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Sample records for pituitary gland posterior

  1. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland

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    Miguel A Valle-Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  2. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

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    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  3. Salsolinol is present in the bovine posterior pituitary gland and stimulates the release of prolactin both in vivo and in vitro in ruminants.

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    Hashizume, T; Shida, R; Suzuki, S; Nonaka, S; Yonezawa, C; Yamashita, T; Kasuya, E; Sutoh, M; Oláh, M; Székács, D; Nagy, G M

    2008-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether salsolinol (SAL), a dopamine-related compound, is present in the bovine posterior pituitary (PP) gland, and to clarify the effect of SAL on the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in ruminants. SAL was detected in extract of bovine PP gland using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). A single intravenous (i.v.) injection of SAL (5 and 10mg/kg body weight) significantly and dose-dependently stimulated the release of PRL in goats (Pruminants, and has PRL-releasing activity both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, this endogenous compound is a strong candidate for the factor having PRL-releasing activity that has been previously detected in extract of the bovine PP gland.

  4. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

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    Patkar D

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  5. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

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    ... reducing the amount of water lost in urine Oxytocin – causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, and may also help labor to progress Pituitary Tumors The most frequent type ...

  6. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

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    ... hormone ( TSH) - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity. Read about TSH-secreting ...

  7. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

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    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  8. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

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    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A STUDY OF PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

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    Rame

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka

  10. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

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    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor. D2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D2 receptors. D2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  11. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

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    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thin-section CT scan of the pituitary gland

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    Fukuda, T.; Inoue, Y.; Taniguchi, S. (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-02-01

    Topographic anatomy of the pituitary fossa was studied by 2 mm thin-section CT scan (Somatom II). Nineteen with normal pituitary (control group) and 20 with suspected pituitary abnormality were selected. Plain and contrast CT were performed in all cases. Contrast CT was carried out immediately after the rapid infusion of 220 ml of 30% iodinated contrast medium. In all of control group but two, pituitary gland was detected as homogeneous density and its density was the same as the density of normal brain tissues, and was enhanced in degree of about 25 CT number. In 2 cases, small low density was visualized in the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland was differentiated from cavernous sinus was usually higher than the pituitary gland. In the abnormal group, microadenoma of the pituitary gland was diagnosed in 5 cases and 3 out of 5 cases was proved by surgery. All 3 microadenomas proved slightly dense by plain CT and enhanced higher than normal pituitary gland by contrast CT. Polytomograms showed no abnormality of the sella turcica in one of these 3 cases. Although 3 microadenomas were detected by the abnormal enhancement, we are not sure whether all microadenoma can be detected by CT alone. Arachnoid herniation into the pituitary fossa was diagnosed in 7 of the control group and 2 of the abnormal group. Four out of these 9 cases were verified by using Metrizamide CT. By plain thin-section CT, the diagnosis of arachnoid herniation seems to be possible without Metrizamide CT.

  13. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

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    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  14. Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs

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    Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is a frequently encountered endocrinopathy in dogs. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment of PDH in dogs. However, for pituitary surgery to be successful information about the size of the pituitary gland and the exact location of the

  15. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

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    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  16. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

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    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  17. Computed tomographic findings in the pituitary gland and brain of horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

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    Pease, A P; Schott, H C; Howey, E B; Patterson, J S

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is the most common endocrinologic disorder of aged horses. Pituitary glands of PPID-affected horses are larger than those of aged horses without signs of PPID, and the size difference can be detected using computed tomography (CT) imaging. Eight horses with clinical signs of PPID and supportive endocrinologic test results and 3 aged control (PPID-negative) horses. Computed tomography examination of the brain and pituitary gland was performed twice in 10 of the 11 horses, approximately 6 months apart. Six PPID-affected horses were treated with pergolide for 6 months between CT scans. The second CT scan was followed by euthanasia and pathologic examination of 6 PPID-affected horses (4 treated horses). On initial examination, pituitary glands of PPID-affected horses were larger in height (P pituitary gland length increased (P pituitary gland measurements made at the terminal CT scans and necropsy. Furthermore, pituitary gland volume calculated from the measurements was highly correlated to pituitary gland weight. Additional CT findings were bilaterally symmetrical mineralization in the thalamus and cholesterol granulomas adjacent to the lateral and fourth ventricles. CT is a useful imaging modality to determine pituitary gland size of PPID-affected horses,and CT measurements are similar to gross pathologic measurements. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  19. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

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    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  20. Flattened sella turcica and CT appearence of normal pituitary gland

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    Matsui, T.; Ueno, I.; Miki, Y.; Fuchinoue, T.; Kobayashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    A flattened sella turcica, not previously reported, was found incidentally in a 21-year-old male. Various neuroradiological and hormonal examinations have proved it to be a normal varient. Subsequently a normal pituitary gland was shown by CT.

  1. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

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    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  2. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

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    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  3. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland

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    MacMaster, Frank P.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R.; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S. Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91 ± 5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75 ± 5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F = 3.55, df = 2, 143, p = 0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p = 0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342

  4. Changes of pituitary gland volume in Kennedy disease.

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    Pieper, C C; Teismann, I K; Konrad, C; Heindel, W L; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy disease is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the androgen-receptor gene. Apart from neurologic signs, this mutation can cause a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with typical alterations of gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the impact of Kennedy disease on pituitary gland volume under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes caused by partial androgen insensitivity may lead to morphologic changes (ie, hypertrophy) of the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland volume was measured in sagittal sections of 3D T1-weighted 3T-MR imaging data of 8 patients with genetically proven Kennedy disease and compared with 16 healthy age-matched control subjects by use of Multitracer by a blinded, experienced radiologist. The results were analyzed by a univariant ANOVA with total brain volume as a covariant. Furthermore, correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for pituitary volume, patient age, disease duration, and CAG repeat expansion length. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Pituitary volume was significantly larger in patients with Kennedy disease (636 [±90] mm(3)) than in healthy control subjects (534 [±91] mm(3)) (P = .041). There was no significant difference in total brain volume (P = .379). Control subjects showed a significant decrease in volume with age (r = -0.712, P = .002), whereas there was a trend to increasing gland volume in patients with Kennedy disease (r = 0.443, P = .272). Gland volume correlated with CAG repeat expansion length in patients (r = 0.630, P = .047). The correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.94 (P pituitary volume that correlated with the CAG repeat expansion length. This could reflect hypertrophy as the result of elevated gonadotropic hormone secretion caused by the androgen receptor mutation with partial

  5. Hypopituitarism as the presenting feature of bronchogenic carcinoma with metastases to the pituitary gland

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    Philip C Johnston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumours metastasizing to the pituitary gland are uncommon. Symptomatic patients with pituitary metastases can present with diabetes insipidus, headache, visual field defects and/or anterior pituitary hormonal dysfunction. Treatment options for pituitary metastases include, surgical resection, cranial or parasellar irradiation and/or chemotherapy, and hormonal replacement if indicated. The overall prognosis of pituitary metastases is poor. We present a case of hypopituitarism as the presenting feature of bronchogenic carcinoma with metastases to the pituitary gland.

  6. Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary gland disorders.

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    Malenković, Vesna; Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Milaković, Branko; Sabljak, Vera; Ladjević, Nebojsa; Zivaljević, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the most common disorders of pituitary function: acromegaly, hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and syndrome similar to diabetes insipidus, in terms of their importance in preoperative preparation of patients. Pituitary function manages almost the entire endocrine system using the negative feedback mechanism that is impaired by these diseases. The cause of acromegaly is a pituitary adenoma, which produces growth hormone in adults. Primary therapy of acromegaly is surgical, with or without associated radiotherapy. If a patient with acromegaly as comorbidity prepares for non-elective neurosurgical operation, then it requires consultation with brain surgeons for possible delays of that operation and primary surgical treatment of pituitary gland. If operative treatment of pituitary gland is carried out, the preoperative preparation (for other surgical interventions) should consider the need for perioperative glucocorticoid supplementation. Panhypopituitarism consequences are different in children and adults and the first step in diagnosis is to assess the function of target organs. Change of electrolytes and water occurs in the case of pituitary lesions in the form of central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary dysfunction should be multidisciplinary, whether it is a neurosurgical or some other surgical intervention. The aim is to evaluate the result of insufficient production of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism), excessive production of adenohypophysis hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia) and the influence of pituitary tumours in surrounding structures (compression syndrome) and to determine the level of perioperative risk. Pharmacological suppressive therapy of the hyperfunctional pituitary disorders can have significant interactions with drugs used in the perioperative period.

  7. [Preservation of the pituitary stalk and the gland in transsphenoidal microsurgery for pituitary adenomas].

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    Li, Haoyu; Yuan, Xianrui; Liao, Yiwei; Xie, Yuanyang; Zhang, Chi; Li, Juan; Su, Jun; Wang, Xiangyu; Chen, Xiaoyu; Liu, Qing

    2014-02-01

    To improve the surgical outcome of pituitary adenomas by identifying and preserving the pituitary stalk and the gland during surgery. From October 2010 to September 2012, the author from the Department of Neurosurgery of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University operated on 51 patients with pituitary adenoma. During the operations, we carefully identified the normal adenohypophysis, pituitary stalk, neurohypophysis and the abnormal tissues either by direct observation or by medical images, aiming to excise the tumor thoroughly, protect the pituitary function and reduce the postoperative complications. Totally 37 patients (72.5%, 37/51) had total resection of the tumor, 12 (23.5%, 12/51) had subtotal tumor resection and the other 2 had major removal. The gland and the pituitary stalk were well identified and reserved. Detection of hormone content proved that the operation had little effect on the free triiodothyronine (FT3) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), while for free tetraiodothyronine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and postoperative followup significant alleviation was found. There was no significant fluctuation for the testosterone in the men preoperatively and postoperatively (all the above results were obtained without hormone replacement therapy). The main postoperative complications were as follows: temporary diabetes insipidus in 5 patients (9.8%, 5/51); electrolyte disorder (the appearance of hyponatremia) in 17 (33.3%, 17/51); and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and postoperative intracranial infection in 1 (2%, 1/51). No one died during the perioperation period. Microscopic transsphenoidal surgery is effective for pituitary adenomas including tumors violating the cavernous sinus. Accurate identification of the pituitary stalk, the gland and the abnormal tissue during the microscopic transsphenoidal operation plays a critical role in preserving the pituitary function and promoting postoperative rehabilitation.

  8. Pituitary gland and sella turcica in human trisomy 18 fetuses.

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    Kjaer, I; Keeling, J W; Reintoft, I; Hjalgrim, H; Nolting, D; Fischer Hansen, B

    1998-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the phenotypic conditions in the sella turcica/pituitary gland complex in human trisomy 18 fetuses. Fourteen human fetuses with gestational ages from 12 to 39 weeks were included in the study. Normal fetuses at corresponding ages were used as controls. Whole body and special radiographic examination was undertaken before the midsagittal cranial base block, including the pituitary gland, was excised and analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically (keratin wide spectrum [KWS], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], and neurophysin [Nph]). In all trisomy 18 fetuses, TSH-positive adenopituitary tissue was present in the sella and in greater or lesser amounts pharyngeally. The neurohypophysis was Nph-positive and located normally in the sella turcica. The adenohypophyseal tissue reacted either KWS-faint or KWS-negative, whereas KWS-positive reaction occurs in normal fetuses. This circumstance might suggest an altered cytoskeletal structure of the surface ectoderm in the pituitary placode in trisomy 18. The sella turcica was malformed in all the fetuses. Very broad craniopharyngeal canals were observed in some of the fetuses. Because endocrine disorders occur in many congenital malformations, it is essential in future studies to chart the sella turcica/pituitary gland region systematically in different genotypes.

  9. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland--a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes two decades of published and unpublished studies on normal and pathological development of sella turcica and pituitary gland in humans. The pathological conditions are studied in known genotype deviations, syndromes, and other malformations. The studies include....... Malformations in the pituitary gland were observed in several cases. For diagnostic purposes, the review distinguishes between deviations in the anterior wall and in the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Deviations in the anterior wall seem to be associated with deviations specifically in the frontonasal......, varying from mild to severe phenotype. The malformation in the sella turcica/pituitary gland can be associated with a malformation within a developmental field that forms the craniofacial region (frontonasal, maxillary, palatal, and mandibular fields), sometimes also involving the brain stem, thymus...

  10. Ultrastructural study of the pituicytes in the pituitary gland of the teleost Diplodus sargus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, Ida; Grimaldi, Maria Consiglio

    2008-01-31

    An electron microscopic study was performed on the pituitary gland of the Mediterranean teleost fish Diplodus sargus to analyse the morphological characteristics of the pituicytes. In this class of vertebrates, the pituicytes have, like other astroglial cells, a trophic and support function, but they may also play an active role in the release of neurohormones. Most of the pituicytes were of the Dark type. Their shape appeared irregular with long, thin processes protruding from the cellular body. The pituicytes protruded from the neurohypophysis as far as the adenohypophysis. Their cellular bodies were mainly located in the posterior neurohypophysis. In the adenohypophysis, pituicytic processes were intermingled with cells of the pars intermedia and pars distalis, though being more numerous in the former. These processes sometimes surrounded the whole adenohypophyseal cell. This provides further evidence for the possible role of the pituicytes in controlling the release of the pituitary hormones given that, in teleost fishes, there is no distinct portal system or true median eminence.

  11. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chapurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient’s pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression.

  12. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  13. The incidentaloma of the pituitary gland: Is neurosurgery required

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Saeger, W.; Menzel, J.; Winkelmann, W. (Univ. of Cologne (West Germany))

    1990-05-23

    The authors describe a series of 18 patients with an intrasellar mass incidentally discovered by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The average size of the mass was 13 mm, with a range from 5 to 25 mm. Initial ophthalmologic examination revealed bitemporal hemianopia in 2 patients. Results of routine endocrine testing showed partial hypopituitarism in 5 patients and growth hormone hypersecretion without signs and symptoms of acromegaly in 1 patient. Four patients underwent neurosurgery. Histologically, one chondroid chordoma and three pituitary adenomas were found. In the remaining 14 patients treated conservatively, repeated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no significant change in tumor size at the time of follow-up. The results suggest that the incidentaloma of the pituitary gland is a benign condition that does not necessarily require neurosurgical intervention.

  14. Pituitary gland volume in adolescent and young adult bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Leslie, Ronald; Rosenberg, David R; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Few studies have examined pituitary gland size in mood disorders, particularly in adolescents. We hypothesized increase in the pituitary gland size in early-onset mood disorders. Thirty subjects between the ages of 13 and 20 years participated in the study. Three groups (control, bipolar I depression and unipolar depression) of 10 subjects each (4 male, 6 female) underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Analysis of covariance (covarying for age, sex and intracranial volume) revealed a significant difference in pituitary gland volume amongst the groups [F(2,24) = 7.092, p = 0.014]. Post hoc analysis revealed that controls had a significantly smaller pituitary gland volume than both bipolar patients (p = 0.019) and depressed patients (p = 0.049). Bipolar and depressed subjects did not differ significantly from each other with regard to pituitary gland volume (p = 0.653). Control females had larger pituitary glands than control males [F(1,8) = 10.523, p = 0.012], but no sex differences were noted in the mood disorder groups. Pituitary glands are enlarged in adolescents with mood disorders compared to controls. Healthy young females have larger pituitary glands than males, but such a difference is not evident in individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder. These findings provide new evidence of abnormalities of the pituitary in early onset mood disorders, and are consistent with neuroendocrine dysfunction in early stages of such illnesses.

  15. [Apoplectic macroadenomas: the outcome of the residual pituitary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, R; Mohr, G; Assimakopoulos, P; Glikstein, R

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the MRI aspects and the function of the residual pituitary gland (RPG) after surgical decompression of an apoplectic pituitary macroadenoma, and to attempt to answer the question of whether an intra-adenomatous apoplexy necessarily leads to hypophyseal apoplexy. Between 1992 and 2008, 150 pituitary macroadenomas were surgically treated via the trans-sphenoidal approach, 19 of which presented an apoplectic feature (13%). They were subdivided into three groups: pure hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction, and ischemic infarction. The imaging was studied after surgery to identify the RPG and establish a correlation with the endocrine status. After surgery five of 19 patients had normal adenohypophyseal function (27%), eight (42%) had panhypopituitarism, and six (31%) complete or partial corticotropic hypopituitarism. The RPG was identified on MRI in 13 patients (69%), four of them (31%) with normal adenohypophyseal function. The RPG was clearly identified intraoperatively in nine patients (47%), four of whom (44%) had normal adenohypophyseal function. One patient presented preoperative diabetes insipidus, which disappeared immediately after surgery, and two other patients developed postoperative diabetes insipidus: in one patient it quickly declined and in the other one it persisted, requiring replacement. According to the radiological classification of Hardy and Vezina modified by the Mohr (Mohr et Hardy, 1982) grade, the patients were subdivided up as follows: one grade II-0, four grade II-A, 11 grade II-B, two grade C, and one grade IV-B+D. The repercussions of adenomatous apoplexy on the RPG is significant: only 27% of the patients retained normal pituitary function. Furthermore, although the RPG was identified on the MRI in more than two-thirds of the cases, more than half had adenohypophyseal failure: therefore, the visualization of a RPG does not mean that its functions are preserved. The involvement of the

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.

  17. Pituitary gland volume in currently depressed and remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Allen, Nicholas B; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; De Plato, Giovanni; Ang, Anthony; Yücel, Murat

    2009-04-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with increased pituitary gland volume (PGV), which is thought to reflect stress-related dysregulation related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unclear whether PGV alteration reflects a "dynamic" change related to current mood instability or if it is a stable marker of illness vulnerability. In this study we investigated PGV in currently depressed patients (cMDD) (n=31), remitted depressed patients (rMDD) (n=31) and healthy controls (n=33), using 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The groups were matched for age and gender. We found no significant PGV, intra-cranial volume (ICV) or whole brain volume (WBV) differences between cMDD patients, rMDD patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, PGV was not correlated with clinical features of depression (e.g., age of onset; number of episodes; and scores on subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire). In conclusion, PGV does not appear to be a marker of current or past MDD in adult patients.

  18. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas – 409 MRI results in total – were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post – surgical pituitary gland doesn’t necessarily correlate with its hormonal function – there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. PMID:22802758

  19. Positive Association Between Posterior Subgenual Cingulate and Pituitary Volumes in Psychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Vassilopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior subgenual cingulate cortex has been consistently linked with the pathophysiology of major depression in both structural and functional brain imaging studies. Likewise, the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression is well established, especially in its psychotic subtype. Moreover, posterior subgenual cingulate cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. While studies show pituitary volume to be a valid marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, none have investigated the volumetric relationships between posterior subgenual cingulate cortex and pituitary volume in subtypes of major depressive disorder, which was precisely the aim of our study. We hypothesized a differential volumetric relationship in psychotic depression. We assessed posterior subgenual cingulate and pituitary volume using Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning and investigated their volumetric relationships in 39 patients with major depressive disorder (17 psychotic and 22 melancholic and 18 normal controls. We found strong positive correlations between both left and right posterior subgenual volumes and pituitary volume only in the psychotic depression group (left: rs=0.77, p<0.001, right: rs=0.67, p=0.003. These positive associations were confirmed by regression analyses controlling for patient’s age and type of medications. By contrast, no significant volumetric associations were detected in the groups of melancholic patients and normal controls. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that posterior subgenual cingulate is differentially involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MRI of intrasellar arachnoid cysts: relationship between the pituitary gland and cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, M. [National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery]|[Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Tachibana, O. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Hasegawa, M. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kohda, Y. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Nakada, M. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Yamashima, T. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Yamashita, J. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Suzuki, M. [Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-08-01

    We recently encountered two large intrasellar arachnoid cysts extending to the suprasellar region. The intensity of the cyst contents was identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI. On contrast-enhanced MRI, the pituitary gland was compressed posteroinferiorly and flattened in the sella turcica. In this report of rare intrasellar arachnoid cysts the discussion is focused on dislocation of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  1. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  2. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland-a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Inger

    2015-02-01

    The present review summarizes two decades of published and unpublished studies on normal and pathological development of sella turcica and pituitary gland in humans. The pathological conditions are studied in known genotype deviations, syndromes, and other malformations. The studies include histological analyses of human prenatal material and profile radiographic analyses of human postnatal material, supplemented in a few cases with neuroradiology. Prenatal and postnatal results are compared. Similarities between prenatal and postnatal deviations in sella turcica morphology were demonstrated. Malformations in the pituitary gland were observed in several cases. For diagnostic purposes, the review distinguishes between deviations in the anterior wall and in the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Deviations in the anterior wall seem to be associated with deviations specifically in the frontonasal developmental field, while deviations in the posterior wall are often connected with malformations in the posterior structures, e.g. the cerebellum. In normal cases, minor variations in morphology are observed. In each pathological case, a specific malformation pattern was observed in sella turcica morphology, varying from mild to severe phenotype. The malformation in the sella turcica/pituitary gland can be associated with a malformation within a developmental field that forms the craniofacial region (frontonasal, maxillary, palatal, and mandibular fields), sometimes also involving the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, and heart (velocardiofacial syndrome). Pathological sella turcica morphology can also be associated with malformations in the cerebellum and larynx (Cri-du-Chat syndrome). This review demonstrates the value of combining profile radiographic diagnostics with neuroradiological diagnostics in cases with malformed sella turcicae.

  3. [Microscopic diagnosis of pituitary gland damages resulting from cranio-cerebral trauma with the base of the skull fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okłota, Magdalena; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Dziecioł, Janusz; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Szkudlarek, Magdalena; Sackiewicz, Adam; Załuski, Janusz; Szeremeta, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was a macro- and microscopic investigation of pituitary glands in people who died after head injuries with the base of the skull fractures in the sella turcica. No macroscopic changes in the pituitary glands were discovered during an autopsy examinations. Histopathology demonstrated traumatic changes of the pituitary glands in all the cases, which were correlated with sella trurcica fractures. The evolution of traumatic alterations correlated with survival time after the injury. In the pituitary glands of people who died directly after head injuries, hyperemia and focal hemorrhages were discovered. Apart from hyperemia, focal necrosis was found in the pituitary glands among those who survived from 48 to 72 hours after head injury. The examined pituitary glands of those people who lived from 2 to 3 weeks after head injury showed considerable necrotic changes and numerous calcificationss.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypothalamus hypophysis axis lesions; Relationship between posterior pituitary function and posterior bright spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiina, Takeki; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Yoshida, Sho (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Kenichi

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.5T superconductive machine was performed to the thirty three cases with a variety of the sellar and parasellar tumors and with dysfunction of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis. Posterior pituitary bright spot (PBS) on T1 weighted image was evaluated with the pituitary hormonal function. These cases were 12 cases of post-treated tumors including pituitary adenoma (9 patients), suprasellar germinoma (2 patients) and craniopharyngioma (one patient), and non-tumorous conditions including 15 cases of central diabetes insipidus (DI), Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) (one patient), Sheehan's syndrome (3 patients) and anorexia nervosa (2 patients). Pituitary bright spot was not seen in all 19 cases with overt DI. On the other hand, PBS was not seen in 9 cases without overt DI. Three cases of these 9 cases showing Sheehan's syndrome with insufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion was considered as the state of subclinical DI. Posterior bright spot was not seen in all 13 cases of empty sella including partial empty sella. The results suggested that disappearance of PBS represents abnormality or loss of posterior pituitary function and also it was considered to be closely related to the empty sella. (author).

  5. Opposite effects of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland from male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, María Laura; Gottardo, María Florencia; Zárate, Sandra; Eijo, Guadalupe; Ferraris, Jimena; Jaita, Gabriela; Ayala, Mariela Moreno; Candolfi, Marianela; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Hormones locally synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland are involved in regulation of pituitary cell renewal. In the pituitary, testosterone (T) may exert its actions per se or by conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) by 5α-reductase and aromatase activity, which are expressed in this gland. Previous reports from our laboratory showed that estrogens modulate apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes from female rats. Now, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of gonadal steroids on apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from adult male rats. T in vitro did not modify apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells from gonadectomized (GNX) male rats. DHT, a non-aromatizable androgen, exerted direct antiapoptotic action on total anterior pituitary cells and folliculo-stellate cells, but not on lactotropes, somatotropes, or gonadotropes. On the contrary, E2 exerted a rapid apoptotic effect on total cells as well as on lactotropes and somatotropes. Incubation of anterior pituitary cells with T in presence of Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase, increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells. In vivo administration of DHT to GNX rats reduced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary whereas E2 exerted proapoptotic action and reduced cells in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. In summary, our results indicate that DHT and E2 have opposite effects on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland suggesting that local metabolization of T to these steroids could be involved in pituitary cell turnover in males. Changes in expression and/or activity of 5α-reductase and aromatase may play a role in the development of anterior pituitary tumors.

  6. Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information.

  7. Case Series Study of Visual Field Defects in Pituitary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallabha K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland, weighing about 500 mg. Pituitary adenomas account for 12-15 % of all intracranial tumors. Pituitary gland is in the sella turcica, 8-13 mm lower than the optic chiasm. Therefore, when it increases, it can easily compress the optic nerve fibers in the chiasm. Micro adenomas can have a negligible effect on the visual system or on the function impairment when pituitary adenoma compresses the frontal part of optic nerve; impairments in visual fields, visual acuity, and color contrast sensitivity are possible. The long standing compression of the chiasm induces primary optic nerve atrophy, which directly impairs visual function. The prevalence of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas varies from 37 to 96% in different studies. Because of its anatomical relationship with optic chiasm, pituitary adenoma typically results in bitemporal hemianopia. However, according to the tumor size and optic chiasmal position, a variety of field defects can be produced by pituitary adenoma and the tumor size is a significant factor in the severity of Visual field defects. Aim: To study the proportion of patients with visual field defects in pituitary adenomas and to study the pattern of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas. Materials and Methods: 7 patients diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma underwent complete ophthalmic and Humphrey’s Perimetry 30-2 visual field test at Department of Ophthalmology, BLDEU’S Shri B M Patil Medical College Hospital, Vijayapura between January 2015 to December 2015. Results: Among the 7 cases in the study, 2 cases were of pituitary micro adenoma constituting 28.5% and the remaining cases (5 cases were pituitary macro adenoma, constituting 71.5%. Visual acuity of 6/6 - 6/12 were observed in 10 (71.4% out of total 14 eyes. Visual field defects were observed in all 6 cases (85.7%. Bilateral temporal hemianopia was observed in the majority (42.8% of cases with field

  8. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance volumetry of the pituitary gland is effective in detecting short stature in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xiu, Jianjun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhonghe; Dong, Yin; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain standard reference values for the pituitary gland volumes of healthy children and to analyze the potential diagnostic values of pituitary gland volumetry for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS). The volume of the pituitary gland was measured using a thin-section three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo imaging with a section thickness of 1 mm. A group of 75 healthy children aged between 1 and 19 years were recruited to obtain normal volumetry values of the pituitary gland. These individuals demonstrated no evidence of abnormalities to the central nervous or endocrine systems prior to the study. An additional group of 55 children with GHD (n=32) or ISS (n=23) aged between 0 and 14 years were included in the measurement of pituitary gland volume and height. The Student's t-test was used to evaluate the repetition test, while Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analyses were performed to examine the correlations between the volume and height of the pituitary glands. Pituitary gland volume and height demonstrated an increasing trend with age in the healthy children. In addition, the pituitary gland volume exhibited a growth spurt in the early teenage years (10-14 years-old), which was more prominent in females. The growth spurt was not observed for pituitary gland height. When compared with the healthy children, 65.6% of the children with GHD and 34.8% of the children with ISS had smaller pituitary gland volumes. Similarly, 37.5% of the children with GHD and 26.1% of the children with ISS had a smaller pituitary gland height compared with the healthy children. The pituitary gland volume performed significantly better compared with height with regard to the detection rate. Therefore, the results indicated that 3D MRI volumetry was useful for understanding the developmental characteristics of the pituitary gland in

  9. Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary gland disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malenković, Vesna; Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Milaković, Branko; Sabljak, Vera; Ladjević, Nebojsa; Zivaljević, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the most common disorders of pituitary function: acromegaly, hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and syndrome similar to diabetes insipidus, in terms of their importance in preoperative preparation of patients...

  10. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  11. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  12. Presence by radioimmunoassay of a calcitonin-like substance in porcine pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherwood, B.D.; Deftos, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    We studied acidic acetone extracts of whole porcine pituitary glands for the presence of immunoreactive calcitonin (CT) using a porcine CT (pCT) RIA which did not react with other known pituitary hormones. Four preparations of porcine pituitary extract contained immunoreactive CT. Three of these displayed inhibition of binding parallel to that of authentic pCT in the pCT RIA and contained a single peak of immunoreactivity similar to pCT when studied by two different gel filtration chromatography systems. One preparation of porcine pituitary extract showed nonparallelism in RIA dose-dilution experiments and multiple immunoreactive species both similar to and larger than pCT on gel filtration in 6 M guanidine HCl. The effect of the reduction of disulfide bonds, followed by carboxymethylation of sulfhydryl groups, on immunoreactivity and apparent molecular size was similar for the CT-like substance in porcine pituitary extract and for authentic pCT. Preliminary immunohistological studies showed cytoplasmic staining in cells of the porcine adenohypophysis. These results demonstrate that the porcine pituitary gland contains a substance which has some of the immunochemical and biochemical properties of thyroidal pCT.

  13. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  14. Hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Seymour; Saltzman, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    We observed hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary in rats made uremic by nephrotoxic chemicals, especially when the uremic rats were given a pure carbohydrate diet beforehand. The hydropic degeneration caused loss of nuclear and cytoplasmic content of many or most anterior pituitary cells. It was readily visible in paraffin sections by light microscopy. It was exaggerated when water was injected after the nephrotoxin and it was greatly reduced if saline was injected after the nephrotoxin. Low serum sodium levels in affected rats and the response to saline injection suggested that the mechanism for development of hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary gland involved hyponatremia. Depletion of total body sodium probably accounts for the enhancement of hydropic degeneration by the pure carbohydrate diet. Morphologic lesions of the anterior pituitary related to hyponatremia and uremia have not been described previously.

  15. Expression and mutation analysis of Tpit in the canine pituitary gland and corticotroph adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J M; Mol, J A; Leegwater, P A J; Bilodeau, S; Drouin, J; Meij, B P

    2008-04-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in dogs is caused by a pituitary corticotroph adenoma. Although PDH is a common disorder in dogs, little is known about the underlying pathogenesis. In the pituitary glands of humans and mice, the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cell lineages, the corticotrophs and melanotrophs, have a specific marker in common, the T-box transcription factor Tpit (Tbx19), which is obligate for POMC expression. Tpit also regulates the late differentiation of the corticotrophs and melanotrophs, and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of the corticotroph adenomas. The aim of this study was to perform an expression and mutation analysis of Tpit in the normal canine pituitary and in corticotroph adenomas. The distribution of the Tpit protein in the pituitary gland was studied with immunohistochemistry and the expression of the gene with RT-PCR. The coding region of Tpit cDNA from 14 dogs with PDH was screened for mutations. Tpit was expressed in corticotroph and melanotroph cells of the normal and adenomatous canine pituitary, and remained present in non-adenomatous corticotrophs of pituitaries from PDH dogs. No tumor-specific mutation in the Tpit cDNA from the corticotroph adenomas was found. However, a missense polymorphism in the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, the T-box, was discovered in one dog. It is concluded that Tpit can be used as a reliable marker for the corticotroph and melanotroph cells in the canine pituitary tissue and that mutations in the Tpit gene are unlikely to play a major role in the pathogenesis of canine corticotroph adenomas.

  16. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland.

  17. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Carberry, Nathan; Solli, Elena; Kleinman, George; Tandon, Adesh

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland. PMID:26933415

  18. Expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans are components of the extracellular matrix and comprise a specific core protein substituted with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan chains. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a major family of proteoglycans and have key roles as potent effectors in cellular signaling pathways. Research during the last two decades has shown that SLRPs regulate biological functions in many tissues such as skin, tendon, kidney, liver, and heart. However, little is known of the expression of SLRPs, or the characteristics of the cells that produce them, in the anterior pituitary gland. Therefore, we have determined whether SLRPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. We have used real-time reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of SLRP genes and have identified the cells that produce SLRPs by using in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probe. We have clearly detected the mRNA expression of SLRP genes, and cells expressing decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), and osteoglycin are located in the anterior pituitary gland. We have also investigated the possible double-staining of SLRP mRNA and pituitary hormones, S100 protein (a marker of folliculostellate cells), desmin (a marker of capillary pericytes), and isolectin B4 (a marker of endothelial cells). Decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, PRELP, and osteoglycin mRNA have been identified in S100-protein-positive and desmin-positive cells. Thus, we conclude that folliculostellate cells and pericytes produce SLRPs in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  19. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  20. Exploration of the pituitary stalk and gland by high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Fukami, T.; Takase, K.; Matsumoto, K.

    1984-11-01

    By means of high-resolution CT, pituitary stalks and glands were demonstrated in 189 normal subjects and in six patients with microadenomas. In the horizontal view and in reconstructed coronal and sagittal projections, the normal stalks and glands showed homogeneous enhancement with the contrast medium. On metrizamide CT, the stalks and glands were demonstrated in high-density areas as a ''defect''. The detection-rate of the stalks and glands was more than 93.6% in all dimensions on enhanced CT and 100% on metrizamide CT. On reconstructed sagittal projections, there was a tendency for the glands to decrease in size with advancing age. Under the age of 29, especially in females, most of the glands were demonstrated as an oval area that filled the sella turcica. After the age of 50, the gland frequently was flattened with enlargement of the CSF space within the sella turcica, giving an appearance reminiscent of the ''empty stella''. Of six patients with microadenomas, five presented the appearance of oval gland, and one showed visualization of CSF space in the anterosuperior portion of the stella turcica. On reconstructed coronal projections, the angle of inclination of stalks was 1.5+-1.2/sup 0/ in normal subjects and 9.3+-2.4/sup 0/ in patients with microadenomas.

  1. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs.

  2. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  3. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  4. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author).

  5. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R;

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e...

  6. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Lalith Talagala, S; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E; Montgomery, Blake K; Piazza, Martin G; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Koretsky, Alan P; Butman, John A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing's disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra-high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm(3) and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm(3), respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  7. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  8. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P.

    2016-01-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT).Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirect

  9. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-15

    An enlarged volume of the pituitary gland has been reported in the schizophrenia spectrum, possibly reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity. However, it remains largely unknown whether the pituitary size longitudinally changes in the course of the spectrum disorders. In the present study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. The pituitary volume was measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 2.7 years) scans and was compared across groups. The pituitary volume was larger in the schizophrenia patients than controls at baseline, and both patient groups had significantly larger pituitary volume than controls at follow-up. In a longitudinal comparison, both schizophrenia (3.6%/year) and schizotypal (2.7%/year) patients showed significant pituitary enlargement compared with controls (-1.8%/year). In the schizophrenia patients, greater pituitary enlargement over time was associated with less improvement of delusions and higher scores for thought disorders at the follow-up. These findings suggest that the pituitary gland exhibits ongoing volume changes during the early course of the schizophrenia spectrum as a possible marker of state-related impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  11. Electron microscopic observations of the anterior pituitary gland. Part I. The neurons in the "transitional zone" of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Yoshio; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Horiuchi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Since [Westlud, K.N., Chils, G.V., 1982. Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis. Endocrinology 111, 1761-1763] initially identified the serotonin nerve fibers in the anterior pituitary gland, attention has been paid to the rostral zone of the anterior lobe into which nerve fibers enter and subsequently spread to deeper regions of the lobe. The rostral zone is the trifurcated junction of the partes tuberalis, intermedia and distalis, and has the important role(s) for hormone secretion via the "transitional zone" [Sato, G, Shirasawa, N, Sakuma, E, Sato, Y, Asai, Y, Wada, I, Horiuchi, O, Sakamoto, A, Herbert, DC, Soji, T, 2005a. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XI: An immunohistochemical study of distributions of S-100 positive cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat. Tissue and Cell 37, 269-280.]. The objective of this study was to focus on the ultrastructure of this "zone." All of the animals studied were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde via the left ventricle of the heart and examined by electron microscopy. In the "transitional zone," a cluster of neuronal elements was observed between the folliculo-stellate cell-rich area and the anterior lobe. This cluster consisted of myelinated fibers, unmyelinated fibers, neuroendocrine fibers, large cells, and supporting cells. The large cells were perikarya of neurons which made a "ganglion-like" structure with associated satellite cells. Agranular, folliculo-stellate cells were intermingled among the elements. This is the first report that neuronal elements form clusters in the "transitional zone." A relationship of the unmyelinated and neuroendocrine fibers in the basal layer and in the "transitional zone" is discussed.

  12. A case report of pituitary gland metastasis from breast carcinoma%乳腺癌垂体转移1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫丹; 王铭宏; 迟明远

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prove the diagnostic accuracy of neoplasm metastasis of pituitary gland.Methods To report a case of pituitary gland metastasis from breast carcinoma and review the interrelated articles.Results Neoplasm metastasis of pituitary gland was rare.The original tumors from breast or lung were in the majority.Diabetes inspidus,impairment of optic nerves and hypopituitarism were often seen in the cases,without specific images on CT or MRI.The main point of identification between pituitary gland metastasis and pituitary adenoma is invasiveness.Conclusion Pituitary tumor should be discriminated with metastasis tumor,which has characteristic in rapid growth,strong invasiveness as well as involvement in both anterior lobe and posterior lobe.%目的 通过报道1例乳腺癌垂体转移病例,结合相关文献,总结垂体转移癌的临床特点,以提高对垂体转移癌的认识和诊断水平.方法 分析解放军第222医院1例确诊为乳腺癌垂体转移患者的临床资料,整理近期国内外关于垂体转移癌的相关文献.结果 垂体转移癌十分罕见,多来源于乳腺癌和肺癌,缺乏特征性影像学表现,以尿崩症、视神经损害和垂体前叶功能障碍为主要临床表现,与腺瘤的主要鉴别要点是具有侵袭性.结论 对于生长迅速、侵袭性强、同时影响垂体前后叶功能的鞍区肿瘤需注意和垂体转移癌相鉴别.

  13. Competing interests in a lung cancer with metastasis to the pituitary gland: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion versus diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsin, Gaurav Singh; Jacobs, Madeleine Louisa Bryson; Gohil, Shailesh; Thomas, Adam; Levy, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland are rare; cancers that most commonly metastasize to the pituitary are breast and lung cancers. No specific computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging features reliably distinguish primary pituitary masses from metastases. A combination of a detailed clinical assessment together with specialist endocrine and neuroradiology support is essential to make the rare diagnosis of a pituitary metastasis. We present the case of a man with metastatic lung cancer, initially presenting as hypopituitarism. Subtle features in the history, together with neuroimaging findings atypical for pituitary adenomas, provided clues that the diagnosis was one of the pituitary metastases. Treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) with replacement antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was complicated by extreme difficulties in achieving a satisfactory sodium and water balance. This was the result of coexistent DI and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion perpetuated by the patient's primary lung cancer, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature.

  14. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  15. No pituitary gland volume change in medication-free depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cagdas; Ovali, Gulgun Yilmaz; Ozan, Erol; Eker, Ozlem Donat; Kitis, Omer; Coburn, Kerry; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2008-10-01

    Increased serum cortisol levels and a hyperactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, there are inconsistent results regarding pituitary gland volume (PGV), which is one of the key elements of the HPA axis evaluated by MRI in depressed patients. In this study, we analyzed the PGV of medication-free moderately depressed MDD patients (N=34) and age and sex matched healthy controls (N=39). PGV did not differ between MDD patients and healthy controls [mean volume+/-S.D.; 0.76+/-0.17 cm3 and 0.75+/-0.14 cm3; ANCOVA, F1,69=1.25 p>0.05; respectively]. Our results confirm that volumetric PGV changes are not crucial for depression pathophysiology among unmedicated, moderately depressed adults.

  16. Ras1CA overexpression in the posterior silk gland improves silk yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Hanfu Xu; Jinqi Zhu; Sanyuan Ma; Yan Liu; Rong-Jing Jiang; Qingyou Xia; Sheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Sericulture has been greatly advanced by applying hybrid breeding techniques to the domesticated silkworm,Bombyx mori,but has reached a plateau during the last decades. For the first time,we report improved silk yield in a GAL4/UAS transgenic silkworm. Overexpression of the Ras1CA oncogene specifically in the posterior silk gland improved fibroin production and silk yield by 60%,while increasing food consumption by only 20%. Ras activation by Ras1CA overexpression in the posterior silk gland enhanced phosphorylation levels of Ras downstream effector proteins,up-regulated fibroin mRNA levels,increased total DNA content,and stimulated endoreplication. Moreover,Rasl activation increased cell and nuclei sizes,enriched subcellular organelles related to protein synthesis,and stimulated ribosome biogenesis for mRNA translation. We conclude that Rasl activation increases cell size and protein synthesis in the posterior silk gland,leading to silk yield improvement.

  17. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  19. A descriptive study to find possible correlation between MRI findings of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeemuddin, Muhammad; Naqi, Rohana; Wasay, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    To explore equation, if any, between findings of magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level. The retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and related to patients' records from April 19, 2006 to April 23, 2009. Seventy patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of brain for pituitary gland. Inclusion criteria were all patients referred with relevant clinical symptoms or deranged serum prolactin level. Patients who were claustrophobic or had a pacemaker, aneurysm clip, metallic foreign body in the orbit or with no laboratory investigation were excluded from the study. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 70 patients, normal imaging was noted in 29 (41.4%) patients. Out of these, 18 (62.06%) patients had normal and 11 (37.93%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Microadenoma was found in 23 (32.8%) patients. Out of these, 10 (42.47%) had normal and 13 (56.52%) had raised prolactin levels. Macroadenoma was found in 16 (22.8 %). Out of these, 8 (50%) had normal and 8 (50%) had raised prolactin levels. Pituitary cyst was located in 2 (2.8 %) patients. Out of these, 1 (50%) had normal and 1 (50%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland was not associated with serum prolactin levels in patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary abnormality. Therefore, regular monitoring of serum prolactin is suggested.

  20. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R;

    1990-01-01

    .g., ACTH, beta-endorphin, Pro-tau-MSH, in the pituitary gland and adrenal medulla. The JP-N immunoreactive cells in the adrenal medulla were identified as a subpopulation of adrenaline-producing cells by means of an antiserum against phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. In the gut immunoreactive JP...

  1. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  2. Ontogenic development of corticotrophs in fetal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the subpopulation of corticotrophs in developing buffalo (Bubalus bubalis fetus, recovered pituitary glands (n=6 per group from late first, second and third gestational female buffalo dams. The corticotrophs were identified by using specific antibodies against proopiomelanocortin (POMC and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH through immunohistochemistry. There was a significant (P≤0.05 increase of immunoreactive (ir ir-ACTH cells during late 2nd trimester while, ir-POMC cells were more (P≤0.05 at late 3rd trimester of gestation as compared to other age groups. The quantity of co-localized cells for POMC and ACTH was significantly (P≤0.05 greater at the end of 1st gestation rather than 2nd and 3rd gestational fetal adenohypophyseal cells. This study is the first to demonstrate co-localization of POMC+ACTH and the affect of gestational age on the expression of these cells in buffalo fetus adenohypophysis.

  3. The pituitary gland of the coelacanth fish Latimeria chalumnae Smith: general structure and adenohypophysial cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kemenade, J A; Kremers, J W

    1975-11-12

    The pituitary gland of Latimeria chalumnae is situated rostroventral to the telencephalon. The hollow pituitary stalk is bent forward and is ventrally connected to a saccus-vasculosus-like organ, rostrally to a neurointermediate lobe. The infundibular lumen protrudes far into the neurohypophysial lobules. The elongated principal part (pars cerebralis) of the pars distalis is partly embedded in a dorsal depression of the pars intermedia and caudally invaded by the neurohypophysis. It may be divided into rostral and proximal pars distalis and includes a ramified hypophysial cleft, which continues rostrally as a duct with adjacent islets of pars distalis tissue (parts of a pars buccalis). The adenohypophysis consists of cell cords and follicles. Eight tinctorial cell types can be distinguished: in the rostral islets: large basophils with acidophil globules, in the rostral pars distalis: small basophils, large basophils with amphiphil characters and erythrosin-, orange G-positive acidophils; in the proximal pars distalis: orange G-positive acidophils and small and large basophils, having similar staining properties; in the pars intermedia: one amphiphil cell type.

  4. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P

    2016-08-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT). Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirectly, at the presence and position of the adenoma. The first aim of this retrospective study was to compare findings of a multiple slice dynamic scanning protocol with those of a single slice dynamic protocol using a single slice CT scanner. The second aim was to compare the CT findings with surgical findings, and surgical findings with histopathological findings. Computed tomography with single and multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols was performed in 86 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Thirty dogs underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and pituitary specimens were collected as tumor, normal, mixed and neurohypophyseal samples and processed for histology. The pituitary flush was not detected more frequent in multiple slice dynamic scanning series than in single slice dynamic scanning series. However, in non-enlarged pituitaries, the flush was seen significantly more frequently than in enlarged pituitaries. Prediction of the nature of the tissue during hypophysectomy by the surgeon was inconclusive. In conclusion, when using a single slice CT scanner, both single or multiple slice dynamic scanning protocols can be used for localization of the neurohypophyseal flush, and, indirectly, the adenoma. However, based on this study, the aim of surgery in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism remains total adenohypophysectomy, and when the neurophypophysis is recognized, it may be left in situ.

  5. The comparison between circadian oscillators in mouse liver and pituitary gland reveals different integration of feeding and light schedules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M Bur

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian system is composed of multiple peripheral clocks that are synchronized by a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. This system keeps track of the external world rhythms through entrainment by various time cues, such as the light-dark cycle and the feeding schedule. Alterations of photoperiod and meal time modulate the phase coupling between central and peripheral oscillators. In this study, we used real-time quantitative PCR to assess circadian clock gene expression in the liver and pituitary gland from mice raised under various photoperiods, or under a temporal restricted feeding protocol. Our results revealed unexpected differences between both organs. Whereas the liver oscillator always tracked meal time, the pituitary circadian clockwork showed an intermediate response, in between entrainment by the light regimen and the feeding-fasting rhythm. The same composite response was also observed in the pituitary gland from adrenalectomized mice under daytime restricted feeding, suggesting that circulating glucocorticoids do not inhibit full entrainment of the pituitary clockwork by meal time. Altogether our results reveal further aspects in the complexity of phase entrainment in the circadian system, and suggest that the pituitary may host oscillators able to integrate multiple time cues.

  6. ARTIFICIAL SPAWNING OF EUROPEAN CATFISH (Silurus glanis L. USING SMALL DOSES OF CARP PITUITARY GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stević

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 and 1998 in the “Ribnjak 1905”•d. d. Našice hatchery artificial spawing of European catfish (Silurus glanis L. was researched under productive conditions using small doses of carp pituitary (CP. Befiwe dosing the carp pituitary glands female catfish were marked, weighed out, grouped according-to their maturity and devided in 5 categories based on grade of their maturity (MC. We used our own criteria. In the controlled group (n=21 female catfish received a single CP shot dosed at 4.5 mg. kg -1 of the body weight (b. w., while in the experimental group (n=62 female fish were treated with single low dosed CP on three levels. It was found out that the minimal CP dosage for the artificial spawning on the 3rd MG is 2.04+-0.15, on the 4th MG 1.59+-0.16 and on the 5th MG 1.25+-0.10 mg. kg-1 of the b. m. Simultaneously, the efficiency of spawning compared to the controlled group was not reduced because it ranged between 92-100% (p<0.0.5, while relative fertility on the 3rd, 4th and 5th maturity grade totalled 9.9+-2.1, 10.4+-1.6 and 11.5+-1.3%, (p<0.05 adequately. The established minimal CP dosages for spawning of European catfish are two to three times lower than relevant data from the reference literature. It is assumed that they will have positive influence on final harmonic maturing process of the oocytes oocita, and by that on better quality of ovulated eggs.

  7. The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel directly affects gene expression in thyroid and pituitary glands of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Claudia; Opitz, Robert; Trubiroha, Achim; Lutz, Ilka; Zikova, Andrea; Kloas, Werner

    2016-08-01

    The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) was previously shown to perturb thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. However, so far the mechanisms underlying the anti-metamorphic effects of LNG remained unknown. Therefore, a series of in vivo and ex vivo experiments was performed to identify potential target sites of LNG action along the pituitary-thyroid axis of X. laevis tadpoles. Prometamorphic tadpoles were treated in vivo with LNG (0.01-10nM) for 72h and brain-pituitary and thyroid tissue was analyzed for marker gene expression. While no treatment-related changes were observed in brain-pituitary tissue, LNG treatment readily affected thyroidal gene expression in tadpoles including decreased slc5a5 and iyd mRNA expression and a strong induction of dio2 and dio3 expression. When using an ex vivo organ explant culture approach, direct effects of LNG on both pituitary and thyroid gland gene expression were detecTable Specifically, treatment of pituitary explants with 10nM LNG strongly stimulated dio2 expression and concurrently suppressed tshb expression. In thyroid glands, ex vivo LNG treatment induced dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression in a thyrotropin-independent manner. When thyroid explants were cultured in thyrotropin-containing media, LNG caused similar gene expression changes as seen after 72h in vivo treatment including a very strong repression of thyrotropin-induced slc5a5 expression. Concerning the anti-thyroidal activity of LNG as seen under in vivo conditions, our ex vivo data provide clear evidence that LNG directly affects expression of genes important for thyroidal iodide handling as well as genes involved in negative feedback regulation of pituitary tshb expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J F Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI, secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient′s mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.

  9. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  10. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  11. Effects of an indigenous contraceptive herbal formulation on gonadotrophs of the pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohd Nazrul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Kapitonova, Marina Y; Jamallullail, Syed Mohsin Sahil

    2007-01-01

    An indigenous contraceptive herbal formulation consisting of a mixture of Lepidagathis longifolia, Palaquium sp and Phyllagathis rotundifolia is being used by the Temuan Aborigins of Malaysia. Although the previous studies demonstrated that this contraceptive herbal formulation causes anovulatory estrous cycle, altered circulating hormone levels and fetal resorption in rats, but the effects of this formulation on the gonadotrphs of the pituitary gland are yet to be evaluated. The present study was designed to observe the morphometric changes of the gonadotrophs and the plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone. Thirty five Sprague-Dawley adult female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Experimental animals were given a combined herbal extract or individual herbal extract at a dose of 540 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 7 days. Immunostained gonadotrophs were studied by using image analyzer. FSH and LH serum concentrations were determined using RIA. The FSH and LH concentrations were low in animals that received combined herbal extract (p<0.01). FSH concentration was noted to be significantly low in animals that received P. rotundifolia (p<0.05). The mean cell area and cell density of gonadotrophs of animals that received combined herbal extract were significantly low compared to control group (p<0.05). It was concluded that the herbal extracts do suppress the production of gonaotrophins along with the demonstrable suppresive effect on the FSH cells.

  12. Global differential gene expression in the pituitary gland and the ovaries of pre- and postpubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Reverter, A; Cánovas, A; Venus, B; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Lehnert, S A; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S; Fortes, M R S

    2017-02-01

    To understand genes, pathways, and networks related to puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of two tissues: the pituitary gland and ovaries. Samples were harvested from pre- and postpubertal Brahman heifers (same age group). Brahman heifers () are older at puberty compared with , a productivity issue. With RNA sequencing, we identified differentially expressed (DEx) genes and important transcription factors (TF) and predicted coexpression networks. The number of DEx genes detected in the pituitary gland was 284 ( < 0.05), and was the most DEx gene (fold change = 4.12, = 0.01). The gene promotes bone mineralization through transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling. Further studies of the link between bone mineralization and puberty could target . In ovaries, 3,871 genes were DEx ( < 0.05). Four highly DEx genes were noteworthy for their function: (a γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] transporter), (), and () and its receptor . These genes had higher ovarian expression in postpubertal heifers. The GABA and its receptors and transporters were expressed in the ovaries of many mammals, suggesting a role for this pathway beyond the brain. The pathway has been known to influence the timing of puberty in rats, via modulation of GnRH. The effects of at the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries have been documented. and its receptors are known factors in the release of GnRH, similar to and GABA, although their roles in ovarian tissue are less clear. Pathways previously related to puberty such as TGFβ signaling ( = 6.71 × 10), Wnt signaling ( = 4.1 × 10), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling ( = 4.84 × 10) were enriched in our data set. Seven genes were identified as key TF in both tissues: , , , , , , and a novel gene. An ovarian subnetwork created with TF and significant ovarian DEx genes revealed five zinc fingers as regulators: , , , , and . Recent work of hypothalamic gene expression also pointed to zinc fingers as TF for bovine

  13. Prevalence of hypopituitarism after intracranial operations not directly associated with the pituitary gland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, Steffen Kristian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Rosenstengel, Christian; Matthes, Marc; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias; Schroeder, Henry Werner Siegfried; Spielhagen, Christin

    2013-01-01

    ...) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has steadily increased. Moreover, recent studies have found that a clinically relevant number of patients develop pituitary insufficiency after intracranial operations and radiation treatment for non-pituitary tumors...

  14. Accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic segmentation technique for MR volumetry of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, Diane M. [Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, Horst K.; Rexilius, Jan [Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Peter [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Jena (Germany); Lentschig, Markus [MR- and PET/CT Centre Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Sauner, Dieter [St. Georg Clinic Leipzig, Hospital Hubertusburg, Department of Radiology, Wermsdorf (Germany); Fitzek, Clemens [Asklepios Clinic Brandenburg, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany); Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Reichenbach, Juergen R. [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Clinic Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Although several reports about volumetric determination of the pituitary gland exist, volumetries have been solely performed by indirect measurements or manual tracing on the gland's boundaries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic MR-based segmentation technique. In an initial technical investigation, T1-weighted 3D native magnetised prepared rapid gradient echo sequences (1.5 T) with 1 mm isotropic voxel size achieved high reliability and were utilised in different in vitro and in vivo studies. The computer-assisted segmentation technique was based on an interactive watershed transform after resampling and gradient computation. Volumetry was performed by three observers with different software and neuroradiologic experiences, evaluating phantoms of known volume (0.3, 0.9 and 1.62 ml) and healthy subjects (26 to 38 years; overall 135 volumetries). High accuracy of the volumetry was shown by phantom analysis; measurement errors were <4% with a mean error of 2.2%. In vitro, reproducibility was also promising with intra-observer variability of 0.7% for observer 1 and 0.3% for observers 2 and 3; mean inter-observer variability was in vitro 1.2%. In vivo, scan-rescan, intra-observer and inter-observer variability showed mean values of 3.2%, 1.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Unifactorial analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences between pituitary volumes for various MR scans or software calculations in the healthy study groups (p > 0.05). The analysed semi-automatic MR volumetry of the pituitary gland is a valid, reliable and fast technique. Possible clinical applications are hyperplasia or atrophy of the gland in pathological circumstances either by a single assessment or by monitoring in follow-up studies. (orig.)

  15. Glucocorticoid regulation of gonadotropin release from gonadotropes of ovine pituitary gland in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangalama, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of gonadotropin release by the pituitary gland, the short-term effects of cortisol perifusion (1.5 h to 8 hrs) on GnRH-induced LH secretion were investigated. To determine the biochemical mechanism(s) by which cortisol can act to modulate GnRH-induced LH release, the interactions of cortisol and arachidonic acid in GnRH-stimulated LH release were examined. Cortisol perifusion for 1.5 hr had no effect on GnRH-induced LH release, but longer treatment periods (4 hr-8 hrs) significantly reduced GnRH-stimulated LH release (4.0 hr, p < 0.01; 6.0 hr, p < 0.001; 8.0 hr, p < 0.01). Treatment and animal effects were highly significant (p < 0.001). There were significant interactions (p < 0.001) between treatment and animal as determined by a two-way ANOVA. Cortisol treatment also produced progressive increases in basal LH secretion with time (1.5 hr, p < 0.05; 4.0 hr, p < 0.01; 6.0 hr, p < 0.01; 8.0 hr, p < 0.001). Incubation of pituitary tissue with arachidonic acid (AA) resulted in a linear dose-response of LH (p < 0.001). Cortisol infusion failed to inhibit GnRH-induced LH release in which 10{sup {minus}4}M AA was administered for 20 min before a 10 min, 10{sup {minus}10}M GnRH pulse. Like cortisol, chloroquine also failed to inhibit AA-induced LH release. Perifusion with 10{sup {minus}6}M cortisol for 6.0 hours significantly (p < 0.001) blocked GnRH-stimulated (H{sup 3})AA release 24% below the basal (100%) ({sup 3}H)AA secretion. Reduction of ({sup 3}H)AA release was accompanied by decreased GnRH-stimulated LH secretion.

  16. Expression of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor gene in GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Inokuchi, K; Hasegawa, O; Sugihara, H; Minami, S

    1992-02-01

    Pituitary cells synthesize various neuropeptides that influence pituitary hormone secretion. GH-releasing factor (GRF) may also be produced by normal or pituitary tumor cells. We examined GRF gene expression in pituitary tumors. Standard techniques for the analysis of GRF gene expression did not appear to be suitable. Highly sensitive reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction was used. Specimens of pituitary adenoma were obtained by transsphenoidal adenomectomy from six patients with acromegaly and three patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary hormone overproduction; non-functioning adenoma. Pituitary glands were collected at autopsy from three patients who died from nonendocrine disorders. A specific GRF gene transcript was detected in five out of six GH-producing pituitary adenomas, whereas this was not found in three separate specimens of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or anterior and posterior pituitary tissue. The data suggest that GRF is synthesized as an intrinsic product in human GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

  17. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijer, F.J.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hermus, Ad [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  18. Distribution of adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide immunoreactivity in the pituitary gland of the frog Rana perezi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, M; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Villaro, A C

    2003-08-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are two multifunctional peptides processed from a common precursor which have been described in numerous mammalian organs, including the pituitary gland. Previous studies have found AM immunoreactivity in neurohypophysis nerve fibers of amphibian pituitary. In the present study, immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis in the pituitary gland of the amphibian Rana perezi demonstrated in the adenohypophysis both AM and PAMP. AM-like immunoreactivity was found in a moderate number of endocrine cells of the pars distalis. In the neurohypophysis, AM was observed not only in nerve fibers of pars nervosa and axonal projections innervating the pars intermedia, but also in the outer zone of the median eminence. PAMP staining was observed in numerous endocrine cells scattered all over the pars distalis and in some cells of the pars tuberalis, but not in the neurohypophysis. In order to compare the quantity of AM and PAMP immunoreactivity between pars distalis of female and male specimens, an image analysis study was done. Significant differences for AM immunoreactivity (p<0.001) between sexes was found, the males showing higher immunostained area percentage. Differences of PAMP immunoreactivity were not significant (p=0.599). Western blot analysis detected bands presumably corresponding to precursor and/or intermediate species in the propeptide processing.

  19. Interaction of growth hormone overexpression and nutritional status on pituitary gland clock gene expression in coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; White, Samantha L; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are involved in generating a circadian rhythm that is integrated with the metabolic state of an organism and information from the environment. Growth hormone (GH) transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, show a large increase in growth rate, but also attenuated seasonal growth modulations, modified timing of physiological transformations (e.g. smoltification) and disruptions in pituitary gene expression compared with wild-type salmon. In several fishes, circadian rhythm gene expression has been found to oscillate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, as well as in multiple peripheral tissues, but this control system has not been examined in the pituitary gland nor has the effect of transgenic growth modification been examined. Thus, the daily expression of 10 core clock genes has been examined in pituitary glands of GH transgenic (T) and wild-type coho salmon (NT) entrained on a regular photocycle (12L: 12D) and provided either with scheduled feeding or had food withheld for 60 h. Most clock genes in both genotypes showed oscillating patterns of mRNA levels with light and dark cycles. However, T showed different amplitudes and patterns of expression compared with wild salmon, both in fed and starved conditions. The results from this study indicate that constitutive expression of GH is associated with changes in clock gene regulation, which may play a role in the disrupted behavioural and physiological phenotypes observed in growth-modified transgenic strains.

  20. The state of «the pituitary gland - thyroid gland system» in the young men with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.

  1. Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery to the pituitary gland in Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerblad, M.; Raehn, T.; Bergstrand, G.; Thoren, M.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma radiation from /sup 60/Co delivered with stereotactic technique was given to the pituitary gland in 35 patients, aged 18-65 years, with Cushing's disease. The doses were 70-100 Gy in each single irradiation. The size of the sella turcica was normal in the majority of the patients. The observation time was 3-9 years in 29 patiens. Out of them, 14 (48%) obtained clinical remission and normal urinary cortisol after one irradiation. Eight achieved remission after two to four irradiations. In total, 22 out of 29 patients (76%) obtained remission. In 12 of them remission was obtained in 1 year and in another 10 within 3 years. No recurrences were observed. Improvement was seen in 2 patients after one and three irradiations. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 5 patients owing to unsatisfactory effect of irradiation. Pituitary insufficiency with gonadotropin, thyrotropin or cortocotropin failure was demonstrated in 12 of 22 patients in remission. This occurred 4 months to 7 years after the first irradiation. Another 6 patients were followed less than 3 years after the first irradiation. Two obtained remission after the first treatment, whereas the other 4 improved. Stereotactic pituitary irradiation is suggested as a non-invasive therapeutic alternative in Cushing's disease for example in patients with considerable surgical risk or as a supplement to pituitary microsurgery.

  2. Decreased angiotensin II binding affinity and binding capacity in the anterior pituitary gland of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG) binding sites were quantified in single pituitary glands from 4-week-old and 14-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats after incubation with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/)-ANG, autoradiography with computerized densitometry, and comparison to /sup 125/I-standards. The maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) decreased while the dissociation constant (K/sub d/) for ANG increased in 14-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched WKY control rats. Conversely, no difference between rat strains was found in 4-week-old animals. Our results suggest that pituitary ANG binding sites may play a role in the pathophysiology of established genetic hypertension.

  3. Alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary glands evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos administration in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela J Umosen; Suleiman F Ambali; Joseph O Ayo; Bisala Mohammed; Chidiebere Uchendu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary gland induced by subacute chlopyrifos (CPF) exposure in rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 10 animals were used for the study. Group I received soya oil (2 mL/kg) while group II was administered with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). Group III was administered CPF only (8.5 mg/kg ~ 1/10th of the LD50) while group IV was pretreated with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) and then exposed to CPF (8.5 mg/kg), 10 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 28 d. At the end of the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed and the testicular tissues and pituitary glands were evaluated for the malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Results: CPF increased MDA concentrations and reduced the activities of SOD and CAT in the testes and pituitary gland. Melatonin pretreatment reduced the testicular and pituitary MDA concentrations and improves the SOD and CAT activities. Conclusions: the study showed that subacute CPF-induced oxidative stress in the testes and pituitary glands were alleviated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property.

  4. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF VISUAL FIELD DEFECTS IN PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Bhandary

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the proportion of patients with visual field defects in pituitary adenomas And to study the pattern of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 patients diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma underwent complete ophthalmic and Humphrey’s Perimetry 30 – 2 visual field test at Department of ophthalmology, M. S Ramaiah Hospital between November 2011 to May 2013. RESULTS: Among the 24 cases in the study, 3 cases were of pituitary micro adenoma constituting 12.5% and the remaining cases (21 cases were pituitary macro adenoma, constituting 87.5%. Visual acuity of 6/6 – 6/12 were observed in 28 (58.3% out of total 48 eyes. Visual field defects were observed in 19 cases (79%. Bilateral temporal hemianopia was observed in the majority (41% of cases with field defects. One eye blind and contra lateral temporal hemianopia was observed in 20.8%. One eye temporal hemianopia and other eye involvement of 3 quadrants seen in 2 patients (8.4%. 5 patients had no visual field defects. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmologists have a minor role in primary diagnosis of pituitary adenoma, routine ophthalmologic examination is very important. To detect early visual field defects, automated perimetry should be done as a part routine examination in patients with suspected pituitary adenoma

  5. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  6. Bacteria in milk from anterior and posterior mammary glands in sows affected and unaffected by postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerjets Imke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of piglet weight gain is strongly dependent on the sow's ability to meet the demand for adequate milk. Postparturient disorders, especially those subsumed under the term postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS, can alter or reduce the milk production sensitively, resulting in starving piglets. The aim of this study was to gather further information about the prevalence of different bacterial species in the anterior and posterior mammary glands of sows with respect to the clinical appearance of PPDS. Methods In this study, the health status of 56 sows after farrowing was determined with special regard to mastitis and dysgalactia. Pooled milk samples from anterior and posterior glands were taken from both affected and non-affected animals and analysed bacteriologically for the presence of a wide spectrum of different pathogens. Results Mainly Escherichia coli, staphylococci and streptococci were detected in high percentages but without significant differences in healthy and diseased animals and anterior and posterior glands. However, the large percentages of coliform bacteria suggested a transmission route via faecal contamination. Conclusion In this study, the prevalence of different bacteria in anterior and posterior glands in PPDS positive and negative sows was analysed. No significant differences in bacteria of healthy and diseased sows were assessed. Therefore, the development of clinical PPDS and actual infection seems to be largely dependant on individual resistance in single sows.

  7. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10% of the pa......The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10...... laminin and tubulin. After treatment with estrogen, which is known to suppress the function of the gonadotrophic cells, virtually no cytoplasmic laminin was found. Ultrastructurally, the number of light bodies in the gonadotrophic cells diminished significantly, from approximately 3 to 8 per cell to 0...... to 1 per cell in a given section. In contrast, after castration, the number of laminin positive cells increased to a number above that found in the normal adult male rat, and the number of light bodies increased two to four times. Based on these results, it appears that the presence of cytoplasmic...

  8. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-11-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset of psychosis. There is a need for at critical appraisal of the literature on this topic accompanied by a meta-analytical evaluation of the data. We included studies comparing the volume of the pituitary gland in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, first episode of psychosis (FEP), schizotypal disorder or ultra high-risk (UHR) subjects. We defined three groups of subjects for the analyses: healthy controls; UHR and schizotypal patients; and patients diagnosed with first episode of psychosis, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found a trend of a larger pituitary volume in both UHR subject who had transition to psychosis (p=0.05) and in FEP subjects (p=0.09) compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in pituitary volume between patients with schizophrenia combined with FEP versus healthy controls (p=0.52) or between UHR (with and without transition) and healthy controls (p=0.24). In a regression analysis, we demonstrated that the number of subjects receiving antipsychotics and pituitary volume were positively correlated. As previously reported in other samples, gender also had an impact on pituitary volume with females presenting with a larger mean volume. Results from this meta-analysis suggest that the pituitary gland could be increasing before the onset of psychosis. Both gender and use of antipsychotics have a major impact on the pituitary volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative determination of angiotensin II binding sites in rat brain and pituitary gland by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, A.; Correa, F.M.A.; Niwa, M.; Saavedra, J.M. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1984-11-26

    Rat brain and pituitary angiotensin II (AII) binding sites were quantitated by incubation of tissue sections with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/) AII, Ultrofilm radioautography, computerized densitometry, and comparison with /sup 125/I-standards at appropriate film exposure times. The highest number of AII binding sites was found in anterior pituitary and the circumventricular organs, organon subfornicalis and organon vasculosum laminae terminalis.

  10. Pituitary tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  11. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  12. Occurrence of primary lymphocytic hypophysitis in two horses and presence of scattered T-lymphocytes in the normal equine pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Peckham, Robert; Paton, Jacqui; Stahel, Anina; de Brot, Simone

    2017-01-01

    The postmortem examination of a 14-y-old Appaloosa gelding with clinically diagnosed pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction showed a unique finding of moderate multifocal lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH). The pituitary glands of 24 horses submitted for postmortem examination were examined grossly and examined histologically for the presence of lymphocytes. Of these 23 horses, 1 additional case suffered from moderate LH. The 2 cases with LH tested negative for Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and no viral particles were observed by electron microscopy in 1 case examined. The cause of LH remains unknown, but based on the T-lymphocytic nature of the inflammation and the human literature, an immune-mediated origin is hypothesized. In addition, the review of 24 cases revealed that 10 horses had few and small multifocal lymphocytic infiltrates within the pituitary gland; the remaining 12 horses showed no evident lymphocytes when examined by hematoxylin and eosin. IHC for CD3 showed the presence of a small number of individual T-lymphocytes scattered through the gland in all examined horses, which appears therefore to be a normal feature of the pituitary gland in horses.

  13. [The history of the pituitary gland: evolution of mental representation and concepts over time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, H; Jedidi, Z; Beckers, A

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamo pituitary axis, as the true conductor of the endocrine orchestra, is frequently involved in a large variety of pathological conditions such as acromegaly, behavioral disorders, obesity or dwarfism. It is paradoxical to note that, in spite of its importance, this system has been almost ignored by the physiologists of the late centuries. From the physiological conceptions of the physicians and philosophers of antiquity to the theories of the medieval and of the Renaissance physiologists, we will try to understand why the role of pituitary remained so long unrecognized.

  14. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression...... and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. RESULTS: Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human...

  16. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens.

  17. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated wi

  18. CT findings in symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Buchheit, F.; Heldt, N.

    1983-03-01

    Symptomatic intrasellar Rathke's cleft cysts are rather rare: only a few cases with CT findings have been reported. The authors describe the CT appearance of 3. Histological aspects and embryology are discussed. Rathke's cleft cysts have to be differentiated from other intersellar tumors: cystic craniopharyngiomas, cystic or necrotic pituitary adenomas, cysticercosis.

  19. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  20. 3D volumetry comparison using 3T magnetic resonance imaging between normal and adenoma-containing pituitary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Roldan-Valadez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed-assisted three-dimensional data (3D allows for an accurate evaluation of volumes compared with traditional measurements. Aims: An in vitro method comparison between geometric volume and 3D volumetry to obtain reference data for pituitary volumes in normal pituitary glands (PGs and PGs containing adenomas. Design: Prospective, transverse, analytical study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with 3D sequencing for computer-aided volumetry. PG phantom volumes by both methods were compared. Using the best volumetric method, volumes of normal PGs and PGs with adenoma were compared. Statistical analysis used the Bland-Altman method, t-statistics, effect size and linear regression analysis. Results: Method comparison between 3D volumetry and geometric volume revealed a lower bias and precision for 3D volumetry. A total of 27 patients exhibited normal PGs (mean age, 42.07 ± 16.17 years, although length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in women than in men. A total of 21 patients exhibited adenomas (mean age 39.62 ± 10.79 years, and length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in men than in women, with significant volumetric differences. Age did not influence pituitary volumes on linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Results from the present study showed that 3D volumetry was more accurate than the geometric method. In addition, the upper normal limits of PGs overlapped with lower volume limits during early stage microadenomas.

  1. Two Adult Patients with Ectopic Neurohypophysis and Panhypopituitarism Due to Absent Pituitary Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fettah Acıbucu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of 27-year-old and 19-year-old female patients with ectopic neurohypophysis and panhypopituitarism due to absent pituitary stalk. They were admitted to the endocrinology clinic with short stature, growth retardation and primary amenorrhea. Basal hormones revealed secondary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism and growth hormone insufficiency. Peak cortisol response to the short synacthen test (SST was normal but was inadequate to insulin tolerance test. The other dynamic pituitary function tests showed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland revealed an ectopic posterior pituitary tissue and absent pituitary stalk. We administered hormone replacement therapy. As this disorder is usually encountered in the pediatric age group, we report here two adult patients with ectopic posterior pituitary tissue, absent pituitary stalk and panhypopituitarism.

  2. A novel missense mutation (P366T) of the LHX4 gene causes severe combined pituitary hormone deficiency with pituitary hypoplasia, ectopic posterior lobe and a poorly developed sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Hattori, Tsukasa; Nakajima, Takeo; Okuhara, Koji; Tsubaki, Junko; Fujieda, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    LIM homeodomain transcription factors regulate many aspects of development in multicellular organisms. LHX4/Lhx4 is a protein that is essential for pituitary development and motor neuron specification in mammals. In human, a heterozygous splicing mutation of the LHX4 gene was reported in a family with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). In addition to CPHD, these patients were characterized by small sella turcica and chiari malformation. Here we report a Japanese patient with CPHD (GH, PRL, TSH, LH, FSH, and ACTH deficiency) due to a novel missense mutation (P366T) of the LHX 4 gene. She showed severe respiratory disease and hypoglycemia soon after birth. Brain MRI demonstrated hypoplastic anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior lobe, a poorly developed sella turcica, and chiari malformation. Sequence analysis of the LHX 4 gene identified a heterozygous missense mutation (P366T) in exon 6, which was present in LIM4 specific domain. Neither of the patient's parents harbored this mutation, indicating de novo mutation.

  3. Malformations of cranial base structures and pituitary gland in prenatal Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Hansen, B F; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    are constant phenotypic traits in MS. The adenohypophysis was present in three cases. In one of these, ectopia of the gland occurred with adenopituitary tissue overlying the dorsum sella, and in another remnants were found in the pharyngeal submucosa. In two fetuses the neurohypophysis was not found...

  4. Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febin Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by either haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. In most cases, a pre-existing pituitary macroadenoma is present. Patients present with the clinical syndrome of headache, visual defects or ophthalmoplegia, altered state of consciousness and variable endocrine deficits.

  5. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  6. Pituitary gland signal in pre-term infants during the first year of life: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, K.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Dept., Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece)

    2004-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pituitary gland signal of premature neonates and infants. We retrospectively measured, in a midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI scan, the pituitary signal of 121 premature infants (mean gestational age: 32.8 weeks, mean chronological age:6.9 months, mean corrected age:5.2 months). The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V had a negative correlation with chronological age (r = -0.38, r = -0.35, respectively, P < 0.01) and corrected age (r = -0.42, r = -0.40, respectively, P < 0.01). The (A-V)/V was different in the three grade groups; significant difference was found between grades 3 and 2 and grades 3 and 1. The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age. The adenohypophyseal and neurohypophyseal signals decrease with age. (orig.)

  7. Breast Cancer Metastasis to Pituitary Infandibulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursadegh Fard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis from breast cancer to other parts of the body is very common, but the spread of the tumor to pituitary gland, especially to infandibulum, is a rare presentation. At the time of pituitary metastasis, a majority of the patients have clinical and radiological evidence of the disease. It seems that the posterior area of the gland is the most common site of metastasis, probably due to highly rich blood supply through the hypophyseal artery. The present report introduces a case of a 55-years-old woman presented with diabetes insipidus resulting from metastasis of the tumor to pituitary infandibulum, which is a rare site for metastasis, without significant complaint resulting from metastasis to other part of the body, or other primary diseases. Further evaluation revealed that in spite of previous reports, which metastasis usually happens in end stage of cancer, the patients had primary breast cancer. In subsequent evaluations of the case, hypofunction of adenohypophysis was also detected

  8. Establishing a protein expression profile database for the normal human pituitary gland using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Xie; Wei Xu; Weimin Bao; Hang Liu; Luping Chen; Yiwen Shen; Jianhong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we selected adult normal pituitary gland tissues from six patients during operations for pituitary microadenomas via the transsphenoidal approach for extended normal pituitary tissue resection around the tumor, and analyzed the protein expression of human normal pituitary using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry proteomics technology. The ten most highly expressed proteins in normal human pituitary were: alpha 3 type VI collagen isoform 5 precursor (abundance among tall pituitary proteins, 1.30%), fibrinogen beta chain preproprotein (0.99%), vimentin (0.73%), prolactin (0.69%), ATP synthase, H+ transporting and mitochondrial F1 complex beta subunit precursor (0.52%), keratin I (0.49%), growth hormone (0.45%), carbonic anhydrase I (0.40%), heat shock protein 90 kDa I (0.31%), and annexin V (0.30%). Based on the biological function classifications of these proteins, the top three categories by content were neuroendocrine proteins (abundance among all pituitary proteins, 40.1%), catalytic and metabolic proteins (28.3%), and cell signal transduction proteins (9.8%). Based on cell positioning classification, the top three categories were cell organelle (24.5%), membrane (20.8%), and cytoplasm (13.0%). Based on biological process classification, the top three categories of proteins are involved in physiological processes (42.9%), cellular processes (40.4%), and regulation of biological processes (9.1%). Our experimental findings indicate that a protein expression profile database of normal human pituitary can be precisely and efficiently established by proteomics technology.

  9. MicroRNA of the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of silkworm identified by Solexa sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No special studies have been focused on the microRNA (miRNA in the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. Here, using next-generation sequencing, we acquired 93.2 million processed reads from 10 small RNA libraries. In this paper, we tried to thoroughly describe how our dataset generated from deep sequencing which was recently published in BMC genomics. Results showed that our findings are largely enriched silkworm miRNA depository and may benefit us to reveal the miRNA functions in the process of silk production.

  10. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  11. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the glan

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkowska, J.; Horky, K.; Schiffrin, E.L.; Thibault, G.; Garcia, R.; De Lean, A.; Hamet, P.; Tremblay, J.; Anand-Srivastava, M.B.; Januszewicz, P.

    1986-06-01

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 ..mu..g ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP.

  13. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria;

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  14. MRI study of normal pituitary gland in children and adolescents for adrenal gland: Its effect on MPR qnality%正常儿童垂体MIR测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉艳; 于台飞; 李桂梅; 杨金永; 时启红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To measure the volume and size of pituitary glands in healthy children and provide database for researching on a variety of diseases associated with alteration of pituitary structure. Methods Ninety-nine participator children were scanned by MRI using T1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization fast gradient recalled echo sequence. The volume and size of pituitary were measured using post-processing images by MIP and Reformat. The difference among three groups of same sexualities and different ages were compared by one-way ANOVA; difference between male and female were analyzed by the two-sample t-test, and the difference among measurements of the types of pituitary glands were analyzed by Chi-square test. Results The volume of pituitary among different ages has difference significance in male and female ( P <0. 05). The typing was more bigger than another ( P <0. 05). Conclusion With higher solution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software, volume and size of pituitary glands were accurately measured so as to provide the basic data for research of the Pituitary.%目的 测量正常儿童垂体体积及各径线的值,为各种导致垂体结构改变疾病的临床诊断和科学研究提供基础数据.方法 对99例自愿者儿童依次采用MRI三维快速扰相梯度回波T1 (3D T1 WI FSPGR)序列进行扫描,垂体的体积及各方向径线测量使用MIP和Reformat处理软件的图像.相同性别不同年龄组的比较采用方差分析,不同性别相同组别的比较采用独立样本t检验分析,垂体分型数据采用卡方分析.结果 垂体体积在相同性别不同年龄组间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);不同性别相同年龄组间分型有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 采用高分辨率MRI获得正常人儿童不同年龄段的垂体体积及多方向径线数据,为进一步研究垂体相关疾病提供了基础性数据.

  15. PRL and GH synthesis and release from the sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) pituitary gland in vitro in response to osmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan; Brinca, Lilia; Guerreiro, Pedro M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-08-01

    The endocrine factors prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) are believed to have counteracting effects in the adaption of fish to changes in environmental salinity. In order to further investigate this interaction sea bream were challenged with full seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) for 7 days and the response of pituitary glands cultured in vitro to an osmotic challenge (230, 275 and 320 mOsm/kg) was assessed. In vitro PRL secretion from pituitaries of SW-adapted fish was unaltered in response to an osmotic challenge, while GH secretion increased in the lowest osmolality (230 mOsm/kg). In contrast, both GH and PRL secretion by pituitaries from FW challenged fish was significantly increased (pPRL content and de novo synthesised and released PRL were significantly increased (pPRL secretion was not different from SW animals. GH pituitary content decreased in FW animals while total secretion and secretion of de novo synthesised protein were significantly increased (pPRL and GH increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Despite the increase in PRL expression, no increase in total PRL secretion occurred and although in gills a 2-fold increase in the osmoregulatory marker, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was detected, profound haemodilution and a cumulative mortality of 40% occurred in sea bream placed in FW. Taken together the results suggest that the sea bream pituitary gland fails to respond appropriately to the osmotic challenge caused by low salinity and the physiological response evoked in vivo is not enough to allow this species to withstand and adapt to FW.

  16. Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and neuroendocrine tumor syndrome with a homogenous enlargement of the pituitary gland: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabban, Lama; Kassab, Lina; Bakoura, Nour Alhuda; Alsalka, Mohammad Fayez; Maksoud, Ismaeil

    2016-11-22

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome. We present a documented case of a 4 years and 8-month-old Syrian Arabic girl with a distinctive course of signs and symptoms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome accompanied by mature ganglioneuroma in her chest, a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland, generalized cortical brain atrophy, and seizures. Three months after her first marked symptoms were noted she had a sudden progression of severe respiratory distress that ended with her death. The findings of this case could increase our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation, and place more emphases on pediatricians to consider rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome whenever early rapid onset of obesity, associated with any malfunction, is observed in children. This knowledge could be lifesaving for children with rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome.

  17. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion by perifused pituitary and adrenal glands from rodents exposed to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J A; Buckalew, A R; House, D E; Abbott, B D

    2000-10-26

    Although in utero maternal stress has been shown to have lasting effects on rodent offspring, fetal effects of chemically-induced alterations of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) have not been well studied. This study examined the effects of in vivo 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on pituitary-adrenal function in the male rat, pregnant female rat and pregnant female mouse. The secretion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in pituitary and adrenal glands, respectively, was assessed in ex vivo perifusion cultures. Male and pregnant female (gestation day 8) Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged once with 10 microgram/kg TCDD, pregnant female mice once with 24 microgram/kg TCDD, and euthanized 10 days later. Hemi-pituitary (rat) or whole anterior pituitaries (mice) and right adrenal glands from the same animal were quartered, perifused under baseline and stimulated conditions. In both males and pregnant females, TCDD did not affect corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated ACTH secretion. Neither total pituitary ACTH nor plasma ACTH was altered in either sex or species by TCDD treatment. ACTH-stimulated CORT secretion was not affected by TCDD in either sex or species, and adrenal tissue and plasma CORT levels were unchanged in males and pregnant females by TCDD. However, the plasma ACTH:CORT ratio was decreased about 46% in male rats treated with TCDD. Plasma CORT levels were 23-fold higher and plasma ACTH levels were 1.5-fold higher in pregnant females than in male rats. In male versus female rats, adrenal CORT and anterior pituitary ACTH tissue levels were about 7.5- and 1.75-fold higher and ACTH, respectively. Female mouse adrenal tissue CORT was about 4-fold greater than female rat. The reduced plasma ACTH:CORT ratio in the male rat suggests that TCDD disturbs HPA function. Exposure of male rat to a 5-fold higher dose in earlier studies clearly demonstrated effects of TCDD on male rat HPA. The present

  18. 小型猪与小鼠腮腺、泪腺、垂体超微结构的观察与比较%Comparative ultrastructural study of parotid gland, lacrimal gland and pituitary gland between miniature pig and mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜兴; 海波; 孙异临; 张春梅; 王松灵

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the ultrastructure of parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands between miniature pig and mouse. Methods Five adult miniature pigs and 5 mice were studied. Ultrastructure of their parotid glands, lacrimal glands and pituitary glands was observed. Results The secretary granules in acinar cell of miniature pig parotid glands showed higher density and more aequalis than those of mice. The cell apparatus in acinar cell of mouse parotid glands were more plentiful than those of miniature pigs. The secretary granules on blood vessel wall were richer in parotid gland of miniature pigs compared with mouse parotid gland. Lacrimal gland had the similar ultrastructure to parotid gland in these two animals. Many blood vessel antrums were found in pituitary glands of these two animals. Conclusions Compared with mouse parotid glands, there are more secretary granules in acinar cells and vascular endothelial cells in miniature pig parotid glands, which might enter blood stream and have function of endocrine secretion.%目的 研究小型猪及小鼠腮腺的超微结构特点,并将腮腺与泪腺、垂体的超微结构对比观察,旨为涎腺基因治疗转基因表达的生物学特性提供腺体形态学的依据.方法选用成年小型猪、昆明种小鼠各5只,分别取腮腺、泪腺、垂体进行超微结构观察.结果小型猪较小鼠的腮腺腺泡细胞内分泌颗粒密度大,质地均匀,细胞器少见,血管内皮细胞内有较多分泌颗粒存在.小型猪与小鼠泪腺超微结构均与各自腮腺相似,小型猪与小鼠垂体结构特点为细胞排列散在,细胞间充满血窦及毛细血管.结论小型猪腮腺腺泡细胞分泌颗粒多,其毛细血管内皮细胞中也可见较多分泌颗粒,提示这些分泌颗粒可能进入血液发挥内分泌功能.

  19. Diabetes Insipidus and Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency Due to Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastases from breast cancer to the pituitary gland are uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency resulting from breast cancer metastases to the pituitary gland. The patient presented with reduced consciousness, fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hypernatremia (sodium: 154 mmol/L, hypostenuria (urine density: 1001, and hypopituitarism were present on laboratory evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed heterogeneous pituitary gland, thickened pituitary stalk (8mm, and loss of normal hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary. Based on the clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency due to pituitary metastases from breast cancer. She received desmopressin, L-thyroxine, and prednisolone, which resulted in improvement of her symptoms and laboratory results. The patient, who also received Gamma Knife radiosurgery and chemotherapy, died six months later due to disseminated metastases. Although pituitary metastasis is rare, it should be kept in mind in patients with breast cancer since early detection and treatment can improve symptoms of patients.

  20. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  1. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pituitary Tumors Go to Health Professional ... by many other glands in the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  2. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena P Cabilla

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h, 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway.

  3. Regulatory effects of electro-acupuncture at Zusanli on ir-SP content in rat pituitary gland and peripheral blood and their immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Yu Xin Huang; Qin Li Wang; Hong Chen; Da Yong Song

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported in many studies that electroacupuncture (EA) can positively regulate erythrocytic immunity and T-lymphocytic subgroups[1-8].Nevertheless, its mechanism remains to be explored. In the present study, a multi-group, multi-stepped and multiindexed observation was conducted on the effects of EA on erythyrocytic immunity and T-lymphocytic subgroups. A simultaneous assay of the changes in immunoreactivesubstance-P (ir-SP) content in the pituitary gland and peripheral blood was also carried out. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulatory effects of the immune system and their possible mechanism in the treatment of relevant diseases with EA.

  4. Effect of topiramate and traditional antiepileptic drugs on pituitary-sexual gland axis in adult males with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xu; Liang Yu; Jie Liu; Yongjie Luo; Hongbin Sun

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some reports indicate that traditional antiepileptic drugs can cause a certain effect on reproductive endocrine system in epileptic patients. However, the effect of topiramate on reproductive endocrine system needs to be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of topiramate and traditional valproic acid and carbamazepine on pituitary-sexual gland axis in adult males with epilepsy.DESIGN: Self-contrast and randomly parallel controlled study.SETTING: Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences (Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital).PARTICIPANTS: A total of 54 male epileptic patients aged from 18 to 75 years were selected from Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from January 2004 to June 2006. All patients were diagnosed as epilepsy based on illness history and electroencephalogram (EEG), and types of epilepsy were classified based on the theory of epilepsy and epilepsy syndrome established by International Anti-epilepsy League in 1989 and 2001. The accepted patients and their relatives provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: ① The accepted patients were randomly divided into traditional treatment group [n =26,mean age of (34 ±14) years] and topiramate group [n =28, mean age of (28 ±17) years]. In addition, based on various kinds of drugs, patients in the traditional treatment group were divided into two subgroups,including carbamazepine group (n =14) and valproic acid group (n =12). Patients in both subgroups were respectively treated with carbamazepine (100 mg/table, Shanghai Sanwei Pharmaceutical Factory, batch number: 060705) and valproic acid (200 mg/table, Hunan Xiangzhong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., batch number: 061128). Patients in topiramate group were treated with topiramate (25 mg/table, Xi'an Yangsen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., batch number: 060215836). Administration: The beginning dosage of topiramate was 25 mg/d, and then increased 25 mg/d per week. The final dosage was 150 mg/d. In

  5. Development of Thyroid Gland Specific Markers of Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid Axis Disruption in the Amphibian Model Species Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the research presented here is the development of an in vitro thyroid gland culture system to test the effect of chemicals directly on the gland without influence of other parts of the HPT axis.

  6. Deregulated E2F activity induces hyperplasia and senescence-like features in the mouse pituitary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Attwooll, Claire; Pasini, Diego

    2005-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene, RB1, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Rb heterozygous mice develop pituitary tumors with 100% incidence, and the E2F transcription factors are required for this. To assess whether deregulated E2F activity is sufficient to induce pituitary tumor...

  7. A Comparative Study of Pituitary Volume Variations in MRI in Acute Onset of Psychiatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Brijesh Kumar; Joish, Upendra Kumar; Sahni, Hirdesh; George, Raju A; Sivasankar, Rajeev; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-02-01

    The growing belief that endocrine abnormalities may underlie many mental conditions has led to increased use of imaging and hormonal assays in patients attending to psychiatric OPDs. People who are in an acute phase of a psychiatric disorder show Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the precise underlying central mechanisms are unclear. To assess the pituitary gland volume variations in patients presenting with new onset acute psychiatric illness in comparison with age and gender matched controls by using MRI. The study included 50 patients, with symptoms of acute psychiatric illness presenting within one month of onset of illness and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls. Both patients and controls were made to undergo MRI of the Brain. A 0.9 mm slices of entire brain were obtained by 3 dimensional T1 weighted sequence. Pituitary gland was traced in all sagittal slices. Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary bright spot were measured separately in each slice. Volume of the pituitary (in cubic centimetre- cm(3)) was calculated by summing areas. Significance of variations in pituitary gland volumes was compared between the cases and controls using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA). There were significantly larger pituitary gland volumes in the cases than the controls, irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis (ANOVA, f=15.56; p=0.0002). Pituitary volumes in cases were 15.36% (0.73 cm(3)) higher than in controls. There is a strong likelihood of HPA axis overactivity during initial phase of all mental disorders along with increased pituitary gland volumes. Further studies including hormonal assays and correlation with imaging are likely to provide further insight into neuroanatomical and pathological basis of psychiatric disorders.

  8. The microvascular network of the pituitary gland: a model for the application of fractal geometry to the analysis of angioarchitecture and angiogenesis of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, A; Grizzi, F; Ceva-Grimaldi, G; Aimar, E; Serra, S; Pisano, P; Lorenzetti, M; Tancioni, F; Gaetani, P; Crotti, F; Tschabitscher, M; Matula, C; Rodriguez Y Baena, R

    2010-06-01

    In geometrical terms, tumor vascularity is an exemplary anatomical system that irregularly fills a three-dimensional Euclidean space. This physical characteristic, together with the highly variable vessel shapes and surfaces, leads to considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, and the removal of metabolites. Although these biological features have now been well established, quantitative analyses of neovascularity in two-dimensional histological sections still fail to view tumor architecture in non-Euclidean terms, and this leads to errors in visually interpreting the same tumor, and discordant results from different laboratories. A review of the literature concerning the application of microvessel density (MVD) estimates, an Euclidean-based approach used to quantify vascularity in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissues, revealed some disagreements in the results and led us to discuss the limitations of the Euclidean quantification of vascularity. Consequently, we introduced fractal geometry as a better means of quantifying the microvasculature of normal pituitary glands and pituitary adenomas, and found that the use of the surface fractal dimension is more appropriate than MVD for analysing the vascular network of both. We propose extending the application of this model to the analysis of the angiogenesis and angioarchitecture of brain tumors.

  9. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the anterior pituitary gland in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-08-16

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors. We discuss the most relevant physiological functions mediated by cAMP in the different pituitary cell types, and summarize the defects affecting this pathway that have been reported in the literature. We finally discuss how a deregulated cAMP pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders and how it affects the response to therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Pituitary apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies.

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances saliva secretion via direct binding to PACAP receptors of major salivary glands in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Yuko; Nonaka, Naoko; Takagi, Yoshitoki; Imamura, Eisaku; Narukawa, Masayuki; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shioda, Seiji; Banks, William A; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-09-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common syndrome that is generally treated with artificial saliva; however, no other effective methods have yet been established. Saliva secretion is mainly under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is recognized as a multifunctional neuropeptide in various organs. In this study, we examined the effect of PACAP on saliva secretion, and detected the distribution of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Intranasal administration of PACAP 38 increased the amount of saliva secreted, which was not inhibited by atropine pretreatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PAC1R was distributed in the three major salivary glands. In the parotid and sublingual glands, PAC1R was detected in striated duct cells, whereas in the submandibular gland, a strong PAC1R immunoreaction was detected in tall columnar epithelial cells in the granular ducts (i.e., pillar cells), as well as in some striated duct cells. PACAP significantly increased the concentration of epidermal growth factor in saliva. These results suggest that PACAP directly regulates saliva secretion by controlling the absorption activity in the ducts, and that pillar cells regulate the function of granular epithelial cells in the granular duct, such as the secretion of growth factors into the saliva. Collectively, these results suggest the possibility of PACAP as a new effective treatment of xerostomia. Anat Rec, 299:1293-1299, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Deletion of OTX2 in neural ectoderm delays anterior pituitary development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; Schade, Vanessa; Lamonerie, Thomas; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is necessary for normal head development in mouse and man. Heterozygosity for loss-of-function alleles causes an incompletely penetrant, haploinsufficiency disorder. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye and/or pituitary development to acephaly. To investigate the mechanism underlying the pituitary defects, we used different cre lines to inactivate Otx2 in early head development and in the prospective anterior and posterior lobes. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in early head development and pituitary oral ectoderm exhibit craniofacial defects and pituitary gland dysmorphology, but normal pituitary cell specification. The morphological defects mimic those observed in humans and mice with OTX2 heterozygous mutations. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in the pituitary neural ectoderm exhibited altered patterning of gene expression and ablation of FGF signaling. The posterior pituitary lobe and stalk, which normally arise from neural ectoderm, were extremely hypoplastic. Otx2 expression was intact in Rathke's pouch, the precursor to the anterior lobe, but the anterior lobe was hypoplastic. The lack of FGF signaling from the neural ectoderm was sufficient to impair anterior lobe growth, but not the differentiation of hormone-producing cells. This study demonstrates that Otx2 expression in the neural ectoderm is important intrinsically for the development of the posterior lobe and pituitary stalk, and it has significant extrinsic effects on anterior pituitary growth. Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. PMID:25315894

  13. Distinct proteomic profiles in post-mortem pituitary glands from bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Alsaif, Murtada; Chan, Man K; Rahmoune, Hassan; Steeb, Hannah; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine this further, we carried out proteomic profiling of post-mortem pituitaries from 13 BD and 14 MDD patients, in comparison to 15 controls. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) analysis showed that BD patients had significantly increased levels of the major pituitary hormones pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and galanin. BD patients also showed changes in proteins associated with gene transcription, stress response, lipid metabolism and growth signalling. In contrast, LC-MS(E) profiling revealed that MDD patients had significantly decreased levels of the prohormone-converting enzyme carboxypeptidease E and follow-up enzymatic analysis showed decreased activity of prolyl-oligopeptidase convertase. This suggested that altered prohormone processing may occur in pituitaries of MDD patients. In addition, MDD patients had significant changes in proteins involved in intracellular transport and cytoskeletal signalling. Finally, we carried out selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry profiling for validation of protein changes in key biological pathways. This confirmed increased POMC levels in BD patients with no change in the levels of this prohormone in MDD. This study demonstrates that proteomic profiling analysis of the pituitary can lead to new insights into the pathophysiology of BD and MDD. Also, given that the pituitary directly releases a variety of bioactive molecules into the bloodstream, many of the proteins identified here could serve as focal points in the search for peripheral biomarkers in clinical or drug treatment studies of BD and MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging of the pituitary and sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Avi

    2006-09-01

    The pituitary gland is housed in the sella turcica and has vital endocrinologic functions. It lies in close proximity to numerous vital structures, including the optic chiasm, sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus and hypothalamus. An understanding of the function, anatomy and embryology of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is vital to understanding its normal appearance, as well as in evaluating the broad spectrum of pathology that can involve the pituitary gland. Imaging of pathology in the sellar region, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas and aneurysms, plays an important role in guiding treatment decisions. Modern imaging techniques are also important in evaluating the pituitary gland after surgery.

  15. Expression of 25 high egg production related transcripts that identified from hypothalamus and pituitary gland in red-feather Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Ren; Chao, Ching-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shiue, Yow-Ling

    2007-07-01

    Expression levels of 33 high egg production candidate transcripts in Red-feather Taiwan country chickens (TCCs) were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription (RT) polymerase chain reactions (PCR) in this study. Candidate transcripts were previously identified from a L2-B (L2-subtract-B) hypothalamus/pituitary gland subtractive cDNA library. In this subtractive cDNA library, two divergently selected strains of TCCs, B and L2 were used. These two strains were originated from one single population and were further subjected (since 1982) to the selections of body weight/comb size (B) and eggs to 40wk of age (L2), respectively. Hypothalamuses and pituitary glands that sampled from Red-feather TCCs were previously grouped into high (Red-high; n=20) and low (Red-low; n=20) egg productions based on the rate of lay after 1st egg (hen-day laying rate; %). Rates of lay after 1st egg (mean+/-S.E.) in the Red-high and the Red-low subpopulations were 72.2+/-0.6 and 23.0+/-3.5, respectively (P<0.01). Quantitative RT-PCR validated that 25 candidate transcripts were significantly higher expressed in the Red-high than in the Red-low hens. These transcripts were ANP32A, BDH, CDC42, CNTN1, COMT, CPE, CTNNB1, DIO2, EIF4E, GARNL1, HSPCA, LAPTM4B, MBP, NAP1L4, NCAM1, PARK7, PCDHA@, PGDS, PLAG1, PRL, RAD21, SAR1A, SCG2, STMN1 and UFM1. Among these transcripts, 15 (79.0%), 13 (68.4%), and 12 (63.2%) genes were annotated to involve in cellular physiological process (GO:0050875), metabolism (GO:0008152) and cell communication (GO:0007154). Identified transcripts that related to high egg production are most active in focal adhesion, adherens junction, MAPK signaling, tight junction and cell adhesion pathways.

  16. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  17. Combined Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of the Posterior Salivary Gland from the Southern Blue-Ringed Octopus and the Southern Sand Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Brooke L; Strugnell, Jan M; Faou, Pierre; da Fonseca, Rute R; Hall, Nathan E; Norman, Mark; Finn, Julian; Cooke, Ira R

    2016-09-02

    This study provides comprehensive proteomic profiles from the venom producing posterior salivary glands of octopus (superorder Octopodiformes) species. A combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify 1703 proteins from the posterior salivary gland of the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa and 1300 proteins from the posterior salivary gland of the southern sand octopus, Octopus kaurna. The two proteomes were broadly similar; clustering of proteins into orthogroups revealed 937 that were shared between species. Serine proteases were particularly diverse and abundant in both species. Other abundant proteins included a large number of secreted proteins, many of which had no known conserved domains, or homology to proteins with known function. On the basis of homology to known venom proteins, 23 putative toxins were identified in H. maculosa and 24 in O. kaurna. These toxins span nine protein families: CAP (cysteine rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, parthenogenesis related), chitinase, carboxylesterase, DNase, hyaluronidase, metalloprotease, phospholipase, serine protease and tachykinin. Serine proteases were responsible for 70.9% and 86.3% of putative toxin expression in H. maculosa and O. kaurna, respectively, as determined using intensity based absolute quantification (iBAQ) measurements. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative toxin serine proteases revealed a similar suite of diverse proteins present in both species. Posterior salivary gland composition of H. maculosa and O. kaurna differ in several key aspects. While O. kaurna expressed the proteinaceous neurotoxin, tachykinin, this was absent from H. maculosa, perhaps reflecting the acquisition of a potent nonproteinaceous neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX) produced by bacteria in the salivary glands of that species. The dispersal factor, hyaluronidase was particularly abundant in H. maculosa. Chitinase was abundant in both species and is believed to facilitate

  18. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Paven K; Bogdanovic, Vedran; Naratadam, George T; Raetzman, Lori T

    2015-08-01

    As the pituitary gland develops, signals from the hypothalamus are necessary for pituitary induction and expansion. Little is known about the control of cues that regulate early signaling between the two structures. Ligands and receptors of the Notch signaling pathway are found in both the hypothalamus and Rathke's pouch. The downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 is required for proper pituitary formation; however, these effects could be due to the action of Hes1 in the hypothalamus, Rathke's pouch, or both. To determine the contribution of hypothalamic Notch signaling to pituitary organogenesis, we used mice with loss and gain of Notch function within the developing hypothalamus. We demonstrate that loss of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the hypothalamus does not affect expression of Hes1 within the posterior hypothalamus or expression of Hes5. In contrast, expression of activated Notch within the hypothalamus results in ectopic Hes5 expression and increased Hes1 expression, which is sufficient to disrupt pituitary development and postnatal expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that Rbpj-dependent Notch signaling within the developing hypothalamus is not necessary for pituitary development, but persistent Notch signaling and ectopic Hes5 expression in hypothalamic progenitors affects pituitary induction and expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  20. Prediction of postoperative diabetes insipidus using morphological hyperintensity patterns in the pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance imaging after transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takuya; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) remains a complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for sellar and parasellar tumors. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) appears as hyper intensity (HI) in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Its disappearance from the posterior lobe occurs with DI, indicating a lack of ADH. The appearance of HI in the pituitary stalk indicates disturbances in ADH transport. This retrospective study included 172 patients undergoing TSS for sellar tumors at our institute from 2006 to 2014. Sequential T1-weighted MR images without enhancement were evaluated for HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe to assess the localization of ADH before and at intervals after TSS. DI was assessed pre- and postoperatively. HI in the pituitary stalk showed the following morphology: (1) ovoid in the distal end of the pituitary stalk (group A), (2) linear in the distal part of the pituitary stalk (group B), (3) linear in the whole pituitary stalk (group C). Preoperative DI occurred in 6 patients (3.5 %) with no HI observed in the posterior lobe. Postoperative DI was transient in 82 patients (47.7 %), and permanent in 11 (6.4 %). One week after surgery, HI was absent in the posterior lobe in 74 patients (43.0 %), and present in the pituitary stalk in 99 patients (57.6 %); both were significantly correlated with postoperative DI (p < 0.001). The absence of HI in the posterior lobe (A, 48.9 %; B, 68.3 %; C, 92.3 %), persistence of DI (A, 3.7 days; B, 45.9 days; C, 20.5 months), and duration until HI recovery in the posterior lobe (A, 3.6 months; B, 6.8 months; C, 22.9 months) were greatest in group C, followed by group B, and then group A. Fourteen group A patients did not have postoperative DI despite having HI in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe. Four group C patients developed permanent DI with persistence HI in the pituitary stalk. HI in the pituitary stalk and its

  1. 黄河裸裂尻鱼垂体显微结构%Microstructure Observation of Pituitary Gland in Schizopygopsis pylzovi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹素平; 王永明; 李斌; 吴英; 谢碧文

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of the pituitary gland of Schizopygopsis pylzovi was studied by means of histology,his-tochemistry and microscopy techniques.The result shows that:the pituitary of Schizopygopsis pylzovi is heart-shaped and belongs to the type of dorsal-ventral.It is composed of neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis,of which the latter is divided in-to rostral pars distalis (RPD),proximal pars distalis (PPD)and pars intermedia (PI).The neurohypophysis,composed of neurosecretory fibers and pituitary cells,has an advanced system of micro vessels.The granule cells consist of two kinds of cells:fiber and particle pituicyte.The adenohypophysis can distinguish 7 types of secretory cells,which include prolactin (PRL)cells and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH)cells found in rostral pars distalis (RPD),the growth hormone (GH) cells,gonadotropin (GTH)cells and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)cells found in proxmial pars distalis (PPD),and mel-anocyte stmiulating hormone (MSH)cells and somatolactin (SL)cells found in pars intermedia (PI).%运用组织学、组织化学和显微技术对黄河裸裂尻鱼(Schizopygopsis pylzovi )垂体的组织结构进行了研究。结果表明:黄河裸裂尻鱼垂体为心形,背腹型垂体,由神经垂体和腺垂体两部分组成。腺垂体分为前外侧部(RPD)、中外侧部(PPD)和中间部(PI)。神经垂体由神经分泌纤维和垂体细胞组成,垂体细胞分为纤维垂体细胞和颗粒垂体细胞,神经垂体中微血管发达。腺垂体可区分7种分泌细胞类型,即位于 RPD 的 ACTH 细胞和 PRL 细胞,PPD的 GTH 细胞、GH 细胞和TSH 细胞,PI的 SL细胞和 MSH 细胞。

  2. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  4. Membranous layers of the pituitary gland and related clinical issues%垂体的膜性结构及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云涛; 漆松涛; 潘军; 张喜安; 彭俊祥; 樊俊; 龙浩

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the membranous layers of the human pituitary gland and their relationships with invasive adenomas. Method Histological and microdissection techniques were used to study 8 fetal and 10 adult human cadavers, respectively. The distribution of the membranous layers was observed, and their thickness was measured Results In all specimens, the pituitary glands were found to be coated by 2 membranous layers, the inner layer being referred to here as the lamina propria and the outer as the pituitary capsule. In all specimens, the 2 membranes were intact with no histological defects. An interstice or cavity between the 2 layers was found on the surface of the adenohypophysis. However,as these 2 layers got closer and closer to each other, they began to adhere on the surface of the neurohypophysis.The thickness of the pituitary capsule was not constant like that of the lamina propria: the inferolateral part of the capsule was thicker than the other parts. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus (CS) was also a bilayered membrane just like the other CS walls: the 2 layers of the medial CS wall were composed of the lateral part of the pituitary capsule and the fibrous layer. Many fibrous trabeculae arising from this fibrous layer divided the CS into several small venous spaces and connected the internal carotid arteries with the medial wall. Conclusions The lateral part of the capsule (dura mater) and the fibrous layer constituted the medial wall of the CS, which has a superior part that is weaker than the thicker inferior part. Invasive adenomas might be a radiological misunderstanding of the extremely displacement of the CS medial wall by the tumor's pushing. While between the tumor and the pituitary capsule, a .safety surgical interface still exists.%目的 研究垂体的被膜层次,探讨其和侵袭性垂体腺瘤之间的关系.方法 取8例胎儿的鞍区标本,经冠状、矢状位连续切片,HE和Masson染色后,观

  5. 雌性条斑星鲽脑垂体组织学观察%Histological studies on the pituitary gland of female barfin flounder Verasper moseri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪娜; 柳学周; 徐永江; 赵明; 曲建忠

    2012-01-01

    H. E, Mallory, Heidenhain-Azan and Jafri staining methods and electron microscopy technique were used to investigate the histology and ultrastructure of pituitary gland of female Verasper moseri. The results show that the pituitary of Verasper moseri belongs to dorsoventral style, which consists of two parts: neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. Neurosecretory fibres were found in Neurohypophysis, and two kinds of pituicytes were recognized in the neurohypophysial tissue in addition to two kinds of neuroepithelial cells. The adenohypophysis was divided into rostral pars distal, proximal pars distal and pars intermedia. Six types of hormone secretory cells were found in adenohypophysis. Prolactin hormone (PROL) cell, adrenocorticotopic hormone (ACTH) cell and thyrotropic hormone (TSH) cell were identified in rostral pars distal. The proximal pars distal expressed three types of hormone secretory cells: growth hormone (GH) cell, gonadotropin hormone (GtH) cell and thyrotropic (TSH) cell. The pars intermedia consisted of melanotropic stimulating hormone (MSH) cell. One type of gonadotropin hormone (GtH) cell was found in the pituitary of matured female Verasper moseri, wherein two types of secreted granules existed. In addition, the characteristics of other cells in the pituitary were discussed. The present study has provided new data for the study of endocrinology in flatfish, and is important reference for the breed of Verasper moseri.%采用H.E染色法、Mallory染色法、Heidenhain-Azan(简称HA)法、鱼类脑垂体染色法(简称Jafri)及电镜技术对雌性条斑星鲽Verasper moseri的脑垂体进行了组织学和超微结构的研究,探讨了促性腺激素分泌细胞与性腺发育的关系.结果表明,雌性条斑星鲽脑垂体呈背腹型,由神经垂体和腺垂体两部分组成.神经垂体为一束神经纤维,中间夹杂两种垂体细胞和两种胶质.腺垂体结构复杂,分为前腺垂体(RPD)、中腺垂体(PPD)和后腺垂

  6. Sequential steps of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy are involved in the irreversible process of posterior silk gland histolysis during metamorphosis of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Hajime; Yabu, Takeshi; Sudayama, Makoto; Mano, Nobuhiro; Arai, Naoto; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Hosono, Kuniaki

    2016-04-15

    To elucidate the degradation process of the posterior silk gland during metamorphosis of the silkworm ITALIC! Bombyx mori, tissues collected on the 6th day after entering the 5th instar (V6), prior to spinning (PS), during spinning (SP) and after cocoon formation (CO) were used to analyze macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent ubiquitin proteasome. Immediately after entering metamorphosis stage PS, the levels of ATP and phosphorylated p70S6 kinase protein decreased spontaneously and continued to decline at SP, followed by a notable restoration at CO. In contrast, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) showed increases at SP and CO. Most of the Atg8 protein was converted to form II at all stages. The levels of ubiquitinated proteins were high at SP and CO, and low at PS. The proteasome activity was high at V6 and PS but low at SP and CO. In the isolated lysosome fractions, levels of Hsc70/Hsp70 protein began to increase at PS and continued to rise at SP and CO. The lysosomal cathepsin B/L activity showed a dramatic increase at CO. Our results clearly demonstrate that macroautophagy occurs before entering the metamorphosis stage and strongly suggest that the CMA pathway may play an important role in the histolysis of the posterior silk gland during metamorphosis.

  7. Long-Term Starvation and Posterior Feeding Effects on Biochemical and Physiological Responses of Midgut Gland of Cherax quadricarinatus Juveniles (Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, Hernán Javier; Ansaldo, Martín; Franco-Tadic, Luis Marcelo; Fernández Gimenez, Analía Verónica; López Greco, Laura Susana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of long-term starvation and posterior feeding on energetic reserves, oxidative stress, digestive enzymes, and histology of C. quadricarinatus midgut gland. The crayfish (6.27 g) were randomly assigned to one of three feeding protocols: continuous feeding throughout 80 day, continuous starvation until 80 day, and continuous starvation throughout 50 day and then feeding for the following 30 days. Juveniles from each protocol were weighed, and sacrificed at day 15, 30, 50 or 80. The lipids, glycogen, reduced glutathione (GSH), soluble protein, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (PO), catalase (CAT), lipase and proteinase activities, and histology were measured on midgut gland. Starved crayfish had a lower hepatosomatic index, number of molts, specific growth rate, lipids, glycogen, and GSH levels than fed animals at all assay times. The starvation did not affect the soluble protein, TBARS, PO levels and CAT. In starved juveniles the lipase activity decreased as starvation time increased, whereas proteinase activity decreased only at day 80. The histological analysis of the starved animals showed several signs of structural alterations. After 30 days of feeding, the starved-feeding animals exhibited a striking recovery of hepatosomatic index, number of molts, lipids and glycogen, GSH, lipase activity and midgut gland structure.

  8. Influence of estradiol, progesterone, and nutrition on concentrations of gonadotropins and GnRH receptors, and abundance of mRNA for GnRH receptors and gonadotropin subunits in pituitary glands of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, M L; Vizcarra, J A; Wettemann, R P; Malayer, J R; Braden, T D; Geisert, R D; Morgan, G L

    2003-01-01

    Nutritionally induced anovulatory cows (n = 28) were used to determine the effect of steroids on regulation of synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Anovulatory cows were ovariectomized and received intravaginal inserts containing estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), E2 and P4 (E2P4), or a sham intravaginal insert (C) for 7 d. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were quantified in serum and E2 and P4 were quantified in plasma. Cows were exsanguinated within 1 to 2 h after removal of intravaginal inserts and pituitary glands were collected and stored at -80 degrees C until messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) and gonadotropin subunits, pituitary content of GnRH-R, and LH and FSH were quantified. Pituitary glands from five proestrous cows were harvested to compare gonadotropin characteristics between ovariectomized, anovulatory cows and intact cows. Plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows was increased (P nutritionally induced anovulatory cows with progesterone and estradiol may cause pulsatile secretion of LH.

  9. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Mahendra, Lodd; Rangarajan, Sumanth; Madasamy, Ramasamy; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland's role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  10. Comparative Reproductive and Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Its Hybrid Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Owodeinde, Fatai Gbolahan

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the comparative reproductive, growth performances and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus and its hybrid "heteroclarias" using ovaprim and pituitary extract of male and female C. gariepinus. The experimental broodstocks consisted of 6 female C. gariepinus (2 each were induced separately with ovaprim, male pituitary of C. gariepinus and female pituitary of C. gariepinus), 3 male C. gariepinus and 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis. 2 female C. ...

  11. Expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland: the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces interconnection of FS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five types of hormone-producing cells plus folliculostellate (FS) cells, which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. FS cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic processes and encircle hormone-producing cells or aggregate homophilically. Using living-cell imaging of primary culture, we recently reported that some FS cells precisely extend their cytoplasmic processes toward other FS cells and form interconnections with them. These phenomena suggest the presence of a chemoattractant factor that facilitates the interconnection. In this study, we attempted to discover the factor that induces interconnection of FS cells and succeeded in identifying chemokine (CXC)-L12 and its receptor CXCR4 as potential candidate molecules. CXCL12 is a chemokine of the CXC subfamily. It exerts its effects via CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a potent chemoattractant for many types of neural cells. First, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are expressed by FS cells in rat anterior pituitary gland. Next, to clarify the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in FS cells, we observed living anterior pituitary cells in primary culture with specific CXCL12 inhibitor or CXCR4 antagonist and noted that extension of cytoplasmic processes and interconnection of FS cells were inhibited. Finally, we examined FS cell migration and invasion by using Matrigel matrix assays. CXCL12 treatment resulted in markedly increased FS cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that FS cells express chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes interconnection of FS cells.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  13. Sequential pituitary MR imaging in Sheehan syndrome: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, J; Fratila, C; Ferenczi, A; Yang, W C; Lantos, G; Fleckman, A M; Schubart, U K

    2008-05-01

    We present the evolution of pituitary changes in the cases of 2 patients with Sheehan syndrome as assessed by MR imaging. Both patients had severe postpartum hemorrhage, symptoms of pituitary gland apoplexy, and hypopituitarism. Sequential MR imaging demonstrated evidence of ischemic infarct in the pituitary gland with enlargement followed by gradual shrinkage during several months, to pituitary atrophy.

  14. Central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, E; Boelen, A; van Trotsenburg, A S P

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the most prominent brain region involved in setpoint regulation of the thyroid axis. It generates the diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rhythm, and it plays a central role in the adaptation of the thyroid axis to environmental factors such as caloric deprivation or infection. Many studies, including studies in human post-mortem tissue samples, have confirmed a key role for the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neuron in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in thyroid axis regulation. In addition to their negative feedback action on TRH neurons in the hypothalamus, intrahypothalamic thyroid hormones can also modulate metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via the autonomic nervous system. Congenital or acquired dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may result in central hypothyroidism (CeH). In the Netherlands, the prevalence of permanent congenital CeH as detected by neonatal screening is approximately 1 in 18000. In most neonates congenital CeH is accompanied by additional anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and many show clear morphological abnormalities such as a small anterior gland, a thin or absent pituitary stalk, or an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Recently, a mutation in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene was reported as a novel cause of X-linked, apparently isolated CeH occurring in neonates, children and adults. In adults, the most frequent cause of acquired CeH is a pituitary macroadenoma, usually accompanied by other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Central hyperthyroidism is a rare disorder, especially in children. In adults, it is mostly caused by a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sellar lesion: Not always a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess. Sellar tuberculoma is a rare type of granulomatous hypophysitis. We document a case of a postmenopausal lady who presented with galactorrhea, headache and blurring of vision. Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised. Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made. This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.

  16. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Angulo, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Div. of Endocrinology and Genetics, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Price, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Taneja, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia and hyponatraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ando, Yasuyo

    2015-04-09

    Pituitary apoplexy, a syndrome caused by haemorrhage into the pituitary gland, typically manifests as sudden severe headache, visual symptoms and hypopituitarism, including adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia following temporal headache and diagnosed through evaluation for hyponatraemia. MRI focusing on the pituitary gland helped to confirm the diagnosis. Our experience serves as a useful reminder of this atypical presentation of pituitary apoplexy, also known as 'subclinical pituitary apoplexy,' and underscores the importance of careful evaluation for hyponatraemia using serial urine osmolality, which is useful to distinguish hypovolaemic hyponatraemia from euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Clinicians should consider pituitary apoplexy as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia, loss of energy or hyponatraemia, following headache even when the patient is lacking classical symptoms such as severe headache or visual symptoms.

  18. Assessment of ghrelin, GHS-R, GH, and neurohormones in human fetal pituitary glands and central nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Obara-Moszynska

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a receptor in somatotrops and in neuronal cells of brain tissue in the process of human fetal ontogenesis. Relations were also looked for between GHRH and SS in the pituitary and in the CNS neurones of the studied fetuses. The study was based on 8 pituitaries and 8 brains from fetuses in different periods of intrauterine life. The immunocytochemical technique was used. The presence of ghrelin, GHS-R was shown in the glandular part of the pituitary and CNS during the whole period of intrauterine life. Neurohormones in the stalk of the pituitary were found in fetuses from the 32nd week of pregnancy whereas in the CNS neurones these hormones could be detected throughout the whole period of intrauterine life. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of GH secretion by ghrelin is independent of the feedback concentration and these two hormones act like signals of metabolic balance. GH release by ghrelin in fetal life is independent of somatostatin. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis which regulates pulsatile GH release from the pituitary matures functionally in the third trimester of pregnancy independent of the previous anatomical differentiation.

  19. Immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like material in the brain and the pituitary gland during the periovulatory period in the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): relationships with the plasma and pituitary gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, B; Motin, A; Billard, R; Kah, O; Geoffre, S; Precigoux, G

    1986-01-01

    In fish there are few data on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) neurosecretory activity, which could explain long- and short-term variations of the gonadotropin secretion. There is no biological species specificity between mammal and fish Gn-RH; although there is a structural difference, they are, on the contrary, characterized by a high immunological specificity which does not allow measurement of fish Gn-RH using radioimmunoassay for LH-RH. We have synthesized salmon Gn-RH according to the formula recently proposed by Sherwood (N. Sherwood, L. Eiden, M. Brownstein, J. Spies, J. Rivier, and W. Vale, 1983. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 2794-2798). Its activity has been tested by its ability to stimulate the gonadotropin hormone (GtH) secretion in vivo in testosterone-implanted juvenile rainbow trout, and for the recognition of synthesized Gn-RH (s-Gn-RH) perykaria by a specific antibody raised against the s-Gn-RH in regions of the brain described as containing LH-RH immunoreactive-like material. A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the salmon Gn-RH, and its specificity to measure trout Gn-RH has been tested. Using this assay, the brain and pituitary Gn-RH contents have been measured throughout the final phases of maturation and ovulation. Brain Gn-RH increases from the end of vitellogenesis (8.9 +/- 0.76 ng/brain) to ovulation (more than 15 ng/brain). Pituitary Gn-RH is lower (1.58 +/- 0.69 ng/pituitary) at the end of vitellogenesis and follows a similar profile as in the brain, except for a significant decrease just prior the beginning of oocyte maturation. The correlations between Gn-RH levels and GtH pituitary and plasma levels show that total brain Gn-RH is never correlated to the GtH, suggesting that the increase in the brain Gn-RH content is related to a Gn-RH system closely related to maturation and ovulation, which remains to be investigated. On the contrary, pituitary Gn-RH levels are well correlated with pituitary and plasma GtH levels

  20. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by transmi......Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....

  1. Analysis of posterior pituitary hormone in the treatment of hemoptysis caused by hyponatremia: 97 cases%垂体后叶素治疗咯血引起低钠血症97例诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支成斌; 匡中国; 韦毅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨垂体后叶素治疗肺结核和支气管扩张咯血导致低钠血症原因、临床特点及治疗.方法 对2009年2月~2011年5月住院的326例肺结核和支气管扩张咯血患者静脉滴注垂体后叶素引起低钠血症97例的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 97例患者中,21例没有临床症状,血清钠为(125±5) mmol/L;76例有临床症状,血清钠为(118±5 mmol/L.恶心、呕吐68例(占86%),乏力24例(占30.4%),头痛、烦躁不安6例(占7.6%),意识障碍1例(占1.3%).误诊为结核性脑膜炎2例(占2.5%).结论 使用垂体后叶素时应监测血清钠,预防低钠血症的发生,治疗过程中应适当限制入水量,使用垂体后叶素治疗的过程中应适当补钠,及时监测血电解质,防止低钠血症的发生.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the posterior pituitary hormone in the treatment of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis hemoptysis cause hyponatremia causes, clinical features and treatment. METHODS From February 2009 - May 2011, 326 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and bronehiectasis hemoptysis in 97 patients with intravenous infusion of posterior pituitary hormone induced hyponatremiB were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Among 97 cases, and 21 cases had no clinical symptoms, serum sodium was (125 ±5) mmol/L; 76 cases had clinical symptoms, serum sodium was (118 ± 5) mmol/L 68 cases (86%) were nausea and vomiting, 24 patients (30.4%) were fatigue, 6 cases (7.6%) were headache and irritability, 1 case showed disturbance of consciousness (1.3%). 2 cases (2.5%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculous meningitis. CONCLUSION The posterior pituitary Ye Sushi monitoring of serum sodium could prevent hyponatremia, and course of treatment should be restricted to the water. Use of the posterior pituitary hormone treatment process should be an appropriate complement sodium, timely monitoring of blood electrolytes, and prevent the occurrence of hyponatremia.

  2. Effects on structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats after electromagnetic pulse exposure%电磁脉冲对大鼠腺垂体结构和分泌功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方恒虎; 曾桂英; 聂青; 康静波; 任东青; 周家兴; 李运明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨电磁脉冲(EMP)对大鼠腺垂体结构和分泌功能的影响.方法 SD雄性大鼠48只,随机分为辐照组和假辐照组.辐照组大鼠接受200 kV/m EMP全身辐照,于辐照后12、24、48和96 h应用光镜、电镜观察腺垂体内分泌细胞形态学的改变,放射免疫法检测大鼠血清催乳素(PRL)、生长激素(GH)、促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)和黄体生成素(LH)的含量.结果 大鼠腺垂体超微结构在EMP辐照后12 h出现改变,至48 h逐渐加重,96 h有所恢复.主要病变为细胞水肿,线粒体肿胀、空泡化和髓鞘样结构形成,高尔基体和内质网扩张,次级溶酶体出现,细胞核内异染色质边集等.大鼠血清PRL和ACTH均表现为照后12 h显著升高后恢复;GH于照后12 h显著下降后逐渐回升,48 h恢复;TSH于12 h即开始下降,24 h显著下降至最低点,96 h恢复;LH于照后24~96h明显升高.结论 EMP辐照可引起大鼠腺垂体结构和分泌功能的改变.%Objective To investigate the exposure effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats.Methods Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups.Four groups were subject to the EMP exposure of 200 kV/m and the others received a sham exposure.At different time points (12,24,48 & 96 h) post-exposure,the pathological changes of pituitary gland were observed by light and transmission electron microscope.And the serum levels of prolactin (PRL),growth hormone (GH),adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay.Results At 12 h post-exposure,swollen mitochondria with cristae loss,dilatation of Golgi complex and diffusive lysosomes were found in endocrine cells of pituitary gland.The above changes became gradually worse.Mitochondrial vacuolization,the formation of myelin figures,distinct dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum

  3. Oxytocin-induced elevation of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity, cyclic ADP-ribose or Ca(2+) concentrations is involved in autoregulation of oxytocin secretion in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Olga; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Amina, Sarwat; Hashii, Minako; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-01-01

    Locally released oxytocin (OT) activates OT receptors (2.1:OXY:1:OT:) in neighboring neurons in the hypothalamus and their terminals in the posterior pituitary, resulting in further OT release, best known in autoregulation occurring during labor or milk ejection in reproductive females. OT also plays a critical role in social behavior of non-reproductive females and even in males in mammals from rodents to humans. Social behavior is disrupted when elevation of free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and OT secretion are reduced in male and female CD38 knockout mice. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate whether ADP-ribosyl cyclase-dependent signaling is involved in OT-induced OT release for social recognition in males, independent from female reproduction, and to determine its molecular mechanism. Here, we report that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity was increased by OT in crude membrane preparations of the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary in male mice, and that OT elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in the isolated terminals over a period of 5 min. The increases in cyclase and [Ca(2+)](i) were partially inhibited by nonspecific protein kinase inhibitors and a protein kinase C specific inhibitor, calphostin C. Subsequently, OT-induced OT release was also inhibited by calphostin C to levels inhibited by vasotocin, an OT receptor antagonist, and 8-bromo-cADP-ribose. These results demonstrate that OT receptors are functionally coupled to membrane-bound ADP-ribosyl cyclase and/or CD38 and suggest that cADPR-mediated intracellular calcium signaling is involved in autoregulation of OT release, which is sensitive to protein kinase C, in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis in male mice.

  4. Cirurgia da hipófise por via trans-esfenoidal sob controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção novo tratamento da retinopatia diabética, tumores selares e neoplasias endocrinodependentes The surgery of the pituitary gland using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection: a new treatment for diabetic retinopathy, pituitary tumors and endocrinodependent growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Hardy

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada nova técnica para a ablação total ou seletiva da hipófise utilizando via de acesso trans-esfenoidal, controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção, com traumatismo desprezível às estruturas circunvizinhas. Os autores comentam as aplicações do método à prática neurocirúrgica, relatando parte de uma série de mais 140 casos já operados. São discutidos os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 17 casos de retinopatia diabética, em 11 dos quais apenas o lobo anterior da hipófise foi removido, assim como aqueles obtidos na exérese de 20 casos de tumores selares. As indicações da hipofisectomia por via trans-esfenoidal no controle da sintomatologia das neoplasias endòcrinodependentes é estudada à luz dos resultados obtidos em 17 casos, sendo os resultados comparados com casos nos quais foi feita a implantação selar de ítrio90. As complicações operatorias em relação às três entidades nosológicas acima estudadas são também analisadas. Os autores salientam que a técnica descrita constitui, no presente estado das técnicas neurocirúrgicas utilizadas para a produção de uma insuficiência hipofisária duradoura, a intervenção de escolha.A new neurosurgical technique for the partial or total exéresis of the pituitary gland, using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection is described. Part of a series of more than 140 cases operated upon by this method is reported. Results obtained in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in 17 cases, 11 of which had only the pars anterior removed, are discussed. The applications of the transphenoidal route in 20 cases of pituitary fossa tumors are analysed. The indications of this type of operation in the management of endocrinodependent cancer is studied in 17 cases and compared with the results of 36 cases submitted to implant of Yttrium90 in the sella turcica. The operative complications following transphenoidal exéresis of the

  5. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  6. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    OpenAIRE

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan; Lodd Mahendra; Sumanth Rangarajan; Ramasamy Madasamy; Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  7. Pituitary gland imaging in Cushing's disease; IRM - Maladie de Cushing. L'imagerie hypophysaire dans la maladie de Cushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bonneville, F.; Schillo, F.; Jacquet, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2003-02-01

    Specific MR techniques are r-required for optimal detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease. Adequate MR sequences, high resolution coronal T1 and T2 - weighted images, dynamic MR imaging, post-gadolinium delayed images, dose of gadolinium adjusted for each sequence can routinely demonstrate pituitary adenomas less than 3 mm in Cushing's disease. (authors)

  8. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  9. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  10. Delayed sequelae of pituitary irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, K.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1958, 781 patients at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have received helium-particle stereotactic radiosurgery to the adenohypophysis. Autopsy findings in 15 of these patients are reported. Ten patients received pituitary radiation (average dose, 116 Gy in six fractions) for progressive neovascularization retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus. Evidence of a time-dependent course of progressive fibrosis in their pituitary glands was found. Five patients were treated for eosinophilic adenomas. Although they had lower average doses of radiation (56 Gy in six fractions), their pituitary glands showed cystic cavitation of the adenomas. The adenomas thus appeared more radiosensitive than the normal pars anterior, which, in turn, was more radiosensitive than the adjacent neurohypophysis. No significant radiation changes were found in the surrounding brain or cranial nerves. The endocrine organs under pituitary control showed varying degrees of atrophy, and clinical tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal ral tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal radiation lesion confined to the pituitary gland but did not cause injury to the critical structures of the surrounding central nervous system.

  11. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  12. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  13. Pituitary volume in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartalci, Sukru; Dogan, Metin; Unal, Suheyla; Ozcan, A Cemal; Ozdemir, Serdal; Atmaca, Murad

    2011-01-15

    Panic patients have many functional deficiencies in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have shown changed pituitary gland volume in some psychiatric disorders that have functional deficiencies in the HPA axis. However, to date no study has evaluated the pituitary gland volume in patients with panic disorder (PD). We investigated the pituitary gland volume in patients with PD (n=27) and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=27), using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging in this study. Analysis showed that patients with PD had significantly smaller pituitary volume compared to healthy subjects. Patients with agoraphobia especially had a significantly smaller pituitary volume than patients without agoraphobia. There was a significant relationship between the pituitary volume and both the severity of symptoms and the illness duration in the patient group. The results show that patients with PD have reduced pituitary volume, which may reflect the functional abnormalities seen in this disorder. These findings may help us better understand the pathology of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Colorectal cancer manifesting with metastasis to prolactinoma: report of a case involving symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Sunthornyothin, Sarat

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary metastasis is an uncommon first presentation of systemic malignancy. The most common presenting symptom of pituitary metastasis is diabetes insipidus reflecting involvement of the stalk and/or posterior pituitary. We herein present a unique case of the coexistence of both a functioning pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) and pituitary metastasis of advanced colorectal cancer with pituitary apoplexy as the first manifestation of underlying malignancy. The present case emphasizes the need to consider pituitary metastasis as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with pituitary lesions and be aware that tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur unexpectedly in those with pituitary metastases.

  15. YAC-base transfer of fibroin gene from Anthemea yamamal to domestic silkworm Bombyx mod (I)——Identification of fibroin clones from a YAC library of Antheraeu yamamai constructed from its posterior silk gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐恒立; 柴建华; 李振刚

    1995-01-01

    Antheraea yamamai (Japanese oak silkworm) is a kind of silkworm of great economic value. and the process of the expression of its silkprotem genes is a perfect model for the study of molecular regulation during the development and differentiation. So studying its fibroin and allied genes is of both theoretic and practical magnitude A YAC library with an average size of 570kb is constructed from the posterior silk gland, using pYAC4 as a vector. The library was screened by means of polymerase chain reaction, and clones representing fibroin gene were isolated and characterized.

  16. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ... institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to brain tumors, including pituitary tumors, in their laboratories at ...

  18. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) regulates prolactin, growth hormone, and IGF-1 receptor expression in the pituitary gland of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Geba, Khaled; Martos-Sitcha, J A; Galal-Khallaf, A; Mancera, J M; Martínez-Rodríguez, G

    2016-02-01

    The role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on regulation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) as well as the possible involvement of IGF-1 receptor subtype a (IGF-1Ra) mRNA was assessed in juvenile specimens of Sparus aurata. IGF-1Ra was successfully cloned, and active receptor domains were localized in its mRNA precursor. Also, phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequence indicated a closer proximity to IGF-1Ra isoform found in zebrafish and other teleosts, than to the isoform IGF-1Rb. The most abundant presence of IGF-1Ra mRNA was detected in white muscle, whereas head kidney showed the lowest gene expression among 24 different studied tissues. Pituitaries of juvenile specimens of S. aurata were incubated in vitro with different doses of IGF-1 (0, 1, 100, and 1000 ng mL(-1)) during a period of 10 h. Total RNA with a high quality could be obtained from these pituitaries. PRL mRNA expression significantly increased with increasing IGF-1 doses. Similarly, IGF-1Ra mRNA increased its expression in response to IGF-1. However, GH mRNA levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner after IGF-1 treatment. The contradictory responses of GH and PRL expressions to IGF-1 in our experiment are possibly mediated by IGF-1Ra presence on the somatotrophs and prolactotrophs. The increase in IGF-1Ra mRNA levels may be related to the proper activation of the PI3-K/Akt signal transduction pathways which are normally involved in GH and PRL regulation.

  20. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy; Comparacao de dois algoritmos de correcao de heterogeneidade em tratamentos de tumores de hipofise com radioterapia de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, Lucas D.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: lucasdelbem1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Radiologia; Weltman, Eduardo; Braga, Henrique F. [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-12-15

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  1. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  2. Pituitary infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during or right after childbirth, it is called Sheehan syndrome . This is a very rare condition. Risk factors ... commonly, pituitary dysfunction may appear more slowly. In Sheehan syndrome, for example, the first symptom may be a ...

  3. IMAGING IN PITUITARY APOPLEXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical condition characterized by sudden onset of headache, vomiting, visual disturbance, ophthalmoplegia and altered sensorium occurring due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland and often involving the pituita ry adenoma. Predominantly seen in non - functional adenomas and in functioning adenomas with prolactinomas having the highest risk. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic i nstability may result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI is performed in suspected cases. On CT, a recent hemorrhage appears as a single or multiple hyperdense lesions with no or little contrast enhancement. MR I is useful in estimating the onset of bleeding and to show the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding structures. CT or MR Angiography is done to rule out aneurysm. Treatment is conservative and surgery is reserved for those cases with deterio rating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. Here we present a 47 year old male who presented with history of headache and visual disturbances for 6 weeks and was evaluated with radiograph, CT and MRI. A 47 year old male patient presented to the Neurosurgical Department of Vydehi Medical College and Research Centre with history of gradual blurring of vision in the left eye for 2 months. History of diabetes or hypertension was present. The man was hemodynamically stable. Radiograph of the skull showed widening of sella with erosion of the floor. He was advised CT. CT showed widening of sella and a pituitary lesion with fluid level. MRI was advocated for further evaluation. MRI axial and coronal showed sellar and suprasellar mass with figure of e ight appearance mass suggesting pituitary mass. Hyper intense fluid level was seen suggesting bleed within the mass. Contrast MRI showed peripheral enhancement. Diagnosis of

  4. Evidence for the changes of pituitary volumes in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozer, Omer; Korkmaz, Sevda; Taskent, Ismail; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2017-02-28

    In pubertal and postpubertal patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), significantly greater pituitary gland volumes have been reported. Moving from this point, in the present study, we aimed to investigate pituitary gland volumes in patients with PTSD and hypothesized that volumes of the gland would be structurally changed. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland was performed among sixteen patients with PTSD and fifteen healthy control subjects. We found that the mean volume of the pituitary gland was statistically significant and smaller than that of healthy subjects (0.69±0.08cm(3) for patient group and 0.83±0.21 for control subjects). Consequently, in the present study, we found that patients with PTSD had smaller pituitary gland volumes than those of healthy controls like other anxiety disorders. It is important to provide support for this finding in future longitudinal investigations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Influence of Pituitary Size on Outcome After Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy in a Large Cohort of Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah; Galac, S.; Tryfonidou, M. A.; Hesselink, J. W.; Penning, L. C.; Kooistra, H. S.; Meij, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is one of the treatment strategies in the comprehensive management of dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH). OBJECTIVES To describe the influence of pituitary size at time of pituitary gland surgery on long-term outcome. ANIMALS Three-hundred-

  6. Meibography for eyes with posterior blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman AlDarrab

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Meibography can be a helpful non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of the extent of the anatomical damage in patients having meibomian glands loss due to posterior blepharitis. Knowing the extent of damage in meibomian glands may help in selecting the appropriate treatment modality and expect the response to treatment in patients with posterior blepharitis.

  7. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  8. Mechanism of neuroadenolysis of the pituitary for cancer pain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.; Yanagida, H.; Erdmann, W.; Kok, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studied whether neuronal activity of the pituitary gland, as related to the primary somatosensory cortex, may be involved in the pain perception pathway influenced by neuroadenolysis of the pituitary. EEG and tooth-pulp EPs (TPEPs) were examined in 3 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Findings

  9. Mechanism of neuroadenolysis of the pituitary for cancer pain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.; Yanagida, H.; Erdmann, W.; Kok, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studied whether neuronal activity of the pituitary gland, as related to the primary somatosensory cortex, may be involved in the pain perception pathway influenced by neuroadenolysis of the pituitary. EEG and tooth-pulp EPs (TPEPs) were examined in 3 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Findings indicat

  10. Postpartum pituitary apoplexy with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: A rare medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Raina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden onset headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, altered mental status, and hormonal dysfunction due to an expanding mass within the sella turcica resulting from hemorrhage or infarction of pituitary gland. We report a case of pituitary apoplexy that developed in postpartum period following postpartum hemorrhage and presented with isolated third cranial nerve palsy.

  11. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  12. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Tortora, Fabio; Baldelli, Roberto; Cocchiara, Francesco; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Sbardella, Emilia; Simeoli, Chiara; Caranci, Ferdinando; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor represents about 10 % of pituitary adenomas and at the time of diagnosis most of them are microadenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment of Cushing's disease and accurate localization of the tumor within the gland is essential for selectively removing the lesion and preserving normal pituitary function. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for the detection of pituitary tumors, but adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenomas are not correctly identified in 30-50 % of cases, because of their size, location, and enhancing characteristics. Several recent studies were performed with the purpose of better localizing the adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas through the use in magnetic resonance imaging of specific sequences, reduced contrast medium dose and high-field technology. Therefore, an improved imaging technique for pituitary disease is mandatory in the suspect of Cushing's disease. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and to provide a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to be followed in case of suspicion adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  13. Pituitary volumes are changed in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Akaslan, Unsal

    2016-03-01

    Our study group previously measured pituitary volumes and found a relationship between somatoform disoders and pituitary volumes. Therefore, in conversion disorder, another somatoform disorder, we hypothesized that pituitary gland volumes would be reduced. Twenty female patients and healthy controls were recruited to the present investigation. The volumes of the pituitary gland were determined by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. We found that the pituitary gland volumes of the patients with conversion disorder were significantly smaller than those of healthy control subjects. In the patients with conversion disorder but not in the healthy control group, a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and pituitary gland volume was determined. In summary, in the present study, we suggest that the patients with conversion disorder have smaller pituitary volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. Further studies should confirm our data and ascertain whether volumetric alterations determined in the patients with conversion disorder can be changed with treatment or if they change over time.

  14. Questioning the role of pituitary oxytocin in parturition: spontaneous onset of labor in women with panhypopituitarism--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinar, Shiri; Many, Ariel; Maslovitz, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin, a nanopeptide secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, has well-established uterotonic activity. Its role in initiating the vigorous and regular contractions of the first stage of labor is still controversial. We report four cases of panhypopituitarism who had spontaneous onset of labor, undermining the role of maternal oxytocin in the first phase of labor. Four women with no residual pituitary function conceived through ovulation induction and were treated throughout pregnancy with thyroid replacement therapy, desmopressin and glucocorticoids. In all cases pituitary function was undetectable in repeated blood tests. We report their course of pregnancy and delivery. All four pregnancies progressed to term with hormonal replacement therapy. All cases went into spontaneous labor. Two women delivered vaginally unassisted by pharmacological intervention and two delivered by cesarean sections during active labor due to obstetrical indications. Three suffered postpartum hemorrhage. Lactation did not ensue in all four cases. Endogenous pituitary oxytocin is probably not obligatory for initiation of labor in the first phase of parturition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of anti-obsessional treatment on pituitary volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Yildirim, Hanefi; Mermi, Osman; Gurok, M Gurkan

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to examine the effct of anti-obsessional drugs on pituitary gland volumes in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A group of patients with OCD and of healthy controls were evaluated by using pituitary gland magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after twelve weeks of treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors or clomipramine. Pituitary gland volumes were found to be statistically significantly smaller in the patients with OCD compared to healthy control subjects at the beginning of the study. We found that pituitary volumes significantly increased throughout twelve weeks of treatment. This study provides an evidence of the effect of anti-obsessional treatment on the volumes of pituitary gland in OCD patients.

  16. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Images of Protein from Posterior Silk Gland of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) on Day 1 and Day 4 in the 5th Instar Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei-cheng; ZHONG Bo-xiong; GAO Qi-kang; CHEN Jin-e; YE Jian; QIAN Yang-wen; LI Jian-ying; LU Hua-yun; MENG Zhi-qi; NI Chun-xiao

    2007-01-01

    The posterior silk gland (PSG) of silkworm is an important organ where fibroin is synthesized and secreted exclusively.Because fibroin constitutes 75-80% of the silk filament, the mechanism governing fibroin secretion, quality and yield of cocoon can be elucidated by the study on the PSG. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analysis system, the changes in the protein composition in the PSG cell were investigated on the day 1 (D1) and day 4 (D4) in the 5th instar stage from five different strains of silkworm (Bombyx mori). While differences at protein level between days and strains were far less than those observed at the gene level using EST analysis. The change trends in protein composition from D1 to D4 were diverse among the different strains. The results suggest that the secretion of fibroin is regulated by multiple proteins. The site of regulation and the proteins responsible for the regulation vary with the strain, which leads to differences between strains in the capacity of fibroin secretion in the PSG cell.

  17. Pituitary gigantism causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, N S; Kirk, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although growth hormone excess (acromegaly) in association with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus is well documented in adult medicine, it is much less common in the paediatric age group. We report the case of a 13 year-old boy who presented with tall stature secondary to a large growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland. Random growth hormone was 630 mIU/l and did not suppress during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following debulking of the tumour, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin treatment, but after further surgery glucose handling returned to normal. He has been started on testosterone to arrest further increase in height.

  18. 脂多糖刺激对断奶仔猪下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺轴PPARγ表达的影响%Effects of Lipopolysaccharide Challenge on PPARγ Expression in Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Adrenal Gland Axis of Weanling Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 石君霞; 鲁晶; 古殿超; 朱惠玲; 侯永清; 丁斌鹰

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-y (PPARy) expression in the hypothalamus pituitary gland adrenal gland(HPA) axis of weanling pigs. The pigs in the treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS, whereas pigs in the control group were injected with sterile saline. Blood samples were collected at 1.5 and 3 h post-challenge. Following blood collection at 3 h, the pigs were slaughtered. The results showed that, at 1.5 h, LPS reduced neutrophil number and proportion (P < 0.05). At 3 h, LPS reduced white blood cell, lymphocyte and neutrophil (P < 0.05). Tumour necrosis factor-α and cortisol were increased significantly 1.5 and 3 h after LPS challenge (P < 0.01), adrenal cortical hormone was increased significantly 1.5 h after LPS challenge (P < 0.05), and adrenocorticotropic hormone was increased significantly (P < 0.05) 3 h after LPS challenge. LPS challenge increased PPARγ-positive cell percentage in the hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla (P < 0.05). These results indicate that LPS challenge induces acute immunological stress in Pigs, and actives HPA axis and induces PPARy expression of HPA axis.%研究脂多糖(LPS)对断奶仔猪下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺(HPA)轴过氧化物酶体增殖物活化受体γ(PPARγ)表达的影响.对照组注射生理盐水,试验组注射LPS.注射后1.5 h和3 h采血,3 h采血后屠宰.结果表明:LPS刺激后1.5 h,中性粒细胞含量及其比例显著下降(P<0.05);LPS刺激后3 h,白细胞、淋巴细胞、中性粒细胞含量显著下降(P<0.05).LPS刺激后1.5 h,血浆肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-a、皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素释放素激素(CRH)含量显著上升(P<0.05);LPS刺激后3 h,血浆TNF-a、皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)含量显著上升(P<0.05);LPS刺激导致下丘脑、腺垂体、肾上腺皮质和髓质中PPARγ阳性细胞百分率显著升高(P<0.05).这

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is prerequisite for the constitutive expression of pituitary annexin A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Aiko; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2015-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5), a member of the structurally related family of annexin proteins, is expressed in pituitary gonadotropes. We previously reported that ANXA5 expression is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the present study, we investigated ANXA5 expression in the anterior pituitary gland of GnRH-deficient mutant hypogonadal (hpg) mice. RT-PCR demonstrated that luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) and ANXA5 mRNA levels were both lower in the pituitary gland of hpg mice than in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that ANXA5 expression throughout the pituitary gland was very low in hpg mice, suggesting that ANXA5 is diminished in gonadotropes and also in other cell types. Subcutaneous administration of a GnRH analogue, des-gly10 (Pro9)-GnRH ethylamide (1 μg/day for 7 days), augmented the expression of LHβ and ANXA5 in the pituitary gland in hpg mice. However, LHβ- and ANXA5-positive cells did not show exactly matched spatial distributions. These findings suggest that GnRH is necessary for constitutive ANXA5 expression in the pituitary gland, not only in gonadotropes but also in other pituitary gland cell types. A close relationship between ANXA5 and LHβ expression was confirmed. It is suggested that a significant role of ANXA5 in the physiologic secretion of LH.

  20. The various MRI patterns of pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotin, M. [Department of Radiology, Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute (Canada)]|[Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland); Tampieri, D.; Garant, M.; Melanson, D. [Department of Radiology, Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute (Canada); Ruefenacht, D.A.; Delavelle, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland); Mohr, G. [Department of Neurosurgery, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Del Carpio, R. [Department of Radiology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal (Canada); Robert, F. [Department of Pathology, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, H3T 1E2 Montreal (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the various MRI features, in correlation to surgical and pathological findings, in patients who presented with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Eleven patients presenting with PA, were evaluated with various MR protocols including spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted sequences in 9 of 11 patients, post gadolinium SE T1-weighted sequences in only 8 of 11 patients, and with T2-weighted SE sequences in 2 of 11 patients. All patients had transsphenoidal pituitary surgery after MR studies. The severity of presenting symptoms ranged from headaches to coma. Ten patients had pituitary macroadenoma; one had a non-hemorrhagic metastatic lesion into a non-adenomatous pituitary gland. Of the 11 patients, one was studied at the acute stage of PA (1 day after onset), 9 at the subacute period (3-15 days after onset), and one at the late stage (5 months after onset). Images compatible with intratumoral hemorrhage were found in all macroadenomas, whereas the metastatic pituitary lesion did not show evidence of bleeding. All gadolinium-enhanced studies showed partial tumoral enhancement. The SE T2-weighted studies demonstrated areas of low and high signal intensities in keeping with the presence of blood degradation contents. Pituitary apoplexy present with different MR features, including hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic characteristics on T1-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced images do not provide complementary diagnostic information when the presence of blood is assessed on plain images. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs.

  1. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  4. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  5. 多点预注射垂体后叶素联合MTX减少输卵管妊娠腹腔镜保守性手术中出血的临床研究%Multi-point pre injection of posterior pituitary hormone combined with MTX reduces tubal pregnancy conservative laparoscopic operation in clinical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕兰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察多点注射垂体后叶素联合MTX在输卵管妊娠腹腔镜保守性手术中减少出血的疗效.方法:选择确诊为未破裂且有生育要求的输卵管妊娠患者127例,其中65例入院后即肌注MTX 100mg,腹腔镜术中先于患侧输卵管局部、基底部系膜及距距输卵管间质部1cm的宫角肌层处行垂体后叶素多点注射做预处理,然后再行输卵管保守性手术作为研究组,未使用MTX及垂体后叶素者62例作为对照组,采用传统的腹腔镜下输卵管保守性手术.观察两组术中手术时间、出血量及持续性异位妊娠的发生情况等.结果:所有手术均在腹腔镜下顺利完成,两组术中手术时间、出血量、输卵管保留成功率、持续性异位妊娠发生率比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论:输卵管妊娠腹腔镜保守性手术中应用多点注射垂体后叶素联合MTX可明显减少术中出血,甚至不需电凝创面,缩短手术时间,有效保留输卵管,降低持续性异位妊娠发生率,值得临床推广.%Objective: To observe the multi-point injection posterior pituitary hormone combined with MTX in laparoscopic conservative operation for tubal pregnancy reduce hemorrhage.Method: For selecting confirmed unruptured and desire for fertility in patients with tubal pregnancy in 127 cases, including 65 cases of hospital admission after intramuscular injection of MTX 100mg, laparoscopy before tubal local, Department of film and substrate from cornual fallopian tube root 1cm fundal myometrium row posterior pituitary hormone multi point injection pretreataient, then conservative tubal operation as study group .Do not use MTX and posterior pituitary hormone in 62 cases as control group, using the traditional laparoscopic tubal conservative operation.Observation of two groups preoperatively in operation time, bleeding volume and occurrence of persistent ectopic pregnancy case.Results: All the operation were successful in completed, two group

  6. A primer on pituitary injury for the obstetrician gynecologist: Simmond's disease, Sheehan's Syndrome, traumatic injury, Dahan's Syndrome, pituitary apoplexy and lymphocytic hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Michael H; Tan, Seang L

    2017-04-01

    The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adreno-corticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Multiple mechanisms of pituitary injury exist. Simmond's disease is atrophy or destruction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland resulting in hypopituitarism. Sheehan's syndrome is post-partum pituitary injury due to massive hemorrhage. Traumatic injury resulting in hemorrhage in a non-pregnancy state can also cause partial or complete pituitary failure. Dahan's syndrome is pituitary injury due to severe vasospasm, without significant hemorrhage. Pituitary apoplexy is infarction of a pituitary adenoma and intra-mass hemorrhage with result injury to hormone production by the gland. Lymphocytic infiltration is the most common cause of hypophysitis and the mechanism is often unknown, although it may be autoimmune-related. The mechanism and treatments of each of these pathologies will be discussed in a context of reproduction.

  7. Pituitary cell differentiation from stem cells and other cells: toward restorative therapy for hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Christophe; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary gland, key regulator of our endocrine system, produces multiple hormones that steer essential physiological processes. Hence, deficient pituitary function (hypopituitarism) leads to severe disorders. Hypopituitarism can be caused by defective embryonic development, or by damage through tumor growth/resection and traumatic brain injury. Lifelong hormone replacement is needed but associated with significant side effects. It would be more desirable to restore pituitary tissue and function. Recently, we showed that the adult (mouse) pituitary holds regenerative capacity in which local stem cells are involved. Repair of deficient pituitary may therefore be achieved by activating these resident stem cells. Alternatively, pituitary dysfunction may be mended by cell (replacement) therapy. The hormonal cells to be transplanted could be obtained by (trans-)differentiating various kinds of stem cells or other cells. Here, we summarize the studies on pituitary cell regeneration and on (trans-)differentiation toward hormonal cells, and speculate on restorative therapies for pituitary deficiency.

  8. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  9. Pituitary Apoplexy Presented with Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Owji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 40-years-old woman presented with visual loss in the right eye since two days ago. The patient complained of headache with gradual onset in the right parietal area since 2 years ago. The headache pattern did not alter.The left eye was normal but the vision in the right eye was 50 cm finger counting. Marcus Gunn pupil could be observed during swinging-flashlight test in the right eye. According to these findings, the first diagnosis was optic neuritis which was corroborated with visual evoked potential (the latency of P100 was 122. According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there was a big cystic tumor in sella turcica extended to the suprasellar region (Figure 1-A. It had a large liquid component. Optic chiasm was under pressure and was displaced (Figure 1-B. A faint enhancement was seen after the injection (Figure 1-C.The patient was operated with the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. Blood and fibrin were among the small monomorphic round cells andfibro-connective tissue of the pituitary gland. Considering the bleeding inside the pituitary tumor, the final diagnosis was pituitary apoplexy. After recovery from the operation the symptoms were removed.Pituitary apoplexy presents with headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia, and mental alterations which is caused by infarction or sudden bleeding inside the pituitary tumor.1In our review of literature, 3 patients afflicted with pituitary apoplexy presented with optic neuritis were reported.In a study conducted by Petersen et al., all three patients referred to them suffered from unilateral visual loss and headache. They were examined with the early diagnosis of optic neuritis. After taking a Brain Computerized tomography (CT scan, pituitary adenoma together with the formation of cyst were detected in patients. After transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the patient regained full vision. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of these patients, who had been incorrectly diagnosed with

  10. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  11. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marro, B. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Zouaoui, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sahel, M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Crozat, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Gerber, S. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sourour, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sag, K. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Marsault, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1997-06-01

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting] adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. MR of pituitary micro-adenomas; IRM des microadenomes hypophysaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Marec, E.; Ait Ameur, A.; David, H.; Pharaboz, C. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of the time, rationales to look for pituitary micro-adenomas are based on endocrinal disorder. MRI is often helpful to confirm diagnosis. It gives information about micro-adenomas size and localisation. If conventional sequence are inadequate, a dynamic sequence has then to be performed after Gadolinium injection. Any disorder observed from the pituitary gland must be correlated with the clinical observation and results from biochemistry analysis. False positive happens quite open because of gland morphological variation, incidentalomas and partial volumes. MRI offers the possibility to follow-up treated micro-adenomas evolution especially to detect recurrence. (author)

  13. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  14. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Françoise; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Cazabat, Laure; Boulin, Anne; Cotton, François; Bonneville, Jean-François; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vidal-Trécan, Gwénaelle; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma is variable: between 1.4% and 27% at autopsy, and between 3.7% and 37% on imaging. Pituitary microincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma 1cm in diameter) show increased size in 20-24% and 34-40% of cases at respectively 4 and 8years' follow-up. Radiologic differential diagnosis requires MRI centered on the pituitary gland. Initial assessment of nonfunctioning (NF) microincidentaloma is firstly clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hypersecretion (signs of hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome), followed up by systematic prolactin and IGF-1 assay. Initial assessment of NF macroincidentaloma is clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, followed up by hormonal assay to screen for hypersecretion or hormonal deficiency and by ophthalmologic assessment (visual acuity and visual field) if and only if the lesion is near the optic chiasm (OC). NF microincidentaloma of less than 5mm requires no surveillance; those of≥5mm are not operated on but rather monitored on MRI at 6months and then 2years. Macroincidentaloma remote from the OC is monitored on MRI at 1year, with hormonal exploration (for anterior pituitary deficiency), then every 2years. When macroincidentaloma located near the OC is managed by surveillance rather than surgery, MRI is recommended at 6months, with hormonal and visual exploration, then annual MRI and hormonal and visual assessment every 6months. Surgery is indicated in the following cases: evolutive NF microincidentaloma, NF macroincidentaloma associated with hypopituitarism or showing progression, incidentaloma compressing the OC, possible malignancy, non-compliant patient, pregnancy desired in the short-term, or context at risk of apoplexy.

  15. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  16. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  17. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do not produce hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary ...

  18. CT of pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  19. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting.

  20. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Holstege, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never bee

  1. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Holstege, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never bee

  2. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  3. Studies on prolactin-secreting cells in aging rats of different strains. I. Alterations in pituitary histology and serum prolactin levels as related to ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van L.J.A.; Zwieten, van M.J.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Kemenade, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Serum PRL levels and histologically tumor-free pituitary glands of 91 aging rats of the BN/BiRij strain, the WAG/Rij strain and their F1 hybrid were studied. In rats with pituitary glands without signs of hyperplasia, serum PRL levels were, in comparison to rats of 15-24 months, increased 25-29-mont

  4. The neuroradiological study of craniopharyngiomas; A comparison with non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Susumu; Takemae, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Shigeaki (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    The neuroradiological manifestations of 10 surgically verified craniopharyngiomas are retrospectively studied and compared with those of 8 non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas. The saucer-like appearance of the sella turcica on a craniogram was noted in 2 of the 10 craniopharyngiomas and in 2 of the 8 pituitary adenomas. A ballooning of the sella turcica was observed in one of the 10 craniopharyngiomas and in 5 of the 8 pituitary adenomas. Calcification on CT scan was presented in only 5 craniopharyngiomas. On a plain CT scan, no craniopharyngioma manifested any high-density mass except calcification. Four pituitary adenomas showed a slightly high density, though. A cystic lesion was revealed in all the craniopharyngiomas and in 4 pituitary adenomas. All the craniopharyngiomas except for one intrasellar type and all the pituitary adenomas were enhanced with a contrast medium. The solid portion in one craniopharyngioma and in one pituitary adenoma was high-intensity on T[sub 1]-weighted MRI. The cystic portion in 4 craniopharyngiomas and in 2 pituitary adenomas manifested a high intensity on a T[sub 1]-weighted image. A normal pituitary gland located on the floor of the sella was disclosed in all the craniopharyngiomas on a sagittal T[sub 1]-weighted image; however in all the pituitary adenomas, no normal pituitary gland was found at least not on the floor of the sella. The presence of a normal pituitary gland on the sellar floor on sagittal T[sub 1]-weighted MRI may be a new differential diagnostic point between craniopharyngioma and pituitary macroadenoma. Calcification, cystic formation, and density on a plain CT scan seem to be useful evidence for diagnosis. (author).

  5. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  6. A rare case of type 1 diabetes mellitus with pituitary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jostol; Sudeep, K; Venkatesha, B M

    2014-01-01

    Growth failure and pubertal abnormalities are not uncommon in chronic uncontrolled metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. We present a young girl with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus, who presented with short stature and primary amenorrhea, and on evaluation was found to have anterior pituitary hypoplasia. In addition to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, she presented with early onset growth failure and lack of spontaneous secondary sexual characteristics. She had central hypothyroidism and inappropriately normal gonadotropin levels. However her serum cortisol levels were normal. MRI of the sellar-suprasellar region revealed a small anterior pituitary gland with thinning of the pituitary stalk consistent with pituitary hypoplasia. While uncontrolled type 1 diabetes itself may cause growth retardation and pubertal abnormalities, this girl had coexisting pituitary maldevelopment - a rare co-existence of two major illnesses of unrelated etiologies. The partial pituitary hormonal deficiency, which spared the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, may be due to a transcription factor defect.

  7. Combined chronic lymphocytic leukemia and prolactinoma: a rare occurrence in a patient presenting with pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisht, Khaled M; Palmer, Cheryl A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    The authors describe a rare case of combined pituitary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and prolactinoma in a 77-year-old man presenting with apoplexy. This case highlights the importance of evaluating the pituitary gland in patients with CLL who present with clinical manifestations of apoplexy as well as the need to carefully evaluate pathological specimens from the gland for the presence of lymphocytic cells in those patients. This is the first reported case of a combined CLL-prolactinoma pituitary lesion presenting with apoplexy.

  8. Pituitary transplantation: Part 1. Successful reconstitution of pituitary-dependent hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N B; Zacur, H A; Allen, G S

    1985-03-01

    Neonatal or adult pituitary glands were transplanted to the median eminence of adult rats of the same or a histoincompatible inbred strain. The hormonal status of 39 transplanted rats and of control animals was evaluated by serial determination of serum prolactin and thyroxine. Grafts of neonatal tissue to adults of the same strain resulted in normal postoperative hormone levels. This indicates not only that pituitary grafts had survived, but also that the transplants were under hypothalamic control. Grafts of adult tissue were less successful. The prolactin value was lower, but still within the normal range, whereas the thyroxine value was lower than normal, suggesting that viable pituitary tissue had survived but was not under hypothalamic control. Transplantation across a histocompatibility barrier was uniformly unsuccessful. Postoperative prolactin levels were low and thyroxine levels were not significantly different from those in hypophysectomized controls.

  9. Pituitary imaging findings in male patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Dania; Benbassat, Carlos; Toledano, Yoel; S'chigol, Irena; Tsvetov, Gloria; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shimon, Ilan

    2015-08-01

    Data on pituitary imaging in adult male patients presenting with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) and no known pituitary disease are scarce. To assess the usefulness of pituitary imaging in the evaluation of men presenting with HH after excluding known pituitary disorders and hyperprolactinemia. A historical prospective cohort of males with HH. Men who presented for endocrine evaluation from 2011 to 2014 with testosterone levels pituitary disease. Seventy-five men were included in the analysis. Their mean age and BMI were 53.4 ± 14.8 years and 30.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2, respectively. Mean total testosterone, LH, and FSH were 6.2 ± 1.7 nmol/L, 3.4 ± 2 and 4.7 ± 3.1 mIU/L, respectively. Prolactin level within the normal range was obtained in all men (mean 161 ± 61, range 41-347 mIU/L). Sixty-two men had pituitary MRI and 13 performed CT. In 61 (81.3%) men pituitary imaging was normal. Microadenoma was found in 8 (10.7%), empty sella and thickened pituitary stalk in one patient (1.3%) each. In other four patients (5.3%) a small or mildly asymmetric pituitary gland was noted. No correlation was found between testosterone level and the presence of pituitary anomalies. This study suggests that the use of routine hypothalamic-pituitary imaging in the evaluation of IHH, in the absence of clinical characteristics of other hormonal loss or sellar compression symptoms, will not increase the diagnostic yield of sellar structural abnormalities over that reported in the general population.

  10. Pituitary tumor apoplexy Apoplexia em tumor hipofisário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a medical emergency due to acute infarction or hemorrhage in the pituitary gland. In this review, the authors discuss the sellar anatomy, the pituitary gland and adenomas' vascularization and the general aspects of the syndrome such as its ethiopatogenesis, predisposing factors, clinical features, treatment and prognosis.A apoplexia em tumor hipofisário é uma emergência médica decorrente do infarto agudo ou hemorrágico na glândula hipófise. Nesta revisão os autores discutem a anatomia da região selar, a vascularização da hipófise e adenomas hipofisários, e demais aspectos da síndrome como etiopatogenia, fatores predisponentes, quadro clínico, tratamento e prognóstico.

  11. MRI Characteristics of Pituitary in Patients with Sheehan′s Syndrome%50例席汉综合征女性患者的垂体磁共振成像特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 眭贺; 沈桂权

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析席汉综合征( SS)患者的垂体磁共振成像( MRI)表现,提高影像学检查对该病的诊断水平。方法:50例经临床确诊的SS女性患者行垂体3.0T MRI平扫及增强检查,观察垂体形态、大小及其与周围组织结构的关系。结果:所有病例垂体MRI均表现为空泡蝶鞍,蝶鞍无扩大,垂体柄未见明显偏移,垂体后叶高信号存在;其中38例(38/50)表现为完全性空泡蝶鞍,腺垂体结构完全消失,垂体柄下端呈游离状悬挂于鞍内;12例(12/50)表现为部分性空泡蝶鞍,其中9例(9/12)腺垂体体积均匀缩小,3例(3/12)不均匀缩小,腺垂体呈薄片状改变紧贴于鞍底,其信号未见明显异常。结论:SS患者的垂体MRI表现具有一定的特征性,结合临床及影像学表现可以早期确诊。%Objective:To analyze the MRI manifestation of pituitary in patients with Sheehan′s syn-drome( SS)in order to improve the level of diagnosis of imaging examination. Methods:50 female pa-tients with clinically diagnosed SS underwent pituitary MRI 3 . 0 T plain scan and enhanced examination to observe the pituitary morphology,size and its relationship with the surrounding tissue structure. Results:Pituitary MRI of all patients were all shown as empty sella with high signal of posterior pitui-tary,and there was no obvious shift in the pituitary stalk. Of all cases of patients,38 cases showed complete empty sella,and pituitary gland structure completely disappeared,with the lower end of the pituitary stalk in a free state hanging in the saddle. The other 12 cases showed partial empty sella,a-mong which 9 cases showed that the volume of the pituitary gland decreased,and the 3 cases showed that the volume the pituitary gland were not uniformly reduced. And the pituitary gland was a thin sheet change close to the saddle bottom,with the signal being normal. Conclusions:The MRI mani-festation of pituitary in

  12. Diabetes insipidus in pediatric germinomas of the suprasellar region: characteristic features and significance of the pituitary bright spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilday, John-Paul; Laughlin, Suzanne; Urbach, Stacey; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary bright spot is acknowledged to indicate functional integrity of the posterior pituitary gland, whilst its absence supports a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus (DI). This feature was evaluated, together with the incidence and clinical characteristics of DI in children with suprasellar/neurohypophyseal germinomas. We performed a review of all suprasellar (SS) or bifocal (BF) germinoma pediatric patients treated in Toronto since 2000. Demographics, symptomatology, treatment outcome and imaging were evaluated. Nineteen patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (10 SS, 9 BF; median age 12.5 years (6.2-16.8 years)). All remained alive at 6.4 years median follow-up (1.2-13.7 years) after receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy (13 focal/ventricular, four whole brain, two neuraxis), with only one progression. All had symptoms of DI at presentation with a symptom interval above one year in eight cases (42 %). Desmopressin was commenced and maintained in 16 patients (84 %). The pituitary bright spot was lost in most diagnostic interpretable cases, but was appreciated in three patients (18 %) who had normal serum sodium values compared to 'absent' cases (p = 0.013). For two such cases, spots remained visible until last follow-up (range 0.4-3.3 years), with one still receiving desmopressin. No case of bright spot recovery was observed following therapy. Protracted symptom intervals for germinoma-induced central DI may reflect poor clinical awareness. Explanations for persistence of the pituitary bright spot in symptomatic patients remain elusive. Desmopressin seldom reverses the clinical features of germinoma-induced DI to allow discontinuation, nor does treatment cause bright spot recovery.

  13. Feasibility of high-resolution pituitary MRI at 7.0 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Kolk, Anja G. van der; Rutgers, Dik; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Since the pituitary gland measures 3-8 mm, imaging with the highest possible spatial resolution is important for the detection of even smaller lesions such as those seen in Cushing's disease. In the current feasibility study, we tested a multi-sequence MRI protocol to visualize the pituitary gland in high resolution at 7.0 Tesla (7.0 T). Ten healthy volunteers were examined with a 7.0 T pituitary gland protocol. The protocol consisted of a T1-weighted magnetization-prepared inversion recovery (MPIR) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and a T2-weighted TSE sequence. Additionally, this protocol was tested in five patients with clinical and biochemical suspicion of a microadenoma. The dedicated protocol was successful in visualizing normal pituitary anatomy. At 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T, four times as many slices covered the pituitary gland in sagittal and coronal direction. In three patients, a lesion was diagnosed at 7.0 T, and was confirmed by histopathology to be a microadenoma. Head-to-head comparisons of 7.0 T with 1.5 T and 3.0 T are needed with larger samples of patients and with imaging times feasible for clinical settings. However, the current study suggests that high-resolution 7.0 T MRI of the pituitary gland may provide new perspectives when used as a second-line diagnostic examination in the specific context of Cushing's disease. (orig.)

  14. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  15. Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Laura Aste

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypophysitis is an inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that may mimic pituitary tumors clinically and radiologically. Case Description. We report a case of a xanthomatous hypophysitis initially diagnosed as pituitary adenoma. A 31-year-old woman presented with headache, diabetes insipidus, and amenorrhea. A head CT scan showed no intrasellar changes, while an MRI scan showed a sellar cystic mass. An endocrinological work up revealed mild hypocortisolism and diabetes insipidus (DI. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The intraoperative histological examination suggested a pituitary adenoma. The removed tissue showed central necrosis surrounded by accumulation of foamy cells and xanthomatous epithelioid cells. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery, Nevertheless, DI persisted and the adenohypophysis hypofunction did not recover. Conclusion. We describe an unusual inflammatory lesion of the pituitary gland mimicking an adenoma. A high level of clinical suspicion of inflammatory disorders is necessary for correct diagnosis and optimal management.

  16. Pituitary autoimmunity in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ravinder; Kochupillai, Narayana; Crock, Patricia A; Jaleel, Abdul; Gupta, Nandita

    2002-09-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a frequent complication of pregnancy in India. Sheehan's description of postpartum hypopituitarism promoted the belief that PPH leads to necrosis of the enlarged pituitary gland of pregnancy and hypopituitarism. However, slow clinical progression suggests factors other than ischemia in its pathogenesis. Tissue necrosis could release sequestered antigens, triggering autoimmunity of the pituitary and delayed hypopituitarism in Sheehan's syndrome. Twenty-six consecutive patients with postpartum hypopituitarism were studied, 19 with Sheehan's syndrome based on a history of PPH and hormone profile suggesting pituitary failure [mean (SD) age 32.7 +/- 6.4 yr, duration of illness 5.5 +/- 3.1 yr], and seven patients with no history of PPH, categorized as "Other." Pituitary imaging and basal T(4), TSH, cortisol, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, and autoantibodies against pituitary (PitAb) and thyroid (TMA) were evaluated. Controls included 28 healthy females without prior conception (22 +/- 5 yr) and 28 with prior conception (26 +/- 5 yr). Twelve of 19 (63.1%) patients with Sheehan's syndrome and one of seven in the Other group had PitAb against the 49-kDa autoantigen; neuron-specific enolase. Four of 28 (14.2%) controls without prior conception and 5 of 28 (17.8%) controls with prior conception had PitAb positivity (P Sheehan's syndrome, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean serum hormone values and TMA positivity between patients with Sheehan's syndrome and the Other group as well as patients with or without PitAb positivity. Pituitary autoimmunity may play a role in the cause of hypopituitarism following PPH.

  17. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

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    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  18. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  19. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

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    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  20. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

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    Bashir A Laway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan′s syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing′s disease and acromegaly, which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists.

  1. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir A.; Mir, Shahnaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing's disease and acromegaly), which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists. PMID:24381874

  2. [Pituitary tumors manifesting with amenorrhea-galactorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, A; Razon, N

    1976-05-16

    The amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome which occurs at a time other than the post-partum period is most often seen in association with a tumor of the pituitary gland; the symptoms are caused by a hypersecretion of prolactin. Among a series of 19 patients in Tel Aviv who underwent surgery for treatment of pituitary tumors, 2 presented with the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. The first patient, a 16 year old, presented with headaches, nausea, and diplopia; she underwent a series of 3 surgical procedures and died of a respiratory arrest in the third post-operative period. The second patient was a 39 year old woman who had borne 5 children; she presented with loss of vision, underwent surgery, and did well post-operatively. The authors point out that whereas either amenorrhea or galactorrhea alone may be associated with a number of disorders, the combination of the two symptoms is characteristic of pituitary tumors. Both patients who were presented in this article had chromophobe adenomas of the pituitary. The authors also discuss the various biologic actions of prolactin and its interrelationships with other hormones.

  3. Expression of orexin receptors in the pituitary.

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    Kaminski, Tadeusz; Smolinska, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Orexin receptors type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) are G protein-coupled receptors whose structure is highly conserved in mammals. OX1R is selective for orexin A, and OX2R binds orexin A and orexin B with similar affinity. Orexin receptor expression was observed in human, rat, porcine, sheep as well as Xenopus laevis pituitaries, both in the adenohypophysis and in the neurohypophysis. The expression level is regulated by gonadal steroid hormones and GnRH. The majority of orexins reaching the pituitary originate from the lateral hypothalamus, but due to the presence of the receptors and the local production of orexins in the pituitary, orexins could deliver an auto/paracrine effect within the gland. Cumulative data indicate that orexins are involved in the regulation of LH, GH, PRL, ACTH, and TSH secretion by pituitary cells, pointing to orexins' effect on the functioning of the endocrine axes. Those hormones may also serve as a signal linking metabolic status with endocrine control of sleep, arousal, and reproduction processes.

  4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

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    Fergus Keane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour.

  5. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

  6. [Hard nut to crack in diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism and reasons of misdiagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Lei; Cheng, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Min-Ming

    2009-03-17

    To analyze the difficulty in diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism and reasons of misdiagnosis. Ten patients with clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism, 3 males and 7 females, aged 7 - 26, underwent MR imaging and serum hormone examination before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. T1-weighted images without and with contrast material enhancement in sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. Serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, thyrotropic-stimulating hormone and prolactin (PRL) levels were measured. Obvious symmetrical enlargement of the pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity was revealed by MRI in all the patients. The height of the pituitary ranged 1.2 - 2.2 cm. The pituitary glands appeared homogeneously enhanced after Gd-DTPA administration. After 3 - 6 months of L-thyroxin replacement therapy, follow-up MRI showed that the pituitary glands reduced in size markedly in 9 cases, and the plasma thyroxine, TSH, and PRL levels of these 9 cases turned normal. One patient was misdiagnosed as with macroadenoma and was treated with gamma knife, resulting in permanence hypothyroidism. Symmetrical enlargement of pituitary gland with homogeneously enhancement on MRI has great diagnostic value in pituitary hyperplasia with primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy can cause regression of the enlarged pituitary, thus avoiding unnecessary surgery.

  7. Double, synchronous pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly and Cushing's disease. A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz; Maksymowicz, Maria; Podgórski, Jan; Olszewski, Włodzimierz T

    2013-06-01

    Double pituitary adenomas are very rare and present up to 1 % of pituitary adenomas in unselected autopsy series and up to 2 % in large surgical series. We report a case of a 47-year-old man presented slight clinical features of acromegaly with 2 years duration. Endocrine evaluation confirmed active acromegaly and revealed adrenocorticotropin hormone-dependent hypercortisolemia. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary demonstrated clearly separated double microadenomas with different intensity. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery and both tumors were completely removed and were fixed separately. The histological and ultrastructural examination confirmed coincidence of the double, clearly separated pituitary adenomas in one gland. Postoperative function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis was normalized. We conclude from this case and a literature review that double endocrinologically active pituitary adenomas leading to acromegaly and Cushing's disease may occur. Additionally, a review of the literature regarding multiple pituitary adenomas has also been performed.

  8. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Robert A. Scranton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed.

  9. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

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    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  10. Oxytocin and hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenal axis

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    Berrak Ç. Yeğen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BSTRACT: Upon exposure to different types of stressors, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses that include the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are given to allow the individuals to cope with stress conditions. It was proven that oxytocin, anonapeptide released from the posterior pituitary, has behavioral and stress-attenuating effects by dampening HPA activity. On the other hand, the neuropeptide was also shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of immune and inflammatory processes in several experimental models of tissue injury. The findings of recent studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of oxytocin depends on its role on HPA axis activity and subsequent release of cortisol. Thus, oxytocin seems to restrain the activity within the HPA-axis, which becomes overactive during many inflammatory processes

  11. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow and to make steroid hormones (such as cortisol). Too much ACTH from the pituitary causes Cushing’s ... Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, ...

  12. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

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    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  13. [History of pituitary surgery in humans and animals: from experiments with dogs to treatment of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, B P

    2001-12-22

    At the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century experimental hypophysectomy was carried out on cats and dogs, by means of the lateral temporal approach, to investigate the physiological role of the pituitary gland because there was a debate as to whether the pituitary gland was essential for life. At the same time pioneering neurosurgeons such as Harvey Cushing used animal experiments to explore the different approaches to the neurocranium and the pituitary, thereby taking the first steps towards neurosurgery in humans. Eventually the transsphenoidal route was chosen for such an operation. Veterinary medicine has benefited from these developments in the medical field. For the past few decades, hypophysectomy has been used for the treatment of pituitary adenomas in dogs and cats that are kept as pets.

  14. Pituitary gland in Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression: Evidence from structural MRI studies: Special Section on "Translational and Neuroscience Studies in Affective Disorders". Section Editor, Maria Nobile MD, PhD. This Section of JAD focuses on the relevance of translational and neuroscience studies in providing a better understanding of the neural basis of affective disorders. The main aim is to briefly summarise relevant research findings in clinical neuroscience with particular regards to specific innovative topics in mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, G; Altamura, A C; Soares, J C; Brambilla, P

    2017-08-15

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been widely investigated in mood disorders based on its role in regulating stress response. Particularly, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reports have explored pituitary gland (PG) in both bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context, the present review summarizes the results from MRI studies with the final aim of commenting on the presence of common or distinct PG structural alterations between these two disabling illnesses. A bibliographic search on PUBMED of all MRI studies exploring PG volumes in BD and MDD as well as first-degree relatives (RELs) from 2000 up to October 2016 was performed. Following the screening process of the available literature it can be said that a) PG enlargement has been found in both BD and MDD, therefore potentially representing a common neurobiological marker characterizing mood disorders, and b) PG volumes are moderated by age and sex in both illnesses, although the direction and the extent of this moderation are still not fully clear. Few MRI studies with heterogeneous results. These hypotheses must be taken with caution especially because the heterogeneity of the results of the studies reviewed does not allow for a definite answer about the role of PG in affective disorders. Therefore, larger longitudinal studies investigating PG volumes in BD and MDD patients at the early phases of the illness, by considering females and males separately, are needed to further corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. μ- and m-calpain expression and activity changes following diethylstilbestrol injection in the rat anterior pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Zhongfang Shi; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in calpain activity in the pituitary gland.In the present study,μ- and m-calpain activity changes were detected in the rat anterior pituitary following intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol.Double-immunofluorescence labeling confirmed colocalization of μ - and m-calpain in prolactin-secreting cells (lactotrophs).Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased expression of both calpains,which accompanied upregulated cytosol and membrane zymographic activities at 12 weeks following diethylstilbestrol injection,compared with rats injected with sunflower oil.Moreover,following estrogen injection,pituitary gland pathological damage gradually worsened with increasing time.Results demonstrated that estrogen regulated calpain expression and activity,and both calpains participated in the pathophysiological processes of the pituitary gland.Ubiquitous calpain expression could serve as an effective target for anti-estrogen drugs.

  16. Advances in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

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    Solari, D; Cavallo, L M; De Angelis, M; Villa, A; Somma, T; Esposito, F; Del Basso De Caro, M; Cappabianca, P

    2012-12-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, requiring precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. Actually, it could be considered the result of a close cooperation between different specialists, i.e. the ophthalmologist, the neuroradiologist, the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, the pathologist, etc. In this teamwork environment each member plays his own role, offering his contribute to the final result; every effort is performed to provide patients with the best possible procedure, individually measured. The endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by means of a transsphenoidal approach perfectly fits this scenario, being though advocated as the result of an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary one. The "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery - consisting of a whole procedure performed with the endoscope alone and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor - offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy, very important at the tumor/gland interface and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate are similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series but patient compliance is by far better.

  17. Fasting Upregulates PPAR Target Genes in Brain and Influences Pituitary Hormone Expression in a PPAR Dependent Manner

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    Bettina König

    2009-01-01

    PPAR target genes implicated in -oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and ketogenesis (mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in pituitary gland and partially also in frontal cortex and diencephalon compared to nonfasted animals. These data strongly indicate that fasting activates PPAR in brain and pituitary gland. Furthermore, pituitary prolactin and luteinizing hormone- mRNA concentrations were increased upon fasting in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking PPAR. For proopiomelanocortin and thyrotropin-, genotype-specific differences in pituitary mRNA concentrations were observed. Thus, PPAR seems to be involved in transcriptional regulation of pituitary hormones.

  18. [Impact of pregnancy on pituitary disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, J

    2013-06-01

    In pregnancy, the volume of pituitary increases by multiplication of lactotopic and gonadotropic cells and developing placenta is the source of numerous hormones and enzymes that significantly affect and alter the function of the endocrine system. This naturally has an impact on the course of pituitary disorders and their treatment. The most common disorders of pituitary gland, which we can meet in pregnancy, are adenomas, particularly prolactinomas, and functionless adenomas. During pregnancy we avoid the treatment of microprolactinomas, but in macroprolactinomas where there is the risk of their enlargement by stimulation of placental estrogens, we administer preventively the dopaminergic agonists. Patients with acromegaly usually do not need the treatment during pregnancy, unless there is a danger to damage the visual pathway or heavy headaches occur. ACTH secreting adenomas (Cushings disease) in pregnancy are rare, they are difficult to diagnose but existing hypercortisolism is very dangerous to fetus and may damage even mother. Large functionless adenomas, unless treated before pregnancy, may damage the visual pathway. The volume of the enlarged pituitary gland in pregnancy and sometimes even of the functionless adenoma adenoma, may be reduced by cabergoline, so that the urgent neurosurgery in pregnancy is very rare. A typical disease that occurs primarily in pregnant women is autoimmune lymphocytic hypophysitis. Diagnosis is established on the basis of headaches and symptoms and signs of the deficits of adrenocorticotropic and thyreotropic function usually in the last third of pregnancy or in the first six months after birth, using a specific image in magnetic resonance. Treatment is limited to hormone replacement. It is also possible to meet pregnant women with deficient pituitary functions. In hypocortical women with exception of strains like as pregnancy vomiting, doses of hydrocortisone replacement usually do not change until birth. Childbirth, however

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACIAL ARTERY AND SUB MANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLAND

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    S.V.Venugopal,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of relationship between the facial artery and submandibular salivary gland is essential for the surgeon operating in the submandibular region. This study has been under taken to have the knowledge of this relationship. Submandibular region has been dissected on 20 male cadavers in the Department of Anatomy, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Kerala. The course of the facial artery and its relationship to submandibular salivary gland has been followed carefully. The standard description of ascent of the facial artery along the entire length of posterior border of the submandibular salivary gland was seen in 15 out of the 20 sides studied. In 4 out of 20 sides dissected the facial artery reached only the upper part of the posterior border of the gland. The facial artery arose high on the external carotid artery near the angle of the mandible in one specimen. It reached the gland only at its postero-superior angle, pierced through the gland and emerged on the upper part of the lateral surface of the gland. Our study shows that only 1/5 of instances facial artery courses along the posterior border of the gland. In 4/5 of instances it reaches only the upper part of the posterior border.

  20. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

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    Masumi eNozaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates. Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates, the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTH mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-12-30

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  2. Related pituitary cell lineages develop into interdigitated 3D cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Lafont, Chrystel; El Yandouzi, Taoufik; Chauvet, Norbert; Conéjero, Geneviève; Drouin, Jacques; Mollard, Patrice

    2011-07-26

    The pituitary gland has long been considered to be a random patchwork of hormone-producing cells. By using pituitary-scale tridimensional imaging for two of the least abundant cell lineages, the corticotropes and gonadotropes, we have now uncovered highly organized and interdigitated cell networks that reflect homotypic and heterotypic interactions between cells. Although newly differentiated corticotrope cells appear on the ventral surface of the gland, they rapidly form homotypic strands of cells that extend from the lateral tips of the anterior pituitary along its ventral surface and into the medial gland. As the corticotrope network is established away from the microvasculature, cell morphology changes from rounded, to polygonal, and finally to cells with long cytoplasmic processes or cytonemes that connect corticotropes to the perivascular space. Gonadotropes differentiate later and are positioned in close proximity to corticotropes and capillaries. Blockade of corticotrope terminal differentiation produced by knockout of the gene encoding the transcription factor Tpit results in smaller gonadotropes within an expanded cell network, particularly in the lateral gland. Thus, pituitary-scale tridimensional imaging reveals highly structured cell networks of unique topology for each pituitary lineage. The sequential development of interdigitated cell networks during organogenesis indicate that extensive cell:cell interactions lead to a highly ordered cell positioning rather than random patchwork.

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fatal complication after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição Aparecida Dornelas; Tereza N. A. G. Nogueira; Evandro T. Alves; River A. B. Coêlho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to report a rare fatal complication in the postoperative period of transsphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland (adenoma), with a brief review of the subject. The patient was a 54-year-old white man with acromegaly and severe heart failure, who after microsurgery developed blood pressure instability within 32 hours after the procedure and died. The autopsy revealed: hypertrophy and ventricular dilation with myocarditis, pericarditis and myocardial fi...

  5. Mathematical model describing the thyroids-pituitary axis with distributed time delays in hormone transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamţu, Mihaela; Stoian, Dana; Navolan, Dan Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we provide a mathematical model that describe the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis. Since there is a spatial separation between thyroid and pituitary gland in the body, time is needed for transportation of thyrotropin and thyroxine between the glands. Thus, the distributed time delays are considered as both weak and Dirac kernels. The delayed model is analyzed regarding the stability and bifurcation behavior. The last part contains some numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of our results and conclusions.

  6. Hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection in the fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolovich, G C; Clarke, I J; McMillen, I C; Perry, R A; Robinson, P M; Silver, M; Young, R

    1990-01-01

    In this study we have applied the technique of hypothalamo-pituitary disconnection (HPD) to the fetal sheep at 108-112 days of gestation. The pituitary is surgically disconnected from the hypothalamus by the removal of the neural component of the median eminence above the level of the portal circulation. This procedure results in the complete disconnection of the pituitary from the hypothalamus. After HPD, the lactotroph response to the dopamine antagonist chlorpromazine was significantly reduced (p less than 0.005) indicating the functional isolation of the pituitary gland from the hypothalamus. The increase in plasma prolactin in response to exogenous thyrotrophin-releasing factor was maintained following HPD. HPD resulted in the complete atrophy of the pars nervosa. At 132-135 days of gestation after HPD there was no change in the volume or appearance of the pars distalis; small infarcts were observed in the pars distalis of some HPD fetuses, but these occupied less than 1% of the volume of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the volume of the pars intermedia after HPD. Gestation was prolonged for at least 8 days beyond normal term following HPD, indicating that the processes integral to the initiation of parturition at term had been disrupted. We conclude that HPD provides a good in vivo model for the investigation of the activity of the isolated pituitary gland, and for the examination of the role of neuroendocrine mechanisms in fetal sheep development in the latter third of gestation.

  7. Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma in the Iranian cadavers

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    K Aghakhani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although one-fourth of the pituitary tumors are inactive and silent, increased total volume of the pituitary gland exerts pressure on sella turcica and corrodes the clinoid processes, resulting in several problems. Therefore, determination of the prevalence of the concealed pituitary tumors is of major concern among clinical practitioners. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of these tumors in cadavers referred to the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (Kahrizak, Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed between June 2007 and February 2008. A total of 485 cadavers were selected by simple random sampling method. Pituitary glands were removed and then horizontally cut and four slides were prepared from each of them, stained by hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by a light microscope. For statistical analysis, SPSS software (version 16, Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric test (K-S test, and Chi-square test were used. Results: Of the 485 investigated cadavers, 365 (75.3% were males with an average age of 42 ± 20.5 years and 120 (24.7% were females with an average age of 44 ± 22 years. A total of 61 (12.6% had concealed pituitary masses. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean age, sex, and body mass index (BMI of the cadavers with and without concealed tumors (P=0.380 P=0.450, and P=0.884, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, the prevalence of the concealed pituitary adenomas was 12.6%. There was no correlation between age, sex, and BMI and the prevalence of the concealed masses.

  8. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

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    Prerana N Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case.

  9. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

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    Carolina Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  10. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Metastatic to the Pituitary: A Case Report and Discussion of Potential Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Hughes, Joshua; Retzlaff, Amber; Sims, John; O'Brien, Erin; Giannini, Caterina; Huston, John; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2016-07-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an exocrine gland tumor accounting for approximately 10%-15% of all epithelial salivary neoplasms and occurs most often in the parotid and submandibular glands. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare, and there is only 1 previously reported case of parotid ACC metastatic to the pituitary. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique that measures the propagation of mechanically induced shear waves through a particular tissue to determine stiffness and offers a method to evaluate tissue consistency. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a remote history of parotid gland ACC and subsequent lung metastases presented after a fall that resulted in facial trauma. A non-contrast head computed tomography scan revealed a sellar/suprasellar mass, and follow-up MRI revealed a well-defined, enhancing 3.8-cm lesion. MRE showed the tumor to be firm. The tumor was resected through a transsphenoidal approach and was consistent with the MRE findings. Pathology returned as metastatic ACC. We report the second case of ACC metastatic to pituitary and the first firm pituitary tumor found by MRE and discuss the potential diagnostic value of MRE in pituitary lesions.

  11. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

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    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  12. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  13. Multiple intracranial aneurysms following radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Takumi (Fuchu Keijinkai General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Shigemori, Minoru; Hirohata, Yu; Konishi, Jun; Yuge, Tatuo; Tokunaga, Takayuki; Kuramoto, Shinken

    1992-04-01

    A rare case is reported in which multiple cerebral aneurysm occurred after radiotherapy. A female aged 51 was hospitalized with a chief complaint of consciousness disorder. The patient was discharged from the hospital 1 year before, after undergoing subtotal extirpation of a tumor through the transsphenoidal sinus in a case of pituitary adenoma, and post-operative radiotherapy (topical 50 Gy). Mild hyperlipidemia associated with hypothyroidism was observed by blood biochemical test during hospitalization. Multiple cerebral infarction was observed by CT scanning and MR imaging. Conservative treatment including intensified endocrine-supplementing treatment was performed. Thyroid gland function and hyperlipidemia improved, but the consciousness disorder occurred suddenly 6 weeks after hospitalization. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus were observed by CT scanning. Cerebral angiography detected a saccular aneurysm in the trifuraction of the right middle cerebral artery, 3 fusiform aneurysms in the periphery of the right middle cerebral artery, 2 fusiform aneurysms in the posterior cerebral artery. These findings were not observed at the initial hospitalization but were unexceptionally confined to all the irradiation fields. The patient died 8 weeks after hospitalization, and no autoptic findings was obtained. We presumed that radiation vasculopathy, caused by radiation therapy done one year previously, had led to the occurrence of multiple cerebral aneurysms. We think that hyperlipidemia may have acted as an exacerbating factor responsible for these aneurysms. (author).

  14. Histomorfologia do gânglio de Gasser, da rete mirabile carotídea e da hipófise de bovinos: estudo de 199 casos Histomorphology of the Gasserian ganglion, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland in cattle: a study of 199 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Rech

    2006-06-01

    do número de células satélites ao redor dos neurônios do gânglio de Gasser e ocasional vacuolização e lipofuscinose neuronal. O exame histológico do complexo GRH é uma ferramenta importante e confiável no diagnóstico das principais encefalites em bovinos no Brasil.The complex of heterogenous tissues formed by the Gasserian ganglia, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland (GRH from 199 cattle were grossly and histologically evaluated. Twenty one of the GRH were from comfirmed cases of rabies, 19 were diagnosed as cases of meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5, 11 were confirmed cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, 7 had pituitary abscesses, 17 had lesions of hepatic encephalopathy (status spongiosus attributable to chronic liver failure due to Senecio sp poisoning; and the remaining 124 GRH were from cattle which did not present neurological signs and died or were euthanatized due to various causes. No significant histologic changes were observed in the GRH from the 124 cattle which did not present neurological signs, in the GRH of the 17 cattle that had hepatic encephalopathy neither in the GRH of the 19 cattle diagnosed with BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. Inflammatory changes were found in the Gasserian ganglia of 20 out of 21 cases of rabies and consisted of proliferation of sattelite cells, glial nodules and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate; degenerative changes included central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, and neuronal death with neuronophagia. Characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion (Negri bodies were found in 19 out of 21 cases of rabies, neuritis of the fifth nerve in 11, and neurohypophysitis in 4 cases. The GRH from nine of the eleven cases of MCF had characteristic necrotizing arteritis affecting the arteries of the carotid rete mirabile. In seven cases pituitary abscesses were found; they were characterized by large aggregates of neutrophils admixed with cellular debris and surrounded by mononuclear

  15. Associations between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, pituitary volume, and social anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cynthia R; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa K; Seal, Marc L; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Whittle, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) in children, has been linked with mental health problems, particularly anxiety. However, little is known about possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. The pituitary gland is a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the activation of which triggers the onset of adrenarche. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which pituitary gland volume mediated the relationship between levels of DHEA/DHEA-S relative to age (i.e., adrenarcheal timing) and symptoms of anxiety in 95 children (50 female, M age 9.50 years, SD 0.34 years). Relatively high DHEA and DHEA-S (DHEA/S) levels were found to be associated with larger pituitary gland volumes. There was no significant direct effect of relative DHEA/S levels on overall symptoms of anxiety. However, results supported an indirect link between relatively high DHEA/S levels and symptoms of social anxiety, mediated by pituitary gland volume. No sex differences were observed for any relationship. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms may be partly responsible for the link between relatively early adrenarche and anxiety symptoms in children. One possible mechanism for this finding is that an enlarged pituitary gland in children experiencing relatively advanced adrenarche might be associated with hyper-activity/reactivity of the HPA axis. Further research is needed to understand the role of stress in the link between adrenarcheal timing and HPA-axis function, especially in relation to the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Page ( 1 ) Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. As a result, the ...

  17. Molecular Imaging of Pituitary Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-01-01

    The presence of large numbers and/or the high affinity of dopamine D2 and/or somatostatin receptors on pituitary adenomas may enable their visualization with radionuclide-coupled receptor agonists or antagonists. However, the role of these imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis of or therapeutic purposes for pituitary lesions is very limited. Only in very specific cases might these molecular imaging techniques become helpful. These include the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, ectopic production of pituitary hormones, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone (GH) or their releasing hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone), and the localization of metastases from pituitary carcinomas.

  18. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  19. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  20. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  1. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  2. Treatment of Sheehan's syndrome by transplantation of fetal pituitary, hypothalamus and target gland tissues%垂体、下丘脑和靶腺组织移植治疗席汉氏综合征的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智民; 郑军华; 王庆蓉; 王修梅; 闵志廉; 幸志强; 李建秋; 刘彩华; 李玉莉; 彭辉; 朱有华; 何长民; 叶挺军; 孙耀昌; 周扣珍

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of Sheehan's syndrome were treated by the transplantation of fetal pituitary, hypothalamus and target gland tissues. The control group (20 cases)was treated by the routine substitutional therapy. Result showed that after 6 months the hormone levels in transplant group increased significantly (mean TSH increased by 5.49±1.62 U/ml, TT46.96 ±2. 13 g%, P<0. 01). The apparent efficacy rate was 40. 9%, the efficacy rate was 86.7%and 3~5 years survival rate was 33.3% and 73.3% respectively. In control group, the rates were 5%and 75% after 6 months and 3~5 years survival rates were 0 and 46.7%. The results showed that the combined transplantation is an effective treatment for Sheehan's syndrome.%为了探索垂体、下丘脑和靶腺组织移植的方法和效果,我们将42例席汉氏综合征患者分为移植组(22例)和对照组(20例).移植组患者经联合移植后半年激素水平明显升高,促甲状腺激素(TSH)平均上升5.49±1.62μU/ml,甲状腺素(T4)平均上升6.96±2.13μg%,P<0.01,治愈显效率40.9%,有效率86.7%;而对照组(常规替代治疗)分别为5%和75%.移植后3~5年,移植组分别为33.3%和73.3%.故联合移植是治疗席汉氏综合征的有效新疗法.

  3. Parathyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of parathyroid gland; Parathyroidectomy; Hyperparathyroidism - parathyroidectomy; PTH - parathyroidectomy ... and pain-free) for this surgery. Usually the parathyroid glands are removed using a 2- to 4-inch ( ...

  4. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  5. Histopathological features of post-mortem pituitaries: A retrospective analysis

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    Francisco José Tortosa Vallecillos

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: As a result of the use of neuroimaging techniques, silent pituitary lesions are diagnosed more and more frequently; however, there are few published post-mortem studies about this gland. Incidence data of pituitary lesions are rare and in Portugal they are outdated or even non-existent. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of normal patterns and incidental post-mortem pituitary pathology at Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, analyzing the associations with clinical data and assessing the clinical relevance of the findings. Method: We reviewed retrospectively and histologically 167 pituitaries of a consecutive series of autopsies from the Department of Pathology of this centre. They were done between 2012 and 2014, and in all cases medical records were reviewed. The morphological patterns observed, were classified into three major groups: 1 Normal histological patterns and variants; 2 Infectious-inflammatory pathology, metabolic and vascular disorders; 3 Incidental primary proliferation and secondary to systemic diseases. Results: The subjects included in this study were of all age groups (from 1 day to 91 years old, 71 were female and 96 male. Fifty-seven of these glands didn’t show any alteration; 51 showed colloid cysts arising from Rathke cleft; 44 presented hyperplasia in adenohypophysis and we identified 20 adenomas in 19 glands (immunohistochemically, eight PRL-producing and five ACTH-producing tumors, ten of which associated with obesity, 11 to hypertension and six to diabetes mellitus. There were two cases with metastasis. Conclusion: Subclinical pathology in our country is similar to that seen in other parts of the world, but at older ages.

  6. Transformation of a Silent Adrencorticotrophic Pituitary Tumor Into Central Nervous System Melanoma

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    Brandon A. Miller MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenomas are nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH but do not cause the clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolemia. Primary central nervous system (CNS melanoma is well documented, but rarely originates in the sellar region or pituitary gland. Here we report transformation of an aggressive silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenoma that transformed into CNS melanoma and review other presentations of pituitary melanoma. A 37-year-old woman initially presented with apoplexy and an invasive nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for which she underwent transphenoidal surgery. The patient underwent 3 subsequent surgeries as the tumor continued to progress. Pathology from the first 3 operations showed pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. Pathology from the final surgery showed melanoma and the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumor had changed to become consistent with CNS melanoma. Dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations did not identify cutaneous or ocular melanoma. The patient’s disease progressed despite aggressive surgical, medical and radiologic treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating transformation of a primary pituitary tumor into melanoma. The mechanism of tumor transformation is unclear, but it is possible that a mutation in the original ACTH-producing tumor lead to increased cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin or ACTH into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulated the expression of microopthalmia transcription factor, leading to melanocytic phenotype transformation.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis to the brain mimicking primary pituitary tumor around the sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kenji; Seko, Yuya; Fukushima, Taito; Kumada, Hiromitu; Yamada, Shozo; Matumaru, Yuji

    2013-08-01

    We report on two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with metastasis to the cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus. Both cases presented with diplopia and retro-orbital headache and both underwent surgery for a primary pituitary gland tumor. After surgery, both cases were diagnosed with metastases from HCC. Case 1 was a 67-year-old male with a history of HCC who was referred to our hospital for pituitary tumor surgery. The tumor appeared to be in the sella turcica and to invade the sphenoid sinus and right cavernous sinus. Transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was performed. The tumor was postoperatively diagnosed by histology to be a metastatic pituitary tumor from HCC. Radiotherapy was administered to the metastatic site. Case 2 was a 58-year-old male with a history of TSS for a pituitary tumor 16 years previously. He was referred to our hospital for TSS for a recurrent pituitary adenoma. TSS was performed twice in 3 months. During a preoperative general examination, HCC and chronic hepatitis B were revealed. TSS was performed initially, followed by arterial infusion chemotherapy. After TSS, the pituitary tumor was diagnosed by histology to be a metastasis from HCC. As with Case 1, radiotherapy was administered to the metastasis. Most tumors in the sella turcica are pituitary adenomas, although some cases of metastatic pituitary tumors and skull base metastases have been reported. Distant metastases generally have a poor prognosis; however, surgery to the metastatic site can effectively control symptoms caused by the metastatic tumor.

  8. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  9. Fetal antigen 1 in healthy adults and patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Støving, René Klinkby;

    2001-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of human fetal antigen 1 (FA1) in adult human tissues has demonstrated a strong association between FA1 and (neuro)endocrine structures. In the anterior pituitary gland FA1 was colocalized with GH, and the present study was performed to evaluate a ...

  10. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  11. The pituitary-gonadal axis in healthy female dogs and bitches with gynecological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830844

    2011-01-01

    The pituitary gland produces and secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in a pulsatile fashion, induced by pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Different cells in the ovary are capable of secreting estradiol, testosterone and proges

  12. Inhibin : its role in the regulation of the pituitary-testis axis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Ultee-van Gessel (Annemarie)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe endocrine and exocrine functions of the male gonads, the testes, are regulated by gonadotrophic hormones which are secreted by the pituitary gland. Two separate gonadotrophic hormones have been recognized: luteinizing hormone (LH) which influences Leydig cell function, and follicle-s

  13. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  14. Posterior ankle impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Mosca, Massimiliano; Parma, Alessandro; Di Caprio, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Posterior ankle impingement is a common cause of chronic ankle pain and results from compression of bony or soft tissue structures during ankle plantar flexion. Bony impingement is most commonly related to an os trigonum or prominent trigonal process. Posteromedial soft tissue impingement generally arises from an inversion injury, with compression of the posterior tibiotalar ligament between the medial malleolus and talus. Posterolateral soft tissue impingement is caused by an accessory ligament, the posterior intermalleolar ligament, which spans the posterior ankle between the posterior tibiofibular and posterior talofibular ligaments. Finally, anomalous muscles have also been described as a cause of posterior impingement.

  15. Familial pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeva, S; Vasilev, V; Vroonen, L; Naves, L; Jaffrain-Rea, M-L; Daly, A F; Zacharieva, S; Beckers, A

    2010-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures. Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4. While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes. Mutations in MEN1 and PRKAR1A genes are found in the majority of MEN1 and CNC patients, respectively. About 15% of FIPA kindreds present with mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip)¹ were identified in MEN4 cases. Familial tumours appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts not only in genetic basis but also in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas.

  16. Pituitary volume mediates the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Wood, Stephen J; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2012-07-01

    Early timing of puberty (i.e., advanced pubertal maturation relative to peers) has been linked to the onset of depressive symptoms during the early adolescent phase. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms linking early pubertal timing to adolescent depressive symptoms are not clear. We investigated whether the volume of the pituitary gland, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, mediated the relationship between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in 155 adolescents (72 females) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. At baseline (M age 12.7, SD 0.5 years), early pubertal timing predicted larger pituitary gland volume and higher depressive symptoms (especially for girls), but there was no mediation effect. Longitudinally, however, larger pituitary gland volume at baseline was found to mediate the relationship between early pubertal timing and increased depressive symptoms over time (M follow-up period=2.57 years, SD=0.26) for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that neurobiological mechanisms are partly responsible for the link between early pubertal timing and depressive symptoms in adolescents. We speculate that an enlarged pituitary gland in adolescents with early pubertal timing might be associated with hyperactivation of the hormonal stress response, leading to increased susceptibility to environmental stressors, and subsequent development of depressive symptoms. Given the well-established relationship between increasing depressive symptoms in adolescence and later disorder, these findings have implications for targeted prevention and early intervention strategies for depressive disorders in adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anomalous posterior clinoid process and its clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior, middle and the posterior clinoid processes are located in the middle cranial fossa of the skull. The posterior boundary of the pituitary fossa is formed by the dorsum sellae, the supero-lateral angles of which are raised to form the posterior clinoid process. Unlike the anterior clinoid process, the posterior clinoid process has received less attention in past research studies. The anatomy textbooks do not mention about the anomalies pertaining to the posterior clinoid process and the main source of information are the research reports. The present osteological study describes anomalous posterior clinoid process, detected in two human skulls, during routine undergraduate medical teaching and also discusses its clinical importance. The posterior clinoid process anomalies may be responsible for the altered arrangement of the tentorium cerebelli which is attached to it. The internal carotid artery is often explored by the neuro-surgeon and any bony abnormalities in its vicinity, would result in a difficult situation, while performing clinoidectomy operations. Anomalous posterior clinoid process, may compress the internal carotid artery. The close position of the superior petrosal sinus and the internal carotid artery to the posterior clinoid process, makes it vulnerable to injuries and thus it is important for the neuro-surgeons performing clinoidectomy operations. The anatomy of the posterior clinoid process may be important for neuro surgeons and radiologists in day to day clinical practice.

  18. Anomalous posterior clinoid process and its clinical importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anterior, middle and the posterior clinoid processes are located in the middle cranial fossa of the skull. The posterior boundary of the pituitary fossa is formed by the dorsum sellae, the supero-lateral angles of which are raised to form the posterior clinoid process. Unlike the anterior clinoid process, the posterior clinoid process has received less attention in past research studies. The anatomy textbooks do not mention about the anomalies pertaining to the posterior clinoid process and the main source of information are the research reports. The present osteological study describes anomalous posterior clinoid process, detected in two human skulls, during routine undergraduate medical teaching and also discusses its clinical importance. The posterior clinoid process anomalies may be responsible for the altered arrangement of the tentorium cerebelli which is attached to it. The internal carotid artery is often explored by the neuro-surgeon and any bony abnormalities in its vicinity, would result in a difficult situation, while performing clinoidectomy operations. Anomalous posterior clinoid process, may compress the internal carotid artery. The close position of the superior petrosal sinus and the internal carotid artery to the posterior clinoid process, makes it vulnerable to injuries and thus it is important for the neuro-surgeons performing clinoidectomy operations. The anatomy of the posterior clinoid process may be important for neuro surgeons and radiologists in day to day clinical practice.

  19. Alopecia universalis, hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia: polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III in a patient in remission from treated Hodgkin lymphoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, K I

    2010-10-01

    We herein report a case of a 33-year-old man in remission from Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with reduced potency and hair loss. Initial endocrine tests revealed autoimmune hypothyroidism. An MRI of his pituitary gland at onset revealed hyperplasia. He tolerated replacement endocrine therapy with good response, but with no improvement in his alopecia universalis. A repeat MRI, 6 months after his initial endocrine manipulation, showed resolution of his pituitary hyperplasia.

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of growth hormone (GH) in canine hepatoid gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterino, Claudio; Martini, Marco; Castagnaro, Massimo

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically means growth hormone (GH) in 24 hepatoid gland adenomas and 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas and to compare the difference of immunoreactivity between types of tumors. The tumors were classified according to the WHO standards. Tissue sections which were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from 25 male and 4 female dogs were carried out immunostaining using polyclonal primary anti-hGH and EnVision method. Of 24 hepatoid gland adenomas (perianal gland adenomas) 23 (95.8%) were positive. All 5 hepatoid gland carcinomas (perianal gland carcinomas) were positive. No statistically significant differences in percentage of labelled cells between malignant and benign tumors were seen. The present demonstration of GH in hepatoid gland tumors adds new data on GH in extra-pituitary tissues and hormon-dependent tumors.

  1. MR findings in pituitary haemosiderosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosetto, P. [Institute of Neurology, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zucchini, S.; Cicognani, A. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cacciari, E. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)]|[Clinica Pediatrica 1, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A girl with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome and hypopituitarism was suspected of having pituitary haemosiderosis because of the clinical picture and the long history of blood transfusions. On T1-weighted MR images the pituitary exhibited a markedly hypointense anterior lobe (mimicking the empty sella), suggesting iron deposition, while on T2W MRI the low signal of the pituitary was surrounded by the high signal of the CSF. MR may be considered the examination of choice for detecting iron overload in the pituitary. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  2. Hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibar Tomšić, Karin; Dušek, Tina; Kraljević, Ivana; Heinrich, Zdravko; Solak, Mirsala; Vučinović, Ana; Ozretić, David; Mihailović Marasanov, Sergej; Hršak, Hrvoje; Kaštelan, Darko

    2017-05-24

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for hypopituitarism after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for pituitary adenoma. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the pituitary function of 90 patients who underwent GKRS for pituitary adenoma at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb between 2003 and 2014. Twenty seven of them met the inclusion criteria and the others were excluded from the study due to pituitary insufficiency which was present before GKRS. Eighteen patients had non-functioning and 9 patients had secretory adenomas. Median patients' age was 56 years (24-82). GKRS was performed using the Leksell gamma knife Model C. The median prescription radiation dose was 20 Gy (15-25) and the median tumor volume size was 3.4 cm(3) (0.06-16.81). New onset hypopituitarism was defined as a new deficit of one of the three hormonal axes (corticotroph, thyreotroph, or gonadotroph) ≥3 months following GKRS. SPSS was used for statistical analysis, with the significance level at P<0.05. During the median follow-up period of 72 months (range 6-144), 30% of patients developed new hypopituitarism after GKRS. This corresponds to incidence of one new case of hypopituitarism per 15 patient-years. Age, gender, tumor function, tumor volume, suprasellar extension, prescription dose of radiation, as well as dose-volume to the pituitary gland, stalk and hypothalamus were not predictive factors for the development of hypopituitarism. In our cohort of patients with pituitary tumors who underwent GKRS, 30% developed new hypopituitarism during the follow-up period.

  3. High prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma: is it associated with the age-related decline of the sex hormones levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, Darko; Korsic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Incidental pituitary adenoma is the common finding during brain imaging. According to multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis genetic alterations provide the initiating event that transforms cells while hormones play a role in promoting cell proliferation. Development of pituitary adenoma in a case of excessive hypophysiotrophic hormones production or reduced feedback suppression by target gland hormones emphasizes the importance of hormonal stimulation in pituitary tumourigenesis. Pituitary hyperplasia has been reported in pregnancy, hypothyroidism and conditions such as CRH or GHRH hypersecretion. Moreover, recent study reported one case of gonadotroph macroadenoma and two cases of gonadotroph cells hyperplasia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome probably due to protracted stimulation of gonadotroph cells because of lack of androgen feedback. Significant changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurred with aging. In females, after menopause, estradiol level decreases by 35-fold and estrone level by 20-fold that results in increased gonadotropins levels. Similarly, FSH, but not LH, level is increased with advancing age in men, too, although the age-related difference in the level is less in comparison with women. Regarding these data, we hypothesised that high prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma in the elderly is associated with age-related decline in sex hormones levels and subsequent lack of feedback suppression leading to permanent gonadotrophs stimulation which is the crucial step in the pituitary tumour development. According to previously mentioned multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis, incidentaloma will develop only in persons with already present intrinsic pituitary cell defects. However, further studies have to answer the questions of whether the incidence of pituitary tumours is more frequent in elderly, whether women with late onset menopause or those taking long-term hormone replacement therapy have lower rate of

  4. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  5. Presence of. beta. hCG mRNA in the human pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Strien, A.; van Wezenbeek, P. (Organon International BV, Oss (Netherlands))

    1989-07-11

    A strong structural and biological similarity exist between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH). They share the same {alpha} subunit and have evolutionary related {beta} subunits. hCG is synthesized in first trimester placenta, whereas LH is synthesized in the pituitary. Substances with immunological, physical and biological properties of hCG have, however, been observed in postmenopausal urinary gonadotropin preparations as well as in pituitary extracts. Despite this finding it has not yet been proven that the hCG-like material is identical to placental hCG. This report describes the presence of a minor messenger RNA species in the human pituitary. RNA was isolated from five human pituitary glands and an amplified cDNA library was prepared.

  6. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro

    2014-08-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas.

  7. Pituitary Prolactinoma Imaged by 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT in a Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Lv, Jing; Guo, Rui; Pan, Mengyi; Zhang, Yifan

    2016-06-01

    A 35-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral inferior parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism was referred to our hospital to evaluate the cause of irregular menses, galactorrhea, and paroxysmal headache. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was then suspected for the high levels of plasma prolactin, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, insulin, and related symptoms. A Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT acquired to evaluate parathyroid glands unexpectedly revealed an increased accumulation in the pituitary gland, which was further confirmed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a pituitary microadenoma. Bromocriptine treatment gradually reduced the prolactin level.

  8. Pituitary macroadenoma presenting as a nasal tumor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Adolfo Silva Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pituitary macroadenomas are rare intracranial tumors. In a few cases, they may present aggressive behavior and invade the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, causing unusual symptoms. In this paper, we report an atypical case of pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasal mass.CASE REPORT: The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had had amenorrhea and galactorrhea for ten months, with associated nasal obstruction, macroglossia and acromegaly. Both growth hormone and prolactin levels were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass originating from the lower surface of the pituitary gland, associated with sella turcica erosion and tumor extension through the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a chromophobe pituitary adenoma with densely packed rounded epithelial cells, with some atypias and rare mitotic figures. There was no evidence of metastases.CONCLUSION: Macroadenoma invading the nasal cavity is a rare condition and few similar cases have been reported in the literature. This study contributes towards showing that tumor extension to the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx needs to be considered and investigated in order to make an early diagnosis when atypical symptoms like nasal obstruction are present.

  9. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  10. The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley B

    2009-10-01

    The pathogenesis of tumour formation in the anterior pituitary has been intensively studied, but the causative mechanisms involved in pituitary cell transformation and tumourigenesis remain elusive. Most pituitary tumours are sporadic, but some arise as a component of genetic syndromes such as the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex and, the most recently described, a MEN1-like phenotype (MEN4) and pituitary adenoma predisposition syndromes. Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia (GNAS, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and AIP), but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours. Mutations of tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, as seen in more common cancers, do not seem to play an important role in the great majority of pituitary adenomas. The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG; securin) was the first transforming gene found to be highly expressed in pituitary tumour cells, and seems to play an important role in the process of oncogenesis. Many tumour suppressor genes, especially those involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are under-expressed, most often by epigenetic modulation - usually promoter hypermethylation - but the regulator of these co-ordinated series of methylations is also unclear. Cell signalling abnormalities have been identified in pituitary tumours, but their genetic basis is unknown. Both Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are over-expressed and/or over-activated in pituitary tumours: these pathways share a common root, including initial activation related to the tyrosine kinase receptor, and we speculate that a change to these receptors or their relationship to membrane matrix-related proteins may be an early event in pituitary tumourigenesis.

  11. Stability analysis of a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis model with inclusion of glucocorticoid receptor and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslik, Eva; Navolan, Dan Bogdan; Neamţu, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a four-dimensional model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that includes the influence of the glucocorticoid receptor in the pituitary. Due to the spatial separation between the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, distributed time delays are introduced in the mathematical model. The existence of the positive equilibrium point is proved and a local stability and bifurcation analysis is provided, considering several types of delay kernels. The fractional-order model with discrete time delays is also taken into account. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical findings.

  12. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia in nonpregnant women due to pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoi, L G

    1986-06-02

    The human prolactin molecule has been isolated and its structure characterized. This anterior pituitary hormone plays an important function in the induction and maintenance of lactation in the post-partum nursing mother. Prolactin-producing tumors cause inappropriate lactation in the nonpregnant woman. Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, mimics the action of dopamine in the anterior pituitary gland and does not cure the underlying pathology. Prior to the development of bromocriptine, there was no effective treatment for the symptoms of amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Although the methods of therapy are more sophisticated today, there remain a number of unanswered questions. The unknown long-term risks of bromocriptine therapy must be balanced against the potential risk of osteopenia.

  14. Hypothalamic pituitary disorders expressed by galactorrhea. A dynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, F R

    1975-11-01

    Physiologic and pathologic production of milk involves complex relations between the mammary glands, hormones, and the central nervous system. In all the galactorrhea syndromes there is a functional or mechanical problem at the pituitary level, with abnormal secretion or reserve of prolactin secretion. Stimulatory agents of prolactin, like thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), chlorpromazine, amnio acids, and insulin, can be helpful in the study of the hypothalamic pituitary functional reserve, while the osmotic tests seem to provide a clear distinction between functional and tumoral causes. The inhibitory agents of prolactin secretion, L-dopa and CB 154, permit the study of the negative control of the hormone. In addition, CB 154 appears to be an effective treatment for functional galactorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia appears to exert an inhibitory influence on gonadotropins. Clomiphene, acting on the hypothalamus, and LHRH, acting on the gonadotropes, permit the assessment of the gonadotropic hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis.

  15. Transsphenoidal pituitary resection with intraoperative MR guidance: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Hsu, Liangge; Wong, Terence Z.; Black, Peter M.; Martin, Claudia; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-05-01

    The use of intraoperative MR image guidance has the potential to improve the precision, extent and safety of transsphenoidal pituitary resections. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, an open-bore configuration 0.5T MR system (SIGNA SP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has been used to provide image guidance for nine transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections. The intraoperative MR system allowed the radiologist to direct the surgeon toward the sella turcica successfully while avoiding the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and other sensitive structures. Imaging performed during the surgery monitored the extent of resection and allowed for removal of tumor beyond the surgeon's view in five cases. Dynamic MR imaging was used to distinguish residual tumor from normal gland and postoperative changes permitting more precise tumor localization. A heme-sensitive long TE gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic debris. All patients tolerated the procedure well without significant complications.

  16. Intrasellar pituitary mucocele: diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ing Ping; Chai, Chun Kian; Kumar, Gnana; Prepageran, Narayanan; Waran, Vicknes

    2014-06-01

    Isolated intrasellar pituitary mucocele following transsphenoidal sinus surgery is extremely rare. The clinical features resemble a pituitary tumor, therefore careful radiological interpretation is crucial to reach the correct diagnosis. We report a case of intrasellar mucocele who had transsphenoidal sinus surgery performed 15 years prior.

  17. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  18. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  19. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Shang-fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainly presented with faint, headache and blurred vision. CT scan demonstrated abnormal signals in suprasellar cistern. During the resection, the tumor could be seen locating in sellar region, the size of which was about 2 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. Histopathological examination revealed that the structure of pituitary gland was damaged and the tumor was composed of atypical round or oval cells arranged in nest or glandular patterns, in which a number of enlarged plump tumor cells contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with eccentrical caryogenesis. The immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, pan cytokeratin (PCK, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 were positive in tumor cells with Ki-67 labeling index being 15%, but chromogranin (CgA, cancer embryo antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD117, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 were negative in tumor cells. After operation the patient received treatment with levothyroxine sodium and γ knife, but died 4 months later. Conclusion Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can confirm the diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma and locate the primary lesion. Postoperative comprehensive therapy is necessary.

  20. Ectopic salivary gland tissue in a Rathke's cleft cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Valentina; Coli, Antonella; Marrucci, Eleonora; Paolo, Mattogno Pier; Della Pepa, Giuseppe; Anile, Carmelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2013-01-01

    The presence of salivary gland tissue in the sella turcica has rarely been reported, mainly after pituitary examination at autopsy. Only five symptomatic cases have previously been described, mainly associated with Rathke's cleft cyst. We report a 17-year-old boy presenting with headaches and hyperprolactinemia. The MRI showed a 19 mm sellar mass that at surgery revealed as a cystic lesion filled with mucinous fluid. The histological examination documented the presence of ectopic salivary gland tissue in the wall of a Rathke's cleft cyst. The present report focuses on the possible pitfalls when dealing with unusual sellar lesions, and the need of increased awareness of this rare condition.

  1. Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kang, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Hyoung; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Won, Kyung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance. The files of 40,967 patients who underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT were retrospectively reviewed. Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions. Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%. The mean SUV{sub max} of 30 patients was 8.9 {+-} 6.6 (range: 3.2-32.6). Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma. Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone. MRI was performed on 19 patients. Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%). The mean SUV{sub max} calculated without correction for partial volume effect for macroadenomas was significantly higher than the SUV{sub max} for microadenomas (11.5 {+-} 8.4 vs 4.8 {+-} 1.3; p < 0.05). There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up. Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding. Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas. Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT. (orig.)

  2. Shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Jusuke; Tokiguchi, Susumu; Nakamori, Akitoshi (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Watanabe, Akira; Yokoyama, Motoharu

    1982-08-01

    Fifty-one patients from a group of 344 patients undergoing the evaluation of intrasellar or parasellar tumors were diagnosed on CT as having an intrasellar pituitary adenoma. Axial transverse sections were performed at -10/sup 0/ to Reid's basal line, using 1.5-mm-thick slices and sagittal and coronal reformation. Of these 51 patients, 17 showed a shift of the pituitary stalk. The area where a tumor was thought to be located within the sella turcica on preoperative CT became defective on CT after transsphenoidal surgery in all cases. Histological verification was obtained in all cases. Also, the shift of the pituitary stalk was normalized or markedly improved after surgery in all cases. In functioning tumors, all cases except two showed an endocrinologically normal state or a marked improvement after transsphenoidal surgery. On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, it was concluded that the shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas indicated the evidence of a mass and its location in the sella turcica. However, a shift of the pituitary stalk was also observed under other conditions, such as empty sella and tuberculum sellae meningioma, and so it is not a pathognomonic finding in intrasellar pituitary adenomas.

  3. Pituitary volumes of the patients with borderline personality disorder are not changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Kilic, Faruk; Gurok, M Gurkan; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2015-01-01

    Although it has important relationships with psychiatric symptoms via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, there have been limited investigations of pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorder. Moreover, there have been no studies of borderline personality disorder. In the present investigation, we examined pituitary gland volumes in patients with borderline personality disorder. Seventeen right-handed female patients with borderline personality disorder, selected among the patients who had presented to Firat University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry outpatient and inpatient clinics, and the same number of healthy control subjects were included in the present investigation. Pituitary gland volumes were manually detected. The results demonstrated that the mean volumes of the gland of the patients with borderline personality disorder were not significantly different than those of healthy control subjects (mean volume of 0.79 cm3 in the patient group, with a value of SD±0.11 and 0.81 cm3 in the healthy control group, with a value of SD±0.23; t=-0.21; p>0.05). © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  5. Fatal complication after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida Dornelas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to report a rare fatal complication in the postoperative period of transsphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland (adenoma, with a brief review of the subject. The patient was a 54-year-old white man with acromegaly and severe heart failure, who after microsurgery developed blood pressure instability within 32 hours after the procedure and died. The autopsy revealed: hypertrophy and ventricular dilation with myocarditis, pericarditis and myocardial fibrosis; mesenteric ischemia with transmural coagulation necrosis of the intestinal loops; acute tubular necrosis; and hepatic steatosis. The findings are consistent with cardiogenic shock and abdominal sepsis due to necrosis of the intestinal loops.

  6. Parathyroid glands (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  7. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  8. Pituitary injury and persistent hypofunction resulting from a peripartum non-hemorrhagic, vaso-occlusive event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Anita; Morris, David V

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cerebral vascular accidents are caused by vasospasm when induced by preeclampsia or by dopamine agonists. However, six arteries nourish the pituitary and prevent against vasospasm-induced damage, which up until now has not been thought to occur. Bromocriptine was used to arrest lactation in a 31-year-old with secondary amenorrhea following preeclampsia and fetal demise at 28 weeks gestation. Tests and history revealed panhypopituitarism not associated with hemorrhage or mass infarction but instead caused by vasospasm. The present study is the first report of pituitary damage from a non-hemorrhagic, vaso-occlusive event in the literature. In keeping with Sheehan's and Simon's syndromes, we have named pituitary damage resulting from vaso-occlusion as Dahan's syndrome, and a literature review suggests that it may be a common and previously overlooked disorder. Learning points Vasospasm can cause damage to the pituitary gland, although it was not previously believed to do so.Preeclampsia and the use of a dopamine agonist, particularly in the peripartum state, may trigger vasospasm.Vasospasm resulting from dopamine agonists may be a common cause of injury to the pituitary gland, and it may have been overlooked in the past. PMID:26038692

  9. Oncocytoma of Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena N. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytomas of salivary gland are benign tumors composed exclusively of oncocytic cells. Majority of them occur in parotid gland and have excellent prognosis following complete excision. They should be differentiated from other salivary gland tumors with more prominent oncocytic component and nodular oncocytic hyperplasia. Herein we present a case of oncocytoma of parotid gland in a 48 year old male patient who has no recurrence four years after excision.

  10. Molecular effects of novel mutations in Hesx1/HESX1 associated with human pituitary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, J M; Clements, M; Tyrell, R

    2001-01-01

    resulting in a single amino acid substitution, Arg160Cys (R160C), is associated with a heritable form of the human condition of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). We have examined the phenotype of affected members in this pedigree in more detail and demonstrate for the first time a genetic basis for midline...... defects associated with an undescended or ectopic posterior pituitary. A similar structural pituitary abnormality was observed in a second patient heterozygous for another mutation in HESX1, Ser170Leu (S170L). Association of S170L with a pituitary phenotype may be a direct consequence of the HESX1...... mutation since S170L is also associated with a dominant familial form of pituitary disease. However, a third mutation in HESX1, Asn125Ser (N125S), occurs at a high frequency in the Afro-Caribbean population and may therefore reflect a population-specific polymorphism. To investigate the molecular basis...

  11. Escleritis posterior bilateral Bilateral posterior scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zurutuza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La escleritis posterior es un proceso inflamatorio de la parte posterior de la esclera. Su prevalencia es muy baja y el diagnóstico puede resultar complicado por la ausencia de signos oculares externos. Es más frecuente en mujeres. Cuando aparece en pacientes jóvenes no suele tener otras patologías asociadas, pero en mayores de 55 años hasta un tercio de los casos tienen relación con alguna enfermedad sistémica, sobre todo la artritis reumatoide. El diagnóstico de esta patología puede requerir un abordaje multidisciplinar y la colaboración de oftalmólogos con neurólogos, internistas o reumatólogos. En este artículo se describe un caso de escleritis posterior bilateral idiopática.Posterior scleritis is an inflammatory process of the posterior part of the sclera. Its prevalence is very low and its diagnosis can be complicated due to the absence of external ocular signs. It is more frequent in women. In young patients it does not usually have other associated pathologies, but in those over 55 years nearly one-third of the cases have a relation with some systemic disease, above all rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of this pathology can require a multidisciplinary approach and the collaboration of ophthalmologists with neurologists, internists or rheumatologists. This article describes a case of idiopathic bilateral posterior scleritis.

  12. Three cases of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Jan Bobeff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke’s pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. Aims : To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. Material and methods: Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70. Results : One patient presented with a unilateral hearing loss, the other two with headache and vertigo. They all suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Radiological imaging showed a sphenoid sinus space-occupying soft-tissue lesion with bone erosion in 2 cases and empty sella in 2 patients whereas one had a normal pituitary gland. All were operated on via the transnasal approach. Total resection was achieved in one patient and subtotal in two; in two cases we observed intact sellar dura and in one intact sellar floor. Histopathology showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in all cases and cytokeratin in two. The Ki-67 index was less than 2%. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated growth hormone cells in all cases whereas prolactin and adrenocorticotropin in two. The patients were discharged home in good condition with no neurological deficits. Conclusions : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma should always be considered in differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus lesion in the elderly, especially in coexistence with empty sella or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a benign lesion, surgical removal is an effective treatment.

  13. [Hypoplasia adrenal congenita of anencephalic type: two cases with pituitary abnormalities and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folligan, K; Roume, J; Razavi, F; Sepaniak, S; Bouvier, R; Morel, Y; Trouillas, J

    2011-03-01

    Hypoplasia adrenal congenita is an extremely uncommon disease of early onset. This condition can be lethal in the absence of treatment. Some forms are due to the congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type whose origin is even unknown. Here, we present two cases of congenital adrenal hypoplasia of anencephalic type with pituitary abnormalities. The two male newborns died because adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. The adrenal glands were hypoplastic with a histological structure of anencephalic type Immunocytochemical study of the pituitary revealed an absence of the gonadotrophs. No mutation of DAX 1 and SF-1 was found.

  14. Dural enhancement in pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, F.; Andrea, I.; Barrali, E.; Bonneville, J.F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France)

    2000-07-01

    We describe the normal dural enhancement patterns of the sellar region and determine whether the duramater is affected by pituitary macroadenomas. Dural enhancement appeared to be usually abnormal in 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma compared with 20 control patients, mainly at the planum sphenoidale and carotid sulcus. However dural changes are subtle and their recognition requires knowledge of the normal enhancement patterns. Dural changes, reported in a variety of inflammatory and infectious dural diseases and after surgery, are not specific and may be also seen in pituitary macroadenomas. (orig.)

  15. The postoperative cortisol stress response following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: a potential screening method for assessing preserved pituitary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Tirosh, Amir; Huang, Abel P; Laws, Edward R; Woodmansee, Whitney W

    2013-09-01

    The ability to reliably identify patients with new hypocortisolemia acutely following pituitary surgery is critical. We aimed to quantify the postoperative cortisol stress response following selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy, as a marker for postoperative preservation of functional pituitary gland. Records of 208 patients undergoing transsphenoidal operations for pituitary lesions were reviewed. Patients with Cushing's Disease, preoperative adrenal insufficiency, and those receiving intraoperative steroids were excluded. To quantify the postoperative stress response, the ∆ cortisol index was defined as the postoperative day (POD) 1 morning cortisol minus the preoperative morning cortisol level. The incidence of new hypocortisolemia requiring glucocorticoid replacement upon hospital discharge was also recorded. Fifty-two patients met inclusion criteria. The mean preoperative, POD1, and POD2 cortisol levels were 16.5, 29.2, and 21.8 μg/dL, respectively. Morning fasting cortisol levels on POD1 ranged from 4.2 to 73.0 μg/dL. The ∆ cortisol index ranged from -19.0 to +56.2 (mean +12.7 μg/dL). Five patients (9.6%) developed new hypocortisolemia on POD 1-3 requiring glucocorticoid replacement; only one required long-term replacement. The mean ∆ cortisol in patients requiring postoperative glucocorticoids was -2.8 μg/dL, compared with +14.4 μg/dL in patients without evidence of adrenal insufficiency (p = 0.005). Of the 32 patients (61.5%) with a ∆cortisol >25 μg/dL, none developed postoperative adrenal insufficiency. The postoperative cortisol stress response, as quantified by the ∆ cortisol index, holds potential as a novel and complimentary screening method to predict preservation of normal pituitary function and acute development of new ACTH deficiency following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

  16. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  17. Usefulness of gamma knife pituitary surgery to control thalamic pain after treatment of thalamic malignant lymphoma and report of pathology of gamma knife lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsuki Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the first reported autopsy findings following gamma knife surgery for thalamic pain. A 62-year-old man presented with thalamic pain after treatment for thalamic malignant lymphoma. He was treated with narcotic drugs, but his pain was uncontrollable. Treatment using gamma knife surgery on the pituitary gland using a maximum dose of 180 Gy, led to the control of his intractable pain with lower doses of drugs. His death was pain-free and was caused by a recurrence of the tumor, six months after gamma knife surgery. An autopsy was performed and necrosis was present in the area of the pituitary gland where it borders the pituitary stalk. Half of the adenohypophysis was not necrotic, and necrosis was not found in the pituitary stalk.

  18. Biopsy proven pituitary sarcoidosis presenting as a possible adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayson, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a well-recognized systemic granulomatous process which involves the central nervous system in 5-15% of patients. One of the more frequent sites of central nervous system involvement is the pituitary and hypothalamic region. Involvement of the sellar region by sarcoidosis is overall an infrequent occurrence, comprising less than 1% of all intrasellar lesions. Patients typically present with an infiltrative lesion on imaging studies and clinically with symptoms related to diabetes insipidus or hyperprolactinemia. This report describes a 38-year-old woman who initially presented with a variety of symptoms including headaches, light sensitivity, nausea and vomiting, acute visual changes, cold intolerance, amenorrhea, decreased libido, fatigue and galactorrhea. She had an elevated serum prolactin level and evidence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. Imaging studies discovered a 1.8cm mass involving the pituitary gland and compressing the optic chiasm. The lesion was excised and microscopically was marked by a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and scattered nonnecrotizing granulomas. Stains and microbiologic cultures failed to demonstrate microorganisms. There was no evidence of other organ involvement on postoperative imaging. She was treated with prednisone with improvement of symptoms and subsequently required methotrexate to treat left eye pain and blurred vision, 29months after her surgery. Achieving treatment control in patients with pituitary and hypothalamic improvement in sarcoidosis still remains a challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of pituitary lesions in ND4 Swiss Webster mice when estimating the sensory irritancy of airborne chemicals using ASTM method E981-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, M S; Burleigh-Flayer, H D; Fowler, E H; Rybka, M L; Ader, A W

    1996-08-01

    This study determined the origin of pituitary lesions found in male ND4 Swiss Webster mice following a single head-only exposure to inhaled test materials using ASTM E981-84, standard test method for estimating sensory irritancy of airborne chemicals. Necropsy and histopathology data were evaluated due to the occurrence of unexpected pituitary lesions in sham control and exposure groups. Groups of four mice were restrained in body plethysmographs and exposed for 30 min to increasing dust concentrations of one of three test chemicals to assess the ability to cause sensory irritation. Sham control and test material-exposed mice were sacrificed after a single exposure and subjected to a complete necropsy and microscopic evaluation of the pituitary gland. Control mice remained in the animal room and were not restrained in the plethysmograph. Gross observation at necropsy showed pituitary lesions in one of seven unrestrained control mice (revised to zero of seven after microscopic examination). Seven of seven sham control mice had pituitary lesions, suggesting that the lesions were not related to test material exposure. Each test material-exposed group also had pituitary lesions with high incidence (52/60 for all groups combined), which was not exposure concentration-dependent. Microscopic evaluation of the pituitary glands revealed that darkening of the gland was due to hemorrhage and confirmed that the lesions developed with 100% incidence (19/19) in plethysmograph-housed animals. The rubber neck seal used to restrict animal movement in the plethysmograph appears to have caused an increase in pressure in the blood vessels in the pituitary gland; vessels then ruptured and hemorrhaged. This finding should not adversely affect sensory irritation responses evaluated with this method.

  20. PHACE syndrome and congenitally absent thyroid gland at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Mark D; Yu, John-Paul J; Asch, Sarah; Mathes, Erin F

    2016-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac defects, and abnormalities of the eye. Thyroid disorders associated with PHACE syndrome have been described, although there are limited reports of this rare occurrence. We report a case of PHACE syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism in an infant, for which absent thyroid gland was diagnosed at magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  2. Case report: ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma metastatic to the liver in a patient with a history of atypical pituitary adenoma and Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehlin-Price, Amy S; Hardesty, Douglas A; Arnold, Christina A; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Prevedello, Daniel M; Lehman, Norman L

    2017-04-18

    Pituitary carcinoma is a rare entity requiring the presence of metastasis to confirm its malignant potential. We report a case of pituitary carcinoma and discuss the diagnosis and management of this lesion in relation to the existing literature. The patient is a 51-year-old woman with Cushing's disease and intact adrenal glands who was diagnosed with metastatic pituitary carcinoma to the liver, 29 months after initial resection of an ACTH-secreting primary atypical pituitary adenoma (APA). Prior to detection of this metastasis the patient underwent repeat resection and radiotherapy for residual cavernous sinus disease. The metastatic lesion was detected by interval surveillance of serum ACTH and 24-hour urine cortisol, which despite stable pituitary MRI, were significantly elevated. These abnormalities prompted a PET scan that demonstrated hypermetabolic liver parenchyma, which was suspicious for metastasis on abdominal MRI. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy demonstrated nests of moderately-differentiated cells with intermediate-sized, monotonous nuclei, distinct nucleoli, and abundant basophilic cytoplasm, confirmed by immunohistochemistry to represent metastatic pituitary carcinoma. The liver lesion was subsequently successfully removed by wedge resection. One year later, the patient's residual cavernous sinus disease grew markedly, and she was placed on dual-agent chemotherapy consisting of oral temozolomide and capecitabine, with stabilization of her intracranial disease to present, although liver metastases recurred. Pituitary carcinoma is a rare entity impossible to recognize as a primary tumor because its diagnosis by definition requires the presence of metastasis. Maintaining awareness of the entity and its precursor lesion APA is essential for its accurate pathologic diagnosis and appropriate management.

  3. Ectopic Suprasellar Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Sun, Jun; Wang, Jing; Huang, Ci You; Wu, Zhi Feng

    2016-11-01

    Ectopic thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and can often be misdiagnosed as primary hyperthyroidism. We present a case of an ectopic suprasellar TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. A literature review of previously reported ectopic TSH-secreting and suprasellar pituitary adenomas is included to illustrate the clinical characteristics of this disease entity and the diversity of operative approaches to treating ectopic suprasellar pituitary adenomas. A 46-year-old man presented with typical clinical signs of hyperthyroidism and a history of progressive visual field impairment and vision loss. Laboratory investigations revealed that the patient had elevated levels of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine and a normal level of TSH. Neuro-ophthalmologic examination showed right eye/left eye = 1.0/0.6 and left temporal hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass located in the suprasellar space. The patient underwent preoperative short-term octreotide treatment followed by gross total resection of the tumor via the extended endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum sellar approach. At 6-month follow-up evaluation, the patient's endocrinologic function tests met the criteria for cure, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a normal pituitary gland and stalk with no tumor recurrence. Histologic diagnosis confirmed the presence of a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ectopic suprasellar TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Preoperative preparation and complete resection are the keys to a cure. The extended endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum sellar approach is an alternative minimally invasive method for the removal of an ectopic suprasellar pituitary adenoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

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    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy.

  5. Pituitary Adenoma as a Rare Form of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. A Case Report

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    Ana María León Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors arising from one of the five cell types in the anterior pituitary. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce hormones due to the lack of pituary adrenocorticotropic hormone or hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. The case of a 37-year-old female patient who started developing muscle twitching in legs and arms, muscular weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, severe and throbbing hemicrania on the right side, among other symptoms, a year ago is presented. Several tests were performed (cortisol level, adrenocorticotropic hormone, calcium and phosphorus in blood and urine, magnetic resonance imaging of the skull, leading to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with steroids and calcium supplements ensured a satisfactory recovery.

  6. The Coexistence of an Intrasellar Adenoma, Lymphocytic Hypophysitis, and Primary Pituitary Lymphoma in a Patient with Acromegaly

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    Jose Hernan Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of three histopathologically different entities in the pituitary gland is a rare occurrence. Most publications identify at least two distinct pathologies, mainly, a pituitary adenoma coexisting with a second intrasellar lesion. We present a case of a 71-year-old female referred for evaluation and treatment of acromegaly. Questioning revealed she was experiencing facial palsy, visual disturbances, and syncopal spells for several weeks. When laboratory evaluation showed elevated somatomedin (IGF-I levels and an oral glucose tolerance test failed to demonstrate any suppression of her growth hormone (GH values, an MRI of the pituitary revealed a sellar mass. A presumptive diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was established. The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass, which proved to be a large B-cell lymphoma (Stage I-E associated with areas of adenoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis.

  7. Purification of pituitary autoantigen by column liquid chromatography and chromatofocusing

    OpenAIRE

    Gut, Paweł; Fischbach, Jakub; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Bączyk, Maciej; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pituitary autoantibodies can be determined both in patients with pituitary disease as well as patients with autoimmune endocrine diseases. The purpose of the study was to isolate and purify pituitary autoantigen using sera of patients and the microsomal fraction of the pituitary. Material and methods To isolate a pituitary autoantigen, patient sera were used, which showed a strong immune response to pituitary antigens. Pituitary microsomal fractions were prepared from pituitary t...

  8. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R

    2005-07-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  9. Expression Analysis of the Hippo Cascade Indicates a Role in Pituitary Stem Cell Development

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    Emily J Lodge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland is a primary endocrine organ that controls major physiological processes. Abnormal development or homeostatic disruptions can lead to human disorders such as hypopituitarism or tumours. Multiple signalling pathways, including WNT, BMP, FGF and SHH regulate pituitary development but the role of the Hippo-YAP1/TAZ cascade is currently unknown. In multiple tissues, the Hippo kinase cascade underlies neoplasias; it influences organ size through the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and has roles in determining stem cell potential. We have used a sensitive mRNA in situ hybridisation method (RNAscope to determine the expression patterns of the Hippo pathway components during mouse pituitary development. We have also carried out immunolocalisation studies to determine when YAP1 and TAZ, the transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, are active. We find that YAP1/TAZ are active in the stem/progenitor cell population throughout development and at postnatal stages, consistent with their role in promoting the stem cell state. Our results demonstrate for the first time the collective expression of major components of the Hippo pathway during normal embryonic and postnatal development of the pituitary gland.

  10. Pediatric pituitary resection: characterizing surgical approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanba, Curtis; Svider, Peter F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Sheyn, Anthony; Jacob, Jeffrey T; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Although there has been extensive study evaluating adult pituitary surgery, there has been scant analysis among children. Our objective was to evaluate a population-based resource to characterize nationwide trends in surgical approach, hospital stay, and complications among children undergoing pituitary surgery. The Kids' Inpatient-Database (KID) files (2009/2012) were evaluated for pituitary gland excisions. Procedure, patient demographics, length of inpatient stay, inpatient costs, hospital setting, and surgical complications were analyzed. A weighted incidence of 1071 cases were analyzed; the majority (77.6%) underwent transsphenoidal resections. These patients had significantly decreased hospital costs and lengths of stay. Patients undergoing transfrontal approaches had significantly greater rates of postoperative diabetes insipidus (DI) (66.5%), panhypopituitarism (38.8%), hydrocephalus, and visual deficits. Among transsphenoidal patients, males had greater rates of postoperative hydrocephalus (5.5%) and panhypopituitarism (17.5%) than females, and patients ≤10 years old had greater rates of these 2 complications (14.5%, 19.4%, respectively) as well as DI (61.3%). A greater proportion of children undergo transfrontal approaches for pituitary lesions than in their adult counterparts. This difference may harbor a potential to influence future sellar resection approaches in children toward a transsphenoidal operation when surgically feasible. Patients undergoing transfrontal procedures have greater risks for many intraoperative and postoperative complications relative to individuals undergoing transsphenoidal resections. Among patients undergoing transsphenoidal approaches, males had significantly greater rates of postoperative hydrocephalus and panhypopituitarism, and younger children had greater rates of postoperative DI, hydrocephalus, and panhypopituitarism. These data reinforce the need for greater vigilance in the postoperative care of younger children

  11. Posterior Fossa Syndrome

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    Serhan Kupeli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Posterior fossa syndrome is defined as the temporary and complete loss of speech after posterior fossa surgery which is not related to cerebellar hemorrhage, infection of the cerebellum, degenerative or neoplastic diseases of the cerebellum. In this review, we aimed to outline the incidence of posterior fossa syndrome, to define the risk factors for posterior fossa syndrome, to describe accompanying neurobehavioural and psychologic problems and to speculate about the etiologic mechanisms. The diagnosis of medulloblastoma and midline location of the tumor are important risk factors for the development of posterior fossa syndrome. These findings support the hypothesis that temporary ischemia and edema due to retracted and largely manipulated dentate nuclei and superior cerebellar pedincles may be the cause of mutism. Informing the family and the patient about the posterior fossa syndromemust be a component of the preoperative interview and patients who developed posterior fossa syndrome should be followed for accompanying neurobehavioural and psychologic problems even after mutism improved. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 636-657

  12. Pituitary aspergillosis abscess in an immunocompetent black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pituitary aspergillosis abscess in an immunocompetent black woman. ... female patient showed up with amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome with infertility for several years. The CT Findings and hormonal studies strongly suggested pituitary ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  15. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  16. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

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    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  18. Functional morphology of the postpharyngeal gland of queens and workers of the ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W.; Billen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    nurses and foragers. We suggest the PPG serves different purposes in pharaoh's ants: it is likely that the PPG of workers and virgin queens is used to feed larvae. In mated queens the gland probably plays a role in providing the queen with nutritious oils for egg production. The PPG may also function......The postpharyngeal gland (PPG) is unique to ants and is the largest exocrine gland in their head. In queens of the pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis, the gland contains approximately 15 finger-like epithelial extensions on each side and opens dorsolaterally in the posterior pharynx. In these ants...

  19. 探讨垂体后叶素联合酚妥拉明治疗支气管扩张咯血的疗效%To Explore the Effect of Pituitrin Combined With Phentolamine in the Treatment of Bronchiectasis With Hemoptysis by Posterior Pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pituitrin combined with phentolamine in the treatment of bronchiectasis with hemoptysis by exploring pituitary after effect. Methods In our hospital were randomly selected for bronchiectasis hemoptysis 80 patients were divided into observation group and control group. Pituitary were used during the two groups of patients treated leaf after intravenous infusion. The observation group patients in the drug combined with phentolamine. The incidence of the two groups were compared the therapeutic effect and adverse reaction. Results The therapeutic effect of observation group was better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients were treated during the use of pituitrin and phentolamine administration, reduce the incidence of adverse reactions of patients, improve the treatment effect, recommended clinical application.%目的:探究垂体后叶素联合酚妥拉明治疗支气管扩张咯血的效果。方法随机抽取我院支气管扩张喀血患者80例平均分为观察组与对照组。两组患者接受治疗期间均使用垂体后叶素静脉输液。观察组患者在此药物基础上加用酚妥拉明。对比两组患者的治疗效果以及不良反应发生情况。结果观察组治疗效果明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论患者接受治疗期间使用垂体叶素联合酚妥拉明用药,减少患者不良反应发生率,提高了治疗效果。

  20. Childhood feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism : a case report%儿童原发性甲状腺功能减退继发垂体反馈性瘤样增生1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 黄建勇

    2013-01-01

    Feedback pituitary tumor hyperplasia refers to the corresponding pituitary hormone cell hyperpla-sia and pituitary augmentation caused by the primary hypofunction of target gland. The incidence of feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism is the highest,accounting for 33. 3% of all feedback tumor. Children are rare,but due to the involvement of growth and development,and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. However,the clinical treatment of the two principles are completely different from each other. This article will report a case of feedback Pituitary tumor-like proliferation. Caused by primary hypothyroidism in recent years in our hospital. The clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment and prognosis of this case will be demonstrated in the report.

  1. Purves symposium: 2. Pituitary morphology in relationship to function. General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, H D

    1974-12-25

    It was found that the recognition of the character of a pituitary cell depended on its content of granules. The term "chromophobe" indicated the absence of granules. In the rat pituitary, total thyroxine deficiency resulted in progressive loss of granules from acidophil cells until they became unrecognizable as such. Therefore, counting the cell types as acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes had no significance. However, changes in the apparent proportions of the 3 groups could be used to determine how much thyroxine was needed to reverse changes produced by thyroidectomy. Rats that had been given brassica seed diets developed goiters. In these rats, proliferation of basophil cells occurred. The amount of thyroxine needed to reverse thyroidectomy changes was the same in rats receiving a brassica seed diet as in those on a normal diet. This excluded the possibility of the brassica agent acting as a thyroxine antagonist or of its increasing the thyroxine requirement of the animal. The effect of thyroidectomy was modified by diet. When a diet contained no animal products, the acidophils lost their granules. When acidophil granules were lost, growth ceased. When aciodphil granules had been lost after thyroidectomy, daily doses of thyroxine restored the acidophils and caus ed growth to resume. In animals given potent goitrogens, small doses of thyroxine did not inhibit activation of the thyroid gland, but with larg er doses basophilic changes regressed and the thyroid became inactive. It is concluded that basophil changes were linked with the production of thyrotrophic hormone while acidophil changes which were regressive were related to the failure of growth hormone secretion. When only a single change in hormone production occurs and only a single cell type is modified in the pituitary, that cell type is considered to be the site of production of that particular hormone. By improved technique, it was shown that the basophil cells were of 2 types: "thymotrophs

  2. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

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    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  3. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function

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    Antonio eBellastella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.

  4. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report

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    Sreenan Seamus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man lived for 30 years after the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor whose clinical and biochemical features were those of acromegaly and hypogonadism. Radiotherapy, totaling 7300 rad, was administered to the sella over two courses. Growth hormone levels normalized, but he developed both thyroid and adrenal insufficiency, and replacement therapy was commenced. Fourteen years later, growth hormone levels again became elevated, and bromocriptine was commenced but led to side effects that could not be tolerated. An attempted surgical intervention failed, and octreotide and pergolide were used in succession. Twenty-seven years after the diagnosis, a mass from an excisional biopsy of below the angle of the mandible proved to be metastatic pituitary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin, growth hormone, and prolactin. One year later, an octreotide scan showed uptake at the sella, neck, and spleen. Our patient declined further active oncology treatment. Conclusions Metastatic pituitary carcinoma associated with acromegaly is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth such case and is the first report of growth hormone and prolactin present in the metastatic mass.

  5. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome due to trauma: analysis of 2 cases%二例外伤性垂体柄中断综合征的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卓娜; 金文胜; 许卫国; 邓爱民; 张松; 李天栋; 韩立新

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) for its better understanding. Methods The clinical manifestations and endocrine alterations were analyzed retrospectively in 2 PSIS cases, and the literatures concerning this disease were reviewed. Results Both of the 2 adult patients had definite history of head injuries, and one of them exhibited nervous system sequelae. The diagnoses remained erroneous for 15 and 2 years, respectively. This disease was characterized by gradual clinical hypopituitarism, and both of the 2 patients were admitted for pituitary crisis, which occurred for several times in 1 case;neither of the patients had diabetes insipidus. Endocrine examination suggested hypofunction of the thyroid gland, sexual gland and adrenal glands due to hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary atrophy, pituitary stalk interruption and posterior lobe hyperintensity in the infundibular recess. So far only 2 juvenile cases of traumatic PSIS were reported, which had distinct differences from early-onset PSlS and from simple traumatic hypopituitarism without pituitary stalk interruption. Conclusion Traumatic PSIS is a rare clinical entity. In cases of endocrine alterations following head injury, traumatic PSIS might be suspected and appropriate treatment should be administered.%目的 探讨外伤性垂体柄中断综合征(PSIS)的临床特点.方法 回顾性总结2例外伤性PSIS患者的临床表现及内分泌改变,并结合国内外文献分析其临床特点.结果 2例均为成年患者,有明确的头部外伤史,其中1例有神经系统后遗症;误诊分别为15年和2年,临床上以逐渐出现垂体功能低下为表现,均因发生垂体危象而住院,其中1例多次发生垂体危象;无尿崩症表现;内分泌功能检查提示为垂体功能低下导致甲状腺、性腺、肾上腺功能低下;MRI显示垂体萎缩,垂体柄中断消失,漏斗隐窝处可见后叶高信

  6. Anterior Pituitary Aplasia in an Infant with Ring Chromosome 18p Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Bellfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reported case of an infant with 18p deletion syndrome with anterior pituitary aplasia secondary to a ring chromosome. Endocrine workup soon after birth was reassuring; however, repeat testing months later confirmed central hypopituitarism. While MRI reading initially indicated no midline defects, subsequent review of the images confirmed anterior pituitary aplasia with ectopic posterior pituitary. This case demonstrates how deletion of genetic material, even if resulting in a chromosomal ring, still results in a severe syndromic phenotype. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of close follow-up in the first year of life for children with 18p deletion syndrome and emphasizes the need to verify radiology impressions if there is any doubt as to the radiologic findings.

  7. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  8. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PITUITARY METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 任祖渊; 苏长保

    2004-01-01

    Thee cases of pituitary metastases were reported. They all had operations and the pathological examination confirming the diagnosis. The clinical features of diabetes insipidus and extraocular nerve palsy were presented. In two cases, the original tumors were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; in the other one, the original tumor was unknown. All three cases had poor outcome. These cases illustrate the fact that a pituitary metastasis can closely mimic a pituitary benign tumor, such as pituitary adenoma. Especially in the presence of suggestive symptoms such as diabetes insipidus and/or cranical nerve paralysis, the possibility of metastatic disease in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass should always be considered.

  9. Substance P enhances the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The undecapeptide substanceP(SP) was shown to be intimately involved in both the structural and functional aspects of the anterior pituitary.Yet,in addition to its influences on hormonal secretion,SP may well possess more actions in this master gland.The present study was ftherefore aimed to investigate the effect of SP on the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture,It was found that SP could dose-dependently increase the incorporation of tritiated thymidine(3H-TdR) into cultured anterior pituitary cells.Other mammalian tachykinins such as neurokinin A and neurokinin B had similar effect but to varying degrees.The equipotent analogue of SP,Norleucine11-SP(Nle11-SP),also acted likewise.with its action antagonizable by spantide,a SP receptor blocker.To further characterize the nature of cells responsive to the challenge of SP,immunocytochemical staining against S-100 protein and some adenohypophyseal hormones was performed alone or plus autoradiography.The results showed that the percentage of S-100 proteinimmunorective cells was apparently elevated by the addtion of Nle11-Sp for 48h,which indicates a preferential proliferation of folliculo-stellate cells under the regime .This was confirmed by increases in immunocytochemical or autoradiographical labelling indices of anterior pituitary Substance P and anterior pituitary cell proliferation.Cells treated similarly.Taken together,These results reveal that the trophic action of SP observed previously in other tissues is also present at least in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.with responding cells being predominantly folliculo-stellate cells as typified by S-100 proteinimmunoreactivity.Therefore,an intra-pituitary trophicaction of SP in vivo could be anticipated.

  10. Pituitary-thyroid axis in short- and long-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term experimental diabetes mellitus (DM produces a significant decrease in serum thyroid hormones, a decreased or normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and a reduction in hepatic and renal T4-5'-deiodination. However, little is known about the effects of chronic diabetes mellitus on the pituitary-thyroid axis function. We evaluated the changes induced by very short-term (6 days, short-term (15 days and chronic (6 months streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in 3-month old female Dutch-Miranda rat serum T4, serum TSH and T4-5'-deiodinase activity in the thyroid and pituitary glands. Serum hormones were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Iodothyronine-5'-deiodinase activities were assayed in the thyroid and pituitary microsomal fractions using 2 µM T4 as substrate. Mean serum T4 was significantly decreased from 3.3 to 2.0 µg/dl 6 days after diabetes mellitus induction, and from 2.2 to 1.5 µg/dl after 15 days of DM, with no significant changes in serum TSH, indicating a decreased pituitary TSH responsiveness to the diminished suppression by T4, even though pituitary T4-5'-deiodinase activity was unchanged. Thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase was unchanged after 6 days of diabetes mellitus, but was significantly increased from 20.6 to 37.0 pmol T3/mg protein after 15 days. Six months after diabetes mellitus induction, both serum T4 and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase returned to normal ranges and serum TSH was unchanged, although pituitary T4-5'-deiodinase was now significantly decreased from 2.7 to 1.7 pmol T3/mg protein. These findings indicate that some kind of adaptation to chronic insulinopenia may occur at the thyroid level, but this does not seem to be true for the pituitary

  11. [Intraductal meibomian gland probing for the treatment of blepharitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermon, S; Zaga, I Hindi; Alvarez Melloni, D

    2015-02-01

    To describe the results of the meibomian gland probing as a treatment of severe posterior blepharitis. Prospective, longitudinal study of patients with signs and symptoms of severe posterior blepharitis, who were treated with meibomian gland probing in Centro Oftalmológico Interlomas (CENOFI). A total of 16 patients were included, 62.5% female and 32.5% male, diagnosed with severe posterior blepharitis. Treatment was performed in one eye. The time of rupture of the tear film was evaluated, using a subjective scale of 0-10 photophobia, the improvement in pain and visual acuity was measured before the procedure, and at one week and 6 months after. All the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in all 4 variables al 6 months. There were no complications. The dysfunction of the meibomian glands is a common reason for ophthalmology consulting. The study describes the results obtained by performing an intraductal survey, which was shown to be safe and effective in 100% of the sample. It can be concluded from this study that meibomian gland probing is an effective and promising treatment for blepharitis resistant to conservative treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makras, P. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z. [Athens Hospital, 9. Pulmonary Department, Athens (Greece); Zetos, A. [General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Athens (Greece); Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Toloumis, G. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  13. Tacrolimus Ointment for Refractory Posterior Blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Ricci, Helena Maria Moraes; Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Miyamoto, Daniela Akemi; Chiacchio, Brenda Biagio; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Santo, Ruth Muyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2017-09-18

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind interventional case series was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment as a new therapeutic approach for refractory cases of posterior blepharitis. Forty eyes (20 patients) with posterior blepharitis refractory to previous treatment were randomized. Eighteen eyes (9 patients) were treated with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment and 20 eyes (10 patients) with placebo ointment twice daily. Patients were evaluated with a questionnaire and slit-lamp examination 14 days and 28 days after treatment, and symptoms and signs of blepharitis were compared to those observed at baseline. We could observe statistical difference in the outcome measurements of meibomian gland secretion, conjunctival hyperemia, telangiectasia of inferior lid, Rose Bengal, and fluorescein scoring for the study group. As for the symptoms score, we observed statistical difference in the symptoms scoring for pruritus and dry eye sensation in the tacrolimus group. This study suggests that topical administration of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment can improve some symptoms and some ocular surface status in patients with refractory posterior blepharitis.

  14. Detection and high performance liquid chromatography identification of the summer rises of vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Burbach, J P

    1987-11-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) contents of the rat pineal gland during the summer period were determined by RIAs. Both the levels of VP immunoreactivity and OT immunoreactivity rose markedly in August. The highest level of VP immunoreactivity occurred on August 6 [82 +/- 19 fmol/gland (+/- SEM)], compared to basal levels of 14 +/- 2 fmol/gland. Basal levels of OT immunoreactivity of 20 +/- 8 fmol/gland increased to a peak level of 193 +/- 72 fmol/gland on August 14. Analysis of immunoreactive components by HPLC demonstrated that rises were due to the peptides coeluting with authentic VP and OT, respectively. Levels of immunoreactive VP and OT in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and hippocampus did not show variation during the summer. The results show that the VP and OT content of the pineal gland is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by seasonal influences.

  15. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))

    2009-04-15

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.

  16. Action potential broadening and frequency-dependent facilitation of calcium signals in pituitary nerve terminals.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M B; Konnerth, A.; Augustine, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Hormone release from nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis is a sensitive function of action potential frequency. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this frequency-dependent facilitation by combining patch clamp and fluorimetric Ca2+ measurements in single neurosecretory terminals in thin slices of the rat posterior pituitary. In these terminals both action potential-induced changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and action potential duration were...

  17. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  18. Pediatric salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Zachary T. [University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Goud, Asha R. [University of California Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Orange, CA (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Shao, Lei [Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Department of Pathology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A variety of lesions occur in the pediatric salivary glands. With modern imaging techniques such as Doppler sonography, helical CT, and MRI, identification of a specific etiology is often possible. Knowledge of clinical information, normal anatomy, and imaging characteristics of salivary gland pathology are essential for appropriate radiologic evaluation. This review illustrates the various congenital, neoplastic, and inflammatory entities that can occur within the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual spaces. (orig.)

  19. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Hector; Hinck, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development—pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation, and involution—occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy, the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its prepregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease.

  2. Posterior tracheal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Karan; Das, Chandan J; Guleria, Randeep

    2014-10-01

    Multiple tracheal diverticulosis is a rare clinical entity. Tracheal diverticula are usually recognized radiologically as solitary right paratracheal air collections on thoracic computed tomography examination. They are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with persistent symptoms. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old male patient who underwent extensive evaluation for persistent cough. Multiple posterior right paratracheal air collections were recognized on thoracic multidetector computed tomography examination, which was confirmed as multiple-acquired posterior upper tracheal diverticula on flexible bronchoscopy. The patient improved with conservative medical management.

  3. Pituitary transplantation: cyclosporine enables transplantation across a minor histocompatibility barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N B; Huang, S; Allen, G S

    1986-03-01

    Pituitary glands from neonatal donors were transplanted to the median eminence of hypophysectomized adult rats. Rats with transplants were then treated for 2 weeks with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine. For 5 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn at regular intervals for determination of serum thyroxine, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone. Cyclosporine-treated recipients of grafts with minor histocompatibility differences had normal levels of thyroxine and prolactin, whereas untreated animals did not. In addition, the treated animals responded to oophorectomy with a marked elevation in serum luteinizing hormone. This evidence indicates that cyclosporine enables successful transplantation across a minor histocompatibility barrier. It also suggests that these grafts interact with the hypothalamus. Transplantation across a major histocompatibility barrier was unsuccessful even in the presence of cyclosporine.

  4. Differentiation of pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar tumors by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Koji [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Medical Center; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Isao [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [{sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA] scintigraphy was evaluated for the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, from other sellar and parasellar lesions. Diffuse {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA accumulation within the tumor was found in seven of seven non-functioning, three of four growth hormone-secreting, and seven of eight prolactin-secreting adenomas, but only partial accumulation in only two of 16 non-pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands. There were no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor size or serum hormone level. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed overall sensitivity of 81% (17/21 cases) for detecting pituitary adenomas, in particular 100% for non-functioning adenomas. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA may be useful for detecting pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, and for the differentiation of non-functioning pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar lesions. (author)

  5. Addison's Disease and Pituitary Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephen J; Vitaz, Todd; Nowacki, Michael R; Craddock, Durrett C; Silverman, Craig

    2015-06-01

    A 60-year-old man with Addison's disease, primary hypothyroidism and type 2 diabetes mellitus who was treated with stable doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone developed increasing skin pigmentation and a bitemporal hemianopia. The plasma ACTH level was 14,464 pg/mL, and an invasive pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension was found on magnetic resonance imaging leading to transnasal-transsphenoidal adenomectomy. The tumor demonstrated features of an eosinophilic adenoma and stained uniformly for ACTH. Residual tumor was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy. This case and the 13 cases published previously indicate that primary adrenal failure may predispose to corticotroph hyperplasia, and in some patients to the development of an invasive corticotroph adenoma. The ACTH level should be measured, and a pituitary magnetic resonance imaging is indicated when skin pigmentation increases in a patient with primary adrenal failure who is receiving customary treatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

  6. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  7. Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: A case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Espana-Tost, Antonio-Jesús; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. Key words:Choristoma, heterotopias, ectopic tissue, salivary gland, buccinator muscle. PMID:26535104

  8. Posterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Hodges

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male infants is posterior urethral valves. Although the incidence has remained stable, the neonatal mortality for this disorder has improved due to early diagnosis and intensive neonatal care, thanks in part to the widespread use of prenatal ultrasound evaluations. In fact, the most common reason for the diagnosis of posterior urethral valves presently is the evaluation of infants for prenatal hydronephrosis. Since these children are often diagnosed early, the urethral obstruction can be alleviated rapidly through catheter insertion and eventual surgery, and their metabolic derangements can be normalized without delay, avoiding preventable infant mortality. Of the children that survive, however, early diagnosis has not had much effect on their long-term prognosis, as 30% still develop renal insufficiency before adolescence. A better understanding of the exact cause of the congenital obstruction of the male posterior urethra, prevention of postnatal bladder and renal injury, and the development of safe methods to treat urethral obstruction prenatally (and thereby avoiding the bladder and renal damage due to obstructive uropathy are the goals for the care of children with posterior urethral valves[1].

  9. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  10. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  11. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined...... the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP...... (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles...

  12. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  13. Pituitary Apoplexy After Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in a Patient with Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Fang Wang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare complication of pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 41-year-old female with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma, who developed pituitary apoplexy after a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH 200 mg intravenous injection stimulation test. Neither emergency computed tomography (CT scans nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, performed 6 hours and 12 hours, respectively, after the active episode, disclosed the evidence of acute hemorrhage or infarction. Two days later, the pituitary mass, removed by transsphenoidal approach, showed ischemic necrosis and acute hemorrhage. The TRH test is generally safe for evaluating pituitary function, but pituitary apoplexy may occur after the procedure. CT and MRI may miss the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy, especially if performed immediately after the acute episode.

  14. Androgen Receptors Expression in Pituitary of Male Viscacha in relation to Growth and Reproductive Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Palmira Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the androgen receptors (AR expression in pituitary pars distalis (PD of male viscachas in relation to growth and reproductive cycle. AR were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by image analysis. Pituitary glands from fetus, immature, prepubertal, and adult viscachas during their reproductive cycle were used. In the fetal PD, the immunoreactivity (ir was mainly cytoplasmic. In immature and prepubertal animals, AR-ir was cytoplasmic (ARc-ir and nuclear (ARn-ir in medial region. In adult animals, ARn-ir cells were numerous at caudal end. AR regionalization varied between the PD zones in relation to growth. In immature animals, the ARn-ir increased whereas the cytoplasmic expression decreased in relation to the fetal glands. The percentage of ARc-ir cells increased in prepubertal animals whereas the nuclear AR expression was predominant in adult viscachas. The AR expression changed in adults, showing minimum percentage in the gonadal regression period. The variation of nuclear AR expression was directly related with testosterone concentration. These results demonstrated variations in the immunostaining pattern, regionalization, and number of AR-ir cells throughout development, growth, and reproductive cycle, suggesting the involvement of AR in the regulation of the pituitary activity of male viscacha.

  15. Resistin Regulates Pituitary Lipid Metabolism and Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rodriguez-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adipokine resistin is an insulin-antagonizing factor that also plays a regulatory role in inflammation, immunity, food intake, and gonadal function and also regulates growth hormone (GH secretion in rat adenopituitary cells cultures with the adipokine. Although adipose tissue is the primary source of resistin, it is also expressed in other tissues, including the pituitary. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible action of resistin on the lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland in vivo (rats in two different nutritional status, fed and fast, treated with resistin on acute and a chronic way and in vitro (adenopituitary cell cultures treated with the adipokine. Here, by a combination of in vivo and in vitro experimental models, we demonstrated that central acute and chronic administration of resistin enhance mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes which participated on lipolysis and moreover inhibiting mRNA levels of the lipid metabolic enzymes involved in lipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that resistin has a regulatory role on lipid metabolism in the pituitary gland providing a novel insight in relation to the mechanism by which this adipokine can participate in the integrated control of lipid metabolism.

  16. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  17. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, C; Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating cytostaticum. In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion. DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treat...

  18. A Rare Cause of Hypopituitarism: Pituitary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şazi İmamoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tuberculosis is a rare condition that can present with hypopituitarism even without any evidence of systemic tuberculosis and is easily confused with pituitary adenomas. Headache and hypopituitarism are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of pituitary tuberculosis in a 39-year-old male patient who presented with panhypopituitarism. Although it is rare and difficult to diagnose, pituitary tuberculosis should be considered in every nonfunctional sellar masses, especially in fairly small ones with unexpected hypopituitarism. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 26-8

  19. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: familial isolated pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (6 links) Encyclopedia: Acromegaly Encyclopedia: Gigantism Encyclopedia: Pituitary Tumor Encyclopedia: Prolactinoma Health Topic: Endocrine ...

  1. cDNA microarray reveals signaling pathways involved in hormones expression of human pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue-Yun; Qi, Xiao-Fei; Song, Shao-Jun; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Zhu, Zhi-Dong; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Teng, Yun; Han, Ze-Guang

    2005-09-01

    Pituitary, a master gland of neuroendocrine system, secretes hormones that orchestrate many physiological processes, under the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. To investigate the genes involved in hormones expression of human pituitary, homemade cDNA microarray containing 14,800 human genes/ESTs were used to profile the gene expression in both fetal and adult pituitaries. Seven hundred and twelve known genes changed over 2-fold between the both tissues. Of which, 23 genes were changed with hormones expression in aging were confirmed by RT-PCR, not only the known regulators such as Pit1, GATA4, ESRRA, GABA-A, and EMK, but also LOC55884, DUSP3, PNN, and RCL, which had not been reported to be involved in the hormones expression. Correspondingly, the mRNAs of GH, PRL, POMC, TSH-beta, FSH-beta, and LH-beta, was increased as much as 6- to 20-fold in adult pituitary than those in fetal pituitary, by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay. In addition, the mRNAs of signaling pathways, such as cAMP-PKA-CREB, PI3K-Akt, and PKA-ERK were further investigated. Of them, it was only cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway, but not PI3K-Akt and PKA-ERK have the same expressing pattern as hormones. It suggested that cDNA microarray is highly advantages to profile the differential expressed genes that were involved in hormones expression of human pituitary, but it might ignore some responding proteins regulated posttranscriptionally.

  2. Hormonal and morphological study of the pituitaries in reeler mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lombardero, Matilde; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Salazar, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    .... Since the brain is one of the main regulator of pituitary hormone secretion and no information was reported regarding pituitary function and structure in these mutant mice, we studied pituitary...

  3. Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine

  4. The adult pituitary shows stem/progenitor cell activation in response to injury and is capable of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuli; Gremeaux, Lies; Luque, Raul M; Liekens, Daisy; Chen, Jianghai; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Kineman, Rhonda; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The pituitary gland constitutes, together with the hypothalamus, the regulatory core of the endocrine system. Whether the gland is capable of cell regeneration after injury, in particular when suffered at adult age, is unknown. To investigate the adult pituitary's regenerative capacity and the response of its stem/progenitor cell compartment to damage, we constructed a transgenic mouse model to conditionally destroy pituitary cells. GHCre/iDTR mice express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor after transcriptional activation by Cre recombinase, which is driven by the GH promoter. Treatment with DT for 3 d leads to gradual GH(+) (somatotrope) cell obliteration with a final ablation grade of 80-90% 1 wk later. The stem/progenitor cell-clustering side population promptly expands after injury, concordant with the immediate increase in Sox2(+) stem/progenitor cells. In addition, folliculo-stellate cells, previously designated as pituitary stem/progenitor cells and significantly overlapping with Sox2(+) cells, also increase in abundance. In situ examination reveals expansion of the Sox2(+) marginal-zone niche and appearance of remarkable Sox2(+) cells that contain GH. When mice are left after the DT-provoked lesion, GH(+) cells considerably regenerate during the following months. Double Sox2(+)/GH(+) cells are observed throughout the regenerative period, suggesting recovery of somatotropes from stem/progenitor cells, as further supported by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) pulse-chase lineage tracing. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the adult pituitary gland holds regenerative competence and that tissue repair follows prompt activation and plausible involvement of the stem/progenitor cells.

  5. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  6. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  7. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  8. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  9. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases...... of these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, comprising...... malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  10. The Schistosome Oesophageal Gland: Initiator of Blood Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; de Castro-Borges, William; Parker-Manuel, Sophie; Vance, Gillian M.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Neves, Leandro X.; Evans, Gareth J. O.; Wilson, R. Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the ultrastructure of the schistosome esophageal gland was described >35 years ago, its role in the processing of ingested blood has never been established. The current study was prompted by our identification of MEG-4.1 expression in the gland and the observation of erythrocyte uncoating in the posterior esophagus. Methodology/Principal Findings The salient feature of the posterior esophagus, characterized by confocal and electron microscopy, is the enormous increase in membrane surface area provided by the plate-like extensions and basal invaginations of the lining syncytium, with unique crystalloid vesicles releasing their contents between the plates. The feeding process was shown by video microscopy to be divided into two phases, blood first accumulating in the anterior lumen before passing as a bolus to the posterior. There it streamed around a plug of material revealed by confocal microscopy as tethered leucocytes. These were present in far larger numbers than predicted from the volume of the lumen, and in varying states of damage and destruction. Intact erythrocytes were detected in the anterior esophagus but not observed thereafter, implying that their lysis occurred rapidly as they enter the posterior. Two further genes, MEGs 4.2 and 14, were shown to be expressed exclusively in the esophageal gland. Bioinformatics predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 4.2 possessed a common hydrophobic region with a shared motif, while antibodies to SjMEG-4.1 showed it was bound to leucocytes in the esophageal lumen. It was also predicted that MEGs 4.1 and 14 were heavily O-glycosylated and this was confirmed for the former by 2D-electrophoresis and Western blotting. Conclusions/Significance The esophageal gland and its products play a central role in the processing of ingested blood. The binding of host antibodies in the esophageal lumen shows that some constituents are antibody targets and could provide a new source of vaccine candidates. PMID:23936568

  11. Radiological features of endocrine orbitopathy involving lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to orbit computer tomography, lacrimal gland is involved in autoimmune process in 26.8% of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy. A short orbit is a predisposing factor of the lacrimal gland (LG involvement in the autoimmune process. In addition to increasing of the size of the lacrimal gland, formed thickening of the optic nerve in 1 cm from the eye posterior pole (in 60% of cases, the increase in x-ray density of orbital portions of optic nerve, proved «shortening» of length in axial projection with reliable reduc- tion of length to width ratio (with increase in width at the same time up to 5.8±0.2 are roentgenological features of this сlinical form. Change of spatial topography in orbit with reduction of the conversion rate was associated with increased rate of optic neuropathydevelopment.

  12. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...... of the expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  13. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  14. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health ... These glands are found below the jawbone. Enlarge Anatomy of the salivary glands. The three main pairs ...

  15. Transcription factor 7-like 1 is involved in hypothalamo–pituitary axis development in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston-Massuet, Carles; McCabe, Mark J.; Scagliotti, Valeria; Young, Rodrigo M.; Carreno, Gabriela; Gregory, Louise C.; Jayakody, Sujatha A.; Pozzi, Sara; Gualtieri, Angelica; Basu, Basudha; Koniordou, Markela; Wu, Chun-I; Bancalari, Rodrigo E.; Rahikkala, Elisa; Veijola, Riitta; Lopponen, Tuija; Graziola, Federica; Turton, James; Signore, Massimo; Mousavy Gharavy, Seyedeh Neda; Charolidi, Nicoletta; Sokol, Sergei Y.; Merrill, Bradley J.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant embryonic development of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland in humans results in congenital hypopituitarism (CH). Transcription factor 7-like 1 (TCF7L1), an important regulator of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, is expressed in the developing forebrain and pituitary gland, but its role during hypothalamo–pituitary (HP) axis formation or involvement in human CH remains elusive. Using a conditional genetic approach in the mouse, we first demonstrate that TCF7L1 is required in the prospective hypothalamus to maintain normal expression of the hypothalamic signals involved in the induction and subsequent expansion of Rathke’s pouch progenitors. Next, we reveal that the function of TCF7L1 during HP axis development depends exclusively on the repressing activity of TCF7L1 and does not require its interaction with β-catenin. Finally, we report the identification of two independent missense variants in human TCF7L1, p.R92P and p.R400Q, in a cohort of patients with forebrain and/or pituitary defects. We demonstrate that these variants exhibit reduced repressing activity in vitro and in vivo relative to wild-type TCF7L1. Together, our data provide support for a conserved molecular function of TCF7L1 as a transcriptional repressor during HP axis development in mammals and identify variants in this transcription factor that are likely to contribute to the etiology of CH. PMID:26764381

  16. [Ultrasound evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume. The role of fetal adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of preterm labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Arkadiusz; Karwasik-Kajszczarek, Katarzyna; Dymanowska-Dyjak, Izabela; Kondracka, Adrianna; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Preterm labor remains to be one of the most important challenges of contemporary perinatology and constitutes the main reason of perinatal mortality and prematurity of neonates. Studies on preterm labor have confirmed the mutual interactions of several different hormonal systems while the activation of hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal axis seems to have the greatest influence. It has been also suggested that size and mass of fetal adrenal glands may be associated with the risk of preterm labor. Several authors have shown that the evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume may be a useful marker of fetal growth during pregnancy. Technological advancements enabled the development of three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation (3D) of the fetal adrenal glands, facilitating a more precise evaluation of their volume. Also, it seems to have higher sensitivity and specificity than two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D). Studies have confirmed a direct relationship between fetal adrenal gland size and the onset of preterm labor within at least 1 week since the ultrasound exam. They have also suggested that in a physiological pregnancy the relation between fetal zone and the whole organ remains constant throughout the pregnancy. Disruption of these proportions and fetal zone enlargement are considered to be a marker of labor cascade and preterm labor with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound evaluation of the cervical length and assessment of the fetal fibronectin concentration.

  17. The Environmental Pollutant Tributyltin Chloride Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis at Different Levels in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; Sena, Gabriela C; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; Alves, Izabela S S; Gama-de-Souza, Letícia N; Pelição, Renan; Rodrigues, Lívia C M; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Pires, Rita G W; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Alarcon, Tamara A; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-08-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant that is used as a biocide in antifouling paints. TBT has been shown to induce endocrine-disrupting effects. However, studies evaluating the effects of TBT on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are especially rare. The current study demonstrates that exposure to TBT is critically responsible for the improper function of the mammalian HPA axis as well as the development of abnormal morphophysiology in the pituitary and adrenal glands. Female rats were treated with TBT, and their HPA axis morphophysiology was assessed. High CRH and low ACTH expression and high plasma corticosterone levels were detected in TBT rats. In addition, TBT leads to an increased in the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the hypothalamus of TBT rats. Morphophysiological abnormalities, including increases in inflammation, a disrupted cellular redox balance, apoptosis, and collagen deposition in the pituitary and adrenal glands, were observed in TBT rats. Increases in adiposity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ protein expression in the adrenal gland were observed in TBT rats. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that TBT leads to functional dissociation between CRH, ACTH, and costicosterone, which could be associated an inflammation and increased of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in hypothalamus. Thus, TBT exerts toxic effects at different levels on the HPA axis function.

  18. Failure to visualize adrenal glands in a patient with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. [/sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.; Mayfield, R.K.; Levine, J.H.; Lopes-Virella, M.F.; Sagel, J.; Buse, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with clinical and biochemical evidence of Cushing's disease and severe hyperlipidemia underwent an adrenal imaging procedure with NP-59 (6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol), without visualization of either gland. Correction of the hyperlipidemia followed by repeated adrenal imaging resulted in bilateral visualization. A pituitary tumor was removed at surgery, confirming the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.

  19. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  20. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function in Brain Death: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Northrup, Jesse; Olcese, James

    2016-01-01

    The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) states that an individual is dead when "all functions of the entire brain" have ceased irreversibly. However, it has been questioned whether some functions of the hypothalamus, particularly osmoregulation, can continue after the clinical diagnosis of brain death (BD). In order to learn whether parts of the hypothalamus can continue to function after the diagnosis of BD, we performed 2 separate systematic searches of the MEDLINE database, corresponding to the functions of the posterior and anterior pituitary. No meta-analysis is possible due to nonuniformity in the clinical literature. However, some modest generalizations can reasonably be drawn from a narrative review and from anatomic considerations that explain why these findings should be expected. We found evidence suggesting the preservation of hypothalamic function, including secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones, responsiveness to anterior pituitary stimulation, and osmoregulation, in a substantial proportion of patients declared dead by neurological criteria. We discuss several possible explanations for these findings. We conclude by suggesting that additional clinical research with strict inclusion criteria is necessary and further that a more nuanced and forthright public dialogue is needed, particularly since standard diagnostic practices and the UDDA may not be entirely in accord.

  1. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  2. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  3. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  4. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  5. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  6. Hypothalamic functions in patients with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to increase our understanding of hypothalamic (dys)function in patients with pituitary insufficiency. This goal is driven by the clinical experience of persisting symptoms in patients adequately treated for pituitary insufficiency. We focus primarily on patients

  7. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  8. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  9. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  10. Submandibular gland excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Line Kanstrup; Møller, Martin Nue

    2013-01-01

    cosmetic result and all scars were ≤6 on the Vancouver Scar Scale. Problems with scarring were more common if there had been postoperative infection. We continue to use the lateral transcervical approach as standard in our institution for patients who cannot be managed by gland-sparing procedures....

  11. PET/MR imaging in the diagnosis of hormone-producing pituitary micro-adenoma: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Hou, Bo; Lu, Lin; Feng, Ming; Zang, Jie; Yao, Shaobo; Feng, Feng; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2017-08-03

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR), using (18)F-FDG and (68)Ga-DOTATATE as tracers, in the detection of hormone-producing pituitary micro-adenoma, where diagnosis is difficult using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone. Methods: A total of 37 patients with elevated hormone levels were recruited, including 19 patients with undiagnosable primary pituitary tumors and 18 patients with suspected recurrent pituitary adenomas (PAs). Patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET/MR and (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/MR within one week. Finally, 27 patients underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy within two weeks, 3 patients underwent sella region radiotherapy, 1 patient underwent somatostatin therapy, and the other 6 patients had a clinical follow-up. The image characteristics and uptake levels were correlated with the surgical findings and pathological results. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine an optimal cutoff pituitary to differentiate pituitary adenoma from normal pituitary tissue. The area under the ROC curve was calculated to compare the diagnostic performance. Results: The PET/MR images were in diagnostic quality without obvious image artifacts. The high contrast of PET imaging provided complementary information to the fine anatomy display of MRI. Increased (18)F-FDG uptake was clearly observed in the all patients, whereas enhanced MRI enhanced MRI using 0.05 mmol/kg Gadopentetate dimeglumine had suspicious findings only in 47% primary and 39% recurrent PAs patients, which were 37% and 50%, respectively when using 0.1 mmol/kg Gadopentetate dimeglumine. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of (18)F-FDG activity (6.8 ± 3.7) in 16 primary pituitary adenomas who underwent transsphenoidal adenomectomy, was significantly higher than that of the rest of the normal pituitary gland (3.2 ± 1.1, P PET/MR imaging provides an ideal tool for the detection of small hormone

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  13. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Brunner's gland adenoma of duodenum:A case report and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ping Gao; Jian-Shan Zhu; Wen-Jun Zheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinicopathological features of Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum.METHODS: A rare case of Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum was described and related literature was reviewed.RESULTS: Brunner's gland adenoma of the duodenum appeared to be nodular hyperplasia of the normal Brunner's gland with an unusual admixture of normal tissues, including ducts, adipose tissue and lymphoid tissue. We suggested that it might be designated as a duodenal hamartoma rather than a true neoplasm.CONCLUSION: The most common location of the lesion is the posterior wall of the duodenum near the junction of its first and second portions. It can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and duodenal obstruction. Endoscopic polypectomy is a worthy treatment for benign Brunner's gland adenomas,as malignant changes in these tumors have never been proven.

  15. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  16. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  17. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  18. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  19. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  20. Identification of candidate genes for human pituitary development by EST analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huasheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pituitary is a critical neuroendocrine gland that is comprised of five hormone-secreting cell types, which develops in tandem during the embryonic stage. Some essential genes have been identified in the early stage of adenohypophysial development, such as PITX1, FGF8, BMP4 and SF-1. However, it is likely that a large number of signaling molecules and transcription factors essential for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types remain unidentified. High-throughput methods such as microarray analysis may facilitate the measurement of gene transcriptional levels, while Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing, an efficient method for gene discovery and expression level analysis, may no-redundantly help to understand gene expression patterns during development. Results A total of 9,271 ESTs were generated from both fetal and adult pituitaries, and assigned into 961 gene/EST clusters in fetal and 2,747 in adult pituitary by homology analysis. The transcription maps derived from these data indicated that developmentally relevant genes, such as Sox4, ST13 and ZNF185, were dominant in the cDNA library of fetal pituitary, while hormones and hormone-associated genes, such as GH1, GH2, POMC, LHβ, CHGA and CHGB, were dominant in adult pituitary. Furthermore, by using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, Sox4 was found to be one of the main transcription factors expressed in fetal pituitary for the first time. It was expressed at least at E12.5, but decreased after E17.5. In addition, 40 novel ESTs were identified specifically in this tissue. Conclusion The significant changes in gene expression in both tissues suggest a distinct and dynamic switch between embryonic and adult pituitaries. All these data along with Sox4 should be confirmed to further understand the community of multiple signaling pathways that act as a cooperative network that regulates maturation of the pituitary. It was also suggested that EST

  1. A GRFa2/Prop1/stem (GPS) cell niche in the pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lavandeira, Montse; Quereda, Víctor; Flores, Ignacio; Saez, Carmen; Diaz-Rodriguez, Esther; Japon, Miguel A; Ryan, Aymee K; Blasco, Maria A; Dieguez, Carlos; Malumbres, Marcos; Alvarez, Clara V

    2009-01-01

    The adult endocrine pituitary is known to host several hormone-producing cells regulating major physiological processes during life. Some candidates to progenitor/stem cells have been proposed. However, not much is known about pituitary cell renewal throughout life and its homeostatic regulation during specific physiological changes, such as puberty or pregnancy, or in pathological conditions such as tumor development. We have identified in rodents and humans a niche of non-endocrine cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, a Ret co-receptor for Neurturin. These cells also express b-Catenin and E-cadherin in an oriented manner suggesting a planar polarity organization for the niche. In addition, cells in the niche uniquely express the pituitary-specific transcription factor Prop1, as well as known progenitor/stem markers such as Sox2, Sox9 and Oct4. Half of these GPS (GFRa2/Prop1/Stem) cells express S-100 whereas surrounding elongated cells in contact with GPS cells express Vimentin. GFRa2+-cells form non-endocrine spheroids in culture. These spheroids can be differentiated to hormone-producing cells or neurons outlining the neuroectoderm potential of these progenitors. In vivo, GPSs cells display slow proliferation after birth, retain BrdU label and show long telomeres in its nuclei, indicating progenitor/stem cell properties in vivo. Our results suggest the presence in the adult pituitary of a specific niche of cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, the pituitary-specific protein Prop1 and stem cell markers. These GPS cells are able to produce different hormone-producing and neuron-like cells and they may therefore contribute to postnatal pituitary homeostasis. Indeed, the relative abundance of GPS numbers is altered in Cdk4-deficient mice, a model of hypopituitarism induced by the lack of this cyclin-dependent kinase. Thus, GPS cells may display functional relevance in the physiological expansion of the pituitary gland throughout life as well as

  2. A GRFa2/Prop1/stem (GPS cell niche in the pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Garcia-Lavandeira

    physiological expansion of the pituitary gland throughout life as well as protection from pituitary disease.

  3. Fetal antigen 1 in healthy adults and patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Støving, René Klinkby

    2001-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of human fetal antigen 1 (FA1) in adult human tissues has demonstrated a strong association between FA1 and (neuro)endocrine structures. In the anterior pituitary gland FA1 was colocalized with GH, and the present study was performed to evaluate a ...... during weeks to months had a corresponding direct or indirect effect on FA1 levels in patients with GH deficiency or acromegaly. However, a direct effect of octreotide on FA1 levels, independent of GH levels, has not been ruled out. Udgivelsesdato: Nov...

  4. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  5. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, FOXP3, Is Required for Normal Pituitary Gonadotropin Expression in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Deborah O.; Jasurda, Jake S.; Egashira, Noboru; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is central to normal reproductive function. This pathway begins with the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in systematic pulses by the hypothalamus. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is bound by receptors on gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone and, to some extent, follicle-stimulating hormone. Once stimulated by these glycoprotein hormones, the gonads begin gametogenesis and the synthesis of sex hormones. In humans, mutations of the forkhead transcription factor, FOXP3, lead to an autoimmune disorder known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, and enteropathy, X-linked syndrome. Mice with a mutation in the Foxp3 gene have a similar autoimmune syndrome and are infertile. To understand why FOXP3 is required for reproductive function, we are investigating the reproductive phenotype of Foxp3 mutant mice (Foxp3sf/Y). Although the gonadotroph cells appear to be intact in Foxp3sf/Y mice, luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb) and follicle-stimulating hormone beta (Fshb) expression are significantly decreased, demonstrating that these mice exhibit a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone is not significantly decreased in Foxp3sf/Y males. Treatment of Foxp3sf/Y males with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor agonist does not rescue expression of Lhb or Fshb. Interestingly, we do not detect Foxp3 expression in the pituitary or hypothalamus, suggesting that the infertility seen in Foxp3sf/Y males is a secondary effect, possibly due to loss of FOXP3 in immune cells. Pituitary expression of glycoprotein hormone alpha (Cga) and prolactin (Prl) are significantly reduced in Foxp3sf/Y males, whereas the precursor for adrenocorticotropic hormone, pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), is increased. Human patients diagnosed with IPEX often exhibit thyroiditis due to destruction of the thyroid gland by

  6. MRI: Incidence and evaluation of size and shape criteria for pituitary volume in healthy subjects and in patients with detectable microadenomas; MRT: Haeufigkeit und Bewertung von Groessen- und Formkriterien bei Hypophysengesunden und Patienten mit nachweisbaren Mikroadenomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany); Kirchner, J. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Zentrum der Radiologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Higer, P. [Stiftung Deutsche Klinik fuer Diagnostik, Wiesbaden (Germany); Heyd, R. [Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie, Zentrum der Radiologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany); Berkefeld, J.

    1997-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 42 patients with proven microadenomas and in 42 patients with normal pituitary hormone analysis. The normal MRI-anatomy of the pituitary gland and its possible variations with measurement of the volume and comparison of the anatomy with that of the gland after changes caused by microadenomas has to our knowledge not yet described. In this study we measured the height, coronary and sagittal diameter of the pituitary gland in both groups as well as other indirect signs of microadenomas (asymmetry of the gland, sella turcica, and the stalk). The pituitary volume indicates the expansion of microadenomas much better than the gland height (and the other diameters). Normal pituitary glands showed a significant lower volume (525{+-}137 mm{sup 3} [R=225-800 mm{sup 3}]) than patients with proven microadenomas (734{+-}393 mm{sup 3} [R=335-2800 mm{sup 3}], p<0.001). the normal pituitary gland and sella turcica show a large variety of anatomic variations. These variations are less frequent in healthy subjects (10-21%) than in patients with microadenomas (48-71%). The described criteria are of some value in the diagnosis of a suspected gland hypertrophy or microadenoma. In 75% of the patients with normal pituitary parameters and in 12% of the patients with microadenomas no indirect adenoma criteria was found in our study. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Studie werden magnetresonanztomographische Groessen- und Formkriterien der Hypophyse anhand von 42 klinisch und hormonanalytisch hypophysengesunden Patienten und 42 Patienten mit nachweisbaren Mikroadenomen beschrieben und in ihrer Haeufigkeit und Wertigkeit diskutiert. Groessen- und Formvarianten der Hypophyse und der Sellaregion sind vielfaeltig, eine umfassende magnetresonanztomographische Beschreibung dieser Kriterien bei hypophysengesunden Patienten liegt bisher nicht vor. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Normvarianten vom pathologischen Befund abzugrenzen. Das Hypophysenvolumen

  7. [Involution of gonadotrophic cells of the pituitary gland in the male frog, Rana esculenta, after section of the pituitary stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legait, H; Helas, G

    1976-01-01

    One and two months after section of the hypophyseal stalk in the male frog. Rana esculenta, and involution of numerous gonadotrophic cells, contrasting with the normal aspect of the eosinophilic cells can be observed.

  8. Diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakoda, K.; Gen, M.; Yonezawa, M.; Ohta, M.; Matsumura, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    The presence of pituitary microadenomas can be established by the detection of minor changes on polytomograms of the sella turcica. However, as this method is a procedure for detecting secondary changes due to adenoma, it is understandable that microadenomas which fail to present secondary changes cannot be picked up. From this point of view, we investigated the possibility detecting changes in the pituitary itself by means of CT. An axial scan of pituitary microadenomas by EMI-1010 showed that some of the PRL secreting adenomas and all of the GH secreting adenomas showed areas of high density, and that some of PRL secreting adenomas and all the ACTH secreting adenomas showed areas of low density at the site of the adenomas. On a coronal scan with GE/X2, the normal pituitary is highly enhanced, and an absorption coefficient of 70 - 80 is demonstrated, but on an axial scan the coefficient becomes 25 - 35 due to the partial-volume effect. On a coronal scan pituitary microadenomas are shown as hypodense-lucent or isodense as a normal pituitary. However, the absorption coefficient of the hypodense-lucent area was 50 - 60; this is not low, but is, rather, a high density. At present, it is our belief that it is most effective to use a coronal angle with a high-resolution scanner in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas.

  9. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  10. Serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX Expression in Pituitary Adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casar-Borota, Olivera; Botling, Johan; Granberg, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Differential diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemistry between a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (NET)/pituitary adenoma and a primary or secondary NET of nonpituitary origin in the sellar region may be difficult. Serotonin, a frequently expressed marker...... of the pituitary tumors expressed serotonin, suggesting that serotonin immunoreactive sellar tumors represent primary or secondary NETs of nonpituitary origin. Normal expression of ATRX and DAXX in pituitary tumors suggests that ATRX and DAXX do not play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary endocrine tumors...... on a larger cohort of pituitary carcinomas are needed to clarify whether ATRX mutations may contribute to the metastatic potential in a subset of pituitary NETs....

  11. Significance of contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA in evaluation of pituitary adenomas; Znaczenie wzmocnienia kontrastowego Gd-DTPA w ocenie gruczolakow przysadki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paprzycki, W.; Liebert, W.; Gradzki, J.; Sosnowski, P.; Stajgis, M. [Osrodek Diagnostyki Obrazowej IR, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)]|[Zaklad Neuroradiologii, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)]|[Klinika Neurochirurgii, Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Results of MR examinations in 136 patients with suspected pituitary adenoma were evaluated retrospectively. Presence of 40 microadenomas and 48 macroadenomas was confirmed. Contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA increased diagnostic efficacy in 65% of cases of microadenomas. Contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA was less useful in cases of macroadenomas and enable the more detailed evaluation of tumor margins in 31 %, tumor relation to cavernous sinus in 21% and tumor relation to optic chiasm in 6% of cases only. Authors suggest, that contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA is indispensable and should be performed routinely in evaluation of pituitary gland in patients with suspected microadenoma. (author) 10 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Hypopituitarism following pituitary irradiation for acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloia, J.F.; Archambeau, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Endocrine evaluation is reported in 8 acromegalic patients who received 5500 rad to the pituitary from a linear accelerator. There was a mean decrease in hGH levels of 72%. Plasma testosterone levels were low in 1 of the 6 male patients prior to pituitary irradiation and were below normal in all male patients on the final evaluation (3.1 +- 0.2 SD years postirradiation). Deficiency of TSH secretion developed in 2 patients following irradiation. This rather high incidence of postirradiation partial hypopituitarism was not anticipated and is thought to be related to radiation necrosis of the normal pituitary tissue which surrounds the adenoma.

  13. Management of incidental pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F. Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary incidentalomas are common lesions for which neurosurgical referrals may become progressively more frequent, given the increasing application of neuroimaging. The initial evaluation of a patient with radiographic evidence of an incidentaloma should focus on addressing two questions: (1 is the lesion causing neurological symptoms, and (2 is the lesion hormonally active? The answers to these two questions provide a framework for subsequent clinical management. The initial patient assessment should include a detailed history and physical examination, including the bedside assessment of visual fields. High-quality MRI imaging is essential, and formal visual field testing should be obtained in patients where the lesion abuts or compresses the optic apparatus. The initial biochemical workup is intended to assess potential pituitary hypo- or hyperfunction and should include measurement of serum levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor type-1, free thyroxine, testosterone, and an assessment of axis hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function. Additional testing may include serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels. Neurologically-asymptomatic patients without endocrine dysfunction can be managed with observation at regular intervals, including MRI imaging at 6 months and 1 year and then annually for a period of 3 years. Follow-up biochemical assessment is not necessary in the absence of clinical symptoms or radiographic enlargement of the lesion. After 3 years the follow-up interval may be prolonged, although closer follow-up may be indicated for patients with lesions C1 cm. Most patients who either present with or who subsequently develop neurologic or endocrinologic symptoms should be considered for surgery as the first-line therapy.

  14. [Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Branko; Kostić, Vladimir; Sternić, Nadezda; Kolar, Jovo; Tasić, Nebojsa

    2003-01-01

    Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome was introduced into clinical practice in 1996 in order to describe unique syndrome, clinically expressed during hypertensive and uremic encephalopathy, eclampsia and during immunosuppressive therapy [1]. First clinical investigations showed that leucoencephalopathy is major characteristic of the syndrome, but further investigations showed no significant destruction in white cerebral tissue [2, 3, 4]. In majority of cases changes are localise in posterior irrigation area of the brain and in the most severe cases anterior region is also involved. Taking into consideration all above mentioned facts, the suggested term was Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) for the syndrome clinically expressed by neurological manifestations derived from cortical and subcortical changes localised in posterior regions of cerebral hemispheres, cerebral trunk and cerebellum [5]. Patient, aged 53 years, was re-hospitalized in Cardiovascular Institute "Dediwe" two months after successful aorto-coronary bypass performed in June 2001 due to the chest bone infection. During the treatment of the infection (according to the antibiogram) in September 2001, patient in evening hours developed headache and blurred vision. The recorded blood pressure was 210/120 mmHg so antihypertensive treatment was applied (Nifedipin and Furosemid). After this therapy there was no improvement and intensive headache with fatigue and loss of vision developed. Neurological examination revealed cortical blindness and left hemiparesis. Manitol (20%, 60 ccm every 3 hours) and i.v. Nytroglicerin (high blood pressure). Brain CT revealed oedema of parieto-occipital regions of both hemispheres, more emphasized on the right. (Figure 1a, b, c). There was no sign of focal ischemia even in deeper sections (Figure 1d, e, f). Following three days enormous high blood pressure values were registered. On the fourth day the significant clinical improvement occurred

  15. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  16. The HMG-box transcription factor Sox4b is required for pituitary expression of gata2a and specification of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yobhana; Lopez, Mauricio; Mavropoulos, Anastasia; Motte, Patrick; Martial, Joseph A; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Muller, Marc

    2012-06-01

    The pituitary is a complex gland comprising different cell types each secreting specific hormones. The extensive network of signaling molecules and transcription factors required for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types is still not fully understood. The SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) transcription factor Sox4 plays important roles in many developmental processes and has two homologs in zebrafish, Sox4a and Sox4b. We show that the sox4b gene is expressed in the pituitary anlagen starting at 24 h after fertilization (hpf) and later in the entire head region including the pituitary. At 48 hpf, sox4b mRNA colocalizes with that for TSH (tshβ), glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα), and the Zn finger transcription factor Gata2a. Loss of Sox4b function, using morpholino knockdown or expression of a dominant-negative Sox4 mutant, leads to a drastic decrease in tshβ and gsuα expression and reduced levels of gh, whereas other anterior pituitary gland markers including prl, slβ, pomc, and lim3 are not affected. Sox4b is also required for expression of gata2a in the pituitary. Knockdown of gata2a leads to decreased tshβ and gsuα expression at 48 hpf, similar to sox4b morphants. Injection of gata2a mRNA into sox4b morphants rescued tshβ and gsuα expression in thyrotrope cells. Finally, sox4b or gata2a knockdown causes a significant decrease of gonadotropin expression (lhβ and fshβ) at 4 d after fertilization. In summary, our results indicate that Sox4b is expressed in zebrafish during pituitary development and plays a crucial role in the differentiation of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells through induction of gata2a expression in the developing pituitary.

  17. The Simplified Posterior Interosseous Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Thione, Alessandro; Rubí, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Several technical modifications have been described to avoid complications and simplify dissection. The authors describe some technical tips that make posterior interosseous flap dissection safer and more straightforward.

  18. Adipose tissue and adrenal glands: novel pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Atil Y; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or "adipokines" have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of "cross talk" between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.

  19. The Polymorphism of Pituitary Factor 1 (POU1F1 in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Crina Carsai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of mammary gland is mainly controlled by growth hormone and prolactin, twoprotein hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Their synthesis is under regulatory influence of pituitaryfactor 1 (PIT1 or POU1F1, a protein factor produced in hypothalamic nuclei. In cattle, it was shown that a HinfIpolymorphism located in exon 6 of PIT1 gene may have significant influence on milk quantity. In particular A allelewas associated with a higher milk yield and could be a valuable genetic marker for improving milk quantity in cattle.In an effort to better understand the possible influence of this polymorphism on mammary gland development andfunction in cattle, we have studied the frequency this polymorphism in Romanian Black and White breed, a highmilk production cattle breed versus Romanian Grey Steppe breed, a primitive breed with very low milk production.In both breeds the frequency of B allele is much higher as compared with the frequency of A allele. The study ofPIT1 polymorphism in Romanian cattle breeds is a part of a more complex study targeting several key genesinvolved in mammary gland function.

  20. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  1. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  2. What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop pituitary hormone deficiencies after surgery or radiation therapy. These people will need hormone replacement. Thyroid hormone and adrenal steroids can be taken as pills. In men, testosterone can be given to restore sex drive and ...

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  4. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  6. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers.

  7. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  8. Intrasellar tuberculoma presenting as pituitary apoplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of apoplectic symptoms and a sellar mass most often points to a diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. Sellar tuberculomas are not considered as a cause of ′pituitary apoplexy′ and there has been no radiological documentation of haemorrhage associated with them. We report a 27 years old man who presented with 3 previous episodes of pituitary apoplexy. CT scan showed evidence of a sellar mass with haemorrhage. Transsphenoidal biopsy of the intrasellar mass was reported as ′tuberculoma′. The patient had marked reduction in the size of the lesion following antituberculous therapy with no recurrence of symptoms. Intrasellar tuberculomas must be considered as one of the differential diagnosis when patients present with a pituitary apoplexy.

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  10. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Bmsage PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN SILK GLAND GENERATION IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hu-hu; Zhang, Deng-pan; Chen, Rui-ting; Cai, Zi-zheng; Lu, Yan; Liang, Shuang; Miao, Yun-gen

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland-specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor-1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome-editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off-target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2- or 9-bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open-reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland.

  11. Diagnostic criteria in invasive pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ioana-Maria

    20