatocytes being the most advanced germ cell form in 100% of the testicular tubules. These changes indicate that a total spermatogenetic arrest occurred in the treated animals. Ninety days after cessation of treatment with the LH-RH antagonist, there was a complete recovery of the weights of the testes, seminal vesicles and ventral prostates and LH and testosterone returned to control levels. Histological studies revealed a complete recovery of spermatogenesis, with 99.2% of seminiferous tubules containing mature elongated spermatids. Immediately after the discontinuation of treatment with SB-75, a significant down-regulation of the pituitary LH-RH receptors was found, but 90 days later, this phenomenon was completely reversed. Female rats were injected every 3 weeks for 6 weeks with SB-75 microcapsules, at a dose calculated to release 27 micrograms/day of the antagonist. The treatment with SB-75 disrupted the normal estrous cycle. Body weights were not affected, but ovarian and uterine weights were significantly decreased (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively) in the animals treated with the antagonist. Treated rats had significantly lower LH (p less than 0.05) and

  7. Effects of growth hormone deficiency and recombinant growth hormone therapy on postprandial gallbladder motility and cholecystokinin release.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; Twickler, M.; Rehfeld, J.F.; Ooteghem, N.A. van; Castro Cabezas, M.; Portincasa, P.; Berge-Henegouwen, G.P. van; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2004-01-01

    In addition to cholecystokinin, other hormones have been suggested to be involved in regulation of postprandial gallbladder contraction. We aimed to evaluate effects of growth hormone (GH) on gallbladder contractility and cholecystokinin release. Gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound) and

  8. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a base mutation in the hormone-binding domain of the human 3, 5,3[prime]-triiodothyronine receptor-[beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Yohzi; Nogimori, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuma, Terunori; Imura, Hiroo (Kyoto Univ. School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Point mutations in the human T[sub 3] receptor-[beta] (TR[beta]) gene causing single amino acid substitutions have been identified in several different kindred with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. Until now, no study has been reported on the TR gene in cases of pituitary resistance (PRTH). In the present study, the authors analyzed the TR[beta] gene in a 30-yr-old Japanese female with PRTH. She exhibited clinical features of hyperthyroidism, elevated serum thyroid hormone levels accompanied by inappropriately increased secretion of TSH, mildly elevated basal metabolic rate, and increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline. No pituitary tumor was detected. DNA fragments of exons 3-8 of the geonomic TR[beta] gene were generated by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by a single stranded conformation polymorphism method. Exon 7 of the patient's TR[beta] gene showed an abnormal band, suggesting the existence of mutation(s). By subcloning and sequencing the DNA, a point mutation was identified in one allele at nucleotide 1297 (C to T), which altered the 333rd amino acid, arginine, to tryptophan. Neither of her apparently normal parents had any mutations of the TR[beta] gene. In vitro translation products of the mutant TR[beta] gene showed remarkably decreased T[sub 3]-binding activity (K[sub a], 2.1 [times] 10[sup 8] M[sup [minus]1]; normal TR[beta] K[sub a], 1.1 [times] 10[sup 10] M[sup [minus]1]). Since the molecular defect detected in a patient with PRTH is similar to that seen in subjects with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, both types of the syndrome may represent a continuous spectrum of the same etiological defect with variable tissue resistance to thyroid hormone.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumours: a starting-point for manipulation of cancer with hypothalamic hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. Klijn (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn order to make a well-founded choice between the therapeutic modalities presently available it is important to have a clear picture of the differences in the natural history of the various types of pituitary tumours. One of the most important questions regards possible differences

  10. Characterization of prolactin-releasing peptide: Binding, signaling and hormone secretion in rodent pituitary cell lines endogenously expressing its receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maixnerová, Jana; Špolcová, Andrea; Pýchová, Miroslava; Blechová, Miroslava; Elbert, Tomáš; Řezáčová, M.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2011), s. 811-817 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PrRP * pituitary cell lines * food intake Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2011

  11. Regulation of Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Release from the Pituitary by Thyroxine during Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally-relevant chemicals such as perchlorate have the ability to disrupt the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of exposed individuals. Larval anurans are a particularly suitable model species for studying the effects of thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) becaus...

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  13. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......, phosphate, creatinine, PTH, vitamin D, IGF-1, markers of bone formation and bone resorption, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine, hip, distal arm and total body, were performed in 34 patients with GHD (19 females) and 34 sex-, age- and weight...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  14. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  15. Central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, E; Boelen, A; van Trotsenburg, A S P

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the most prominent brain region involved in setpoint regulation of the thyroid axis. It generates the diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rhythm, and it plays a central role in the adaptation of the thyroid axis to environmental factors such as caloric deprivation or infection. Many studies, including studies in human post-mortem tissue samples, have confirmed a key role for the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neuron in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in thyroid axis regulation. In addition to their negative feedback action on TRH neurons in the hypothalamus, intrahypothalamic thyroid hormones can also modulate metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via the autonomic nervous system. Congenital or acquired dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may result in central hypothyroidism (CeH). In the Netherlands, the prevalence of permanent congenital CeH as detected by neonatal screening is approximately 1 in 18000. In most neonates congenital CeH is accompanied by additional anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and many show clear morphological abnormalities such as a small anterior gland, a thin or absent pituitary stalk, or an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Recently, a mutation in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene was reported as a novel cause of X-linked, apparently isolated CeH occurring in neonates, children and adults. In adults, the most frequent cause of acquired CeH is a pituitary macroadenoma, usually accompanied by other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Central hyperthyroidism is a rare disorder, especially in children. In adults, it is mostly caused by a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  17. Precocious metamorphosis in the juvenile hormone-deficient mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Daimon

    Full Text Available Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs. JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several "moltinism" mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval-larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval-pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH-deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis.

  18. The impact of idiopathic childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (GHD) on bone mass in subjects without adult GHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Martin; Müller, Jørn; Svendsen, Ole Lander

    2005-01-01

    Despite seemingly adequate growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood, children with GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) at final height. The aim was to evaluate BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in adults treated for idiopathic childhood-onset (CO) GHD, 18 years after...

  19. Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic and pituitary disorders : comparison of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone test with the insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Pasterkamp, SH; Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the performance of screening tests (serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol) and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone (h-CRH) test in the assessment of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. DESIGN Summary receiver

  20. A patient with Bartter syndrome accompanying severe growth hormone deficiency and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek; Ozen, Serkan; Kandiloglu, Ali Riza; Ersoy, Betul

    2010-06-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive, salt-losing disorder characterized by hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. A 10-year-old boy had severe growth retardation (height standard deviation score -8.15). He had a thin, triangular face, prominent ears and forehead, and big eyes. Megacystis, bilateral hydroureteronephrosis, and residual urine were detected in ultrasonography, but there was no vesicoureteral reflux. Lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) showed posterior disc bulging at L4-5. Serum sodium and chloride levels were normal, but mild hypokalemia was overlooked initially. During follow-up, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis developed, with high urinary chloride and potassium excretion (52 and 43 mEq/L, respectively). The patient, with renal salt loss, was thought to have classic Bartter syndrome due to absence of nephrocalcinosis, presence of persistent hypercalciuria and sensorineural deafness, and presence of relatively mild clinical and laboratory findings, except polyuria initially. The child was treated with indomethacin, spironolactone, and oral potassium in addition to growth hormone (GH). During treatment, he had considerable increase in weight and height compared with the period of GH therapy only. We present this case because, although growth retardation is a major feature of Bartter syndrome, associated GH deficiency is rarely reported in the literature. Diagnosis of Bartter syndrome was made later, as our patient was followed for megacystis and megaureter secondary to the neurogenic bladder and GH deficiency initially; and proteinuria associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis responded to treatment for Bartter syndrome.

  1. Spontaneous growth in growth hormone deficiency from birth until 7 years of age: development of disease-specific growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M; Schmitt, K; Kapelari, K; Frisch, H; Köstl, G; Voigt, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about spontaneous growth of growth hormone (GH)-deficient children during infancy and childhood. Retrospectively, we calculated disease-specific pretreatment percentiles for height, weight, BMI and growth velocity of 113 GH-deficient boys and 41 GH-deficient girls from birth until 7 years of age, by mean and standard deviation. Infants with idiopathic GH deficiency (GHD) grow in disease-specific percentile channels. There is a significant difference in length and weight from birth onward compared to regional reference (pgrowth velocity, despite a wide variance in the first years, so height deficit became more evident with increasing age. GHD is a congenital disease no matter when height deficit becomes clinically evident, because GH-deficient children grow in disease-specific percentile channels with a highly significantly reduced length and weight, which demonstrates that GH is essential for adequate growth in infancy and early childhood. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Effect of Ecstasy (MDMA on the Number of Ovary Follicles and Hormonal Axis of Pituitary-Gonadal in Immature Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Allaeian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The widespread use of the pills of ecstasy has opened the floodgates to social damage. Severe kidney and liver damage as well amnesia and imbalance are some of ecstasy pills complications. This study evaluated the effect of these pills on the ovary and hormonal axis of pituitary-gonadal axis in rats.   Materials & Methods: Thirty-five female immature Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats, comprising control, sham, experimental 1, experimental 2, and experimental 3 groups. The control group did not receive any solvent or medication; the sham group received physiologic serum (0.2 cc once daily for 14 days; and the experimental groups of 1, 2, and 3 received a solution (0.2 cc once daily containing 0.5, 1, and 2 mg of medication for 14 days via intraperitoneal injection. Hormone measurement was done with the ELISA method. Ovaries were excised to prepare tissue sections and to investigate the number of ovarian follicles. The number of follicles was calculated via the physical dissector technique.   Results: There was a statistically significant difference in body and ovary weight between the control group and the experimental group 3. Also, the number of primary and Graafian follicles decreased significantly. The results did not show a statistically significant difference between the three experimental groups and the control group in terms of FSH and LH hormones, but the rate of progesterone hormone had a meaningful increase.   Conclusion: Use of ecstasy pills exerted a destructive impact on the ovary and progesterone hormone.

  3. Correlation of Serum Androgens and Pituitary Hormone Levels with Serum PSA Less Than 2.5 NG/ML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sofikerim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, LH (Luteinizing Hormone and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations <2.5 ng/mL as a marker for prostate cancer.

  4. Pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist during intrauterine insemination cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, A; Saccone, G; Noventa, M; Borini, A; Coccia, M E; Nardelli, G B; Saccardi, C; Bifulco, G; Litta, P S; Andrisani, A

    2018-06-03

    Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the usefulness of pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists during intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, with conflicting results. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs was to evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH antagonist administration as an intervention to improve the success of IUI cycles. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Sciencedirect) and clinical registers were searched from their inception until October 2017. Randomised controlled trials of infertile women undergoing one or more IUI stimulated cycles with GnRH antagonists compared with a control group. The primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate (OPR/LBR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Pooled results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) or mean differences with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through sensitivity and subgroups analysis. The body of evidence was rated using GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's tests. Fifteen RCTs were included (3253 IUI cycles, 2345 participants). No differences in OPR/LBR (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.57, P = 0.44) and CPR (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.69, P = 0.08) were found. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses did not provide statistical changes in pooled results. The body of evidence was rated as low (GRADE 2/4). No publication bias was detected. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve OPR/LBR and CPR in women undergoing IUI cycles. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve the success of IUI cycles. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Cardiac and metabolic effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in young adults with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondanelli, Marta; Bonadonna, Stefania; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Doga, Mauro; Gola, Monica; Onofri, Alessandro; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Giustina, Andrea; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2005-09-01

    Chronic growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess is associated with considerable mortality in acromegaly, but no data are available in pituitary gigantism. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effects of early exposure to GH and IGF-I excess on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in adult patients with pituitary gigantism. Six adult male patients with newly diagnosed gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary adenoma were studied and compared with 6 age- and sex-matched patients with acromegaly and 10 healthy subjects. Morphologic and functional cardiac parameters were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Glucose metabolism was assessed by evaluating glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment index. Disease duration was significantly longer (Pgigantism than in patients with acromegaly, whereas GH and IGF-I concentrations were comparable. Left ventricular mass was increased both in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, as compared with controls. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 2 of 6 of both patients with gigantism and patients with acromegaly, and isolated intraventricular septum thickening in 1 patient with gigantism. Inadequate diastolic filling (ratio between early and late transmitral flow velocitygigantism and 1 of 6 patients with acromegaly. Impaired glucose metabolism occurrence was higher in patients with acromegaly (66%) compared with patients with gigantism (16%). Concentrations of IGF-I were significantly (Pgigantism who have cardiac abnormalities than in those without cardiac abnormalities. In conclusion, our data suggest that GH/IGF-I excess in young adult patients is associated with morphologic and functional cardiac abnormalities that are similar in patients with gigantism and in patients with acromegaly, whereas occurrence of impaired glucose metabolism appears to be higher in patients with acromegaly, although patients with gigantism are exposed to GH excess for a

  6. The glucagon test in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Andrea; di Iorgi, Natascia; Napoli, Flavia; Calandra, Erika; Ghezzi, Michele; Frassinetti, Costanza; Parodi, Stefano; Casini, Maria Rosaria; Lorini, Renata; Loche, Sandro; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have addressed the diagnostic role of the glucagon test in children with suspected GH deficiency (GHD). The objective of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the glucagon test as an alternative test to insulin tolerance test (ITT) and arginine in GHD children younger than 6 yr. This study was conducted in two pediatric endocrinology centers. Forty-eight children (median age 4.2 yr, median height -3.0 sd score) with GHD confirmed by a peak GH to ITT and arginine less than 10 microg/liter (median 4.7 and 3.4 microg/liter, respectively) underwent a glucagon stimulation test. Magnetic resonance imaging showed normal hypothalamic-pituitary anatomy in 24 children, isolated anterior pituitary hypoplasia in seven, and structural hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities in 17. Median GH peak response to glucagon (13.5 microg/liter) was significantly higher than that observed after ITT and arginine (P short stature. Normative data for this test in young children need to be established before its use in clinical practice.

  7. Morphometric analysis of the folliculostellate cells and luteinizing hormone gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary of the men during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukuranović Kokoris, Jovana; Jovanović, Ivan; Pantović, Vukica; Krstić, Miljan; Stanojković, Milica; Milošević, Verica; Ugrenović, Slađana; Stojanović, Vesna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the changes in the morphology and density of the anterior pituitary folliculostellate (FS) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells. Material was tissue of the pituitary gland of the 14 male cadavers. Tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal anti-LH antibody and polyclonal anti-S100 antibody for the detection of LH and FS cells, respectively. Digital images of the stained slices were afterwards morphometrically analyzed by ImageJ. Results of the morphometric analysis showed significant increase of the FS cells volume density in cases older than 70 years. Volume density of the LH cells did not significantly change, whereas their area significantly increased with age. Nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the LH cells gradually decreased and became significant after the age of 70. Finally, volume density of the FS cell significantly correlated with LH cells area and nucleocytoplasmic ratio. From all above cited, we concluded that in men, density and size of the FS cells increase with age. Long-term hypertrophy of the LH cells results in their functional decline after the age of 70. Strong correlation between FS cells and LH cells morphometric parameters might point to age-related interaction between these two cell groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The GH/IGF-I axis and pituitary function and size in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, I.C.; Sinnema, M.; Castelijns, J.A.; Twisk, J.W.; Curfs, L.M.; Drent, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), limited information is available about pituitary function, more specifically the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to gain more insight into endocrine function in PWS adults, with emphasis on GH secretion.

  9. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  10. Association of the pituitary-testicular axis function and sex hormone-binding globulin with melatonin secretion in morbidly obese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Buntner, B.; Marek, B.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.

    1995-01-01

    A possible relationship between melatonin (MEL) secretion and pituitary-testicular function as well as the circadian rhythmicity of serum MEL, lutropin (LH), folitropin (FSH), estradiol (E 2 ), total testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated in 16 men with the primary obesity (body mass index - BMI > 43 kg/m 2 ; waist-to-hip circumference ratio - WHR > 1.0) and in 17 healthy volunteers with normal body weight. The mean 24-h MEL level was significantly higher in obese patients than in healthy control individuals. Moreover, all obese men showed some abnormalities of MEL circadian pattern such as decreased ratio between day and night MEL levels, abnormal secretory peaks during the light hours and lower interindividual variability for timing amplitude. Abnormal circadian variations of MEL were associated with reduced 24-h mean values of LH, FSH, T and SHBG, whereas E 2 levels were elevated. (author). 49 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Effects of 1-year growth hormone replacement therapy on thyroid volume and function of the children and adolescents with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Meliksah; Bayramoglu, Elvan; Aycan, Zehra

    2017-10-26

    There are different opinions about the effects of growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) on thyroid function and volume. This study aimed to assess the effects of GHRT on thyroid volume and function in the children and adolescents with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with GH deficiency were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 29 cases matched for age, gender and pubertal period with the patients. Thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor levels were measured, simultaneously thyroid volumes were assessed by ultrasonography at the initiation period and at the end of GHRT. Thyroid volumes of the patient group was -0.55±1.1 standard deviations (SDs) initially; whereas at the end of 1 year it was found to be -0.29±1.29 SDs and both SDs of thyroid volumes did not differ significantly. The SDs of thyroid volume of the control group was -0.85±1.03 SDs initially and -0.72±0.85 SDs at the end of 1 year; and they did not differ significantly. On the other hand, after GHRT of 1 year, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) levels decreased. It was observed that SDs of thyroid gland volumes did not change in GH deficient children and adolescents after GHRT.

  12. Analysis of short- and long-term metabolic effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in adult patients with craniopharyngioma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profka, E; Giavoli, C; Bergamaschi, S; Ferrante, E; Malchiodi, E; Sala, E; Verrua, E; Rodari, G; Filopanti, M; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2015-04-01

    Adult patients operated for craniopharyngioma develop more frequently GH deficiency (GHD) than patients operated for non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). The aim of the study was to compare both short- (1 year) and long-term (5 years) effects of rhGH in 38 GHD adult patients (19 operated for Craniopharyngioma (CP) and 19 for NFPA). IGF-I levels, body composition (BF%), BMI, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis were evaluated in all patients. Pituitary MRI was performed at baseline and during follow-up, as needed. At baseline no difference between the two groups was observed, apart from a higher prevalence of diabetes insipidus in CP patients (79 vs 21%). After 12 months, IGF-I SDS normalized and BF% significantly decreased only in the NFPA group. During long-term treatment, decrease in BF% and improvement in lipid profile shown by reduction in total- and LDL-cholesterol were present in NFPA group only, while increase in insulin levels and HbA1c and decrease of QUICKI were observed in CP patients only. Accordingly, after long-term therapy, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was significantly higher in CP than in NFPA group (37% in CP and in 5% in NFPA group; p < 0.05). The present data suggest that CP patients are less sensitive to the positive rhGH effects on lipid profile and BF% and more prone to insulin sensitivity worsening than NFPA patients, resulting in increased prevalence of MS in CP only.

  13. Long-Term Effect of Cranial Radiotherapy on Pituitary-Hypothalamus Area in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Cecilia; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2016-09-01

    Survival rates of childhood cancer have improved markedly, and today more than 80 % of those diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy will become 5-year survivors. Nevertheless, survivors exposed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) are at particularly high risk for long-term morbidity, such as endocrine insufficiencies, metabolic complications, and cardiovascular morbidity. Deficiencies of one or more anterior pituitary hormones have been described following therapeutic CRT for primary brain tumors, nasopharyngeal tumors, and following prophylactic CRT for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Studies have consistently shown a strong correlation between the total radiation dose and the development of pituitary deficits. Further, age at treatment and also time since treatment has strong implications on pituitary hormone deficiencies. There is evidence that the hypothalamus is more radiosensitive than the pituitary and is damaged by lower doses of CRT. With doses of CRT hypothalamus and this usually causes isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Higher doses (>50 Gy) may produce direct anterior pituitary damage, which contributes to multiple pituitary deficiencies. The large group of ALL survivors treated with CRT in the 70-80-ties has now reached adulthood, and these survivors were treated mainly with 24 Gy, and the vast majority of these patients suffer from GHD. Further, after long-term follow-up, insufficiencies in prolactin (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been reported and a proportion of these patients were also adrenocoticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficient. CRT to the hypothalamus causes neuroendocrine dysfunction, which means that the choice of GH test is crucial for the diagnosis of GHD.

  14. Neutral Sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) Deficiency Causes a Novel Form of Chondrodysplasia and Dwarfism That Is Rescued by Col2A1-Driven smpd3 Transgene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Jenke, Britta; Holz, Barbara; Binczek, Erika; Günter, Robert Heinz; Knifka, Jutta; Koebke, Jürgen; Niehoff, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase SMPD3 (nSMase2), a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, resides in the Golgi apparatus and is ubiquitously expressed. Gene ablation of smpd3 causes a generalized prolongation of the cell cycle that leads to late embryonic and juvenile hypoplasia because of the SMPD3 deficiency in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. We show here that this novel form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency is characterized by the perturbation of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis, ass...

  15. Hypopituitarism after external irradiation. Evidence for both hypothalamic and pituitary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaan, N.A.; Bakdash, M.M.; Caderao, J.B.; Cangir, A.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.; Ballantyne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Endocrine complications after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are thought to be relatively rare. The availability of synthetic hypothalamic hormones for clinical investigations and the radioimmunoassay of hormones have enabled us to study function of the hypothalamic pituitary axis in 15 patients who had radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer. Fourteen had evidence of endocrine deficiency. Twelve patients had evidence of hypothalamic dysfunction, 7 developed primary pituitary hormone deficiencies, and 3 developed primary hypothyroidism. These results indicate that (1) secondary hypopituitarism due to a hypothalamic lesion after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer may be more common than suspected in the past; (2) primary hypopituitarism after irradiation of extracranial tumors can occur; and (3) primary hypothyroidism may result from irradiation of regional neck nodes

  16. Reappraisal of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) measurement in the detection of isolated and combined growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Cesar L; Lacerda, Claudio Silva de; Lacerda Filho, Luiz de; Carvalho, Julienne A R de; Boguszewski, Margaret C S

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of serum IGF-1 in the detection of isolated (IGHD) or combined growth hormone deficiency (CGHD) at the transition phase. Forty nine patients with GHD during childhood [16 with IGHD (10 men) and 33 with CGHD (24 men); age 23.2 ± 3.5 yrs.] were submitted to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) with a GH peak IGF-1 measurements were evaluated in the basal sample of the ITT. Transition patients were reclassified as GH-sufficient (SGH; n = 12), IGHD (n = 7), or CGHD (n = 30). Five (31%) patients with IGHD and 32 (97%) with CGHD at childhood persisted with GHD at retesting. One patient with IGHD was reclassified as CGHD, whereas 3 patients with CGHD were reclassified as IGHD. Mean GH peak was 0.2 ± 0.3 µg/L in the CGHD, 1.3 ± 1.5 µg/L in the IGHD, and 18.1 ± 13.1 µg/L in the SGH group. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly higher in the SGH (272 ± 107 ng/mL) compared to IGHD (100.2 ± 110) and CGHD (48.7 ± 32.8) (p IGF-1 level, resulting in 97.3% sensitivity and 91.6% specificity in the detection of GHD at the transition period; the cutoff value of 110 ng/mL showed 94.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Mean IGF-1 values did not differ in IGHD or CGHD associated with one, two, three, or four additional pituitary deficiencies. IGF-1 measurement is accurate to replace ITT as initial diagnostic test for IGHD and CGHD detection at the transition phase.

  17. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  18. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  19. Hypothalamic–Pituitary Alterations in Patients With Neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ulie Martin-Grace

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating, granulomatous inflammatory disorder that can affect the central nervous system (CNS, including the hypothalamic–pituitary region, although rarely. The clinical manifestations of hypothalamic–pituitary neurosarcoidosis are heterogeneous and require a prompt diagnosis to ensure the most appropriate treatment. We have reviewed the cases of neurosarcoidosis affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary axis published since 2002 and compared them with the cases reported in the literature up to 2002, which were previously meta-analysed by our research group. Since 2002, 64 cases were identified in the literature: 37 cases presented with diabetes insipidus, 36 were found to have secondary amenorrhoea, 30 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 17 with hyperprolactinaemia, 15 with thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency, and 8 cases of panhypopituitarism. Uncommon manifestations included hyperphagia, sudden death, and thermodysregulation. We confirm that neurosarcoidosis affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary axis is an uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. Neither changes in the clinical manifestations and diagnosis nor significantly novel management options have appeared in the last decade. While it is a rare disorder, the involvement of the CNS is an indication to treat sarcoidosis and as the symptoms of CNS involvement, including hypothalamic–pituitary alterations, may precede the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, it is important to include neurosarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic–pituitary axis dysfunction in order to facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

  20. Role of parathyroid hormone in determination of fat mass in patients with Vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become a global epidemic and it is rising is Asia. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is widely prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. Studies have linked VDD to obesity and shown correlation between parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OHD, and fat mass (FM. However, studies on the role of PTH among subjects with VDD are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study is to study the role of PTH in the determination of FM in participants with VDD. Subjects: Five hundred and fifty-one adults (m:247, f:304 were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Total and regional (trunk, arm, and leg FM was assessed by dual X-ray absorptometry. Biochemical and hormonal parameters such as calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, ionic calcium, 25(OHD, and PTH were also analyzed. Results: The mean age of the study population was 58.8 ± 15.8 years (Male: [63.3 ± 13.1], Female: [55.2 ± 16.9]. FM and body mass index were significantly lower in females with higher levels of serum 25(OHD. Total FM was negatively correlated with serum 25(OHD (r = −0.363, P < 0.0001 and positively correlated with serum PTH (r: 0.262, P < 0.0001 in females only. Females with VDD and secondary hyperparathyroidism had higher FM than those with normal PTH. Conclusions: Females with VDD had higher total and regional FM. However, this correlation was evident only in those with high serum PTH levels, suggesting a potential role of PTH in the accumulation of FM.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency after mild combat-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Hampstead, Benjamin M; Moore, Anna; Burgess, Elizabeth; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recognized as a cause of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in civilians. However, comparable data are sparse in veterans who incurred TBI during combat. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of GHD in veterans with a history of combat-related TBI, and its association with cognitive and psychosocial dysfunction. Single center prospective study. Twenty male veterans with mild TBI incurred during combat 8-72 months prior to enrollment. GHD was defined by a GH peak emotional, and quality of life of the GHD Veterans were described using Cohen's d. Large effect sizes were considered meaningful. Mean age was 33.7 years (SD 7.8) and all subjects had normal thyroid hormone and cortisol levels. Five (25%) exhibited a subnormal response to glucagon. Sixteen participants (80%) provided sufficient effort for valid neuropsychological assessment (12 GH-sufficient, 4 GHD). There were large effect size differences in self-monitoring during memory testing (d = 1.46) and inhibitory control (d = 0.92), with worse performances in the GHD group. While fatigue and post-traumatic stress disorder were comparable, the GHD group reported more depression (d = 0.80) and lower quality of life (d = 0.64). Our study found a 25% prevalence of GHD in veterans with mild TBI as shown by glucagon stimulation. The neuropsychological findings raise the possibility that GHD has adverse effects on executive abilities and mood. Further studies are needed to determine whether GH replacement is an effective treatment in these patients.

  2. Hypothalamo-pituitary function after therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cranial irradiation may result in altered hypothalamo-pituitary function in patients treated for cancer distant from this area. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most frequent complication. The frequency, delay of occurrence and severity of GH deficiency depend on the irradiation dose delivered to this area. The other factors influencing the frequency are the age at irradiations and the fractionation schedule. The frequency of other hypothalamo-pituitary changes is also dose-dependent: thyrotropin and gonadotropin deficiencies occur in 50-60% of cases after 50 Gray, and corticotrophin deficiency in 30%. Low dose cranial irradiations may also induce precocious puberty (onset < 8 yr in girls and < 10 yr in boys). The radiation-induced lesions seem to occur in the hypothalamus rather than in the pituitary. There is generally a good correlation between the GH peak and the growth velocity, but there may be normal growth in spite of GH deficiency after low dose or due to precocious puberty, decreased growth velocity in spite of normal GH peak, due to bone irradiation. Results on final height have been optimized by a better indication of GH therapy and by its association with treatment of precocious puberty. (author). 19 refs

  3. Preparation of high-quality iodine-125-labelled pituitary human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, H.; Lerario, A.C.; Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Wajchenberg, B.L.; Mattar, E.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the enzymatic radioiodination of human follice-stimulating hormone (hFSH) by a system consisting of lactoperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide and Na 125 I. It is compared with the chloramine-T modified technique. A satisfactory specific activity of the labelled hormone is obtained with the enzymatic iodination, with much greater immunoreactivity and stability than with chloramine-T [pt

  4. Control of leptin by metabolic state and its regulatory interactions with pituitary growth hormone and hepatic growth hormone receptors and insulin like growth factors in the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Jonathan D; Baltzegar, David A; Mankiewicz, Jamie; Taylor, Jordan; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lerner, Darren T; Seale, Andre P; Grau, E Gordon; Breves, Jason P; Borski, Russell J

    2017-01-01

    Leptin is an important cytokine for regulating energy homeostasis, however, relatively little is known about its function and control in teleost fishes or other ectotherms, particularly with regard to interactions with the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) growth regulatory axis. Here we assessed the regulation of LepA, the dominant paralog in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and other teleosts under altered nutritional state, and evaluated how LepA might alter pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) that are known to be disparately regulated by metabolic state. Circulating LepA, and lepa and lepr gene expression increased after 3-weeks fasting and declined to control levels 10days following refeeding. This pattern of leptin regulation by metabolic state is similar to that previously observed for pituitary GH and opposite that of hepatic GHR and/or IGF dynamics in tilapia and other fishes. We therefore evaluated if LepA might differentially regulate pituitary GH, and hepatic GH receptors (GHRs) and IGFs. Recombinant tilapia LepA (rtLepA) increased hepatic gene expression of igf-1, igf-2, ghr-1, and ghr-2 from isolated hepatocytes following 24h incubation. Intraperitoneal rtLepA injection, on the other hand, stimulated hepatic igf-1, but had little effect on hepatic igf-2, ghr1, or ghr2 mRNA abundance. LepA suppressed GH accumulation and gh mRNA in pituitaries in vitro, but had no effect on GH release. We next sought to test if abolition of pituitary GH via hypophysectomy (Hx) affects the expression of hepatic lepa and lepr. Hypophysectomy significantly increases hepatic lepa mRNA abundance, while GH replacement in Hx fish restores lepa mRNA levels to that of sham controls. Leptin receptor (lepr) mRNA was unchanged by Hx. In in vitro hepatocyte incubations, GH inhibits lepa and lepr mRNA expression at low concentrations, while higher concentration stimulates lepa expression. Taken together, these findings

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) and its subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC): comparison with pituitary hFSH reference preparation from 'National Hormone and Pituitary Program' from USA; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica da foliculotropina humana(hFSH) recombinabte e de suas subunidades, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (HPLC) em fase reversa: comparacao com a preparacao de referencia de hFSH de origem hipofisaria do ''National Hormone and Pituitary Program'' dos EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Renan Fernandes

    2006-07-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of intact human folliclestimulating hormone (hFSH) was established and validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Human FSH is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone widely used as a diagnostic analyte and as therapeutic product in reproductive medicine. The technique developed preserves the protein integrity, allowing the analysis of the intact heterodimeric form rather than just of its subunits, as it is the case for the majority of the conditions currently employed. This methodology has also been employed for comparing the relative hydrophobicity of pituitary, urinary and two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived hFSH preparations, as well as of two other related glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary: human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH). The least hydrophobic of the three glycohormones analyzed was hFSH, followed by hTSH and hLH. A significant difference (p<0.005) was observed in t{sub R} between the pituitary and recombinant hFSH preparations, reflecting structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties. Two main isoforms were detected in urinary hFSH, including a form which was significantly different (p<0.005) for the pituitary and recombinant preparations. The linearity of the dose-response curve (r = 0.9965, n = 15) for this RP-HPLC methodology, as well as an inter-assay precision with relative standard deviation less than 4% for the quantification of different hFSH preparations and a sensitivity of the order of 40 ng, were demonstrated. The chromatographic behavior and relative hydrophobicity of the individual subunits of the pituitary and recombinant preparations were also analyzed. Furthermore, the accurate molecular mass of the individual hFSH subunits and of the heterodimer were simultaneously determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectral

  6. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  7. [Relation between parathyroid hormone and cardiovascular risk in patients with vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Parra Caballero, Pedro; Vega Piris, Lorena; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    Vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness. The aim of our study is to compare the cardiovascular risk in subjects with low vitamin D, attending to the PTH concentration, as well as evaluating the response after administration of vitamin D. Prospective study of patients with a concentration of 25(OH)-vitamin D below 30nmol/l. We evaluated vascular risk parameters as blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipid profile and glucose metabolism. Patients received vitamin D supplements for 3 months, after which the previous parameters were reassessed. A total of 32 patients were included. Those with PTH over 65pg/ml were older, had worse renal function, higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. Treatment with vitamin D showed a statistically significant trend to lower blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. The increase in PTH in patients with low vitamin D involves poor control of blood pressure and increased vascular stiffness. Vitamin D replacement shows a tendency to reduce these parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. The physiology of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea associated with energy deficiency in exercising women and in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, Heather C M; Southmayd, Emily A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-02-01

    An energy deficiency is the result of inadequate energy intake relative to high energy expenditure. Often observed with the development of an energy deficiency is a high drive for thinness, dietary restraint, and weight and shape concerns in association with eating behaviors. At a basic physiologic level, a chronic energy deficiency promotes compensatory mechanisms to conserve fuel for vital physiologic function. Alterations have been documented in resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic hormones. Observed metabolic alterations include nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance and reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations; hypercortisolemia; increased ghrelin, peptide YY, and adiponectin; and decreased leptin, triiodothyronine, and kisspeptin. The cumulative effect of the energetic and metabolic alterations is a suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion is decreased with consequent suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone release. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary secretion alters the production of estrogen and progesterone resulting in subclinical or clinical menstrual dysfunction.