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Sample records for pittsburg-midway solvent refined coal process

  1. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  2. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  3. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  4. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  5. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  6. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  7. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  8. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  9. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  10. Effect of process distillation on mutagenicity and cell-transformation activity of solvent-refined, coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Frazier, M.E.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-05-01

    Blended SRC-II process streams, representing a full boiling range distillate material, were fractionally distilled into non-overlapping 50 F cuts with bp between 300 and 850 C and another set with bp ranging between 138 and 1055 F. Distillate cuts were assayed for mutagenic activity using the histidine reversion assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, as well as for mammalian-cell transformation (mct) activity in the Syrian hamster embryo test, and DNA damage in the prophage induction assay (pia). Samples were also separated into chemical class fractions by alumina column chromatography and analysed by high resolution gas chromatography. In the met and microbial mutagenicity assays, significant activity was found almost exclusively in cuts with bp> above 700 F, with the highest activity in the mct assay observed for cuts above 800 F. All of the cuts showed increased levels of DNA damage as expressed by lambda pia in Escherichia coli 8177. However, the greatest activity was associated with cuts with bp in the 800 F+ range. Chemical analysis of the 50 F cuts showed a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and amino-PAH compounds to be present in the cuts with bp> above 700 F and essentially absent from cuts with bp< 700 F. The sample set of non-overlapping (50 F) cuts were reblended according to the proportions of each cut found in the original blend material. These reblended composites were then assayed to compare their activity with that predicted from the activities of the component cuts. The results indicated the microbial mutagenicity response was essentially additive. Met activities were non-additive, indicating a compositional effect on the expression of transforming agents in the complex mixture. 18 references.

  11. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  12. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run

  13. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 30. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. The fate of trace elements in the SRC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.R.

    1980-02-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study the distribution and fate of up to 36 elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process Pilot Plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington. The elements Ti, V, Mg, Ca, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Br, Na, K, Sm, La, Ga, Cu, Sb, Se, Hg, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Cs, Sc, Tb, Eu, Ce, Sr, Ba, Th, U, Hf, Ta, Zr and Zn were measured in feed coal, insoluble residues, process solvent, process and effluent waters, by-product sulfur, SRC-I solid product, liquid-liquid separator oils and SRC-II liquid products. The material balance was calculated for each element from the concentration data and yields of each process fraction for both the SRC-I and SRC-II processes. Except for Ti, Cl and Br in the SRC-I mode and Hg in the SRC-II mode, each element was substantially lower in the SRC products than in the original feed coal. Residues from the process contained more than 80% of the trace element content found in the coal, except for Hg. More than 98.5% of the total contents of K and Fe in coal were retained in the insoluble residues. Elements such as Hg, Se, As and Sb can form volatile compounds (such as Hg 0 , H 2 Se, AsH 3 and SbH 3 ) stable under the process conditions. The high enhancement factors of Se (957), As (202) and Sb (27.4) in the aqueous phase of the separator water compared to that of the oil are evidence for the formation of volatile species which are more soluble in water than in the oil phase

  14. Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

  15. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix B. Assessment of status of technology for solvent refining of coal. 1977 technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report reviews the technology and environmental impacts of the solvent refined coal process to produce clean solid fuel (SRC-I). Information on SRC-I pilot plant operation, process design, and economics is presented. A bibliography of current available literature in this technology area, divided into fourteen categories with abstracts of the references, is appended. The history, current operations, and future plans for the SRC pilot plants at Fort Lewis and Wilsonville are reviewed. Process data generated at these pilot plants for various coals are used as a basis for a conceptual commercial plant design with a capacity to process 20,000 tons per day (TPD) of prepared coal. Block flow diagrams, material balances, an energy balance, and a list of raw materials for the plant are also provided. Capital cost estimates for a 20,000 TPD coal feed plant derived from four prior economic studies range from $706 million to $1093 million in 1976 dollars. The annual net operating cost is estimated at $238.6 million (1976 dollars) and the average product cost at $2.71/MM Btu based on utility financing (equity 25:debt 75) with $25/ton as the delivered price of the dry coal. The report also discusses special technical considerations associated with some of the process operations and major equipment items and enumerates technical risks associated with the commercialization of the SRC-I process.

  16. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  17. Basic investigations to improve the refinement process of coal. Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur Erhoehung des Veredlungsverhaltens von Kohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, H; Naundorf, W; Trommer, D

    1985-01-01

    In the four articles in this issue, variants of the process for the effective use and improved refinement of brown coal are described. There are reports on the manufacture of special briquettes from briquette coal slack and on the briquetting behaviour of dry brown coal dust and the briquetting and coking behaviour of hard foreign brown coal containing a lot of ash. The four articles are dealt with separately. With 52 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.

    1996-01-01

    The yellow cake refining was studied in both laboratory and semi-pilot scales. The process units mainly consist of dissolution and filtration, solvent extraction, and precipitation and filtration. Effect of flow ratio (organic flow rate/ aqueous flow rate) on working efficiencies of solvent extraction process was studied. Detailed studies were carried out on extraction, scrubbing and stripping processes. Purity of yellow cake product obtained is high as 90.32% U 3 O 8

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  20. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  7. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  8. Research on mechanism of and catalysts for extraction liquefaction of coal using coal-based solvents; Sekitankei yozai ni yoru sekitan no chushutsu ekika kiko to shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    Papers of Professor Yoshio Kamiya of Tokyo University are compiled into this report. The list of the papers includes (1) Synthesis of heavy fuel oils from coal; (2) Research and development of coal liquefaction; (3) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (I); (4) Effect of hydrogen-donor solvent on the liquefaction of coal; (5) Recent studies on the chemical structure of solvent refined coal; (6) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (II); (7) Future of coal as energy material; (8), (9), (10) same as (6) in the subject discussed; (11) Recent studies on coal liquefaction catalysts; (12) Environmental problems and drain treatment to accompany processes of converting fossil resources into fuels; (13) Chemistry of coal oxidation; (14) Fractionation and analysis of solvent refined coal by gel permeation chromatography; (15) Current state of research and development of coal liquefaction; (16) Properties and components of coal oils from coal liquefaction processes under development; (17) Solvent effect of coal derived aromatic compounds on the liquefaction of Akabira coal; (18) Chemistry of coal liquefaction; (19) Research and development of coal liquefaction in the U.S.; (20) Thermal treatment of coal-related aromatic ethers in tetralin solution; (21) Recent technology of utilizing heavy carbon resources; (22) Chemical properties and reactivity of coal; (23) Current state and future of development of coal liquefaction processes; and (24) Development of overseas coal liquefaction projects. (NEDO)

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  10. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process: trace elements research and development report no. 53, interim report no. 34. Volume III. Pilot plant development work part 6: the fate of trace elements in the SRC process for the period, August 1, 1977 - February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, R.H.; Khalil, S.R.; Grimm, C.A.; Ekabaram, V.; Hunt, M.L.

    1980-12-01

    This work reports the results of neutron activation analysis determination of the fate of trace elements in the SRC II process. Six coals were studied for their behavior in material balance runs carried out at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant. The distribution of trace elements among products and input streams was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis using thermal neutron flux of 8 x 10 12 neutrons cm -2 sec -1 followed by Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy. National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (SRM) were used to evaluate the analytical precision and accuracy of the methods used. For each material balance study the trace element input stream was taken as ground coal and the output streams were vacuum bottoms, SRC II product oil, and process water. In addition to these major components, oils, sludges and waters from liquid-liquid separators, effluent waters, biosludges, and by-product sulfur were also analyzed. Concerning the distribution of trace elements in the SRC II process, it was found that the vacuum bottoms was the major sink for all trace element studied, with the exception of Hg. Much lower trace element concentrations (except for Hg) were found in the SRC II product oil relative to the vacuum bottoms or the feed coal, irrespective of coal type. The results indicate excellent balances for the elements studied, except for Hg. Except for Hg, Se, and C1, the SRC II product and process waters contributed less than 1% of the elemental balances for light oil fractions and process waters indicates that Hg, and to a lesser degree As, Se, and Sb, exhibited volatile behavior in the SRC II process but that the degree of volatility is strongly dependent on conditions or coal type

  11. Process to refine flyash captured from pulverized coal fired boilers and auxiliary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowy, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a separating and refining process for particulate that has been removed from the exhaust gases of an organic fuel combustion process. It includes determining relative sizes of carbon rich and carbon lean particles that are found in the exhaust gases for the combustion process; supplying the particulate matter from the exhaust of the combustion process; providing a means for conveying the particulate matter between the following steps; separating, by size, coarse and fine particles in the exhaust particulate so as to yield carbon rich and carbon lean fractions

  12. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  13. Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Y. T.; Stiegel, G. J.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1981-02-01

    Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur besides having a high aromatic and metals content. It is therefore envisaged that modifications to existing petroleum refining technology will be necessary in order to economically upgrade coal liquids. In this review, compositional data for various coal liquids are presented and compared with those for petroleum fuels. Studies reported on the stability of coal liquids are discussed. The feasibility of processing blends of coal liquids with petroleum feedstocks in existing refineries is evaluated. The chemistry of hydroprocessing is discussed through kinetic and mechanistic studies using compounds which are commonly detected in coal liquids. The pros and cons of using conventional petroleum refining catalysts for upgrading coal liquids are discussed.

  14. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  15. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  16. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  17. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  18. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  19. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  1. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  2. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  3. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  4. Manufacturing of ashless coal by using solvent de-ashing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Do Kim; Kwang-Jae Woo; Soon-Kwan Jeong; Young-Jun Rhim; Si-Huyn Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Maintenance of a high oil value has an influence to energy crisis and national security in South Korea which does not have energy resources. The coals which have characterized by the abundant reserves and the inexpensive price can be said to be the alternative energy source. Hyper-coal process, which has been developed in Japan since 1999, is a new effective process to produce a clean coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. When coal is extracted with organic solvent, only the organic portion of coal is dissolved in the solvents. That is possible to apply the low rank coal. This study was performed to produce ashless coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. The experiment was conducted in the batch(or semi-batch) type reactor with two solvents such as NMP(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and 1-MN(1-methylnaphthalene) and various coals such as Kideko coal, Roto South coal and Sunhwa coal at 200-400{sup o}C. As a result of the test, extraction yield of coals was more than 60% on daf. Ash concentration which contains the extracted coal was 0.11-1.0wt%. The heat value was increased from 5,400 kcal/kg to 7,920 kcal/kg in the Roto South coal. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a non swelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration is measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method had also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 mn). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  6. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  7. Studies of materials found in products and wastes from coal-conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have been investigating materials from synthetic fossil-fuel processes. During this past year, solids from the Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant and samples from the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-II mode) have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. Observations on these samples are summarized

  8. Characterization of substances in products, effluents, and wastes from coal conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are investigating materials from synthetic fossil fuel processes. During the past year, samples have been collected from the Solvent Refining Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-I mode), Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant, Eyring Research Institute Gasifier, and Hanna III In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment. Inorganic and organic analyses have been performed, and comparisons of the data show some important differences in the potential emissions

  9. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David S.; Blessing, James E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  10. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  11. Purex process solvent: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables

  12. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1994-04-01

    The conversion of coal by an economically feasible catalytic method requires the catalyst to diffuse into the coal sample so that hydrogenation catalysis can occur from within as well as the normal surface catalysis. Thus an estimate of the size, shape, and reactivity, of the pores in the coal before and after the swelling with different solvents is needed so that an optimum sized catalyst will be used. This study characterizes the accessible area found in Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) using a EPR spin probe technique. The properties deduced in this manner correlate well with the findings deduced from SANS, NMR, SEM, SAXS and light scattering measurements. The use of nitroxide spin probes with swelling solvents is a simple way in which to gain an understanding of the pore structure of coals, how it changes in the presence of swelling solvents and the chemistry that occurs at the pore wall. Hydrogen bonding sites occur primarily in low-rank coals and vary in reactive strength as rank is varied. Unswelled coals contain small, spherical pores which disappear when coal is swelled in the presence of polar solvents. Swelling studies of polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymers implied that coal is polymeric, contains significant quantities of covalent cross-links and the covalent cross-link density increases with rank.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Conceptual designs for coal liquefaction pilot plants - Solvent extraction liquefaction process); 1982 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika pilot plant no gainen sekkei (yozai chushutsu ekikaho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This research aims to prepare conceptual designs for a 250t/d-class and 500t/d-class coal liquefaction pilot plants based on the achievement of research on solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. It also aims to define the solvent extraction process and provide decision-making material relative to the development and promotion of coal liquefaction technologies in the future. Development started in 1978 of the technology of solvent extraction liquefaction of coal, and a 1t/d PDU (process development unit) was completed in 1981. Studies through its operation have continued for more than 3000 hours already, and technical data are being accumulated steadily. Techniques acquired through operating the 1t/d PDU have been put together, and rough process conditions are established. A rough process result is achieved of the same conditions. In these two respects, the newly developed process is equal to other processes. The phenomena in this process are roughly grasped. It is deemed that, with the existing technique combined with the technique acquired here, a technological level has been reached where conceptual designs of large pilot plants may be worked out for solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. Under the circumstances, with a view to developing a commercial plant whose main products will be fuel oils, conceptual designs are prepared for large pilot plants, and are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  14. Alkali-assisted coal extraction with polar aprotic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, M.H.; Moitsheki, L.J.; Shoko, L.; Kgobane, B.L.; Morgan, D.L.; Focke, W.W. [SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2009-04-15

    Coal extraction experiments were conducted using a coal, containing ca. 10% ash, from the Tshikondeni mine in South Africa. This coal dissolves only to a limited extent in pure polar aprotic solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). However, the addition of a strong base, e.g. sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or sodium tert-butoxide increased the degree of coal dissolution in these organic solvents. Depending on the extraction conditions, carbon extraction efficiencies of up to 90% were obtained. Carbon precursor material was recovered from the solution as a gel by precipitation with water. Ash content was reduced from 10% in the coal to less than 1.6% in the coal extracts. Sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) addition further reduced ash content and aided the recovery of carbon precursors that led to graphitizable cokes but the degree of extraction was significantly reduced. (author)

  15. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Substitute Energy Carriers from Refinement of Coal using HTR-Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, Heiko; Kugeler, Kurt; Will, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is a revival of coal refinement in the world: a recent press article in Germany titled “The Renaissance of Coal Refinement”. It reports about a large number of conventional plans and plants for coal refinement in many countries in the world, and in particular in China. Nuclear energy can be of assistance, in particular the High Temperature Reactor-Module, because it offers all needed process energies. The status of the research, development, and demonstration, RDD, of technology is summarized, in particular of the former programs in Germany: The primary energy carriers were hard coal and lignite. The envisaged products were: Substitute Natural Gas, SNG, for the gas market, Hydrogen, H2, for a future H2-market, e.g. for airplane traffic, Liquid Fuels, as Substitute Gasoline, or as Energy Alcohol, e.g. Methanol CH3OH, in mixture with higher alcohols, for the car traffic and for home heating. (author)

  17. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  18. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  20. Refinement of NMR structures using implicit solvent and advanced sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhan; Im, Wonpil; Brooks, Charles L

    2004-12-15

    force field and then refines these structures with implicit solvent using the REX method. We systematically examine the reliability and efficacy of this protocol using four proteins of various sizes ranging from the 56-residue B1 domain of Streptococcal protein G to the 370-residue Maltose-binding protein. Significant improvement in the structures was observed in all cases when refinement was based on low-redundancy restraint data. The proposed protocol is anticipated to be particularly useful in early stages of NMR structure determination where a reliable estimate of the native fold from limited data can significantly expedite the overall process. This refinement procedure is also expected to be useful when redundant experimental data are not readily available, such as for large multidomain biomolecules and in solid-state NMR structure determination.

  1. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  2. Process for refining naphthalene, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroff, G

    1922-05-13

    A process is described for the refining of naphthalene, its distillates, and mineral oils by the use of dilute sulfuric acid, characterized in that the oils are oxidized with oxygen of the air and thereafter are treated with 65 to 75 percent sulfuric acid to separate the unsaturated hydrocarbons in the form of polymerized products whereby, if necessary, heating and application of usual or higher pressure can take place.

  3. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  4. Analysis of solvent extracts from coal liquefaction in a flowing solvent reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Ke-Chang [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, No. 79 Yingze West Street, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Kandiyoti, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College, University of London, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-15

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents, tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) at two temperatures 350 and 450 C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. The three solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilise free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. The extracts were prepared in a flowing solvent reactor to minimise secondary thermal degradation of the primary extracts. Analysis of the pentane-insoluble fractions of the extracts was achieved by size exclusion chromatography, UV-fluorescence spectroscopy in NMP solvent and probe mass. With increasing extraction temperature, the ratio of the amount having big molecular weight to that having small molecular weight in tetralin extracts was increased; the tetralin extract yield increased from 12.8% to 75.9%; in quinoline, increasing extraction temperature did not have an effect on the molecular weight of products but there was a big increase in extract yield. The extracts in NMP showed the enhanced solvent extraction power at both temperatures, with a shift in the ratio of larger molecules to smaller molecules with increasing extraction temperature and with the highest conversion of Point of Ayr coal among these three solvents at both temperatures. Solvent adducts were detected in the tetralin and quinoline extracts by probe mass spectrometry; solvent products were formed from NMP at both temperatures.

  5. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of 1 T/D test plant, and researches on the solvent-extraction type liquefaction process); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishing the techniques for solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction plant by constructing and operating a 1 T/D test plant to obtain the technical data for the efficient plant. The test plant is operated to confirm the effects of temperature and coal slurry concentration on liquefaction conversion by the solvent-extraction for a short time in the furnace for the extraction unit. The extraction type coal liquefaction tests can be conducted for a reaction time of around 1 hour by the test plant. The recycled solvent purification unit is installed, to regenerate the hydrogen donor solvent. For researches on the solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction process, the continuous extraction is conducted, to investigate the effects of extraction reaction rate at relatively low pressure. The optimum hydrogenation conditions are studied for the test plant. It is confirmed that a Mo-based catalyst is suitable for the hydrogenation. The batch type reaction system is operated to investigate the liquid yield of Wandoan coal, and recycled solvent balances and compositions. (NEDO)

  6. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  7. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  8. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  9. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  10. Flash pyrolysis of coal-solvent slurry prepared from the oxidized coal and the coal dissolved in solvent; Ichibu yokaishita sanka kaishitsutan slurry no jinsoku netsubunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, T.; Mae, K.; Okutsu, H.; Miura, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In order to develop a high-efficiency coal pyrolysis method, flash pyrolysis was experimented on slurry prepared by using liquid-phase oxidation reformed coal and a methanol-based solvent mixture. Australian Morwell coal was used for the experiment. The oxidized coal, into which carboxyl groups have been introduced, has the condensation structure relaxed largely, and becomes highly fluid slurry by means of the solvent. Char production can be suppressed by making the oxidation-pretreated coal into slurry, resulting in drastically improved pyrolytic conversion. The slurry was divided into dissolved solution, dried substance, extracted residue, and residual slurry, which were pyrolized independently. The dissolved solution showed very high conversion. Improvement in the conversion is contributed by separating the dissolved substances (coal macromolecules) at molecular levels, coagulating the molecules, suppressing cross-link formation, and reducing molecular weight of the dissolved substances. Oxidized coal can be dissolved to 80% or higher by using several kinds of mixed solvents. As a result of the dissolution, a possibility was suggested on pyrolysis which is easy in handling and high in conversion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    An EPR technique developed in this lab is being used to determine the pore size and number distribution changes after swelling the coal samples with various solvents. Stable nitroxide radical spin probes of different sizes, shapes and reactivity are dissolved in an appropriate solvent, the coal sample is added to the resulting solution, stirred over night at elevated temperature, filtered, washed with a non swelling solvent to eliminate any spin probes that are not trapped in the pores and the spin concentration is measured. Comparing these spin probe measurements to DRIFT data have shown that the relative number distribution of acidic functionalities can be accurately predicted by the spin probe method. The spin probe method had also been used to predict the increase in elongated voids in Pittsburgh No. 8 (APCS No. 4) upon swelling with pyridine in agreement with independent SANS data. NMR relaxation data show that it is possible to deduce the pore (accessibility) distribution as a function of size (up to 6 mn). It has also been possible by variable temperature and ENDOR measurements to determine the presence of hydrogen bonding as a function of pore shape and size. The advantage of the EPR method is that it permits molecules of selected shape and size to be used as probes of accessible regions of coal, thus providing information on the importance of molecular shape.

  12. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference...... in pharmaceutical processes as well as new solvent swap alternatives. The method takes into account process considerations such as batch distillation and crystallization to achieve the swap task. Rigorous model based simulations of the swap operation are performed to evaluate and compare the performance...

  13. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  14. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.Y.; Feng, J.; Xie, K.C.; Kandiyoti, R. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350 {sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  15. Analysis of recovered solvents from coal liquefaction in a flowing-solvent reactor by SEC and UV-fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Ying Li; Jie Feng; Ke-Chang Xie; R. Kandiyoti [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology for Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province

    2005-08-01

    Point of Ayr coal has been extracted using three solvents: tetralin, quinoline and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP); at two temperatures: 350{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C, corresponding approximately to before and after the onset of massive covalent bond scission by pyrolysis. These solvents differ in solvent power and the ability to donate hydrogen atoms to stabilize free radicals produced by pyrolysis of the coal. Analysis of the fresh solvents and recovered solvents from coal liquefaction was achieved by size exclusion chromatography and UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. In the blank run, it was testified that the filling material sand and the steel powder did not react with solvent with increasing reaction temperature. The role of hydrogen donation in the tetralin extracts was to increase the proportion of large molecules with increasing extraction temperature. Quinoline and NMP both have the powerful extracting capability to get more materials out of coal with increasing extraction temperature.

  16. Improvement of hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) in co-refining of coal-derived liquid and petroleum fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, M.; Ono, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1997-09-01

    The improvement in hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of coal-derived liquids by co-refining with a petroleum fraction results principally from lowering the nitrogen content of the feedstock (coal-derived liquid) by blending with a nitrogen-free petroleum fraction. Effects of different fractions of coal-derived liquids on HDN and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) were also examined. The HDN improvement by co-refining could be interpreted in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  18. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  19. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  20. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-02-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  1. Literature survey of properties of synfuels derived from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T. W.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Clark, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A literature survey of the properties of synfuels for ground-based gas turbine applications is presented. Four major concepts for converting coal into liquid fuels are described: solvent extraction, catalytic liquefaction, pyrolysis, and indirect liquefaction. Data on full range syncrudes, various distillate cuts, and upgraded products are presented for fuels derived from various processes, including H-coal, synthoil, solvent-refined coal, donor solvent, zinc chloride hydrocracking, co-steam, and flash pyrolysis. Some typical ranges of data for coal-derived low Btu gases are also presented.

  2. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  5. A new concept for product refining in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Bauder, U.; Marquardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    In actual Purex plants the products are refined in additional solvent extraction cycles. Crystallization of uranyl and plutonyl nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solution is proposed as a potentially simpler product refining concept. Suitable crystallization conditions are being investigated in the laboratory using simulated and actual process solutions. A thorough removal of mother liquor is an essential purification step and well washed crystals usually contain less than 1% of an individual impurity. Crystallization simultaneously comprises a product concentration step. Hexavalent uranium can be separated from lower-valent plutonium. An outline of an integrated processing concept is given. Product refining by crystallization is compact; recycling of mother liquor plus wash acid prevents product loss and the generation of additional waste streams. (orig.) [de

  6. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  7. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  8. 1991 worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book ia an authority for immediate information on the industry. You can use it to find new business, analyze market trends, and to stay in touch with existing contacts while making new ones. The possibilities for business applications are numerous. Arranged by country, all listings in the directory include address, phone, fax and telex numbers, a description of the company's activities, names of key personnel and their titles, corporate headquarters, branch offices and plant sites. This newly revised edition lists more than 2000 companies and nearly 3000 branch offices and plant locations. This east-to-use reference also includes several of the most vital and informative surveys of the industry, including the U.S. Refining Survey, the Worldwide Construction Survey in Refining, Sulfur, Gas Processing and Related Fuels, the Worldwide Refining and Gas Processing Survey, the Worldwide Catalyst Report, and the U.S. and Canadian Lube and Wax Capacities Report from the National Petroleum Refiner's Association

  9. Bitumen performance and chemistry in solvent refined bitumen blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Glynn; Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    In years gone past most oil companies in Australia and New Zealand (NZ) developed experts that bridged the divide between refining and paving. This was supported by laboratories in Australia and sometimes Asia. This is no longer the case and many refineries have ceased bitumen production or closed. With the market moving towards imports and control to supply companies disconnects on bitumen passing a national specification and performance on the road. This reduces both durability and increases costs. This has been addressed by development in NZ of a performance specification for hot mix asphalt binders (including modified) and work being done on sealing grades. This paper discusses the development of the HMA specification with respect to crude sources and the development of methodologies to assess imported binders for suitability in all applications including emulsion. The conclusion is that bitumen quality may be maintained by use of these methodologies that include, chromatographic analysis, measurement of thermodynamic internal stability (Heithaus), aging, and Dynamic Shear Rheometry testing and mix performance testing in the laboratory. This forms a regime capable of use in any context and this leads to better durability of surfaces and extended service life.

  10. Restoring solvent for nuclear separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction separation processes are used to recover usable nuclear materials from spent fuels. These processes involve the use of an extractant/diluent (solvent) for separation of the reusable actinides from unwanted fission products. The most widely used processes employ tributyl phosphate as an extractant diluted with a normal-paraffin hydrocarbon. During use, the solvent is altered due to hydrolysis and radiolysis, forming materials that influence product losses, product decontamination, and separation efficiencies. In most processes, the solvent is recycled after cleaning. Solvent cleaning generally involves scrubbing with a sodium carbonate solution. Studies at the Savannah River Laboratory have shown that carbonate washing, although removing residual solvent activity, does not remove more solvent-soluble binding ligands (formed by solvent degradation), which hold fission products in the solvent. Treatment of the solvent with a solid adsorbent after carbonate washing removes binding ligands and significantly improves recycled solvent performance. Laboratory work to establish the advantage of adsorbent cleaning and the development of a full-scale adsorption process is described. The application of this process for cleaning the first cycle solvent of a Savannah River Plant production process is discussed

  11. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  14. Sustainable development of gree solvent separation process

    OpenAIRE

    Lisickov, Kiril; Fidancevska, Emilija; Grujic, Radoslav; Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Kuvendziev, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Solvents defi ne a major part of the environmental performance of processes in the chemical industry and impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of green solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production. In spite of conventional separation methods, precise process green technologies are based on the application of modern processes and process equipment as well as control and management...

  15. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  16. Process for agglomerating fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, L J; Misbach, P

    1976-06-24

    The invention concerns a process for agglomerating black coal in mud or powder form in the presence of a mineral oil product dispersed in water. During this process, the nutty slack is added to a portion - approximately 5 - 15% of its weight in the case of anhydrous coal - of a bitumen emulsion and thoroughly mixed. The emulsion should contain mineral oil bitumen with a penetration value 25/sup 0/ less than 5, or a Conradson value of over 35. In a further finishing process the emulsion contains alkaline naphthenate.

  17. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein; William H. Calkins; Jasna Tomic

    2000-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of the roles of a solid catalyst and the solvent in Direct Coal Liquefaction, a small reactor was equipped with a porous-walled basket which was permeable to the solvent but was not permeable to the coal or solid catalyst. With this equipment and a high volatile bituminous coal it was found that direct contact between the catalyst in the basket and the coal outside the basket is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. The character of the solvent in this system makes a significant difference in the conversion of the coal, the better solvents being strong donor solvents. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory, it was noted that the peak temperature for volatiles evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a variety of coals of a range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatiles evolution was a quite precise indicator of rank and correlated closely with the rank value obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile material evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amounts of alkene and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolytic products and not volatilization products of the coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with Thermogravimetric-photoionization-mass spectrometry (TG-PI-MS) indicated that the low boiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight

  18. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  19. Development of process simulation code for reprocessing plant and process analysis for solvent degradation and solvent washing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Keiki

    1999-01-01

    We developed a process simulation code for an entire nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The code can be used on a PC. Almost all of the equipment in the reprocessing plant is included in the code and the mass balance model of each item of equipment is based on the distribution factors of flow-out streams. All models are connected between the outlet flow and the inlet flow according to the process flow sheet. We estimated the amount of DBP from TBP degradation in the entire process by using the developed code. Most of the DBP is generated in the Pu refining process by the effect of α radiation from Pu, which is extracted in a solvent. On the other hand, very little of DBP is generated in the U refining process. We therefore propose simplification of the solvent washing process and volume reduction of the alkali washing waste in the U refining process. The first Japanese commercial reprocessing plant is currently under construction at Rokkasho Mura, Recently, for the sake of process simplification, the original process design has been changed. Using our code, we analyzed the original process and the simplified process. According our results, the volume of alkali waste solution in the low-level liquid treatment process will be reduced by half in the simplified process. (author)

  20. Report for fiscal 1981 of Sunshine Program coal group. Basic research on Solvolysis liquefaction technology; 1981 nendo solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Basic research is conducted on the Solvolysis liquefaction process for the purpose of producing from coal an ashless, low-sulfur, pollution-free liquid fuel. In the research on the Solvolysis liquefaction (1st stage liquefaction) of coal using a hydrogenation solvent, the Solvolysis liquefaction of coal is studied, for which a refined Solvolysis pitch containing coal substances and a hydride of solvent refined coal are used as Solvolysis liquefaction solvents for the 1st stage. In the research on the 1st stage liquefaction reaction conditions using a high-temperature closed process, two methods are employed. One is a method that uses a mini-pump type reactor in which a small hermetic container is submerged in a high-temperature solvent for rapid heating and the other is a method that uses a pipe type reactor in which coal slurry is caused to travel through a pipe heated to a high temperature. For the analysis of the 2nd stage liquefaction (hydrogenation) reaction conditions, the properties of the 2nd coal liquid, and the constitution of the 2nd coal liquid, and the for the research on the 1st stage liquefaction capacity, the hydrogenation of anthracene oil and solvent refined coal as recyclable solvent models is studied. (NEDO)

  1. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  2. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  3. Analysis of solvent dyes in refined petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Solvent dyes are used to color refined petroleum products to enable differentiation between gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. Analysis for these dyes in the hydrocarbon product is difficult due to their very low concentrations in such a complex matrix. Flow injection analysis/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in both negative and positive mode was used to optimize ionization of ten typical solvent dyes. Samples of hydrocarbon product were analyzed under similar conditions. Positive electrospray ionization produced very complex spectra, which were not suitably specific for targeting only the dyes. Negative electrospray ionization produced simple spectra because aliphatic and aromatic moieties were not ionized. This enabled screening for a target dye in samples of hydrocarbon product from a spill.

  4. Interaction of organic solvent with a subbituminous coal below pyrolysis temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.; Grens, E.A.

    1978-06-01

    The interactions of a subbituminous coal with certain binary organic solvent mixtures have been studied at 250/sup 0/C. Mixtures of pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, tetrahydroquinoline, and ethylenediamine with either toluene or tetralin were contacted with coal in a successive batch, stirred reactor, the extractions being carried to near completion. Two distinct behaviors of extraction yield as a function of composition have been identified. In the majority of the solvent mixtures the extraction yield increases linearly with increasing concentration of the more active solvent. When the active solvent is ethylenediamine, however, the extraction yield increases rapidly when small concentrations of ethylenediamine are used but then levels out close to its maximum value in a 50 to 50 mix. This behavior is an indication that, except in the case of ethylenediamine, the activity of solvent mixtures is a function of bulk solution properties.

  5. The effect of solvent swelling for the production of ashless coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylin Kurman; Sultan Giray; Ozgur Sonmez [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Department, Art& Science Faculty

    2005-07-01

    Two Turkish coal (a bituminous and a brown coal) were extracted with NMP-CS2 (1:1 v/v) and NMP-EDA (1:17, v/v) at room conditions and with NMP and NMP/EDA under reflux. To obtain any effect of solvent swelling on extraction yield coals were also extracted at same conditions after swelling with NMP and EDA. The extraction yield was maximum in the NMP-CS2 mixed solvent for higher ranked coal, suggesting a synergistic effect of the system. It was possible to extract over 35 % of sub-bituminous coal by using NMP- CS2. The extraction of same coal with NMP under reflux gave an extraction yield of 33% suggesting the useful effect of solvent swelling and heat during the reflux period. A positive effect of pre-swelling with NMP and EDA on extraction yield and recovery of solid extracts were observed , especially for brown coal sample. Following the extraction, solid extracts were produced with less than 0.12 % in ash content for almost all extraction conditions.

  6. Structure determination of small molecular phase in coal by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J.; Wang, B.; Ye, C.; Li, W.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-04-01

    7 typical Chinese coal samples were extracted by NMP/CS{sub 2} system at around 90{degree}C by Soxhlet method. Compared with results from NMP, a higher coal extraction rate was acquired when NMP + CS{sub 2} solvent system was adopted. Except for anthracite extraction rate of about 20% was acquired, particularly 41% for long flame coal. By using the method of retention index of coal extracts analysis by HPLC, it is found that the polar part with less than six-carbon numbers in coal is the active site for coal reactivity, and the inert site belongs to the aromatic hydrocarbon derivation with 3 aromatic rings. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Processing of thermoplastic polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Venderbosch, R.W.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents offers an interesting and flexible route to extent the processing characteristics of thermoplastic polymers beyond their existing limits. This holds for both intractable and tractable polymers. The first mainly applies for amorphous high-Tg polymers where processing may

  10. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Quarterly report, [September--November, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-11-01

    This quarter, experiments were performed on the use of binary swelling solvents in molecular accessibility in coal conversion. These experiments consisted of accessibility measurements of spin probe VII (TEMPAMINE) in Toluene swelled Illinois No. 6 APCS coal. The toluene was spiked with amounts of pyridine which ranged in concentration from 500 ppm to 10%. The experiments were done in triplicate to gain information about the experimental error involved in the procedure. It was shown that oscillations occur in the concentration of spin probe retained as the amount of pyridine that is added to the swelling solvent is increased. These oscillations decrease in intensity as the concentration of pyridine in the solvent solution is increased up to 2% pyridine (0.2mLs pyridine in 10mLs toluene). From a 2% pyridine concentration to a 5% concentration, there is no significant change in the retention of spin probe VII. An increase in retention is observed when the concentration of pyridine is increased to 6% and 7% successively, followed by a large decrease at 8% and 9% pyridine. The largest changes in spin probe retention are observed for concentrations of pyridine less than 0.5%. A three fold increase in spin probe retention is observed upon the addition of 500 ppm pyridine in the toluene swelling solvent, which indicates that small amounts of a strong swelling solvent could be used to improve molecular accessibility 91% in coals swelled in an otherwise weak swelling solvent.

  11. Analysis of small molecular phase in coal involved in pyrolysis and solvent extraction by PGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Feng; Wen-Ying Li; Ke-Chang Xie [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology

    2004-06-01

    The small molecular phase, which strongly affects coal's reactivity, is the main part of the structure unit in coal. At present, its composition and structure features have not been clearly understood. In this paper, a flash pyrolysis technique with on-line GC (PGC) was used to investigate the properties of the small molecular phase from six kinds of rank coal in China. Experiments were divided into two parts: one is PGC of parent coal; another is PGC of coal extracts from NMP + CS{sub 2} (75:1) solvent extraction at 373 K. Results show that the small molecular phase mainly consists of C12-C16 compounds that could be integrally released when the heating rate was greater than 10 K/ms and the final pyrolysis temperature was 1373 K; other compounds may be the products of decomposition and polymerization from this small molecular phase during pyrolysis. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  13. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  14. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  15. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  16. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of three high volatile bituminous coals were subjected to parallel sets of extractions involving solvents dichloromethane (DCM), carbon disulfide (CS2), and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) (40 °C, 100 bar) to study processes affecting coal–solvent interactions. Recoveries of perdeuterated surrogate compounds, n-hexadecane-d34 and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), added as a spike prior to extraction, provided further insight into these processes. Soxhlet-DCM and Soxhlet-CS2 extractions yielded similar amounts of extractable organic matter (EOM) and distributions of individual hydrocarbons. Supercritical CO2 extractions (40 °C, 100 bar) yielded approximately an order of magnitude less EOM. Hydrocarbon distributions in supercritical CO2 extracts generally mimicked distributions from the other solvent extracts, albeit at lower concentrations. This disparity increased with increasing molecular weight of target hydrocarbons. Five- and six-ring ring PAHs generally were not detected and no asphaltenes were recovered in supercritical CO2 extractions conducted at 40 °C and 100 bar. Supercritical CO2 extraction at elevated temperature (115 °C) enhanced recovery of four-ring and five-ring PAHs, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and perdeuterated PAH surrogate compounds. These results are only partially explained through comparison with previous measurements of hydrocarbon solubility in supercritical CO2. Similarly, an evaluation of extraction results in conjunction with solubility theory (Hildebrand and Hansen solubility parameters) does not fully account for the hydrocarbon distributions observed among the solvent extracts. Coal composition (maceral content) did not appear to affect surrogate recovery during CS2 and DCM extractions but might affect supercritical CO2 extractions, which revealed substantive uptake (partitioning) of PAH surrogates into the coal samples. This uptake was greatest in the sample (IN-1) with the highest vitrinite content. These

  17. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  18. Steam coal processing technology: handling, high-order processing, COM, meth-coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, H.; Onodera, J.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: various handling techologies (overland and marine transport, storage, water removal, drying, comminution and sizing); various coal processing technologies (gravity concentration, magnetic separation, multi-stage flotation, liquid-phase pelletizing, chemical processing); production methods for coal-oil mixtures (COM), their physical properties, stability, storage, transport, advantages, plus recent trends in research and development; production of coal-methanol slurry (meth-coal), its stability, storage, transport, utilization and environmental problems, plus latest trends in research and development. (In Japanese)

  19. Structural elucidation, molecular representation and solvent interactions of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich South African coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Daniel

    The structural differences and similarities of two Permian-aged South African coals, vitrinite-rich Waterberg and inertinite-rich Highveld coals (similar rank, carbon content and Permian age), were evaluated. With South African coals the opportunity presented itself to study not only Permian-aged Gondwana vitrinite but also inertinite. It was expected that these coals would differ from Northern hemisphere Carboniferous coals. It was concluded from various structural data that both coals, although different in maceral composition and depositional basins, are similar in their base structural composition. The main differences were that the inertinite-rich Highveld coal was more ordered, more aromatic, and had less hydrogen than the vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal. Analytical data were used to construct large-scale advanced molecular representations for vitrinite-rich Waterberg and inertinite-rich Highveld coals. The three-dimensional models were structurally diverse with a molecular weight range of 78 to 1900 amu. The vitrinite-rich coal model consisted of 18,572 atoms and 191 individual molecules and the inertinite-rich coal model consisted of 14,242 atoms and 158 individual molecules. This largescale modeling effort was enabled by the development of various PERL scripts to automate various visualization and analytical aspects. Coal swelling studies were conducted using the traditional pack-bed swelling method and a new novel single-particle stop-motion videography swelling method with NMP and CS2/NMP solvents. The pack-bed swelling showed that vitrinite-rich coal had a greater swelling extent and that swelling extent for both coals was greater in CS2/NMP binary solvent than for NMP. Single-particle swelling experiments showed that both coals, for both solvents, exhibit overshoot-type and climbing-type swelling behaviors. Inertinite-coal had a faster swelling rate, in both solvents, than the vitrinite-rich coal. The single-particle swelling data was used to calculate

  20. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  1. Modern problems of deep processing of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, Z.R.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to modern problems of deep processing of coal. The history and development of new Institute of Coal Chemistry and Material Sciences of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science was described. The aims and purposes of new institute were discussed.

  2. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  3. Method of optimization of the natural gas refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Bagirov, A.A.; Mardakhayev, I.M.; Razamat, M.S.; Tagiyev, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The SATUM (automatic control system of technical operations) system introduced at the Shatlyk field should assure good quality of gas refining. In order to optimize the natural gas refining processes and experimental-analytical method is used in compiling the mathematical descriptions. The program, compiled in Fortran language, in addition to parameters of optimal conditions gives information on the yield of concentrate and water, concentration and consumption of DEG, composition and characteristics of the gas and condensate. The algorithm for calculating optimum engineering conditions of gas refining is proposed to be used in ''advice'' mode, and also for monitoring progress of the gas refining process.

  4. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  5. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  6. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  7. Development of upgraded brown coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, N.; Sugita, S.; Deguchi, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Makino, E. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Coal and Energy Project Department

    2004-07-01

    Half of the world's coal resources are so-called low rank coal (LRC) such as lignite, subbituminous coal. Utilization of such coal is limited due to low heat value and high propensity of spontaneous combustion. Since some of LRCs have advantages as clean coal, i.e. low ash and low sulfur content, LRC can be the excellent feedstock for power generation and metallurgy depending on the upgrading technology. The UBC (upgraded brown coal) process introduced here converts LRC to solid fuel with high heat value and less propensity of self-heating. Various world coals, such as Australian, Indonesian and USA LRC, were tested using the Autoclave and Bench Scale Unit, and the process application to LRC of wide range is proven. The R & D activities of the UBC process are introduced including a demonstration project with a 5 ton/day test plant in progress in Indonesia, expecting near future commercialisation in order to utilize abundant LRC of clean properties. 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  9. Report on 1979 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction technology (development of solvent treatment and liquefaction plant); 1979 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yozai shori ekika plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    A report was made on the result for fiscal 1979 of the development of a coal solvent treatment and liquefaction plant. With the purpose of establishing a technology of making equipment for a coal liquefaction plant by a solvent treatment method, R and D were conducted on a solid liquid separation method and on the construction and operation of an experimental equipment having a scale of the maximum 1 t/day coal processing, providing technical data for the construction of an efficient coal liquefaction equipment. In studying the operation of a centrifugal separator, it was run using heating solvent, dummy slurry and coal extraction slurry, with no abnormality found in each equipment and with knowledge obtained of the separation state of the solid. The machine is capable of obtaining SRC of 0.2-0.3% low ash contents. Water operation was performed for the extraction processing device (agitation tank, heating furnace, compression pump, circulation pump, etc.) of the 1 t/day experimental plant and, as a result, a relation was confirmed between a water flow rate and pressure loss of the piping part. The detailed design, manufacture and installation were completed for a part (pulverizer, solvent tank, feeding pump, etc.) of the equipment for the coal pre-processing slurry making process and the extraction process, with a trial run implemented for adjustment and confirmation of the operation. The cold/hot continuous trial run by a solvent smoothly proceeded, proving the performance to be the same as the specifications. (NEDO)

  10. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  11. Integrated report on the toxicological mitigation of coal liquids by hydrotreatment and other processes. [Petroleum and coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M.R.; Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.

    1986-06-01

    Research here on the toxicological properties of coal-derived liquids focuses on characterizing the refining process and refined products. Principle attention is given to the potential tumorigenicity of coal-derived fuels and to the identification of means to further reduce tumorigenicity should this be found necessary. Hydrotreatment is studied most extensively because it will be almost certainly required to produce commercial products and because it is likely to also greatly reduce tumorigenic activity relative to that of crude coal-liquid feedstocks. This report presents the results of a lifetime C3H mouse skin tumorigenicity assay of an H-Coal series of oils and considers the relationships between tumorigenicity, chemistry, and processing. Lifetime assay results are reported for an H-Coal syncrude mode light oil/heavy oil blend, a low severity hydrotreatment product, a high severity hydrotreatment product, a naphtha reformate, a heating oil, a petroleum-derived reformate, and a petroleum derived heating oil. Data are compared with those for an earlier study of an SRC-II blend and products of its hydrotreatment. Adequate data are presented to allow an independent qualitative assessment of the conclusions while statistical evaluation of the data is being completed. The report also documents the physical and chemical properties of the oils tested. 33 refs., 14 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  13. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  14. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed open-quotes cathode processingclose quotes. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process

  15. A new process of electron beam refining of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A review of thermodynamic equilibrium, the kinetic theory and experimental results of the metal-gas interaction in refractory metals is presented. N 2 , H 2 and CO absorption and desorption take place by a reversible process while O 2 takes place by a irreversible process with atom absorption and metal oxide desorption. A new technology of electron beam refining of Niobium is proposed based on four points: 1) preparation of the aluminothermic reduced electrode, 2) zone refining in the first melt, 3) kinetic theory of refining in the following melts and 4) design of a compact furnace. Experimental results in a pilot plant of 300 KW have shown complete agreement with the proposed technology yielding a productivity 2.4 times larger than the value predicted by the conventional technology of electron beam refining of Niobium. (Author) [pt

  16. Development of coal partial hydropyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideaki Yabe; Takafumi Kawamura; Kohichiroh Gotoh; Akemitsu Akimoto [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Coal partial hydropyrolysis process aims at co-production of high yield of light oil such as BTX and naphthalene and synthesis gas from a low rank coal under a mild hydropyrolysis condition. The characteristic of this process is in the two-staged entrained hydropyrolysis reactor composed of the reformer and gasifier. This reactor arrangement gives us high heat efficiency of this process. So far, in order to evaluate the process concept a small-scale basic experiment and a 1t/day process development unit study were carried out. The experimental results showed that coal volatiles were partially hydrogenated to increase the light oil and hydrocarbon gases at the condition of partial hydropyrolysis such as pressure of 2-3MPa, temperature of 700-900{sup o}C and hydrogen concentration of 30-50%. This process has a possibility of producing efficiently and economically liquid and gas products as chemicals and fuel for power generation. As a further development in the period of 2003 to 2008, a 20t/day pilot plant study named ECOPRO (efficient co-production with coal flash hydropyrolysis technology) has been started to establish the process technologies for commercialization. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on the extraction of coal in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Gaoqiang Wang [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2006-09-15

    The extraction of four Chinese different rank bituminous coals with the carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume) was carried out in room temperature. It was found that one of middle bituminous raw coal of the four coals gave more than 74% (daf) extraction yield, suggesting an associative structural model for the coal. The four coals were hydrothermal treated under different conditions, and it was found that the extraction yields of the treated coals obviously increased. This will have great significance for coal liquefaction. FTIR measurements show the removal of minerals after the hydrothermal treatment of coals suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to ionic interactions and/or hydrogen bonds broken because of the removal of oxygen and hydroxyl oxygen proceeded through ionic pathways, resulting in the extraction yields of the treated coals increase. However, breaking of {pi}-cation interactions by hydrothermal treatment may be one of possible mechanisms for the enhancement of extraction yield of higher rank of treated coal. The mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed in the paper. 28 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Characteristic parameters of the coal briquetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davkova, Katica

    1998-01-01

    The complete knowledge about the energetic sources in our country - Republic of Macedonia, point to the fact that coals are the most attractive and highly productive, still keeping the leadership position. However, the process of lignite exploitation causes their degradation and formation of large amount of fine fractions. The industrial valorization of these fractions is the most actual problem that could be solved only through production of made-up enriched fuels of wide spectrum of application. Thus, briquetting formation, with or without use of binds, is a process of mechanical or combined modification of coal fine fractions. At the same time, this is a possible procedure of solid fuels enrichment. Lignite from the Macedonian coal deposits 'Suvodol', 'Priskupshtina' and 'Brik-Berovo' is analyzed, in order to examine the possibilities of its briquetting. The results show that the 'Suvodol' lignite satisfy the quality requirements given with the MKS B H1.031 standard as well as the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite

  19. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  20. Performance of thermal solvent process in Athabasca reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Swapan [Marathon Oil (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, due to depletion of conventional resources and high demand operators are looking into heavy oil and bitumen production. Different recovery methods exist, some of them based on heating the reservoir and others on the use of solvent. Thermal solvent process is a combination of both: a small amount of heat is used to maintain a solvent vapor phase in the reservoir. This process has advantages, solvent is mostly recycled which increases bitumen recovery efficiency and reduces the need for fresh solvent, but it also poses challenges, such as maintaining a vapor chamber and the fact that solvent solubility might be affected by heating. The aim of this paper is to discuss these issues. Simulations and field tests were conducted on bitumen in the the Athabasca region. This paper presented a thermal solvent process and its application's results in Athabasca reservoir.

  1. Process for the gas extraction of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, D B

    1976-05-20

    The object of the invention is a process for the hydroextraction of coal is treated with water and carbon monoxide at a temperature in the region of 300 - 380/sup 0/C. After treatment is completed, the gases are separated from the treated gas; the treated coal is then extracted with an extraction medium during the gas phase at a temperature of at least 400/sup 0/C, the remainder is separated from the gas phase and the coal extract is obtained from the extraction medium. Hydrogenation is preferably carried out at a temperature in the region of 320 - 370/sup 0/C and at a pressure of 200 - 400 at. The time required for treatment with carbon monoxide and water is 1/4 - 2 hours, and in special cases 3/4 - 1 1/2 hours. The coal material itself is nutty slack, of which more than 95% of the coal particles pass through a 1.5 mm mesh sieve. After the hydrogenation the extraction is carried out at a temperature in the region of 400 - 450/sup 0/C. The patent claims relate to the types of extraction media used.

  2. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant was launched in fiscal 1991. It is necessary to execute the pilot plant plan steadily in the future, and at the same time, reliably acquire different data by means of supportive researches. Economic performance of the process is also important. The first sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant, tests and investigations thereon, research works by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, development of a coal pretreatment technology, improvement of the distilled oil distribution, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. The second sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the pilot plant, tests and investigations on improving the performance of natural pylite catalyst and circulating solvent, technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system, studies using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. Grain refinement through severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izairi, N.; Vevecka - Priftaj, A.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable current interest in processing metallic samples through procedures involving the imposition of severe plastic deformation (SPD). These procedures lead to very significant grain refinement to the submicrometer or even the nanometer level, resulting in advanced physical properties. Among various SPD processes, Equal Channel Angular Pressing, High pressure Torsion and Accumulated Roll Bonding have been widely used for many metals and alloys. In the present work, we present an overview of the most used methods of SPD for grain refinement and the production of bulk nano structured materials with enhancement in their mechanical and functional properties. In order to examine the potential for using ECAP to refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties, two commercial 5754 Al alloy and AA 3004 , were selected for study. Processing by ECAP gives a reduction in the grain size and an increase in the microhardness. (Author)

  4. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Refining and end use study of coal liquids I - pilot plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, J.; Moulton, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Office of Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center is examining the ways in which coal liquids may best be integrated into the refinery of the 2000-2015 time frame and what performance and emission properties will prevail among the slate of fuels produced. The study consists of a Basic Program administered by Bechtel Group, Inc. to build a linear programming refinery model and provide processing and fuel properties data through subcontractors Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and M.W. Kellogg Company. The model will be used in an Option 1 to devise a slate of test fuels meeting advanced specifications, which will be produced and tested for physical ASTM-type properties, engine performance, and vehicle emissions. Three coal liquids will be included: a direct liquid from bituminous coal, another from subbituminous, and a Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction product. This paper reports the work to date on fractions of the first direct liquid including naphtha hydrotreating, heavy distillate hydrotreating, FCC of the heavy distillate hydrotreater products. Also reported are the first stages of work on the indirect liquefaction wax including feed preparation and FCC tests of blends with petroleum FCC feed.

  6. Criticality safety of solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1987-01-01

    The article presents some comments on criticality safety of solvent extraction processes. When used as an extracting medium, tributyl phosphate extracts nitric acid and water, in addition to nitrates of U and Pu, into the organic phase. The amount of these chemical species extracted into the organic phase is dependent on and restricted by the concentrations of tributyl phosphate and other components. For criticality control, measures are taken to decrease the concentration of tributyl phosphate in the organic phase, in addition to control of the U and Pu concentrations in the feed water phase. It should be remembered that complexes of tributyl phosphate with nitrates of such metals as Pu(IV), Pu(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) do not dissolve uniformly in the organic phase. In criticality calculation for solution-handling systems, U and Pu are generally assumed to have a valence of 6 and 4, respectively. In the reprocessing extraction process, however, U and Pu can have a valence of 4, and 3 and 6, respectively. The organic phase and aqueous phase contact in a counter-current flow. U and Pu will be accumulated if they are not brought out of the extraction system by this flow. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Batch extracting process using magnetic particle held solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, L.; Vandergrift, G.F.

    1995-11-21

    A process is described for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents. 5 figs.

  8. Grain size refinement of inconel 718 thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okimoto, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Inconel 718 is a Ni-Fe precipitation treated superalloy. It presents good thermal fatigue properties when the material has small grain size. The aim of this work is to study the grain size refinement by thermomechanical processing, through observations of the microstructural evolution and the influence of some of the process variables in the final grain size. The results have shown that this refinement occured by static recrystallization. The presence of precipitates have influenced the final grain size if the deformations are below 60%. For greater deformations the grain size is independent of the precipitate distribution in the matrix and tends to a limit size of 5 μm. (author)

  9. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 μg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%, sulfide-associated (21.1%, and silicate bound (31.8%; these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0% to anthracite (11.6% and to cokeite (0%, indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1% to anthracite (50.4% and cokeite (54.5%, indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8% is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4% and cokeite (15.8%, indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism.

  11. A quality-refinement process for medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Maleike, D; Nolden, M; Kenngott, H-G; Meinzer, H-P; Wolf, I

    2009-01-01

    To introduce and evaluate a process for refinement of software quality that is suitable to research groups. In order to avoid constraining researchers too much, the quality improvement process has to be designed carefully. The scope of this paper is to present and evaluate a process to advance quality aspects of existing research prototypes in order to make them ready for initial clinical studies. The proposed process is tailored for research environments and therefore more lightweight than traditional quality management processes. Focus on quality criteria that are important at the given stage of the software life cycle. Usage of tools that automate aspects of the process is emphasized. To evaluate the additional effort that comes along with the process, it was exemplarily applied for eight prototypical software modules for medical image processing. The introduced process has been applied to improve the quality of all prototypes so that they could be successfully used in clinical studies. The quality refinement yielded an average of 13 person days of additional effort per project. Overall, 107 bugs were found and resolved by applying the process. Careful selection of quality criteria and the usage of automated process tools lead to a lightweight quality refinement process suitable for scientific research groups that can be applied to ensure a successful transfer of technical software prototypes into clinical research workflows.

  12. A comparison of geochemical features of extracts from coal-seams source rocks with different polarity solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianping; Deng, Chunping; Wang, Huitong

    2009-02-15

    There exists a great difference in group-type fractions and biomarker distributions of chloroform extracts from coals and coal-seams oils, which makes the source identification of coal-seams oils in sedimentary basins rather difficult. The experiment, in which four different polarity solvents, n-hexane, benzene, dichloromethane and chloroform, were used to extract 9 coal-seams source rocks and 3 typical lacustrine source rocks, showed that the yield of extracts increased gradually with increasing solvent polarity. The distribution features of their n-alkanes, isoprenoids and sterane and terpane biomarkers remained, in general, similar, showing no distinct enrichment or depletion for a certain fraction by any solvent. The compositional analysis on n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed that the absolute amount (concentration) of biomarkers was relatively low for the n-hexane extract but comparatively high for the chloroform extract, this difference became great among coal-seams source rocks but small among lacustrine mudstones. The statistical analysis on the relative amount of the 18 major biomarkers in n-hexane and chloroform extracts from 10 source rock samples showed that extracts with a proportional error for the same biomarker of less than 5% (including the analytical error) accounted for 84% while those with a proportional error over 10% amounted to below 5%. This suggested that the outcome of oil-source correlation made by these biomarkers will be independent of variations in amounts of saturates and biomarkers arising from solvent polarity. Therefore, biomarkers obtained from organic-rich source rocks including coals by the extraction with the commonly used chloroform solvent can be applied for the oilsource correlation of coal-seams petroliferous basins.

  13. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (development of a 1-t/d experimental plant and research on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/d jikken plant no kaihatsu (yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among the items of the solvent extraction and liquefaction plant technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in developing a 1-t/d experimental plant and the solvent extraction and liquefaction process. Basic facilities were completed by giving expansion constructions on the extraction reaction column, gas-liquid separation column, and hydrogenation reaction column. The operation was performed with the primary object placed on verifying the effect of measures on problems that have been extracted, and checking the solvent balance. The conversion rate at an extraction reaction temperature of 450 degrees C was 83%, agreeing with the result of the fundamental study. The solvent has turned light as a result of 153-hour continuous operation, but circulating use was possible. Progress of the reaction has become easily controllable in the hydrogenation system. Fundamental discussions were given on engineering aspects, which require further accumulation of data. In the research of the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, fiscal 1981 has performed discussions on liquefaction catalysts, and on the effect of the hydrogen donating solvents. The discussions were for the fundamental research to establish adequate conditions for the 1-t/d experimental plant by operating a small continuous operation facility to its full extent, and by using a batch type reaction device. Screening was also carried out on catalysts. (NEDO)

  14. Solubilities of hydrogen and methane in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ho-mu; Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Chao, Kwang Chu

    1981-04-01

    The solubilities of hydrogen and methane in Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) and Solvent Refined Coal II (SRC-II) coal liquids are determined at 190 and 270 C and pressures to 250 atm. Two narrow boiling distillate cuts from EDS and three from SRC-II are studied.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL KINETICS OF SUPERCRITICAL COAL LIQUEFACTION: EFFECT OF CATALYSTS AND HYDROGEN-DONOR SOLVENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin J. McCoy; J.M. Smith

    1998-01-01

    This report outlines a distribution kinetics approach to macromolecular reactions that has been applied to several processes. The objective was to develop an understanding of high-temperature, dense-phase thermolytic processes for complex macromolecular systems, such as coal. Experiments and theory are described for chemical models that simulate depolymerization of coal. The approach has been exceptionally successful for the model macromolecular systems. Development of a novel chemical reaction engineering analysis, based on distribution kinetics, was a major accomplishment of the current research

  16. Limit of grain refinement during ECAP process. Temperature influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvil'deev, V.N.; Kopylov, V.I.; Nokhrin, A.V.; Makarov, I.M.; Lopatin, Yu.G.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical study results are reported for the process of deformation grain refinement under severe plastic deformation. A generalization is made for experimental study results on deformation dispersing of unalloyed metals and aluminium and magnesium base alloys. The model is built that allows calculating the value of minimum grain size attained by the method of equal-channel angular pressing. The expressions are derived which describe the dependence of grain refinement limit on the nature of material and the temperature of severe plastic deformation [ru

  17. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  18. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  19. Grain refinement of Aluminium alloys using friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khraisheh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a new advanced material processing technique used to refine and homogenize the microstructure of sheet metals. FSP is a solid state processing technique that uses a rapidly rotating non-consumable high strength tool steel pin that extends from a cylindrical shoulder. The rotating pin is forced with a predetermined load into the work piece and moved along with the work pieces, while the rotating pin deforms and stirs the locally heated material. It is a hot working process in which a large amount of deformation is imparted to the sheet. FS processed zone is characterized by dynamic recrystallization which results in grain refinement . this promising emerging process needs further investigations to develop optimum process parameters to produce the desired microstructure. In this work, we present preliminary results on the effects of rotational and translational speeds on grain refinement of AA5052. Under certain processing conditions, sub-micron grain structure was produced using this technique

  20. Process for carbonizing coal, shale, wood, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaei, K

    1924-05-08

    A process for carbonization of coal, shale, and wood, for recovering low temperature tar and other products in a rotary retort is described. The material to be carbonized is brought directly in contact with the heating medium, that is characterized in that the heating medium streams through the retort crosswise to the longitudinal axis. The temperature of this medium in the single retort segments can be regulated.

  1. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  2. Extraction of hydrocarbon products from shales and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, V Z

    1918-05-17

    A process is disclosed of extracting hydrocarbon oil matter from petroleum-bearing shales and coals which comprises subjecting a mass of such shale or coal, before distillation to the solvent action of material containing an acid, permitting the solvent material to pass through the mass of shale or coal, and recovering the combined solvent and extracted matter.

  3. Management of Purex spent solvents by the alkaline hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Manohar, Smitha; Vincent, Tessy; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1995-01-01

    Various treatment processes were evaluated on a laboratory scale for the management of the spent solvent from the extraction of nuclear materials. Based on the lab scale evaluation it is proposed to adopt the alkaline hydrolysis process as the treatment mode for the spent solvent. The process has advantages over the other processes in terms of simplicity, low cost and ease of disposal of the secondary waste generated. (author)

  4. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    -liquid equilibria). The application of the developed model-based framework is highlighted through several cases studies published in the literature. In the current state, the framework is suitable for problems where the original solvent is exchanged by distillation. A solvent selection guide for fast of suitable......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  5. Ecological fate and effects of solvent-refined-coal (SRC) materials: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A. III; Vaughan, B.E. (eds.)

    1981-10-01

    Non-occupational health effects associated with SRC operation will be determined by environmental factors governing the form, transport, and persistence of SRC materials and wastes - factors which also mediate exposure to man. Accordingly, the research described is an attempt to determine the fate of disposed solid wastes and spilled SRC materials, and it necessarily focuses on water soluble, persistent materials with greatest potential for mobility and incorporation into water and food supplies. Initially, aqueous equilibrations of SRC-II liquid material and SRC-I nongasified mineral residue were subjected to chemical characterization. Subsequently, laboratory studies were performed on the interaction of aqueous equilibrates of SRC-II liquid and SRC-I non-gasified mineral residue with soil materials isolated suspended sediments, and bottom sediments. These studies were designed to identify effects of specific sorption reactions ion or induced-ion exchange reactions, and toxicity of water soluble, biologically active materials derived from liquid and solid wastes. Results of these experiments have applicability to the environmental fate and effects of biologically active compounds released under different scenarios from product spills and solid waste disposal.

  6. SRC-I solvent refined coal demonstration facility, Daviess County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This volume of the Environmental Information Document on SRC-I contains appendices I-P. Information is provided for the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement. Title listings of the appendices are: meteorology and air quality reports, December 1978 and March 1979; sound; economic, social, and cultural features; historical/architectural survey; archeological reports, 1979 and 1980; potential for burial and preservation of fossils; and alternate sites.

  7. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  8. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruengel, N.; Dehms, G.; Fiedler, P.; Gerigk, H.P.; Ruddeck, W.; Schrader, L.; Schumacher, H.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 935 0 C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m 3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs [de

  9. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  10. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program analyzes the applicable coal species centered by Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal, which are promising alternative fuel sources for Japan for their reserves, prices, availability, suitability for liquefaction, etc, in order to clarify the possible problems, and commercialize the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. This report consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 describes development situations of brown coal, specifically for Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal. Chapter 2 describes characteristics of the reactions involved in the brown coal liquefaction. Chapter 3 describes current status of various liquefaction processes (solvolysis, solvent extraction, direct hydrogenation and C-SRC) under development in Japan, and problems involved in their future developments. Chapter 4 describes current status of the elementary techniques, e.g., those for slurry pretreatment (e.g., dehydration and crushing), solid/liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, product upgrading and gasification. Chapter 5 describes the related techniques, and Chapter 6 discusses the demonstration survey results of de-ashing, primary/secondary hydrogenation, and dehydration of brown coal. (NEDO)

  11. Examination of the role of CS{sub 2} in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvents to coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Hengfu; Wang, Zhicai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 243002 Maanshan Anhui (China); Gao, Jinsheng [Department of Energy Resources and Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science & amp; Technology, 200237 Shanghai (China)

    2006-02-15

    The roles of CS{sub 2} in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent to coal extraction and solubilization were investigated in this study. There was little effect of removing of CS{sub 2} from the solutions on the solubilities of UF coal extract and pyridine insoluble (PI) of the extract in the NMP/CS{sub 2} mixed solvent, suggesting that NMP has high enough solubilities to the UF coal extract and PI. Six Argonne different rank coals were extracted with the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent and NMP, respectively. It was found that the extraction yield difference between NMP and CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent for UF coal is largely deviated from the curve obtained for the other 5 coals, suggesting that the pre-swelling of CS{sub 2} in the mixed solvent may be one of important roles for high extraction yield of UF coal in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent. FTIR indicated that there was a strong interaction between CS{sub 2} and NMP in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent of 1:1 volume ratio, which made the strong absorbance at 2156 cm{sup -1} in the FTIR spectra, and this interaction may disrupt the dipole based association of NMP thus making the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent lower viscosity, to penetrate more quickly into the network structure of coal, resulting in the larger solvent partner (NMP) to enter and break the stronger coal-coal interactions. (author)

  12. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  13. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  14. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the final product. The separation efficiency of dry processes is, however, not nearly as good as that of dense medium and, as a result, it is difficult to effectively beneficiate coals with a high near-dense content. The product yield obtained from some raw...

  15. A solvent/non-solvent system for achieving solution-processed multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin, E-mail: zhaoxinwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Lin; Jiao, Bo; Hou, Xun

    2015-08-31

    We developed a solvent/non-solvent system to fabricate the multilayer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) by solution-process. This solvent system consists of both the solvent and non-solvent of PVK, in which fluorescent small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on top of the PVK layer; it could effectively avoid the redissolution of PVK during the spin-coating process of small molecules emitting layer. In the further investigation of this system, we also demonstrated the three-component solvent system, and found out that the third component, a less volatile solvent of PVK, was crucial for preparing a smoother interface between PVK and emitting layer. Compared with OLEDs through the vacuum deposition, the devices fabricated by solution-process from the solvent/non-solvent system showed comparable efficiency, which indicate that the solvent/non-solvent system can be used as an alternative process to prepare the polymer and small molecule multilayer devices through all-solution-process. - Highlights: • We fabricate the multilayer OLEDs by solution-process using a novel system. • We develop a solvent/non-solvent system of polymer (PVK) to avoid redissolution. • Small molecules could be fully dissolved and directly spin-coated on PVK layer. • The devices fabricated by the system and vacuum deposition show comparable efficiency.

  16. Processes subject to integrated pollution control. Petroleum processes: oil refining and associated processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document, part of a series offering guidance on pollution control regulations issued by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, (HMIP) focuses on petroleum processes such as oil refining and other associated processes. The various industrial processes used, their associated pollution release routes into the environment and techniques for controlling these releases are all discussed. Environmental quality standards are related to national and international agreements on pollution control and abatement. HMIP's work on air, water and land pollution monitoring is also reported. (UK)

  17. Monitoring coal conversion processes by IR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobert, H.; Kempe, J.; Stephanowitz, H. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic))

    1990-01-01

    Explains application of infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis by an on-line computer system for assessing coal quality and suitability of brown coal for conversion processes. Coal samples were pelletized under addition of KBr and analyzed using an IRF 180 Fourier transform spectrometer in the spectral range of 400 to 2,000 cm{sup -1}. Components of spectra are presented; the oil yield from coal hydrogenation is calculated by regression analysis. Covariance spectra of carbon, organic hydrogen and sulfur are shown. It is concluded that the field of application for the method includes industrial coal liquefaction, gasification as well as briquetting and coking. 8 refs.

  18. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  19. Bugs and coal: processing fuels with biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1987-06-01

    Bioprocessing of coal is developing along several fronts, each of potential significance to utilities. Researchers have found a fungus, polyporous versicolor, which can liquefy certain kinds of coal and scientists have genetically engineered bacteria that remove sulfur and ash-forming metal impurities from coal. Research programs are being undertaken to find organisms that will convert lignite into gaseous methane to produce gaseous fuel more economically than the current coal gasification methods. Researchers looking for ways to remove sulfur from coal before it is burned are evaluating the use of a bacterium called thiobacillus ferroxidans to enhance the physical removal of pyrite. 2 refs.

  20. Insights into the coal extractive solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone + carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Aparicio; Mara J. Davila; Rafael Alcalde [University of Burgos, Burgos (Spain). Department of Chemistry

    2009-03-15

    A wide set of experimental and computational tools were used to characterize the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) + carbon disulfide mixed solvent in the full composition range. The interest in this solvent rose from its very efficient use for coal extraction through a mechanism still not fully understood. Thermophysical properties at ambient pressure together with pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior were measured with the objective of providing the required data for the industrial use of the mixed fluid and to get insight into the fluid structure at the molecular level. NMR, FTIR, and solvatochromic studies were performed together with microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, thus providing more information on the fluid's structure and allowing one to relate the molecular level behavior with the measured macroscopic properties. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD) were used to obtain a detailed picture of the intermolecular interactions within the fluid, at short and long ranges, and of other relevant features leading to the structure of the studied system. The whole study leads to a fluid's picture in which carbon disulfide hinders the development of NMP/NMP intermolecular dipolar interactions, thus increasing the monomer population. We should remark that some properties reported in this work are in remarkable disagreement with previously reported studies, the most important one being the positive excess molar volume in the whole pressure-temperature range studied, which contrasts with the negative values reported in the literature. Previously reported properties are hardly justified with a coherent molecular level picture, whereas the whole collection of properties reported in this work leads to a more reasonable fluid's structure. 56 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  2. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  3. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  4. Friction stir processing (FSP: refining microstructures and improving properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNelley, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FSP is reviewed as an allied technology of friction stir welding (FSW and additional considerations such as processing pattern and step over distance are introduced. The application of FSP to continuously cast AA5083 material in the as-cast condition is described and the extent of grain refinement and homogenization of microstructure is documented. The FSP-induced superplastic response of this material is compared to the response of conventionally processed AA5083 and the improved ductility of the FSP material is related to grain refinement and microstructure homogenization.

    Se revisa el procesado por fricción batida (FSP como un aliado tecnológico de la soldadura por fricción batida (FSW y se introducen consideraciones adicionales tales como el patrón de procesado y el paso en función de la distancia. Se describe la aplicación de FSP al material AA5083 por colada continua en la condición de colada y se documenta el grado de afino de grano y homogeneización de la microestructura. La respuesta de superplasticidad inducida por FSP se compara con la respuesta de la aleación AA5083 procesada convencionalmente y la mejora de ductilidad del material FSP se relaciona con el afino de grano y la homogeneización de la microestructura.

  5. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  6. Processing of uranium-containing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Alvarez, M.

    1987-01-01

    A direct storage of uranium-bearing coal requires the processing of large amounts of raw materials while lacking guarantee of troublefree process cycles. With the example of an uranium-bearing bituminous coal from Stockheim, it was aimed at the production of an uranium ore concentrate by means of mechanical, thermal and chemical investigations. Above all, amorphous pitch blende was detected as a uranium mineralization which occurs homogeneously distributed in the grain size classes of the comminuted raw material with particle diameters of a few μm and, after the combustion, enriches in the field of finest grain of the axis. Heterogeneous and solid-state reactions in the thermal decarburization above 700deg C result in the development of hardly soluble uranium oxides and and calcium uranates as well as in enclosures in mineral glass. Thus, the pre-enrichment has to take place in a temperature range below 600deg C. By means of a sorting classification of the ash at ± 2.0 mm, it is possible to achieve an enrichment of up to factor 15 for a mineral of a mainly low carbonate content and, for a mineral of a rich carbonate content, up to the factor 4. The separation of the uranium from the concentrates produced is possible with a yield of 95% by means of leaching with sulphuric acid at a temperature of 20deg C. As far as their reproducibility was concerned, the laboratory tests were verified on a semi-industrial scale. A processing method is suggested on the basis of the data obtained. (orig.) [de

  7. Initiate test loop irradiations of ALSEP process solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Olson, Lonnie G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McDowell, Rocklan G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the initial results of the study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the ALSEP process and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-14IN030202. Initial irradiations, up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, of the extraction section of the ALSEP process have been completed. The organic solvent used for these experiments contained 0.05 M TODGA and 0.75 M HEH[EHP] dissolved in n-dodecane. The ALSEP solvent was irradiated while in contact with 3 M nitric acid and the solutions were sparged with compressed air in order to maintain aerated conditions. The irradiated phases were used for the determination of americium and europium distribution ratios as a function of absorbed dose for the extraction and stripping conditions. Analysis of the irradiated phases in order to determine solvent composition as a function of absorbed dose is ongoing. Unfortunately, the failure of analytical equipment necessary for the analysis of the irradiated samples has made the consistent interpretation of the analytical results difficult. Continuing work will include study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the extraction of actinides and lanthanides by the ALSEP solvent and the stripping of the extracted metals from the loaded solvent. The irradiated aqueous and organic phases will be analyzed in order to determine the variation in concentration of solvent components with absorbed gamma dose. Where possible, radiolysis degradation product will be identified.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  10. Viscoelasticity of various gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents in coal; Sekitanchu no yobai kayoseibun kara sakuseishita shushu no gel maku no nendansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, T.; Isoda, S.; Doi, S.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Viscoelasticity of gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents without ash of coal using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP) was measured to study the network structure of the constituents. In experiment, Upper Freeport coal and Zao Zhuang coal were used as specimens. Viscoelasticity of various gels with different weight fractions of solvent was measured by creep measurement under a fixed load and stress-strain analysis under variable loads. In the 2nd and 3rd creep measurements, although no large changes in elastic strain and viscoelastic strain were found, viscous strain gradually decreased with an increase in viscosity. In the case of small weight fraction of solvent, small viscous strain and viscoelastic strain were found, while slightly large elastic strain was found. It was thus suggested that this elastic strain is derived from not only physical cross-linked networks by coal-solvent interaction but also those by coal-coal interaction in polymer chains of coal itself. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  12. Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses for turbulence and general stochastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolovitzky, G.; Sreenivasan, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypotheses are shown to hold true for a variety of stochastic processes besides high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows, for which they were originally proposed. In particular, just as hypothesized for turbulence, there exists a variable V whose probability density function attains a universal form. Analytical expressions for the probability density function of V are obtained for Brownian motion as well as for the general case of fractional Brownian motion---the latter under some mild assumptions justified a posteriori. The properties of V for the case of antipersistent fractional Brownian motion with the Hurst exponent of 1/3 are similar in many details to those of high-Reynolds-number turbulence in atmospheric boundary layers a few meters above the ground. The one conspicuous difference between turbulence and the antipersistent fractional Brownian motion is that the latter does not possess the required skewness. Broad implications of these results are discussed

  13. Energy efficient solvent regeneration process for carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaojun; Meyer, Howard S.; Li, Shiguang

    2018-02-27

    A process for removing carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-loaded solvent uses two stages of flash apparatus. Carbon dioxide is flashed from the solvent at a higher temperature and pressure in the first stage, and a lower temperature and pressure in the second stage, and is fed to a multi-stage compression train for high pressure liquefaction. Because some of the carbon dioxide fed to the compression train is already under pressure, less energy is required to further compress the carbon dioxide to a liquid state, compared to conventional processes.

  14. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  15. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN; Hamilton, Choo Y [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  16. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  17. Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Do Hwan; Mei, Jianguo; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Kristin; Giri, Gaurav; Appleton, Anthony L.; Toney, Michael F.; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate high-performance sequentially solution-processed organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% for blend films using a donor polymer based on the isoindigo-bithiophene repeat unit (PII2T-C10C8) and a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C[71]-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). This has been accomplished by systematically controlling the swelling and intermixing processes of the layer with various processing solvents during deposition of the fullerene. We find that among the solvents used for fullerene deposition that primarily swell but do not re-dissolve the polymer underlayer, there were significant microstructural differences between chloro and o-dichlorobenzene solvents (CB and ODCB, respectively). Specifically, we show that the polymer crystallite orientation distribution in films where ODCB was used to cast the fullerene is broad. This indicates that out-of-plane charge transport through a tortuous transport network is relatively efficient due to a large density of inter-grain connections. In contrast, using CB results in primarily edge-on oriented polymer crystallites, which leads to diminished out-of-plane charge transport. We correlate these microstructural differences with photocurrent measurements, which clearly show that casting the fullerene out of ODCB leads to significantly enhanced power conversion efficiencies. Thus, we believe that tuning the processing solvents used to cast the electron acceptor in sequentially-processed devices is a viable way to controllably tune the blend film microstructure. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Development of interface technology between unit processes in E-Refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The pyroprocessing is composed mainly four subprocesses, such as an electrolytic reduction, an electrorefining, an electrowinning, and waste salt regeneration/ solidification processes. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which are composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. The CERS(Continuous ElectroRefining System) is composed of some unit processes such as an electrorefiner, a salt distiller, a melting furnace for the U-ingot and U-chlorinator (UCl{sub 3} making equipment) as shown in Fig. 1. In this study, the interfaces technology between unit processes in E-Refining system is investigated and developed for the establishment of integrated E-Refining operation system as a part of integrated pyroprocessing

  19. Effect of water treatment under ultrasonic irradiation on the solubilities of coals in a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Min Liu; Zhi-Min Zong; Ji-Xian Jia; Yao-Guo Huang; Hong Zhang; Bin Huang; Xian-Yong Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Five Chinese coals were subject to water treatment (WT) at 75{sup o}C under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). The resulting water-extractable fraction (WEF) in the aqueous solution was extracted with benzene. The treated and untreated coals were extracted with a CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (1:1 by vol) under UI at room temperature. The results show that only small amount of WEF is extractable with benzene and that WT increases coal solubility in the CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent only to small extent. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Secondary cleanup of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Solvent from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) (operated by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc.) has been tested to determine the ability of activated alumina to remove secondary degradation products - those degradation products which are not removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate

  1. Determination of a cleaning and decontamination process using solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutot, P.; Schipfer, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work has been carried out on samples of the white cotton serge material of which most of the working overalls of the Nuclear Research Centre are made. The aims are: - to determine,from the decontamination and cleaning points of view, the efficiency of various solvents (white-spirit, trichloroethylene, perchlorethylene and tri-chloro-trifluoroethane) and the role of additives likely to improve the treatment; - to control the textile from the wear and shrinkage points of view; - to try to develop a basic cleaning and decontamination process as a function of the possibilities of each solvent considered. (authors) [fr

  2. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    To control chemical hazards in work places, substitution of harmful substances with less harmful or non-toxic products is now a method used in many countries and in many companies. It has previously been demonstrated that it is desirable and possible to use non-volatile, low-toxic vegetable...... cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  3. Molecular accessibility in solvent swelled coals. Quarterly report, [April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, L.D.

    1993-08-01

    The effect of weathering (oxidation and dehydration upon exposure to air) on the molecular accessibility of potential catalysts was studied by the EPR spin probe technique. Fresh samples of all 8 APCS coals were exposed to air for periods up to 36 days. Weathering produced significant effects on the retention of spin probes in most of the APCS coals under 91 % carbon (dmmf). It was determined that the lower ranked coal (Beulah Zap and Wyodak) under went a structural collapse which precluded retention of even spin probe VIII. However, medium ranked coals exhibited improved retention upon weathering when swelled in toluene. Swelling with pyridine opened up small pores for 81--86% carbon which is not observed for swelling with toluene. Changes in coal structure were successfully followed by the EPR spin probe method. A detailed analysis of the data collected from the swelling of coals oxidized in a moisture free environment was completed to differentiate between weathering and oxidation. Eight vacuum dried APCS coals were oxidized in an enclosed, pure oxygen, moisture free environment, and the effects of oxidation alone on coal structure were studied by the intercalation of EPR spin probes. The data shows a factor of 5 increase in spin probe retention for some coals oxidized in O{sub 2} versus air., suggesting a large increase in oxidized material. Particular care was taken during the swelling procedures to avoid exposure of the coal samples to air or moisture. EPR spectra were then obtained for these 300 samples.

  4. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.280 Solvent extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from...

  5. Refining the Enrolment Process in Emergency Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Kate M; Channon, Keith M; Choudhury, Robin P; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Lee, Regent; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Research in the emergency setting involving patients with acute clinical conditions is needed if there are to be advances in diagnosis and treatment. But research in these areas poses ethical and practical challenges. One of these is the general inability to obtain informed consent due to the patient's lack of mental capacity and insufficient time to contact legal representatives. Regulatory frameworks which allow this research to proceed with a consent 'waiver', provided patients lack mental capacity, miss important ethical subtleties. One of these is the varying nature of mental capacity among emergency medicine patients. Not only is their capacity variable and often unclear, but some patients are also likely to be able to engage with the researcher and the context to varying degrees. In this paper we describe the key elements of a novel enrolment process for emergency medicine research that refines the consent waiver and fully engages with the ethical rationale for consent and, in this context, its waiver. The process is verbal but independently documented during the 'emergent' stages of the research. It provides appropriate engagement with the patient, is context-sensitive and better addresses ethical subtleties. In line with regulation, full written consent for on-going participation in the research is obtained once the emergency is passed.

  6. Assessing corrosion in oil refining and petrochemical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. John

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the development of an information system used to manage corrosion of metals and alloys by high temperature gases found in many different oil refining, petrochemical, power generation, and chemical processes. The database currently represents about 7.9 million h of exposure time for about 5,500 tests with 89 commercial alloys for a temperature range of 200 - 1,200°C. The system manages corrosion data from well-defined exposures and determines corrosion product stabilities. New models used in the analysis of thermochemical data for the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co-C-O-S-N-H system are being compiled. All known phases based upon combinations of the elements have been analyzed to allow complete assessments of corrosion product stabilities. Use of these data allows prediction of stable corrosion products and hence identification of the possible dominant corrosion mechanisms. The system has the potential to be used in corrosion research, alloy development, failure analysis, lifetime prediction, and process operations evaluations. The corrosion mechanisms emphasized are oxidation, sulfidation, sulfidation/oxidation, and carburization.

  7. Surface tension of a coal extract in an organic solvent; Sekitan chushutsu seibun no kaigo to hyomen choryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The behavior and properties of associated bodies were studied through measurement of surface tension considering acetone-soluble fraction relatively light among various solvent extracts of coal. In experiment, the acetone-soluble fraction was extracted from the substances extracted from Upper Freeport coal as standard specimen using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide (CS2) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), and it was dissolved into NMP after drying. Surface tension was measured by Wilhelmy method. The experimental results are as follows. Equilibrium surface tension is equal to the surface tension of pure solvent in a low concentration range of solution, and decreases with an increase in concentration approaching a fixed value at 0 in log concentration, nearly showing an S curve. Adsorption of species with non-polar aromatic ring of the acetone-soluble fraction on a solution surface probably decreases surface tension. Change with time in surface tension is observed which suggests fast initial reaction and slow subsequent reaction. 4 figs.

  8. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic integrated framework for solvent selection and solvent design. The framework is divided into several modules, which can tackle specific problems in various solvent-based applications. In particular, three modules corresponding to the following solvent selection pr...

  9. Modified process for refining niobium by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Takano, C.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental results, thermodynamic equilibrium and kinetic theory of the metal/gas interaction in refractory metals are reviewed. The adsorption and desorption of nitrogen, hydrogen and CO are reversible, whereas those of oxygen are irreversible, with adsorption of an oxygen atom and volatilisation of the metal oxide. Based upon this fact, a new electron beam refining technology is proposed for niobium, consisting of four points: preparation of an electrode by aluminothermic reduction; zone refining in the first melt; kinetic refining in subsequent melts and compact design of the refining plant. Experimental results from a 300 kW pilot plant were in complete agreement with the technology proposed, giving 2.4 times the productivity predicted by the conventional technology. (Author) [pt

  10. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  11. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  12. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.

    1996-01-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI's submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special open-quotes peat mossclose quotes based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent

  13. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Relationship between the fluidity of heat-treated coals and molecular weight distributions of their solvent-soluble component; Netsushoritan no yobai kayo seibun no bunshiryo bunpu to ryudosei no kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science; Kato, K. [Nippon Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fukada, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to improve the coke manufacturing process, considerations were given on fluidity manifestation mechanism of heat-treated coals from molecular weight distributions of extracts of a solvent mixed with CS2-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP). The heat treatment was performed in an autoclave under nitrogen atmosphere at a rate of 3{degree}C/min to settings of 200 to 550{degree}C. The resultant heat-treated coal was quenched, and then extracted by using the CS2-NMP mixed solvent. The fluidity was measured by using a Gieseler plastometer. Maximum extraction rate and the highest fluidity are in linear relationship, which suggests that the extracts govern the fluidity. Since heavy caking coal has no difference in the extraction rates due to heat treatment temperature, and its molecular weight distribution trend does not change, the extracted components which have existed primarily in the original coal govern the fluidity. In semi-caking coals, polymer molecular components are extracted in a large quantity at the softening starting temperature, but the quantity decreases as the temperature rises. However, low-molecular components present no quantitative change, while polymer molecular components decompose, decrease in molecular weight, get solubilized with rising temperature, and act as a binder to cause a flow. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A method for processing peat or brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkevich, P.I.; Lishtvan, I.I.; Prokhorov, G.M.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is patented for extraction of peat and brown coal using dimethylformamide or dimethylsulfoxide in order to increase the output of bitumen and to produce dyes and acids from it and to utilize the debituminized fuel. The extraction is conducted at a solvent to raw material ratio of 1 to 5 at a temperature of 95 to 160 degrees for 0.5 to 3 hours. The extract is processed by hydroxides or carbonates of alkaline metals at a ratio of extract to the bitumen of 0.1 to 0.5 at 95 to 160 degrees for 0.5 to 2 hours with isolation of the salts of carbonic acids and recrystallization of them from the hydroxide with the acquisition of the target product of humic acids. The solvent is distilled from the extraction residue and after drying the sediment, a dye D is produced, while the debituminized fuel is processed by hydroxides of alkaline metals in a 0.1 to 1 to 1 ratio at 100 to 150 degrees for 0.5 to 2 hours with the acquisition of thinner for cement solutions. Example. A suspension of 180 grams of peat with a particle size of 0.25 to 10 millimeters with indicators (in percent) of the degree of breakdown of 40, moisture level of 20, ash content of 3.1 and bitumen content of 4.2, is mixed with 810 grams of dimethylformamide (an extraction agent to peat ratio of 4.5) and is heated at 95 degrees for three hours. Eight hundred and seventy grams of the extract (the bitumen output is 33 percent) are acquired, along with 120 grams of debituminized peat. Thirty grams of NaOH (an alkaline to bitumen ratio of 0.5) is gradually added to the bitumen extract at 90 to 100 degrees. The reaction mixture is heated to 160 degrees and is cured at this temperature for 2 hours and subsequently cooled to 20 degrees, filtered off and the salts of the carbonic acids are washed out by a fresh portion of dimethylsulfoxide with the production of 21.3 grams of salts with a melting point of 122 to 175 degrees.

  16. Coal gasification coal by steam using process heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van; Juentgen, H.; Peters, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the coal gasification process using a high-temperature nuclear reactor as a source of the process heat needed. Compared to conventional gasification processes coal is saved by 30-40%, coal-specific emissions are reduced and better economics of gas production are achieved. The introductory chapter deals with motives, aims and tasks of the development, followed by an explanation of the status of investigations, whereby especially the results of a semi-technical pilot plant operated by Bergbau-Forschung are given. Furthermore, construction details of a full-scale commercial gasifier are discussed, including the development of suitable alloys for the heat exchanger. Moreover problems of safety, licensing and economics of future plants have been investigated. (orig.) [de

  17. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal Preparation...

  18. Disparity refinement process based on RANSAC plane fitting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more accurate than normal flow state-of-the-art stereo matching algorithms. The performance evaluations are based on standard image quality metrics i.e. structural similarity index measure, peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean square error. Keywords: computer vision; disparity refinement; image segmentation; RANSAC; ...

  19. Process to improve combustion and coalescing characteristics of coal pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, T.E.; Marlowe, W.H.

    1980-10-23

    Baking types of coal, which occur mainly in the Midwestern States of the USA, tend to form solid layers when heated to remove tar. In order to prevent this, it is proposed to pulverize the coal, to form small pellets and to coat these pellets. A suitable coating material mentioned here is sodium carbonate. Variants of the coating process are given. The coated pellets are heated.

  20. The role of the MHTGR in coal gasification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    The nation will likely become more and more dependent on natural gas and while this will stimulate new exploration and increased production, the time will surely come when global depletion of this resource will require the use of synthetic natural gas (SNG) to support the established nationwide infrastructure. The U.S. is estimated to have coal reserves nearing 500 billion tons that are mineable on an economic base. The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) steam cycle plant can play an important role in the process of producing SNG from coal to supplement natural gas supplies. Coal-to-gas plants need heat (predominantly steam) and electricity for operation. This energy can be supplied by combustion of coal (autothermal process), but this results in a loss of more than 40% of the coal energy input. From the resource conservation standpoint, using an MHTGR heat source is attractive since much of the valuable fossil raw material can be substituted by clean nuclear energy. Also, air pollution is lowered drastically. This paper highlights how a near-term steam cycle MHTGR plant, based on proven technology and operating in a cogeneration mode, could be coupled with existing coal gasification processes to meet the projected increase in gas consumption in an environmentally acceptable manner

  1. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  2. Processing low-grade coal to produce high-grade products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Korte, GJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available of the coal being mined in the central basin is gradually becoming poorer. This necessitates that more of the coal be processed to improve the quality to meet customer requirements. The challenge to the coal processing industry is to process low-yielding coals...

  3. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  4. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  5. New solvent extraction process for zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Katoh, Y.; Miyazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors' company developed a new solvent extraction process for zirconium and hafnium separation, and started production of zirconium sponge by this new process in September 1979. The process utilizes selective extraction of zirconium oxysulfate using high-molecular alkyl amine, and has the following advantages: 1. This extraction system has a separation factor as high as 10 to 20 for zirconium and hafnium in the range of suitable acid concentration. 2. In the scrubbing section, removal of all the hafnium that coexists with zirconium in the organic solvent can be effectively accomplished by using scrubbing solution containing hafnium-free zirconium sulfate. Consequently, hafnium in the zirconium sponge obtained is reduced to less than 50 ppm. 3. The extractant undergoes no chemical changes but is very stable for a long period. In particular, its solubility in water is small, about 20 ppm maximum, posing no environmental pollution problems such as are often caused by other process raffinates. At the present time, the zirconium and hafnium separation operation is very stable, and zirconium sponge made by this process can be applied satisfactorily to nuclear reactors

  6. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckingsale, D. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Gaudin, W. P. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Hornung, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herdman, J. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  7. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  8. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  9. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  11. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  12. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1985. Studies on liquefying reaction of coals, and on reforming and utilizing the product; 1985 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    Contents of the studies on coal liquefaction processes during fiscal 1985 are as follows: coal liquefying reaction using iron based catalysts and adding solvent-refined coal (SRC) into the solvent is carried out by using an autoclave to investigate changes in the liquefaction rate, solvent and SRC; coal hydrogenating reaction using iron based catalysts is performed by using a continuous liquefying equipment to discuss sedimentation and accumulation of the catalysts, coal types, and conversion rate; hydrogenation treatment using Ni-Mo based catalysts is given on residual products produced by the liquefaction to compare degree of lightening and cleanliness with the result in medium fraction; hydrogenation treatment is given on the medium fraction produced in a large process to investigate effects of the reforming treatment from the nature of the produced oil and compare the effects with the nature of oil produced from mixing the medium fraction of the coal liquefied oil with the corresponding fraction from petroleum; a combustion test using a diesel engine is performed on oil reformed and produced from the hydrogenation treatment of the medium fraction of the coal liquefied oil to discuss the reforming effect from the amount and nature of the waste gas; and the oil mixed of the medium fraction and the corresponding fraction in petroleum is evaluated on petroleum substitution performance by using the above test. (NEDO)

  13. Solvent extraction process development for high plutonium fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, R; Selvaraj, P G; Natarajan, R; Raman, V R [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    The purification of high plutonium bearing irradiated fuels using 30% TBP in dodecane diluent requires precise determination of concentration profiles during steady state, transient and process upset conditions. Mathematical models have been developed and a computer code is in use for determining Pu-U concentration profiles in a solvent extraction equipment in a typical reprocessing plant. The process parameters have been optimised for recovery of U and Pu and decontamination from the fission products. This computer code is used to analyse the extraction flow sheets of fuels of two typical Pu-U compositions encountered in Indian fast breeder programme. The analysis include the effect of uncertainty in equilibrium condition prediction by the model and the variation of flows of streams during plant operation. The studies highlight the margin available to avoid second organic phase formation and adjustments required in the process flowsheet. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  15. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, K.H. van

    1982-05-01

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.) [de

  16. Case cluster of pneumoconiosis at a coal slag processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Kathleen M; Cropsey, Erin B; Armstrong, Jenna L

    2015-05-01

    During an inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of a small coal slag processing plant with 12 current workers, four cases of pneumoconiosis were identified among former workers. The OSHA investigation consisted of industrial hygiene sampling, a review of medical records, and case interviews. Some personal sampling measurements exceeded the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for total dust exposures of 15 mg/m(3), and the measured respirable silica exposure of 0.043 mg/m(3), although below OSHA's current PEL for respirable dust containing silica, was above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Threshold Limit Value (TLV). Chest x-rays for all four workers identified small opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis. This is the first known report of lung disease in workers processing coal slag and raises concerns for workers exposed to coal slag dust. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  18. Influences of different degassing processes on refining effect and properties of 4004 Al alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently the productivity of 4004 Al foil, the research studied in detail the influence of the rotary impeller degassing process on the refining effect of 4004 Al alloy, in which the impacts of four major parameters: gas flow, rotational speed, refining time, and stewing time, on degassing rate of 4004 Al alloy was systematically studied by using an orthogonal experiment methodology. Results show that the rotational speed has the greatest impact on the degassing of 4004 Al alloy, followed by gas flow and refining time; stewing time has the least impact. The optimum purification parameters obtained by current orthogonal analysis were: rotor speed of 500 r·min-1, inert gas flow of 0.4 mL·h-1, refining time of 15 min, and stewing time of 6 min. Degassing rate using the optimum parameters reaches 68%. In addition, the comparison experiments among C2Cl6 refining, rotary impeller degassing, and combined treatment of C2Cl6 refining and rotary impeller degassing for 4004 Al alloy were performed. The experimental data indicated that the combined treatment of C2Cl6 refining and rotary impeller degassing has the best degassing effect. Degassing rate of C2Cl6 refining, rotary impeller degassing and combined refining treatment is 39%, 69.1% and 76.9%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the specimen refined by rotary impeller degassing were higher than those by C2Cl6 refining, but lower than those by combined refining treatment.

  19. Specific processes in solvent extractiotn of radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The doctoral thesis discusses the consequences of the radioactive beta transformation in systems liquid-liquid and liquid-ion exchanger, and the effect of the chemical composition of liquid-liquid systems on the distribution of radionuclide traces. A model is derived of radiolysis in two-phase liquid-liquid systems used in nuclear chemical technology. The obtained results are used to suggest the processing of radioactive wastes using the Purex process. For solvent extraction the following radionuclides were used: 59 Fe, 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, 99 Tc, 103 Pd, 137 Cs, 141 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 234 Th, and 233 Pa. Extraction was carried out at laboratory temperature. 60 Co was used as the radiation source. Mainly scintillation spectrometry equipment was used for radiometric analysis. (E.S.)

  20. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  1. Investigation of a high pressure oxy-coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, U. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Heat and Mass Transfer

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of an oxy-coal process, which is pressurized to a combustion pressure of 80 bar. At that pressure the water-vapor can be separated economically from the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O flue gases, either by nucleate condensation or by condensation on cooled surfaces in condenser heat exchangers at a temperature of about 300 C. The heat of condensation can be recaptured to preheat the boiler feed water. So the number of economizers is drastically reduced compared to a conventional steam cycle. Another interesting feature of the high pressure oxy-coal process is the fact, that low rank coal with high moisture content can be fired. Such a process at a pressure of about 80 bar is currently investigated by Babcock, USA, as the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS) and will be analyzed in the present paper. A known disadvantage of the oxy-coal processes is the large recirculating flue gas stream to control the combustion temperature, and which need large pipes and heavy recirculation fans. This disadvantage could be avoided if instead of flue gas a part of the condensed water from the condenser heat exchangers is recirculated. Within the present study both types of processes have been simulated and for an electric power output of about 220 MW. Furthermore, results of CFD simulations of a pressurized 250 MW combustor with a single swirl burner and flue gas recirculation will be presented.

  2. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  4. Synthesis of hydrocarbons using coal and nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, H.G.; Kugeler, K.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the global petroleum resources and demand shows that the amount of mineral oil products is sufficient to meet the requirements of the next decades. The geographical resources, however, could lead to problems of distribution and foreign exchange. The production of hydrocarbons with coal as basis using high temperature nuclear process heat has advantages compared to the conventional techniques. Next to the conservation of reserve fossil primary energy carriers there are advantages as regards prices, which at high coal costs are especially pronounced. (orig.) [de

  5. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  6. Development of sustainable coal to liquid processes: Minimising process CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kauchali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional coal-to-liquid (CTL plants are synonymous with the production of carbon dioxide. Coal may be gasified in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce gas comprising carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and steam (H2O. The gases can be reacted to a myriad of chemicals and fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT reaction. However, excess carbon dioxide is generated via the Water-Gas-Shift reaction during preparation of CO:H2 ratios for FT. Here, a process development is represented on a CHO phase diagram, where unique regions are identified for autothermal operations for coal conversion. Considerations are given to develop idealised processes for the production of liquid chemicals from coal which emit minimal process CO2, require minimal energy input and do not require steam. This is achieved by co-feeding coal with methane and identifying endothermic-exothermic process pairs for methane-coal dry reforming. Furthermore, it is shown that a preferred method to produce liquid fuels from coal is by first creating dimethyl ether (DME as an intermediate, followed by the dehydration of DME to liquid fuels (gasoline range. For this route, via DME, the CO2 emission was found to be four times less than idealised CTL processes. Keywords: Gasification, Reforming, Coal to liquid, Carbon dioxide, Autothermal, Fischer tropsch

  7. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  8. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, L.; Becker, R.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H 2 MBP->H 3 PO 4 values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90 0 C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H 2 MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H 3 PO 4 as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10 -5 mol/l. (orig.) [de

  9. Chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation in the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, L; Becker, R

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of chemical and radiolytical solvent degradation is described. For the hydrolysis of tributylphosphate TBP->HDBP->H/sub 2/MBP->H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ values are given for the individual constants in a temperature range from 23 to 90/sup 0/C. Radiolytic yields were measured for HDBP as 80 mg/Wh, for H/sub 2/MBP as 2 mg/Wh, and for H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ as 5 mg/Wh. Experimental results on the degradation products of the diluent are summarized and their influence on the process is discussed. Long chain acid phosphates and acid TBP oligomeres were identified as responsible for the retention of fission products. Techniques such as polarography, infrared spectrometry and electrolytic conductometry are applied to estimate concentrations of degradation products down to 10/sup -5/ mol/l.

  10. SOLVEX: a computer program for simulation of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotten, W.C.

    1975-09-01

    SOLVEX is a FORTRAN IV computer program that simulates the dynamic behavior of solvent extraction processes conducted in mixer-settlers and centrifugal contactors. Two options permit terminating dynamic phases by time or by achieving steady state, and a third option permits artificial rapid close to steady state. Thus the program is well suited to multiple phases of dynamic problems and multiple input of steady state problems. Changes from the previous problem are the only inputs required for each succeeding problem. Distribution data can be supplied by two-variable third-power polynomial equations or by three-variable tables in any one of 16 different combinations involving phase concentrations or distribution coefficients (ratio of phase concentrations) or their logarithms

  11. Morin-based nanofiltration membranes for organic solvent separation processes

    KAUST Repository

    Perez Manriquez, Liliana

    2018-02-26

    In this work we demonstrate the successful optimization of the interfacial polymerization reaction for the manufacture of organic solvent nanofiltration membranes by replacing the toxic amines commonly used for this method with the natural occurring bio-polyphenol morin. For the manufacture of this type of OSN membrane a crosslinked PAN support was coated by interfacial polymerization using morin as the monomer of the aqueous phase and terephtaloyl chloride as the monomer of the organic phase. These membranes showed an exceptional performance and resistance to NMP by having a a permeance of 0.3L/m2 h bar in NMP with a rejection of 96% of Brilliant Blue dye which has a molecular weight of 825.97g/mol, making these membranes attractive for harsh industrial separation processes due to their ease of manufacture, low cost, and excellent performance.

  12. Processing (refining) of petroleum and natural gases. Pererabotka neftyanykh i prirodnykh gazov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, M A; Gorechenkov, V G; Volkov, N P

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the theoretical principles underlying the processes involved in the processing of natural and petroleum gases and gas condensate. Information is given on apparatus, engineering systems, and machine methods for the designing of gas refining plants. The book is intended for engineers and operation personnel of gas refining plants, and might also be useful to senior undergraduates at chemistry and petroleum institutes of higher learning. 278 references, 54 tables.

  13. Cesium Removal from Savannah River Site Radioactive Waste Using the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WALKER, DARREL

    2004-01-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) successfully demonstrated the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process flow sheet using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus in two 24-hour tests using actual high level waste. Previously, we demonstrated the solvent extraction process with actual SRS HLW supernatant solution using a non-optimized solvent formulation. Following that test, the solvent system was optimized to enhance extractant solubility in the diluent by increasing the modifier concentration. We now report results of two tests with the new and optimized solvent

  14. Antipollution processing of a used refining catalyst and metal recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh Dinh Chan; Llido, E.

    1992-04-30

    The used catalyst, containing metals such as vanadium, nickel and iron, is unloaded from the plant and is first processed by stripping; it is then calcined in critical conditions, and the catalyst metals are leached with a sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate aqueous solution. The antipollution process can be applied to oil fraction hydroconversion or hydroprocessing catalysts.

  15. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  16. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Objectives: Through this grant, Battelle proposes to address Area of Interest (AOI) 1 to develop a bench-scale technology to economically separate, extract, and concentrate mixed REEs from coal ash. U.S. coal and coal byproducts provide the opportunity for a domestic source of REEs. The DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has characterized various coal and coal byproducts samples and has found varying concentrations of REE ranging up to 1,000 parts per million by weight. The primary project objective is to validate the economic viability of recovering REEs from the coal byproduct coal ash using Battelle’s patented closed-loop Acid Digestion Process (ADP). This will be accomplished by selecting coal sources with the potential to provide REE concentrations above 300 parts per million by weight, collecting characterization data for coal ash samples generated via three different methods, and performing a Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) for the proposed process. The regional availability of REE-laden coal ash, the regional market for rare earth concentrates, and the system capital and operating costs for rare earth recovery using the ADP technology will be accounted for in the TEA. Limited laboratory testing will be conducted to generate the parameters needed for the design of a bench scale system for REE recovery. The ultimate project outcome will be the design for an optimized, closed loop process to economically recovery REEs such that the process may be demonstrated at the bench scale in a Phase 2 project. Project Description: The project will encompass evaluation of the ADP technology for the economic recovery of REEs from coal and coal ash. The ADP was originally designed and demonstrated for the U.S. Army to facilitate demilitarization of cast-cured munitions via acid digestion in a closed-loop process. Proof of concept testing has been conducted on a sample of Ohio-based Middle Kittanning coal and has demonstrated the feasibility of recovering

  17. New antipollution processing of a used refining catalyst and complete recovery of the catalyst metallic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh Dinh Chan; Llido, E.

    1992-05-15

    The used refining catalyst, containing metals such as vanadium, nickel and iron, is first processed by stripping; it is then calcined in critical conditions and heat processed in the presence of a melted alkaline base; the resulting solid matter is then water processed. The antipollution process can be applied to oil fraction hydroconversion or hydroprocessing catalysts.

  18. Partnew - New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Testard, F.; Hudson, M.J.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Christiansen, B.; Ferrando, M.; Facchini, A.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Gonzalez-Espartero, A.; Mendoza, J. de

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the European project PARTNEW were to define solvent extraction processes for the partitioning of the minor actinides, Am and Cm, from the aqueous high active raffinate or high active concentrate issuing the reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by the PUREX process. Eleven laboratories participated to the research: 1/ CEA-DEN (Marcoule), 2/ CEA-DSM (Saclay), 3/ UREAD (U.K.), 4/ CTU (Sweden), 5/ ITU (Germany), 6/ ENEA (Italy), 7/ PoliMi (Italy), 8/ FZK-INE (Germany), 9/ FZJ-ISR (Germany), 10/ CIEMAT (Spain) and 11/ UAM (Spain). The research was organised into eight work packages (WP): Basic and applied DIAMEX studies, using diamide extractants for the co-extraction of actinides(III) (An(III)) and lanthanides(III) (Ln(III)) nitrates (WP1 and WP2), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of polydentate N-ligands for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation (WP3 and WP4), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of synergistic mixtures made of bis-(chloro-phenyl)-di-thio-phosphinic acid + neutral O-bearing ligand, (WP5 and WP6), Basic SANEX studies for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation, based on the use of new S-bearing ligands, Basic and applied studies for the Am(III)/Cm(III) separation. The work done in the fundamental and applied domains was very fruitful. Several processes have been successfully tested with genuine high active raffinates and concentrate. (authors)

  19. Crud in the solvent extraction process for spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing

    2004-01-01

    The crud occurred in Purex process is caused by the degradations of extractant and solvent and the existence of insoluble solid particle in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The crud seriously affects the operation of the extraction column. The present paper reviews the study status on the crud in the Purex process. It is generally accepted that in the Purex process, particularly in the first cycle, the crud occurrence is related to the capillary chemistry phenomena resulting from the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP, H 3 PO 4 and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd. The occurrence of deposits and the type of crud are tightly related to the molar ratio of HDBP and Zr, and the aqueous pH. In addition, the effect of degradation products from the diluent, such as kerosene, is an unnegligible factor to cause the crud. The crud can be discharged from the extraction equipment with Na 2 CO 3 or oxalic acid. In the study on simulating the crud, the effects of the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP and H 2 PO 4 , and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd should be considered at the same time. (authors)

  20. Solvent tailoring in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1982-November 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A.R.; Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Williams, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A gradientless, high-pressure, continuous reaction system equipped with a carberry-type catalyst basket, was designed and built for hydrotreating liquid feedstocks. A model reaction system (naphthalene dissolved in a carrier vehicle) was used to verify the key results of the simulation study. Investigation of the sensitivity of hydrotreater performance to variations in the volatility of the feedstream were continued. Hydrogenation activity was found to be highly sensitive to differences in the volatility of feedstreams. As part of the sensitivity analyses with respect to feedstream volatility, the reactor was simulated to study the highly interactive effects of hydrogen flowrate, feed concentration, temperature, and pressure. With the use of heavy carrier solvents (e.g. hexadecane or white oil) naphthalene conversion was insensitive to increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in hydrogen flowrate (above the theoretical minimum) or increases in feed concentration. However, with the use of a light carrier solvent (e.g. toluene or cyclohexane) naphthalene conversion was sensitive to both increases in hydrogen flowrate and increases in feedstream concentration. The sensitivity of conversion to reactor pressure was found to be greater for the heavier feed system. It is thus worth noting that the failure to account for liquid vaporization effects could lead to false activation energies and frequency factors. A possible disadvantage to concentrating the reactants and increasing their residence time, with the use of a highly volatile vehicle medium, could be accelerated catalyst deactivation.

  1. Outline of research achievement of fiscal 1983. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1983 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Reported are the results of (1) the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, (2) development of brown coal liquefaction technology, (3) experimental fabrication and development of plant equipment and materials therefor, and (4) a survey on coal type selection. The goals of the development are mentioned below. Under Item (1), an optimum liquefaction process and a solid/liquid separation process are to be defined, the effect of iron-based catalysts upon liquefaction reaction is to be elucidated, a technology for constructing a direct hydroliquefaction unit is to be established, and a plant using such a unit is to be developed. Under Item (2), an optimum liquefaction technology is to be established, high in economic efficiency and reliability, by subjecting Australia's Victoria brown coal to the direct liquefaction process. In particular, a new brown coal liquefaction technology is to be established, which will be an organic combination of a novel, raw brown coal slurry dehydration technology, a solvent deashing technology, and the secondary hydrogenation technology, all centering on the basic technology of primary hydrogenation. Under Item (3), reactor materials, accessory materials, slurry pumps, etc., are to be experimentally manufactured and developed further. Under Item (4), data are to be collected on coal resources, coal quality, liquefaction characteristics, etc., during the process of technology development for liquefaction, etc. Furthermore, methods are to be established for the effective utilization of liquefaction products and for their optimum refining. (NEDO)

  2. Detecting Difference between Process Models Based on the Refined Process Structure Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mobile workflow management systems (mWfMS leads to large number of business process models. In the meantime, the location restriction embedded in mWfMS may result in different process models for a single business process. In order to help users quickly locate the difference and rebuild the process model, detecting the difference between different process models is needed. Existing detection methods either provide a dissimilarity value to represent the difference or use predefined difference template to generate the result, which cannot reflect the entire composition of the difference. Hence, in this paper, we present a new approach to solve this problem. Firstly, we parse the process models to their corresponding refined process structure trees (PSTs, that is, decomposing a process model into a hierarchy of subprocess models. Then we design a method to convert the PST to its corresponding task based process structure tree (TPST. As a consequence, the problem of detecting difference between two process models is transformed to detect difference between their corresponding TPSTs. Finally, we obtain the difference between two TPSTs based on the divide and conquer strategy, where the difference is described by an edit script and we make the cost of the edit script close to minimum. The extensive experimental evaluation shows that our method can meet the real requirements in terms of precision and efficiency.

  3. Studies on the catalysts for coal liquefaction. ; Rheological studies of coal liquefaction process. Sekitan ekikayo shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Sekitan ekika process no rheology teki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, T; Oda, H; Yokokawa, C [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-11-07

    Hydrogenolysis of different rank coals as Taiheiyo coal (75.7C%) and Pittston coal (85.4C%) were conducted in the presence of four kinds of catalysts (CuCrO4, Fe2O3+S, MoO3-TiO2 and MoS3-Al2O3) with an addition of tetralin as vehicle. The variation in viscosity in every reaction system was traced in the initial stage of the reaction by a torque meter attached to an autoclave. As a result, in every system, the torque decreased in the initial stage of temperature rise because of reduction of a solvent viscosity. The torque subsequently increased with temperature indicating two peaks before the following gradual decrease. In Taiheiyo coal, both peaks were low, and its coal conversion was more than 85%, while in Pittston coal, both peaks were sharp and high, and both subsequent torque reduction and coal conversion were smaller than those of Taiheiyo coal. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  5. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  6. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  7. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  8. Radiation-thermal processes of conversion in the coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The brief review, history, modern condition and bibliographic data on research of radiation-stimulated processes in coals are adduced in the report. Results of new researches of influence of gamma - radiation and accelerated electrons on pyrolysis, gasification, desulphurization, paramagnetism, adsorption and optical properties of coals in wide intervals of change of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature, radiation type and other parameters of processes are stated. As object of researches Turkish (Yeni koy, Yatagan) and Russian (Siberia) coals were used. Specific peculiarities of influence of ionizing radiations on fossil fuels, bringing in change of their reactivity as result of destruction and polycondensation processes are considered. a)Pyrolysis: Under action of gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons the rate of thermal (t) pyrolysis grows and the ratio of radiation-thermal (rt) and thermal (t) processes: Wrt/ Wt depends on dose rate and temperature. By increase of dose rate the radiation effects grows, and at increase of temperature this effect is reduced. The influence of high rate heating of coals under pulls action of accelerated electrons on conversion degree and product composition has been established. The investigation regularities of formation liquid and gas products is resulted at radiation - thermal processing of mixtures of lignites with fuel oil. These experiments were conducted in flowing conditions in the interval of temperature T=350-500 degrees centigrade, power of the pulls accelerated electrons P=30-50 W, flow velocity of fuel oil 0,2-2 ml/minute. As a index of process were controlled conversion degree of coals, overall yield, contents and characteristic of liquid and gas products. The products of thermal treatment of these mixtures and also radiation-thermal treatment of separate components significantly less than radiation-thermal conversion of binary mixtures. It has been established that radiation effect has a positive

  9. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 for development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology. Development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant (Research on a primary hydrogenation technology, research on a deliming technology, research on a secondary hydrogenation technology, research on a dehydrogenation technology, and research on liquefaction from catalytic aspect); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (ichiji suiten gijutsu no kenkyu, dakkai gijutsu no kenkyu, niji suiten gijutsu no kenkyu, shokubaimen kara no ekika kenkyu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in development of brown coal based solvent extraction in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Element researches were performed to complement and support the development of a liquefaction technology for brown coal produced in Victoria, Australia by using a 50-T/D pilot plant. For the primary hydrogenation technology, a manufacturing experiment was completed by means of nine cycles using a brown coal balancing solvent in a 0.1-t/day bench scale test. Distribution of the formed materials, the solvent properties, and the SRC properties have become nearly constant after 5 to 6 cycles. A test using a batch type device was performed to derive the relationship among dissolution parameters, SRC recovery rates, and deliming rates by using different solvents. For the secondary hydrogenation technology, SRC being the heavy fraction in a primary hydrogenation system (+420 degrees C) was hydrogenated by using an Ni{center_dot}Mo based catalyst at 360 degrees C and 250 kg/cm{sup 2}. A prospect was attained that the processing is possible by using a fixed bed reactor. A test using a small continuous dehydration testing device was carried out by using creosote oil as the solvent and by varying the evaporator operating conditions. Dehydration rate of 90 to 95% was obtained. Discussions were given on selecting catalysts for the secondary hydrogenation of the fixed bed method, and on factors of activity deterioration. A secondary hydrogenation test reactor of the suspended bed method was completed. (NEDO)

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REFINING PROCESSING OF SILUMINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Rumjantseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the method of mathematical planning of experiments enabled to receive dependences of mechanical characteristics of alloy AK9 in cast state, grade of porosity by the scale VIAM and quantity of escaping dust at flux processing on composition of fining flux metal. The composition of fining flux metal, providing minimum dust discharge and way of assessment of degree of discharge harmfulness by the amount of ecological tax is offered.

  11. Summary of the research achievements in fiscal 1988. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1988 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    This paper reports the summary of the research and development works in fiscal 1988. The following researches were carried out: as development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology, studies by using a pilot plant, studies on support of the pilot plant (studies by using an experimental plant (studies by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of an optimal pretreatment technology for coals to be used for liquefaction, studies on improvement in fraction oil distribution in the NEDOL process, and studies by using a 1-t/d plant)), and (studies by using a small device (studies on coal liquefying conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenation catalysts)). Studies were carried out on operation of the pilot plant, and on support of the pilot plant operation. Materials for auxiliary machinery were developed (including in-plant test of new materials), and so were the devices (including development of a let-down valve) as trial fabrication and development of the plant devices and materials. As coal type selection and survey, coal types were surveyed, and liquefaction performance of Chinese coals was tested. In order to develop applications of coal liquefied products and a refining technology, developments were carried out on up-grading of the coal liquefied oil, a petroleum mixing technology, and a technology to separate hetero compounds in coal liquefied oil, and applications of the compounds. (NEDO)

  12. Synthesis, fractionation, and thin film processing of nanoparticles using the tunable solvent properties of carbon dioxide gas expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Madhu

    Nanoparticles have received significant attention because of their unusual characteristics including high surface area to volume ratios. Materials built from nanoparticles possess unique chemical, physical, mechanical and optical properties. Due to these properties, they hold potential in application areas such as catalysts, sensors, semiconductors and optics. At the same time, CO 2 in the form of supercritical fluid or CO2 gas-expanded liquid mixtures has gained significant attention in the area of processing nanostructures. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis and processing of nanoparticles using CO2 tunable solvent systems. Nanoparticle properties depend heavily on their size and, as such, the ability to finely control the size and uniformity of nanoparticles is of utmost importance. Solution based nanoparticle formation techniques are attractive due to their simplicity, but they often result in the synthesis of particles with a wide size range. To address this limitation, a post-synthesis technique has been developed in this dissertation to fractionate polydisperse nanoparticles ( s . = 30%) into monodisperse fractions ( s . = 8%) using tunable physicochemical properties of CO 2 expanded liquids, where CO2 is employed as an antisolvent. This work demonstrates that by controlling the addition of CO2 (pressurization) to an organic dispersion of nanoparticles, the ligand stabilized nanoparticles can be size selectively precipitated within a novel high pressure apparatus that confines the particle precipitation to a specified location on a surface. Unlike current techniques, this CO2 expanded liquid approach provides faster and more efficient particle size separation, reduction in organic solvent usage, and pressure tunable size selection in a single process. To improve our fundamental understanding and to further refine the size separation process, a detailed study has been performed to identify the key parameters enabling size separation of various

  13. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  14. Spent solvent treatment process at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akihiro; Saka, Munenori; Araya, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Tomohiro; Wakamatsu, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of spent organic solvent and diluent produced by the PUREX method, it is desirable that it should be in stable form for easy handling. For this reason, spent solvent is reduced to powder form and further molded so that it becomes easier to handle for temporary storage at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). In this paper, the treatment unit for reducing spent solvent to powder form and the treatment unit for modeling the powder are introduced as well as their treatment results during Chemical Test. (author)

  15. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  16. Morin-based nanofiltration membranes for organic solvent separation processes

    KAUST Repository

    Perez Manriquez, Liliana; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the successful optimization of the interfacial polymerization reaction for the manufacture of organic solvent nanofiltration membranes by replacing the toxic amines commonly used for this method with the natural occurring

  17. Development of solvent extraction process for erbium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Erbium an important heavy rare earth (HRE) finds valuable application in space and nuclear energy technology. High purity erbium oxide is used as coating material for test blanket module of fusion reactor to prevent the tritium permeation. The total concentration of HRE (including Er) in only proven resource of rare earths in Indian monazite mineral is < 0.05%. Its separation from such a low concentration and also from host of other chemically similar elements like Y, Dy, Ho, Yb, Tm etc is quite difficult and challenging. A solvent extraction process employing PC88A and Aliquat336 has been developed for the purification of erbium oxide from two types of HRE fractions having % composition; (i) Y 2 O 3 : 0.18, Tb 4 O 7 : 0.28, Dy 2 CO 2 : 47.07, Er 2 O 3 : 35.03, HO 2 O 3 : 10.11, Yb 2 O 3 : 5.88, Tm 2 O 3 : 1.43 and (ii) Dy 2 O 3 : 6.39, Er 2 O 3 : 49.43, HO 2 O 3 : 10.43, Tm 2 O 3 : 2.7, Y 2 O 3 : 24.08, Yb 2 O 3 : 6.96. PC88A was used to process low Y content concentrate from chloride medium whereas Aliquat336 was found to be suitable in thiocynate medium to treat the concentrate with high Y content. Effects of process variables such as acidity, extractant concentration, total oxide concentration in feed, number of stages, phase ratio, scrubbing agent were investigated for both the systems

  18. New biphasic solvent system based on cyclopentyl methyl ether for the purification of a non-polar synthetic peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarouche, Nassima; Boudesocque, Leslie; Borie, Nicolas; Giraud, Matthieu; Forni, Luciano; Butte, Alessandro; Edwards, Florence; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2014-06-01

    A new type 1 ternary biphasic system composed of cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide and water was developed, characterized and successfully used for the purification of a lipophilic, protected peptide by pH-zone refining centrifugal partition chromatography. The protected peptide is an 8-mer, key intermediate in bivalirudin (Angiomax®) synthesis and shows a very low solubility in the solvents usually used in liquid chromatography. All ionic groups, except the N-terminal end of the peptide, are protected by a benzyl group. The purification of this peptide was achieved with a purity of about 99.04% and a recovery of 94% using the new ternary biphasic system cyclopentyl methyl ether/dimethylformamide/water (49:40:11, v/v) in the descending pH-zone refining mode with triethylamine (28 mM) as the retainer and methanesulfonic acid (18 mM) as the eluter. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  20. Possibility of chemical products from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G A; Sinnett, C E; Swift, H E

    1982-01-01

    An account of the SRC-II plant, which produces solvent refined coal (SRC), a liquid product. SRC is a raw material with potential as a new source of hydrocarbons. Topics discussed include the possibilities of its use as a petrochemical feedstock; derivatives and the amounts obtained; economic assessments and expected prices. The translator of this article puts forward the view that, due to the difficulty of obtaining the type of coal needed for SRC-II, the best policy for Japanese coal liquefaction is methanol synthesis.

  1. A Technique for Decreasing Reactivity of Coal Material to Suppress the Oxygen Absorption Process

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Lugovtsova, Nataliya Yurievna; Gubanova, А. R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanisms of self-ignition formation in coal liable to spontaneous combustion, on the basis of experimental works performed to analyze heat and mass transfer in the coal-air system. A new approach was developed to the coal self-heating suppression and thermodynamic control of the oxidation process. The influence of coal moisture content and thermal behaviour of air in the cooling process was studied during moisture evaporation.

  2. Segregation in handling processes of blended industrial coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.G.; Marjanovic, P.; McGlinchy, D.; McLaren, R. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Department of Physical Sciences, Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    1998-09-01

    A comparison was made between two belt blending methods; using either a compartment hopper or feeder belts. The results indicated that in this case the system with feeder belts gave a more consistent proportioning of materials. Coal when formed into a heap was shown to segregate dependent on size fraction. The level of segregation for each size fraction was quantified using ANOVA statistics. Any measure taken to mitigate this segregation could then be properly assessed. Some aspects of the segregation evident in the heap arose in previous handling steps showing that such effects are transmittable along a process stream. Singles coal when pneumatically conveyed in dilute phase will segregate in the conveying pipeline. Segregation in the direction of travel was minimal in dense phase conveying although the materials tested separated through the depth of the pipe. A full scale experimental programme investigating segregation in both dense and dilute phase is currently underway. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Coal pyrolysis in a continuous fluidized bed - process development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, N N; Akmal, M A.K.; Vaidyeswaran, R

    1981-10-01

    The paper deals with the development of a process development unit (PDU) for the fluid bed pyrolysis of non-caking slack coal obtained from Singareni and Talcher coalfields. Preheated air is used as the fluidizing medium. It is necessary to avoid its maldistribution by a suitable design of the gas distributor. In this regard perforated conical distributors appear to play an important role. In the low temperature carbonization of coal an operation around 500 C gives optimum yields of char and tar of desirable quality. Carbonization reactions are generally completed within about 20 min of the feed entry into the fluidized bed and the char attains an equilibrium volatile matter content. Since air is used as the fluidizing medium carbonization gas is diluted with nitrogen and non-combustibles. The heating value of the gas is low. (5 refs.)

  4. Industrial rag cleaning process for the environmentally safe removal of petroleum-based solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the cleaning of industrial rags contaminated with environmentally unsafe petroleum-based solvent is described, comprising the step of: (a) placing a load of the industrial rags in a mechanically driven rotary drum; (b) revolving the drum at a high speed sufficient to physically extract liquid petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the industrial rags; (c) routing the extracted petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the rotary drum to a waste solvent collection line for environmentally safe disposal; (d) revolving the rotary drum to cause a tumbling of the industrial rags while maintaining the temperature within the drum at below the flash point of the petroleum-based solvent; (e) intermittently forcing cold air and hot air through the rotary drum to vaporize solvent from the industrial rags; (f) routing the vaporized petroleum-based solvent contaminant from the rotary drum to a condenser wherein the petroleum-based solvent contaminate is condensed and thereafter further routing said condensed solvent to a waste collection line for environmentally safe disposal; and (g) cleaning the industrial rags in the presence of a dry cleaning solvent to remove residual petroleum-based solvents and soil

  5. User-centric Query Refinement and Processing Using Granularity Based Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhong, N.; Wang, Y.; Qin, Y.; Huang, Z.; Zhou, H; Yao, Y; van Harmelen, F.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Under the context of large-scale scientific literatures, this paper provides a user-centric approach for refining and processing incomplete or vague query based on cognitive- and granularity-based strategies. From the viewpoints of user interests retention and granular information processing, we

  6. Review on the processes of reduction and refining of metallic vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, M.B.; Capocchi, J.D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A literature survey on the processes of vanadium reduction and refining is presented. The results achieved by several research workers are comented. Enphasis is given to the aluminothermic reduction of V 2 O 5 followed by purification of the crude metal in an electron beam melting furnace or by high temperature molten salts electrolitic processes. (Author) [pt

  7. Petroleum refining. Separation processes; Le raffinage du petrole. Procedes de separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauquier, J.P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Bonfils, P. [AB Industries (France); Company, J.P. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Deschamps, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gourlia, J.P. [Elf Aquitaine (France); Gouzien, L. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Hombourger, T. [Mobil (France); Jullian, S. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Marty, C. [Compagnie de Raffinage et de Distribution TOTAL France, 75 - Paris (France); Mikitenko, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Ptak, C. [Technip, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Rojey, A.; Streicher, C.; Vidal, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-12-01

    After having given into details the conventional separation processes used in petroleum refining, the author describes the development future prospects: improvement of the existing technologies, introduction of new techniques or separation processes still not used today in this industry. This book is particularly devoted to students and to engineers and technical men who work in refineries. (O.M.) 308 refs.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Research on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of products; 1984 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Upon the development into a single law of the three liquefaction related laws, studies are started on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of the products. In the research on coal liquefaction reaction, the solvent ratio, change in reaction time, and change in liquefaction product constitution in case of repeated circulation of the solvent are tracked, and their relations with the liquefaction rate and yield are studied, these efforts involving the Taiheiyo coal, Yallourn coal, and the Miike coal. The Taiheiyo coal is subjected to a short-duration liquefaction reaction test. In the research on product reforming, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation, and the effect of the reaction conditions on the properties and constitution of the thus-treated oil are studied. An SRC (solvent refined coal) solution of the Taiheiyo coal is subjected to hydrogenation in the presence of a Ni-Mo catalyst, and the SRC cracking rate and product properties are compared with those obtained from another solution treated with a Co-Mo catalyst. In the research on product utilization, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation under three sets of different reaction conditions in the presence of a Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based catalyst. In this process, specimens are prepared by mixing the original oil, its hydrogenated product, and a petroleum-based light oil, and a study is made about the usability of the specimens and their mixtures with petroleum-based heater oil as light oil or heater oil. (NEDO)

  9. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  10. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  11. Cleaning of spent solvent and method of processing cleaning liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Masaki; Kawada, Tomio; Tamura, Nobuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent solvents discharged from a solvent extracting step mainly comprise n-dodecane and TBP and contain nuclear fission products and solvent degradation products. The spent solvents are cleaned by using a sodium chloride free detergent comprising hydrazine oxalate and hydrazine carbonate in a solvent cleaning device. Nitric acid is added to the cleaning liquid wastes containing spent detergents extracted from the solvent cleaning device, to control an acid concentration. The detergent liquid wastes of controlled acid concentration are sent to an electrolysis oxidation bath as electrolytes and electrochemically decomposed in carbonic acid gas, nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. The decomposed gases are processed as off gases. The decomposed liquid wastes are processed as a waste nitric acid solution. This can provide more effective cleaning. In addition, the spent detergent can be easily decomposed in a room temperature region. Accordingly, the amount of wastes can be decreased. (I.N.)

  12. FY 1981 Report on the results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of techniques for liquefaction of coal (Development of extraction type liquefaction plant using brown coal-based solvent and researches on milling at high temperature in oil); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, kattankei yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishment of the techniques for milling of brown coal treated by primary dehydration and slurry adjustment, and secondary hydration plant, as part of the project for developing the techniques for liquefaction of brown coal. Brown coal (Australian Yallourn coal) treated by primary dehydration, solvents (creosote and decrystallized anthracene), and catalysts are used as the stock samples, to investigate the coal characteristics with respect to milling crushability, dehydration and liquefaction reactivity, and the slurries are prepared by changing coal charge rate, solvent and preparation temperature, to collect the data regarding, e.g., coal concentration, coal particle size, moisture level and liquefaction reactivity. It is found that milling crushability tends to decrease as coal charge rate or solvent/coal ratio increases whether creosote or decrystallized anthracene is used as the solvent. Milling crushability is unaffected by slurry preparation temperature. Content of residual moisture in the slurry decreases to 1% or less, when slurry preparation temperature is increased to 100 degrees C or higher. Liquefaction reactivity of the slurry shows slight dependence on slurry preparation temperature, when it is increased to 180 degrees C. (NEDO)

  13. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  14. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  15. Conversion of a deasphalting unit for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waintraub S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce energy consumption and to increase deasphalted oil yield, an old PETROBRAS deasphalting unit was converted for use in the process of supercritical solvent recovery. In-plant and pilot tests were performed to determine the ideal solvent-to-oil ratio. The optimum conditions for separation of the supercritical solvent from the solvent-plus-oil liquid mixture were determined by experimental tests in PVT cells. These tests also allowed measurement of the dew and bubble points, determination of the retrograde region, observation of supercritical fluid compressibility and as a result construction of a phase equilibrium diagram.

  16. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  18. Simulation of electrorefining process using time-dependent multi-component electrochemical model: REFIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Gi; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    REFIN model is applied to analyze a series of experiments that had been conducted by Tomczuk, et al. at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the U.S.A.. Predicted results from REFIN model for the electrorefining experiment are compared with the published experimental results. It is demonstrated that REFIN model can predict faradic current of each element and electrochemical potential as a function of time over the entire campaign of the electrorefining experiment. The elemental concentration changes agree with the experimental results well. Elemental concentration changes during an open-circuit equilibration period are revealed to suggest that the electrorefining process could not be adequately described by the equilibrium model often applied for an electrode surface. Surface potential drop is changed according to equilibrium potential of chemical species with high activity in liquid metal.

  19. Bauxite mining and alumina refining: process description and occupational health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, A Michael; Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-05-01

    To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Review article. The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures.

  20. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project by Coal Group. Basic researches on coal liquefaction techniques by solvolysis; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku sekitanhan hokokusho. Sekitan no solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The basic experimental researches were carried out for coal liquefaction by solvolysis. The studied items include hydrogenation conditions for treating the primary liquefied products, asphalt, pitch and model solvents (e.g., anthracene oil) in the presence of a commercial catalyst, solvolysis conditions for finely divided, molten coal using a hydrogenation recycled solvent, hydrotreating solvents, analysis of solvolysis-liquefied products, and liquefaction capacity of fractionated solvents for finely divided, molten coal. The studied items for separation of minerals include settlement at high temperature of the solid residue from the first liquefaction stage, and changed coal particle size distribution as a result of the first-stage liquefaction reactions in the presence of a hydrogenation solvent. The experimental study results indicate that conversion of finely divided molten coal into asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is notably accelerated in the phase-II coal liquefaction process by solvolysis, when a hydrotreating solvent is used for the first stage solvolysis process. (NEDO)

  1. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm...

  2. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  3. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  4. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  5. Report on 1980 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of solvent extraction liquefaction technology and demonstrative investigation on development of brown coal liquefaction technology (studies on high-temperature in-oil pulverization); 1980 nendo yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu / kattan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu jissho chosa seika hokokusho. Koon'yuchu funsai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1980. As a part of the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, pulverization of the first-dehydration brown coal was technologically established, as were adjustment of slurry and equipment for the second-dehydration process. A 20kg/h high temperature in-oil pulverizer was designed, constructed and made ready for the studies. A high temperature mill was a wet type ball mill, 500mm{phi}(diameter) x 1,500 mm length and 2.2kw. Coal was fully pulverized even in a solvent such as creosote oil and anthracene oil freed from crystal, and was adjustable to a prescribed particle size distribution. The wet type slurry adjustment method offered prospects that solvent/coal slurry moisture could be controlled to a prescribed value. An analysis was made on the mill outlet gas and drain collection liquid at the time of high temperature in-oil pulverization, which provided knowledge of securing safety. An analysis was also made on the influence of the heating temperature rise of the mill on the strength, which provided basic data for examining the strength of the mill. Using brown coal as the raw material, slurry was prepared, which confirmed that the device had functions as planned. (NEDO)

  6. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  7. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  8. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  9. Materials, process, product analysis of coal process technology. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, J. C.; Roig, R. W.; Loridan, A.; Leggett, N. E.; Capell, R. G.; Humpstone, C. C.; Mudry, R. N.; Ayres, E.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of materials-process-product analysis is a systematic evaluation of alternative manufacturing processes--in this case processes for converting coal into energy and material products that can supplement or replace petroleum-based products. The methodological steps in the analysis include: Definition of functional operations that enter into coal conversion processes, and modeling of alternative, competing methods to accomplish these functions; compilation of all feasible conversion processes that can be assembled from combinations of competing methods for the functional operations; systematic, iterative evaluation of all feasible conversion processes under a variety of economic situations, environmental constraints, and projected technological advances; and aggregative assessments (economic and environmental) of various industrial development scenarios. An integral part of the present project is additional development of the existing computer model to include: A data base for coal-related materials and coal conversion processes; and an algorithmic structure that facilitates the iterative, systematic evaluations in response to exogenously specified variables, such as tax policy, environmental limitations, and changes in process technology and costs. As an analytical tool, the analysis is intended to satisfy the needs of an analyst working at the process selection level, for example, with respect to the allocation of RDandD funds to competing technologies.

  10. Microstructure evolution and grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser shock processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, X.D., E-mail: renxd@mail.ujs.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technical, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhou, W.F.; Liu, F.F.; Ren, Y.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Yuan, S.Q. [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technical, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Ren, N.F.; Xu, S.D.; Yang, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The grain refinement process of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under LSP: (a) LDD in original grains; (b) Dislocations in β phase; (c) DTIs in α phase; (d) DTs transform into DCs; (e) DWs develop into sub-GBs; (f) GR accomplishes. - Highlights: • LSP could repair the surface defects and reduce the surface roughness. • Microstructure evolution of α phase in Ti-6Al-4V alloy processed by LSP is distinct from β phase. • Multidirectional twin intersections and subgrain boundaries are the main mechanism of grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. • Grain refinement process of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was illustrated. - Abstract: Microstructure evolution and grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after laser shock processing (LSP) are systematically investigated in this paper. Laser shock waves were induced by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system operated with a wave-length of 1064 nm and 10 ns pulse width. The microstructures of LSP samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Present results indicate that the surface hardness of samples subjected to LSP impacts has significantly improved. Multidirectional twin intersections and dislocation movements lead to grain subdivision in α phase with ultra-high plastic deformation. High-density dislocations are found in β phase. Multidirectional twin intersections and division of sub-grain boundaries play an important role in the grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under LSP loading conditions.

  11. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  12. Development of a solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S.B.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Delmau, L.H.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process was developed for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste. The process was invented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and developed and tested at Argonne National Laboratory using singlestage and multistage tests in a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. The dispersion number, hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet were determined. Based on these tests, further solvent development work was done. The final solvent formulation appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  13. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-01-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics

  14. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  15. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  16. Use of advanced chemical fingerprinting in PAH source identification and allocation at a coal tar processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced chemical fingerprinting analyses were used to determine source allocation at a former coal tar processing facility which had been converted to a petroleum recycling site. Soil samples from the site had high petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and elevated levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Comparisons of PAH distributions were used to differentiate the coal tar hydrocarbons from the petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. A more specific technique was needed to accurately allocate the contribution of the two sources to the observed PAH contamination in the soil. Petroleum biomarkers (steranes and triterpanes) which are present in crude oils and many refined petroleum products but are absent in coal tar were used to quantitatively allocate the source of the PAH contamination based on the relative ratio of the PAH to the biomarkers in soil samples. Using the resulting coal tar/petroleum source ratio the contribution of petroleum to the overall PAH contamination at the site was calculated. A multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis or PCA) was used to provide an independent validation of the source allocation. The results of the source allocation provided a foundation for the site clean-up and remediation costs

  17. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  18. Coal Technology Program progress report for April 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In the Hydrocarbonization Research program, two successful experiments were completed in the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer. A settling test at a lower temperature (390/sup 0/F) using 20 percent toluene in Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Unfiltered Oil (UFO) produced a 30 percent clarified product in 2 hr. Characterization tests include distillation curves for Wilsonville's SRC-UFO and a particle size distribution of Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Company's (PAMCO) SRC-UFO. Studies of intermediate-temperature pyrolysis of large blocks have been maintained with char samples continuing to demonstrate pyrophoricity, even after heating to 700/sup 0/C. Simulated distillation analysis of tars produced by the last eight experiments are being compared with those performed at Laramie upon tars produced by the Hanna No. 2 experiment. In Coal-Fueled MIUS, stainless steel tubing to be used in one of the furnace tube bundles was ordered and the bid package for the furnace completed. Tests continued on the coal feed system and with the cold flow fluidized bed model. For the Synthoil process, flow diagrams, material balances, and utilities requirements were completed for the entire facility. For the Hydrocarbonization process, flowsheets were reviewed for compatibility; equipment lists were brought up to date; and utilities requirements were compiled from the individual flowsheets. The char recovery and storage subsystem flowsheet was completed. (auth)

  19. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on some properties of Shenhua coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhi-cai; Shui Heng-fu; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2006-10-15

    Effects of hydrothermal treatment on swelling, extraction and liquefaction behavior of Shenhua coal were studied through analyses of element content, ash content, volatile content and IR spectrum of treated coal. The results indicate that hydrogenation of coal is distinctly carried out in the process of hydrothermal pre-treatment and the hydrogen content of treated coal is more than that of raw coal. The contents of ash and volatile matters of treated coal are lower than those of raw coal. With the increase of treatment temperature the volatile content of the hydrothermal treated coal decreases and the ash content of treated coal increases. CO{sub 2} is main gas product and unvaries with the temperature changing, whereas CO and CH{sub 4} are formed when the temperature is above 250{sup o}C and increase with the temperature during hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment is not in favor of coal swelling and the swelling ratio of treated coal decreases with the increase of treatment temperature. The swelling ratio of extraction residue by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent in NMP solvent is lower than that of the corresponding raw coal. The CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent extraction yields of coal treated at appropriate temperature are higher than that of raw coal, but the extraction yields of treated coal obtained by n-hexane, toluene and THF successive Soxhelt extraction are lower. Hydrothermal treatment at 250-300{sup o}C can increase the conversion of treated coal in direct hydro-liquefaction. The gas + oil yield of treated coal is lower than that of raw coal and the preasphaltene yield of treated coal is much higher. IR spectra of treated coals show that the forms of non-covalent bonds are changed by hydrothermal treatment, and the hydrolysis of ester and ether bonds and the pyrolysis of aromatic side chains also maybe occur at high treatment temperature. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Ramkumar, Jayshree, E-mail: jrk@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Basu, M. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+} ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. - Graphical abstract: Spectrophotometric studies indicate a possibility of cation-cation inner sphere complex formation between the ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous phase to a great extent but it is reduced in the organic phase due to the solvation of ions by TBP molecules. These results are corroborated by those of thermophysical studies. Solvent extraction procedure suitably modified to ensure selective and complete removal of iron from uranium matrix prior to its analysis by ICP-OES. The developed methodology was applied to analysis of uranium samples. - Highlights: • The presence of cation – cation inner sphere complexes between UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} established. • A decreased tendency in organic layer due to TBP solvation.

  1. Determination of Kinetic Parameters of Coal Pyrolysis to Simulate the Process of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Urych

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The devolatilization of a homogenous lump of coal is a complex issue. Currently, the CFD technique (Computational Fluid Dynamics is commonly used for the multi-dimensional and multiphase phenomena modelling. The mathematical models, describing the kinetics of the decomposition of coal, proposed in the article can, therefore, be an integral part of models based on numerical fluid mechanics.

  2. Influence on exploitation and processing of coal on vital environment in Kostolac coal basin (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miletic, Radisa; Milenkovic, Milutin; Milosevic, Vesna

    1997-01-01

    Fast development of industry, makes need of electrical energy bigger and bigger, intensiving exploitation and modification of coal, which constantly imperilment live environment. This paper has purpose to show of the possible reflection on warning and live environment by analysing the factors of exploitation and modification of coal in Kostolac basin in Yugoslavia. (Author)

  3. Crack identification and evolution law in the vibration failure process of loaded coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwu; Ai, Dihao; Sun, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Beijing

    2017-08-01

    To study the characteristics of coal cracks produced in the vibration failure process, we set up a static load and static and dynamic combination load failure test simulation system, prepared with different particle size, formation pressure, and firmness coefficient coal samples. Through static load damage testing of coal samples and then dynamic load (vibration exciter) and static (jack) combination destructive testing, the crack images of coal samples under the load condition were obtained. Combined with digital image processing technology, an algorithm of crack identification with high precision and in real-time is proposed. With the crack features of the coal samples under different load conditions as the research object, we analyzed the distribution of cracks on the surface of the coal samples and the factors influencing crack evolution using the proposed algorithm and a high-resolution industrial camera. Experimental results showed that the major portion of the crack after excitation is located in the rear of the coal sample where the vibration exciter cannot act. Under the same disturbance conditions, crack size and particle size exhibit a positive correlation, while crack size and formation pressure exhibit a negative correlation. Soft coal is more likely to lead to crack evolution than hard coal, and more easily causes instability failure. The experimental results and crack identification algorithm provide a solid basis for the prevention and control of instability and failure of coal and rock mass, and they are helpful in improving the monitoring method of coal and rock dynamic disasters.

  4. Mass spectrometric and chemometric studies of thermoplastic properties of coals. 1. Chemometry of conventional, solvent swelling and extraction data of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzec, A.; Czajkowska, S.; Moszynski, J.; Schulten, H.-R. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Gliwice (Poland). Inst. of Coal Chemistry)

    Twenty-seven coals from Carboniferous seams in Poland were studied with the aim to find links between thermoplastic properties and chemical characteristics of the coals. Three sets of data were obtained for all the coals: (1) thermoplastic properties measured using the Gieseler plastometer; (2) yields of pyridine extractables and swelling measurements for pyridine residues; (3) ultimate, proximate, and petrographic analyses. The three data sets were evaluated using chemometric techniques with the purpose of looking for significant correlations between all the data. Temperature of softening is a linear regression of pyridine extractables and hydrogen content in coals as well as of swelling data. Temperatures of maximum fluidity and resolidification are correlated with each other and with oxygen, exinite, and moisture contents of the coals as well as with the swelling data. It has been concluded that temperature of softening is a colligative property and indicates a phase transition resulting in an increase of thermal induced mobility of coal material; the energy demand of the transition is dependent on contents of bulk components of coal system that were specified in this study. Temperatures of maximum fluidity and resolidification appear to have the same chemical background; i.e. the temperatures depend on the content of the same structural units or components. However, the means of chemical characterization of coal material used in this study were not capable of identifying them. Volatile matter and petrographic composition showed rather limited value as predictive means for some (T{sub F(max)} and T{sub R}) and no predictive value for the other thermoplastic properties. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  6. Phospholipid electrospun nanofibers: effect of solvents and co-axial processing on morphology and fiber diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Qvortrup, Klaus; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    Asolectin phospholipid nano-microfibers were prepared using electrospinning processing. The asolectin fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the fiber morphology was found to be strongly dependent on the phospholipid concentration and the solvents used. The solvents studied were...... chloroform : dimethylformamide (CHCl3 : DMF, 3 : 2 v/v), isooctane, cyclohexane and limonene, producing phospholipid fibers with average diameters in the range of 2.57 +/- 0.59 mu m, similar to 3-8 mu m, similar to 4-5 mu m and 14.3 +/- 2.7 mu m, respectively. The diameter of asolectin electrospun fibers...... solvent and the inner needle contains the asolectin solution in CHCl3: DMF, a substantial reduction in the average fiber diameter was observed. In particular, the average diameter of the fibers when DMF (a solvent with a high dielectric constant) was used as a sheath solvent was reduced by a factor...

  7. Research on solvent extraction process for reprocessing of Th-U fuel from HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wang Gaodong; Qian Jun

    1992-05-01

    The unique properties of spent fuel from HTGR (high temperature gas cooled reactor) have been analysed. The single solvent extraction process using 30% TBP for separation and purification of Th-U fuel has been studied. In addition, the solvent extraction process for second uranium purification is also investigated to meet different needs of reprocessing and reproduction of Th-U spent fuel from HTGR

  8. New alternative processes for the treatment of the alkaline solvent wash waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Cumming, I.W.; Gasparini, G.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The separate treatment of the solvent wash alkaline waste (ASWW) from the other low and medium level liquid wastes generated during reprocessing operations has been investigated through the development of three alternative processes dealing with solvent extraction, chemical precipitation combined with ultrafiltration and inorganic ion exchange. On the basis of lab-scale experiments performed on the same genuine ASWW sample, a comparison has been made between the respective performances of each of these processes in terms of selectivity, decontamination and volume reduction factors. From this assessment, it evolved that solvent extraction and chemical precipitation combined with utrafiltration processes are good competitors for implementing such kind of treatment although for the alpha DF, solvent extraction appears more flexible. To be really attractive, inorganic ion exchange should exhibit better VRF and DF possibly by pretreating the ASWW. 10 refs

  9. Monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion processes via ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, N.; Raptis, A. C.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    1980-02-01

    The state of the art of instrumentation for monitoring temperatures in coal conversion and combustion systems is examined. The instrumentation types studied include thermocouples, radiation pyrometers, and acoustical thermometers. The capabilities and limitations of each type are reviewed. A feasibility study of the ultrasonic thermometry is described. A mathematical model of a pulse-echo ultrasonic temperature measurement system is developed using linear system theory. The mathematical model lends itself to the adaptation of generalized correlation techniques for the estimation of propagation delays. Computer simulations are made to test the efficacy of the signal processing techniques for noise-free as well as noisy signals. Based on the theoretical study, acoustic techniques to measure temperature in reactors and combustors are feasible.

  10. Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    Full Text Available In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting the surface cracks of loaded coal by a vibration failure process is proposed based on the characteristics of the surface cracks of coal and support vector machine (SVM. A large number of cracked images are obtained by establishing a vibration-induced failure test system and industrial camera. Histogram equalization and a hysteresis threshold algorithm were used to reduce the noise and emphasize the crack; then, 600 images and regions, including cracks and non-cracks, were manually labelled. In the crack feature extraction stage, eight features of the cracks are extracted to distinguish cracks from other objects. Finally, a crack identification model with an accuracy over 95% was trained by inputting the labelled sample images into the SVM classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm and can effectively identify cracks on the surface of the coal and rock mass automatically.

  11. Kinetic Modeling of a Silicon Refining Process in a Moist Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Morita, Kazuki

    2018-06-01

    We developed a kinetic model that considers both silicon loss and boron removal in a metallurgical grade silicon refining process. This model was based on the hypotheses of reversible reactions. The reaction rate coefficient kept the same form but error of terminal boron concentration could be introduced when relating irreversible reactions. Experimental data from published studies were used to develop a model that fit the existing data. At 1500 °C, our kinetic analysis suggested that refining silicon in a moist hydrogen atmosphere generates several primary volatile species, including SiO, SiH, HBO, and HBO2. Using the experimental data and the kinetic analysis of volatile species, we developed a model that predicts a linear relationship between the reaction rate coefficient k and both the quadratic function of p(H2O) and the square root of p(H2). Moreover, the model predicted the partial pressure values for the predominant volatile species and the prediction was confirmed by the thermodynamic calculations, indicating the reliability of the model. We believe this model provides a foundation for designing a silicon refining process with a fast boron removal rate and low silicon loss.

  12. Enzymatic Refining and Cellulose Nanofiber Addition in Papermaking Processes from Recycled and Deinked Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Delgado-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and deinking processes cause fiber damage because of hornification phenomena and increased external fibrillation. Mechanical refining has been used for many years to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. Biorefining of pulp using enzymes is receiving increasing interest for energy reduction at the refining step of the paper-making process. Moreover, enzymes have also been used for the enhancement of mechanical properties without affecting the drainage rate. As an alternative to mechanical refining treatment, a combination of an enzymatic treatment and cellulose nanofibril (CNF addition was explored to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. The tests were carried out on a deinked pulp (DIP suspension made of 50% old newspapers (ONP and 50% old magazines (OMG. Various enzyme charges and CNF amounts were added to the mixture of ONP and OMG. All pulps (treated and untreated were characterized from a morphological point of view, and the paper sheets made thereof were mechanically characterized. The combination of the enzymatic treatment with the addition of 3% CNF provided sufficient tensile strength for the paper to be used in high-performance applications.

  13. Effects of slag composition and process variables on decontamination of metallic wastes by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Melt refining has been suggested as an alternative for decontamination and volume reduction of low-level-contaminated metallic wastes. Knowledge of metallurgical and thermochemical aspects of the process is essential for effective treatment of various metals. Variables such as slag type and composition, melting technique, and refractory materials need to be identified for each metal or alloy. Samples of contaminated metals were melted with fluxes by resistance furnace or induction heating. The resulting ingots as well as the slags were analyzed for their nuclide contents, and the corresponding partition ratios were calculated. Compatibility of slags and refractories was also investigated, and proper refractory materials were identified. Resistance furnace melting appeared to be a better melting technique for nonferrous scrap, while induction melting was more suitable for ferrous metals. In general uranium contents of the metals, except for aluminum, could be reduced to as low as 0.01 to 0.1 ppM by melt refining. Aluminum could be decontaminated to about 1 to 2 ppM U when certain fluoride slags were used. The extent of decontamination was not very sensitive to slag type and composition. However, borosilicate and basic oxidizing slags were more effective on ferrous metals and Cu; NaNO 3 -NaCl-NaOH type fluxes were desirable for Zn, Pb, and Sn; and fluoride type slags were effective for decontamination of Al. Recrystallized alumina proved to be the most compatible refractory for melt refining both ferrous and nonferrous metals, while graphite was suitable for nonferrous metal processing. In conclusion, melt refining is an effective technique for volume reduction ad decontamination of contaminated metal scrap when proper slags, melting technique, and refractories are used

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on solvent treatment technology for coal; 1981 nendo sekitan no yozai shori gijutsu no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This research aims to prepare basic data on extraction liquefaction, which is one of the techniques of producing clean liquid fuels and chemical materials from coal, and thereby to contribute to the development of this process. The items taken up in this research are Item 1 on basic research using a small reactor, Item 2 on research on short-duration hydrogenation reaction in the intermediate temperature range, and Item 3 on basic research on the realization of a continuous operation. Item 1 is divided into Item (1) on primary hydrogenation extraction and Item (2) on secondary hydrogenation treatment. Under Item (1), hydrogenation characteristics are investigated of low rank coal with the Chinese brown coal heading the list and, under Item (2), the result of cleaner light oil production through secondary hydrogenation using different catalysts and the result of extraction from brown coal though secondary hydrogenation using a Co-Mo based catalyst are stated. Item 3 has been incorporated into Item 2 to stay there from this fiscal year on, and is divided into Item (1) on primary hydrogenation extraction and Item (2) on secondary hydrogenation treatment. Under Item (1), the result of a test operation of a small-size continuous coal hydrogenation extraction liquefaction unit using bituminous coal as specimen is reported and, under Item (2), the outline of a small-size fixed bed hydrogenation treatment unit newly installed this fiscal year is described. (NEDO)

  15. Grain refinement and mechanical properties of CP-Ti processed by warm accumulative roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, Justin L.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Bunget, Cristina; Kurfess, Thomas; Hammond, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulative roll bonding (ARB), a severe plastic deformation technique, was used in this study to process commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) at 450 °C. Sheet samples were processed by seven consecutive ARB cycles, with an overall equivalent strain of 5.6. Mechanical characterization and microstructural examination were carried out on the processed material to track their changes and relationships with regard to one another. Electron microscopy, TEM in particular, revealed significant grain refinement in the material, with submicron microstructure achieved even after one cycle of warm processing. Further processing was shown to progressively fragment the highly elongated grains, ultimately producing a predominantly-equiaxed ultrafine grain structure with an average grain size of ∼100 nm. Tensile strength and microhardness of the material increased with the number of ARB cycles; the strength–grain size relationship followed the Hall–Petch equation. The overall grain refinement and strengthening levels observed here are close to those reported in the literature for ARB processing of CP-Ti at ambient temperatures. This demonstrates the ability of warm ARB can be as effective as cold ARB, while offering several advantages for industrial utilization.

  16. Science, technology and environmental demands: innovations in oil refining process; Ciencia, tecnologia e demandas ambientais: inovacoes nos processos de refino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Adalberto Mantovani Martiniano de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao do Departamento de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica

    2003-07-01

    This paper consists in a survey about changes in oil refining technologies caused by an increase of external environmental restrictions, that create demands for innovations related to the reduction of environmental impacts in refining processes and products. The environmental restrictions considered in this paper include state regulation, like the control over solid and gas wastes and the control over levels of air pollutants on refined products. Another group of restrictions include market restrictions, mainly the restrictions for obtaining 'green' quality labels, like ISO 14000. The paper will show the main environmental restrictions for the Paulinia Refinery (REPLAN), and its reaction in introducing innovations in refining processes. Some aspects of the innovations observed will be described, like the kind of innovation (process or product), the institutions that created innovations and their resources, the knowledge fields applied, and another characteristics for the evaluation of environmental influence over the development on oil refining innovations. (author)

  17. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  18. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei [Division of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-7, Longtan 32546 Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  19. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  20. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  1. Target costing as an element of the hard coal extraction cost planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Segeth-Boniecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target costing as an element of the hard coal extraction cost planning process Striving for the efficiency of activities is of great significance in the management of hard coal extractive enterprises, which are constantly subjected to the process of restructuring. Effective cost management is an important condition of the increase in the efficiency of the researched business entities’ activity. One of the tools whose basic objective is conscious influencing cost levels is target costing. The aim of this article is to analyse the conditions of implementing target costing in the planning of hard coal extraction costs in hard coal mines in Poland. The subject area raises a topical and important problem of the scope of solutions concerning cost analysis in hard coal mines in Poland, which has not been thoroughly researched yet. To achieve the abovementioned aim, the theoretical works of the subject area have been referenced. The mine management process is difficult and requires the application of best suited and most modern tools, including those used in the planning process of hard coal extraction costs in order to support the economic efficiency of mining operations. The use of the target costing concept in the planning of hard coal mine operations aims to support the decision-making process, so as to achieve a specified level of economic efficiency of the operations carried out in a territorially designated site of hard coal extraction.

  2. Demonstration of Advanced CO2 Capture Process Improvements for Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, John [Southern Company Services, Inc., Wilsonville, AL (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the activities of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0026590, “Demonstration of Advanced CO2 Capture Process Improvements for Coal-Fired Flue Gas” during the performance period of October 1, 2015 through May 31, 2017. This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) was the prime contractor and co-funder of the project. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America (MHIA) and AECOM were project team members. The overall project objective was to improve costs, energy requirements, and performance of an existing amine-based CO2 capture process. This will occur via improvements in three areas: 1. Reboiler design – The first objective of the program was to demonstrate performance of an integrated stripper/reboiler (termed Built-in Reboiler, or BIR) to reduce footprint, capital costs, and integration issues of the current technology. 2. Particulate management – The second objective was to carry out a Particulate Matter Management (PMM) test. This has the potential to reduce operating costs and capital costs due to the reduced or eliminated need for mechanical filtration. 3. Solvent – The third objective was to carry out a new solvent test plan (referred to as NSL) to demonstrate a new solvent (termed New Solvent A), which is expected to reduce regeneration steam. The bulk price is also expected to be lower than KS-1, which is the current solvent used in this process. NSL testing would include baseline testing, optimization, long term testing, solvent reclamation testing, and final inspection. These combine to form the Advanced Carbon Capture (ACC) technology. Much of this work will be applicable to generic solvent processes, especially in regards to improved reboiler design, and focused to meet or exceed the DOE’s overall carbon capture performance goals of 90% CO2 capture rate with 95% CO2 purity at a cost of

  3. Development of spent solvent treatment process by a submerged combustion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Amakawa, Masayuki; Uchida, Katsuhide; Chida, Mitsuhisa

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study using a bench-scale equipment of 1 kg-simulated spent solvents per hour has been conducted in order to evaluate the applicability of a submerged combustion technique to the treatment of spent solvents contaminated with TRU elements. This report describes the experimental results on the combustion characteristics of the simulated spent solvents of tri-n-butyl phosphate and/or n-dodecane, and on the distribution behaviors of combustion products such as phosphoric acid, Ru, I, Zr and lanthanides as TRU simulants in the submerged combustion process. Also the experimental results of TRU separation from phosphoric acid solution by co-precipitation using bismuth phosphate are reported. It was shown that the submerged combustion technique was applicable to the treatment of spent solvents including the distillation residues of the solvent. Based on the experimental data, a new treatment process of spent solvent was proposed which consisted of submerged combustion, co-precipitation using bismuth phosphate, ceramic membrane filtration, cementation of TRU lean phosphate, and vitrification of TRU rich waste. (author)

  4. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, August 1981-October 1981. [Using model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdate catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.

  5. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the Solvent-Removable process

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface, such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement by th...

  6. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  7. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  8. Natural gas from coal : the community consultation process in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    2005-01-01

    The community consultation process was examined with reference to natural gas from coal (NGC) development in Alberta. It was suggested that NGC has a huge potential in Canada, and can be developed in an environmentally responsible manner which considers all stakeholders. However, water supply shortages and the effects of development on groundwater remain key stakeholder concerns in Alberta. Issues concerning water protection and handling were discussed, along with issues concerning surface disruption during resource development activities. An outline of road needs and pipeline corridors was presented. An outline of a typical NGC compressor station were given. Issues concerning public anxiety over air quality were discussed with reference to flaring and landowner complaints. It was noted NGC is not sour and contains no liquid hydrocarbons or foreign contaminants. A review of government regulations and best practices was presented with regards to flaring. Multi-stakeholder advisory committee practices were reviewed. It was concluded that Alberta is currently using a variety of consultation processes to enable better communications between industry and stakeholders. figs

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  10. Technological studies on uranium refining at nuclear materials authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 nuclear materials authority (NMA) took a decision to establish yellow cake refining. Unit so as to study refining of El-Atshan yellow cake which recently produced by ion-exchange pilot plant, production sector. The research studies followed the conventional refining rout to produce nuclear grade UO 3 . This implies investigations on some common solvents to refine the cake viz. tri alkyl phosphates, tri alkyl phosphine oxides, dialkyl phosphoric acid as well as high-molecular weight long-chain tertiary amines. Moreover, non-conventional refining process has also been presented depending on the selectivity of uranyl ion to be dissolved by carbonate and to be precipitated by hydrogen peroxide. Most of the proposed processes were found feasible to refine El-Atshan yellow cake. however, the non- conventional refining process appears to be the most promising, owing to its superior performance and economy

  11. Production of gasoline from coal or natural gas by the methanol-to-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinritz-Adrian, M.; Brandl, A.; Zhoa, Xinjin; Tabak, S. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    After discussing the basis of the methanol-to-gas (MTG) process, the fixed bed and fluid bed versions are described. The Motunui and MTG complex near Montunui, New Zealand that methanol uses natural gas is briefly described. Shanxi Jincheng, Anthracite Coal Mining Co. is currently building its first coal-based MTG plant. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Recovery of value-added fossil resin from El-Maghara coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.S.; Mostafa, S.I. [Central Metallurgical R and D Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

    2003-06-01

    El-Maghara coal was confirmed to contain a substantial amount of fossil resin intimately associated with its macerals. Macroscopic identification as well as physical diagnosis of solvent refined resinite material proved its particular significance and sufficient value to justify a fossil resin industry in Egypt. This resin has thermosetting properties superior to most synthetics resins available from petrochemicals. It could compete in the market as a chemical commodity in high-speed printing and high-performance adhesive applications. It could have also special values as a feedstock for high-density jet fuel after proper hydrogenation. The froth flotation technique was applied to recover this valuable material from El-Maghara ground coal. The solvent extraction method using commercial solvents was used to refine the resinite fraction collected as flotation concentrate. The variables affecting the flotation technique were studied. Characterization of refined resin was applied. (orig.)

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  14. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, K.C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W. (Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (USA). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylen PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (S{sup o}) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether S{sup o} extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted S{sup o} was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The S{sup o} was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, S{sup o} and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  16. Processing Uranium-Bearing Materials Containing Coal and Loam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civin, V; Prochazka, J [Research and Development Laboratory No. 3 of the Uranium Industry, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1967-06-15

    Among the ores which are classified as low-grade in the CSSR are mixtures of coal and bentonitic loam of tertiary origin, containing approximately 0.1% U and with a moisture content at times well above 20-30%. The uranium is held mainly by the carbonaceous component. Conventional processing of these materials presents various difficulties which are not easily overcome. During leaching the pulp thickens and frequently becomes pasty, due to the presence of montmorillonites. Further complications arise from the high sorption capacity of the materials (again primarily due to montmorillonites) and poor sedimentation of the viscous pulps. In addition, the materials are highly refractory to the leaching agents. The paper presents experience gained in solving the problems of processing these ores. The following basic routes were explored: (1) separation of the carbonaceous and loamy components: The organic component appears to be the main activity carrier. Processing the concentrated material upon separation of the inactive or less active loam may not only remove the thixotropic behaviour but also substantially reduce the cost of the ore treatment; (2) 'liquifying' the pulps or preventing the thickening of the pulp by addition of suitable agents; (3) joint acid or carbonate processing of the materials in question with current ore types; (4) removal or suppression of thixotropic behaviour by thermal pretreatment of the material; and (5) application of the 'acid cure' method. The first method appears to be the most effective, but it presents considerable difficulties due to the extreme dispersion of the carbonaceous phase and further research is being carried out. Methods 2 and 3 proved to be unacceptable. Method 4, which includes roasting at 300-400{sup o}C, is now being operated on an industrial scale. The final method has also shown definite advantages for particular deposits of high montmorillonite content material. (author)

  17. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  18. A clinical data warehouse-based process for refining medication orders alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Caruba, Thibaut; Zapletal, Eric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre; Degoulet, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the use of a clinical data warehouse coupled with a clinical information system to test and refine alerts for medication orders control before they were fully implemented. A clinical decision rule refinement process was used to assess alerts. The criteria assessed were the frequencies of alerts for initial prescriptions of 10 medications whose dosage levels depend on renal function thresholds. In the first iteration of the process, the frequency of the 'exceeds maximum daily dose' alerts was 7.10% (617/8692), while that of the 'under dose' alerts was 3.14% (273/8692). Indicators were presented to the experts. During the different iterations of the process, 45 (16.07%) decision rules were removed, 105 (37.5%) were changed and 136 new rules were introduced. Extensive retrospective analysis of physicians' medication orders stored in a clinical data warehouse facilitates alert optimization toward the goal of maximizing the safety of the patient and minimizing overridden alerts.

  19. Sustainable and Low Viscous 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate + PEG Solvent for Cellulose Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airong Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable, low viscous and efficient solvents are always advantageous to the processing/fabricating of cellulose materials in practical applications. To this end, in this work novel solvents were developed; ([Amim][CH3COO]/PEG by dissolving polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG-200 in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Amim][CH3COO]. The solubilities of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvents were determined as a function of temperature, and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent was investigated. The novel solvent exhibits outstanding advantages for good dissolution capacity of cellulose, such as low viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, and recycling capability. The [CH3COO]− anion and the [Amim]+ cation of [Amim][CH3COO] in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG-10 are the driving force for cellulose dissolution verified by the 13C NMR spectra. In addition, the regenerated cellulose films from [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to estimate their morphologies and structures.

  20. Conceptual design of a novel CO2 capture process based on precipitating amino acid solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Fernandez, E.; Heffernan, K.; Ham, L.V. van der; Linders, M.J.G.; Eggink, E.; Schrama, F.N.H.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid salt based solvents can be used for CO2 removal from flue gas in a conventional absorption-thermal desorption process. Recently, new process concepts have been developed based on the precipitation of the amino acid zwitterion species during the absorption of CO2. In this work, a new

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  2. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  3. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  4. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  5. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well as the pros...

  6. New process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P. (and others) [Shougang Technical Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    To recycle and reuse waste plastics, as well as to get a new resource of coking, co-coking process of waste plastics and blend coal has been developed by Nippon Steel. However, the ratio of waste plastics in blend coal should be limited in the range of 1% to maintain the coke strength. This paper suggested a new process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal. The new process can add the waste plastics ratio up to 2-4%; when the waste plastics ratio is 2%, the coke strength after reaction with CO{sub 2} (CSR) increased 8%. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Safety, Liveness and Run-time Refinement for Modular Process-Aware Information Systems with Dynamic Sub Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    and verification of flexible, run-time adaptable process-aware information systems, moved into practice via the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs notation co-developed with our industrial partner. Our key contributions are: (1) A formal theory of dynamic sub-process instantiation for declarative, event......We study modularity, run-time adaptation and refinement under safety and liveness constraints in event-based process models with dynamic sub-process instantiation. The study is part of a larger programme to provide semantically well-founded technologies for modelling, implementation......-based processes under safety and liveness constraints, given as the DCR* process language, equipped with a compositional operational semantics and conservatively extending the DCR Graphs notation; (2) an expressiveness analysis revealing that the DCR* process language is Turing-complete, while the fragment cor...

  8. Report on the achievements in development of a coal liquefaction technology (a solvent extraction and liquefaction technology) in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Data 1. Development of a brown coal based solvent extraction plant (50 t/d pilot plant); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (shiryo 1). Yozai chushutsu ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (kattankei yozai chushutsu plant no kaihatsu (50ton/nichi pilot plant no kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the data-1 for developing a brown coal based solvent extraction plant in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. The data are for the development of a liquefaction plant for Victoria brown coal produced in Australia (a 50-t/d pilot plant). Fiscal 1981 has performed detailed design on the primary hydrogenation system by using the process conception and the design data obtained in the element studies. Part of the machines and devices was procured, and the site construction was begun. Detailed design documents and drawings were prepared. The data collected in relation with the plant design included the followings: device lists, entire factory layout drawings, device arrangement drawings, process flow sheets, utility flow sheets (fuel gas and fuel oil systems, steam and condensate systems, air for instrumentation, plant air, cooling water supply and return, industrial water and treated water, a waste water treatment system, a nitrogen system, and a waste gas system), public pollution preventing facilities, hazardous location classifying plans, and material balances. The data collected in relation with the machine design included pressure vessel engineering specifications, heat exchanger engineering specifications, and device purchase specifications. (NEDO)

  9. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  10. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  11. Novel process intensification techniques in solvent extraction. Contributed Paper IT-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Process intensification can be briefly described as any chemical engineering development that leads to substantially smaller, cleaner and more energy efficient technology. Process intensification in active nuclear material processing will offer additional benefit in terms of reduced containment volume. The intensification can be realized either by use of novel equipment or by novel operating techniques. Feasibility of hollow fiber (HF) modules and microchannels or microfluidic devices will be explained for their utilization in process intensification of solvent extraction operation in nuclear fuel cycle

  12. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  13. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment. Current approaches to the decontamination of metals most often involve one of four basic process types: (1) chemical, (2) manual and mechanical, (3) electrochemical, and (4) ultrasonic. open-quotes Hardclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving decontamination factors (Df's) of 50 to 100, generally involve reagent concentrations in excess of 5%, tend to physically degrade the surface treated, and generate relatively large volumes of secondary waste. open-quotes Softclose quotes chemical decontamination solutions, capable of achieving Df's of 5 to 10, normally consist of reagents at concentrations of 0.1 to 1%, generally leave treated surfaces in a usable condition, and generate relatively low secondary waste volumes. Under contract to the Department of Energy, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company is developing a chemical decontamination process using chelating agents to remove uranium compounds and other actinide species from process equipment

  14. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  15. The hybrid MPC-MINLP algorithm for optimal operation of coal-fired power plants with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhuda Abdul Manaf

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm that combines model predictive control (MPC with MINLP optimization and demonstrates its application for coal-fired power plants retrofitted with solvent based post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC plant. The objective function of the optimization algorithm works at a primary level to maximize plant economic revenue while considering an optimal carbon capture profile. At a secondary level, the MPC algorithm is used to control the performance of the PCC plant. Two techno-economic scenarios based on fixed (capture rate is constant and flexible (capture rate is variable operation modes are developed using actual electricity prices (2011 with fixed carbon prices ($AUD 5, 25, 50/tonne-CO2 for 24 h periods. Results show that fixed operation mode can bring about a ratio of net operating revenue deficit at an average of 6% against the superior flexible operation mode.

  16. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  17. Feasibility of applying coal-fired boiler technology to process heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, T F

    1978-01-01

    The preponderance of coal in US fossil fuel reserves has raised the question of the conversion of hydrocarbon process heaters to coal firing. A review undertaken in 1977 by an API sub-committee concluded that neither existing heaters nor existing heater designs were capable of modification or revision to burn coal, and that new coal-fired design consistent with process requirements would be needed for this purpose. In recognition of this need a cooperative investigation was undertaken by Combustion Engineering and Lummus. The present paper, reporting on this investigation, reviews existing coal-fired boiler equipment and techniques and describes their adaptation to the development of a design concept for a coal-fired process heater. To this end, the design parameters for both steam boilers and fired heaters have been compared and have been incorporated into a workable coal-fired process heater design which includes the following features; a coutant bottom for ash removal, an ash-hopper located under both radiant and convection chambers, a tangent type finned wall construction, a straight through gas flow pattern, a vertical tube convection section, horizontal firing using round burners, and an overall geometry allowing a coil arrangement capable of accommodating varying numbers of parallel serpentine coils. These features are integrated into a conceptual heater design which is detailed in a series of illustrations.

  18. Optimization of palm oil physical refining process for reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkurnain, Musfirah; Lai, Oi Ming; Tan, Soo Choon; Abdul Latip, Razam; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-04-03

    The reduction of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester formation in refined palm oil was achieved by incorporation of additional processing steps in the physical refining process to remove chloroester precursors prior to the deodorization step. The modified refining process was optimized for the least 3-MCPD ester formation and acceptable refined palm oil quality using response surface methodology (RSM) with five processing parameters: water dosage, phosphoric acid dosage, degumming temperature, activated clay dosage, and deodorization temperature. The removal of chloroester precursors was largely accomplished by increasing the water dosage, while the reduction of 3-MCPD esters was a compromise in oxidative stability and color of the refined palm oil because some factors such as acid dosage, degumming temperature, and deodorization temperature showed contradictory effects. The optimization resulted in 87.2% reduction of 3-MCPD esters from 2.9 mg/kg in the conventional refining process to 0.4 mg/kg, with color and oil stability index values of 2.4 R and 14.3 h, respectively.

  19. Change in surface characteristics of coal in upgrading of low-rank coals; Teihin`itan kaishitsu process ni okeru sekitan hyomen seijo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, A.; Xie, X.; Nakajima, T.; Maeda, S. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to learn mechanisms in low-rank coal reformation processes, change of properties on coal surface was discussed. Difficulty in handling low-rank coal is attributed to large intrinsic water content. Since it contains highly volatile components, it has a danger of spontaneous ignition. The hot water drying (HWD) method was used for reformation. Coal which has been dry-pulverized to a grain size of 1 mm or smaller was mixed with water to make slurry, heated in an autoclave, cooled, filtered, and dried in vacuum. The HWD applied to Loy Yang and Yallourn coals resulted in rapid rise in pressure starting from about 250{degree}C. Water content (ANA value) absorbed into the coal has decreased largely, with the surface made hydrophobic effectively due to high temperature and pressure. Hydroxyl group and carbonyl group contents in the coal have decreased largely with rising reformation treatment temperature (according to FT-IR measurement). Specific surface area of the original coal of the Loy Yang coal was 138 m{sup 2}/g, while it has decreased largely to 73 m{sup 2}/g when the reformation temperature was raised to 350{degree}C. This is because of volatile components dissolving from the coal as tar and blocking the surface pores. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Investigation of a separation process involving liquid-water-coal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jr, D V; Burry, W

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-liquid-solid separation procedure wherein a water-oil-coal-mineral matter slurry is allowed to come to equilibrium through mechanical agitation has for many years been applied to the separation of coal from mineral matter. The product is a black cottage cheese-like mass of agglomerated coal particles and oil suspended in the excess water which supports the dispersed mineral matter particles. A liquid bridge model which was proposed by earlier investigators is reviewed critically and used to estimate the free energy per unit area of the separation of coals of different ranks. Observations of the kinetics of the process suggest that the simple liquid bridge model is insufficient, probably due to the heterogeneous surfaces of the coal. An alternative model is proposed. 14 references.

  1. 1991 Second international symposium on the biological processing of coal: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This symposium was held to aid in the advancement of science and technology in the area of coal bioprocessing by facilitating the exchange of technical information and offering a forum for open discussion and review. The symposium was complemented by four workshops which introduced the attendees to the fundamentals of genetic, mass ampersand energy balances, process ampersand economic analysis, and advanced analytical techniques as they pertain to bioprocessing of coal. Eleven countries were represented, as were numerous universities, national laboratories, federal agencies and corporations. Topics discussed include desulfurization, coal dissolution, gene cloning, and enzyme activity. Individual projects are processed separately on the databases

  2. GAMER: A GRAPHIC PROCESSING UNIT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE-MESH-REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schive, H.-Y.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Chiueh Tzihong

    2010-01-01

    We present the newly developed code, GPU-accelerated Adaptive-MEsh-Refinement code (GAMER), which adopts a novel approach in improving the performance of adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) astrophysical simulations by a large factor with the use of the graphic processing unit (GPU). The AMR implementation is based on a hierarchy of grid patches with an oct-tree data structure. We adopt a three-dimensional relaxing total variation diminishing scheme for the hydrodynamic solver and a multi-level relaxation scheme for the Poisson solver. Both solvers have been implemented in GPU, by which hundreds of patches can be advanced in parallel. The computational overhead associated with the data transfer between the CPU and GPU is carefully reduced by utilizing the capability of asynchronous memory copies in GPU, and the computing time of the ghost-zone values for each patch is diminished by overlapping it with the GPU computations. We demonstrate the accuracy of the code by performing several standard test problems in astrophysics. GAMER is a parallel code that can be run in a multi-GPU cluster system. We measure the performance of the code by performing purely baryonic cosmological simulations in different hardware implementations, in which detailed timing analyses provide comparison between the computations with and without GPU(s) acceleration. Maximum speed-up factors of 12.19 and 10.47 are demonstrated using one GPU with 4096 3 effective resolution and 16 GPUs with 8192 3 effective resolution, respectively.

  3. Influence of Process Parameters on Coal Combustion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lans, Robert Pieter Van Der

    investigated experimentally in a 400 MWe corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MWe opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kWt pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project "Atmospheric......The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount...... of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms...

  4. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  5. Optimization process condition for deacidification of palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction using NADES (Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israyandi, Zahrina, Ida; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-03-01

    One of many steps in palm oil refining process is deacidification which aims to separate free fatty acids and other compounds from the oil. The deacidification process was using a green solvent, known as NADES, that consisted of betaine monohydrate and propionic acid at molar ratio of 1:8. In this study, the process conditions were optimized using the response surface method (RSM) through central composite design in order to predict the maximum distribution coefficient of palmitic acid. The obtained regression equation of the basic model for optimization was: y = 0.717 + 0.003x1 + 0.043 x2 + 0.148x3 - 0.005 x1x1 - 0.030 x2x2 + 0.047 x3x3 - 0.008 x1x2 + 0.008 x1x3 + 0.033 x2x3. The independent variables are x1 ≡ temperature (40, 60, 80 °C), x2≡ amount of palmitic acid in the palm oil (2, 5, 8 %) and x3 ≡ mass ratios of oil to NADES (1:2, 1:1, 2:1). The optimum process condition found was temperature of 62.3°C, palmitic acid content of 8%, and NADES to palm oil mass ratio of 1:2, resulting in the maximum distribution coefficient of 0.96.

  6. Coal trends and prospects in Malaysia. Malaysia no sekitan doko to mitoshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, T. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes problems in coal development and coal processing techniques used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national organization placing importance on maximizing natural gas source development, but no such an organization is available for coal. Necessity exists in developing transportation infrastructures that can transport coal at a competitive price from coal mines to users inside and outside the country. Majority of the Merit Pila coal is produced in mines with relatively thin coal beds, which raise production cost higher. Coal resources are mostly of low calorific power. Since the coal resource development is a new economic activity, it requires training of people in related areas, and frameworks of legislative regulation. Important in coal development is to select technologies that can meet environmental requirements and stand with competitions in the world coal markets. New coal processing technologies available for discussion in coal refining processes include relaxed gasification or pyrolysis, coal liquefaction, coal-water mixture to mix coal powder and water with additives, coal pretreatment techniques, coal cleaning techniques, and fluidized bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. System Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Process for Mobile Solvent Vapor Phase Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent vapor phase drying process is one of the most important processes during the production and maintenance for large oil-immersed power transformer. In this paper, the working principle, system composition, and technological process of mobile solvent vapor phase drying (MVPD equipment for transformer are introduced in detail. On the basis of necessary simplification and assumption for MVPD equipment and process, a heat and mass transfer mathematical model including 40 mathematical equations is established, which represents completely thermodynamics laws of phase change and transport process of solvent, water, and air in MVPD technological processes and describes in detail the quantitative relationship among important physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, and flux in key equipment units and process. Taking a practical field drying process of 500 KV/750 MVA power transformer as an example, the simulation calculation of a complete technological process is carried out by programming with MATLAB software and some relation curves of key process parameters changing with time are obtained such as body temperature, tank pressure, and water yield. The change trend of theoretical simulation results is very consistent with the actual production record data which verifies the correctness of mathematical model established.

  8. Summary of the research achievements in fiscal 1990 in developing coal liquefying technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu 1990 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the summary of the research achievements in fiscal 1990 in developing coal liquefying technologies. The bituminous coal liquefaction project is scheduled to have a 150-t/d pilot plant start operation from the latter half of fiscal 1994. Research problems were reviewed based on the basic and detailed designs. Construction processes were also reviewed by each facility. Detailed design was performed on the main four facilities for pretreatment, liquefying reaction, liquefied oil distillation, and solvent hydrogenation. Support researches were carried out on the pilot plant in addition to 1-t/d PSU and small testing devices. In the research of a brown coal liquefying technology, operation of the pilot plant (50 t/d) was resumed after completion of the long-term operation (Run 7) having been executed in fiscal 1989, and after the extraordinary repair. The planned operation has been completed as scheduled. Modification and repair works were also carried out. Researches were made on upgrading of brown coal liquefied oil, and a petroleum mixing technology. The paper also describes the support researches. In developing the common basic technologies, studies were performed on development of plant devices, investigation on coal type selection, applications of coal liquefied products, and a refining technology. An environment preserving technology was also developed. The development made it possible to identify the whole image relative to the relevant laws and regulations on the comprehensive operation oil in the whole fraction and by fractions. Comprehensive management of the research and development was also implemented. (NEDO)

  9. Fine coal processing with dense-medium cyclones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. October 1980, pp. 357-361. 24 Horsfall, D.W. 1976. The treatment of fine coal: Upgrading ?0.5 mm coal to obtain a low-ash product. ChemSA, July. 124-129. Kempnich, R.J., van Barneveld, S. and Lusan, A. 1993. Dense... was good and the results were reported by Mengelers and Absil (1976) (see Table 2). The magnetite consumption for the operation at Tertre was approximately 1 kg per feed ton. In 1965, a similar plant was constructed at Winterslag in Belgium. This plant...

  10. Study on infrasonic characteristics of coal samples in failure process under uniaxial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jia

    Full Text Available To study the precursory failure infrasonic characteristics of coal samples, coal rock stress loading system and infrasonic wave acquisition system were adopted, and infrasonic tests in uniaxial loading process were made for the coal samples in the studied area. Wavelet filtering, fast Fourier transform, and relative infrasonic energy methods were used to analyze the characteristics of the infrasonic waves in the loading process, including time domain characteristics, and relative energy. The analysis results demonstrated that the frequencies of the infrasonic signals in the loading process mainly distribute within 5–10 Hz, which are significantly different from noise signals. The changes of the infrasonic signals show clear periodic characters in time domain. Meanwhile, the relative energy changes of the infrasonic wave also show periodic characters, which are divided into two stages by the yield limit of coal samples, and are clear and easy to be recognized, so that they can be used as the precursory characteristics for recognizing coal sample failures. Moreover, the infrasonic waves generated by coal samples have low frequency and low attenuation, which can be collected without coupling and transmitted in long distance. This study provides an important support for the further in-situ prediction of coal rock failures. Keywords: Infrasound, Relative energy, Time-frequency analysis, Failure prediction, Identification feature

  11. Decaffeination process characteristic of Robusta coffee in single column reactor using ethyl acetate solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumers drink coffee not as nutrition source, but as refreshment drink. For coffee consumers who have high tolerance for caffeine, coffee may warm up and refresh their bodies. High caffeine content in coffee beans may cause several complaints to consumers who are susceptible to caffeine. One of the efforts, for coffee market expansion is product diversification to decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination process is one of process to reduce caffeine content from agricultural products. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in collaboration with Bogor Agricultural University has developed a single column reactor for coffee beans decaffeination. The aim of this research is to study process characteristic of coffee decaffeination in single column reactor using ethyl acetate (C4H8O2 solvent. Treatments applicated in the research were time and temperature process. Temperature treatment were 50—60OC, 60—70OC, 70—80OC, 80—90OC and 90—100OC. Time treatment were 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, and 12 h Size of Robusta coffee beans used were less than 5.5 mm (A4, between 5.5 mm and 6.5 mm (A3, between 6.5 mm and 7.5 mm (A2, and more than 7.5 mm (A1. The result showed that decaffeination process with ethyl acetate solvent will be faster when its temperature was higher and smaller bean size. For bean size less than 5,5 mm, decaffeination process by 10% ethyl acetat can be done 8—10 hours in 90—100OC solvent temperature or 12 hours in 60—70OC solvent temperature for 0.3% caffein content. Organoleptic test showed that 90—100OC temperature solvent treatment decreased coffee flavor, which aroma, bitterness and body values were 1.9 each . Key words : Coffee, caffeine, decaffeination, quality, single column.

  12. Alkaline hydrolysis process for treatment and disposal of Purex solvent waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Venkatesh, K.A.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Kartha, P.K.S.; Tripathi, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of spent Purex solvent (30% TBP-70% n-dodecane mixture) from reprocessing plants by alkaline hydrolysis process was investigated using inactive 30% TBP solvent as well as actual radioactive spent solvent. Complete conversion of TBP to water-soluble reaction products was achieved in 7 hours reaction time at 130 deg C using 50%(w/v) NaOH solution at NaOH to TBP mole ratio of 3:2. Addition of water to the product mixture resulted in the complete separation of diluent containing less than 2 and 8 Bg./ml. of α and β activity respectively. Silica gel and alumina were found effective for purification of the separated diluent. Aqueous phase containing most of the original radioactivity was found compatible with cement matrix for further conditioning and disposal. (author). 17 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  14. An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Panousis, G.; Rigas, A.; Karl, J.; Kakaras, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO 2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO 2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO 2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared. -- Highlights: ► The production of SNG from coal is examined. ► The components of the process were simulated for integrated autothermal or allothermal coal gasification to SNG. ► The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two processes is presented.

  15. Determination of solvent concentration-dependent dispersion in the vapor extraction (VAPEX) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a computational algorithm that revealed the optimal conditions required for vapor extraction (VAPEX) for a solvent gas-heavy oil system. VAPEX is a promising recovery process because it requires low energy use and emits fewer greenhouse gases to the atmosphere compared to other enhanced oil recovery methods. The process is governed by the dispersion of solvent gases into heavy oil and bitumen. As such, it is essential to accurately determine solvent dispersion in VAPEX in order to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery, and to optimize field operations. VAPEX experiments were conducted in this study to determined the dispersion coefficient of a solvent as a function of its concentration in heavy oil and bitumen. The principles of variational calculus were used together with a mass transfer model of the experimental process. It was concluded that the oil production determined by the model should agree with its experimental counterpart, given the optimal gas dispersion versus concentration function.

  16. CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as environmentally-friendly processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Pierce, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physical Organic Chemistry Group; Tiefert, K. [Hewlett-Packard Co., Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The production of integrated circuits involves a number of discrete steps that utilize hazardous or regulated solvents. Environmental, safety and health considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign, solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) is an excellent choice for IC manufacturing processes since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, and is compatible with all substrate and metallizations systems. Also, conditions of temperature and pressure needed to achieve the supercritical state are easily achievable with existing process equipment. The authors first describe the general properties of supercritical fluids, with particular emphasis on their application as alternative solvents. Next, they review some of the work which has been published involving the use of supercritical fluids, and particularly CO{sub 2}, as they may be applied to the various steps of IC manufacture, including wafer cleaning, thin film deposition, etching, photoresist stripping, and waste treatment. Next, they describe the research work conducted at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-Packard, on the use of SCCO{sub 2} in a specific step of the IC manufacturing process: the stripping of hard-baked photoresist.

  17. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  18. Changes in coal permeability in the process of deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožušníková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, 2-4 (2001), s. 75-77 ISSN 0001-7132. [ Coal Geology Conference /9./. Praha, 25.06.2001-29.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/00/0875 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : gas permeability measurement * triaxial state of stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  19. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gas ification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  20. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  1. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  2. A refined method for the calculation of the Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound emission estimate from Domestic Solvent Usage in Ireland from 1992 to 2014 - A case study for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Stephen; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new methodology to calculate Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds from Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides over the period 1992-2014. Improved emissions data compiled at a much more refined level can help policy-makers develop more effective policy's to address environmental issues. However, a number of problems were found when member states attempt to use national statistics for Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides. For instance, EMEP/EEA (2013) provides no guidance regarding which activity data should be used, resulting in emission estimates being potentially inconsistent and un-comparable. Also, previous methods and emission factors described in the EMEP/EEA (2013) guidebook do not exactly match data collected by state agencies. This makes using national statistics difficult. In addition, EMEP/EEA (2013) use broader categories than necessary (e.g. Cosmetics Aerosol/Non Aerosol) to estimate emissions while activity data is available at a more refined level scale (e.g. Personal Cleaning Products, Hair Products, Cosmetics, Deodorants and Perfumes). This can make identifying the drivers of emissions unclear. This study builds upon Tzanidakis et al. (2012) whereby it provides a method for collecting activity data from state statistics, developed country specific emission factors based on a survey of 177 Irish products and importantly, used a new method to account for the volatility of organic compounds found in commonly available domestic solvent containing products. This is the first study to account for volatility based on the characteristics of organic compounds and therefore is considered a more accurate method of accounting for emissions from this emission source. The results of this study can also be used to provide a simple method for other member parties to account for the volatility of organic compounds using sectorial adjustment factors described here. For comparison purposes, emission estimates were calculated using the

  3. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Influence of refining process on the porosity of high pressure die casting alloy Al-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Orlowicz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research results of the influence that refining and transfer of AlSi12S alloy on the porosity of high pressure diecastings.Tests were conducted under production conditions of Die-casting Foundry META-ZEL Sp z o.o. The operation of refining was conducted in a melting furnace, with the use of an FDU Mini Degasser. Decay of the refining effect was assessed by evaluating the porosity content and metallographic examination.

  5. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  6. Green Processing of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Its Derivatives in Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xing; Zuo, Miao; Li, Zheng; Liu, Huai; Xiong, Caixia; Zeng, Xianhai; Sun, Yong; Hu, Lei; Liu, Shijie; Lei, Tingzhou; Lin, Lu

    2017-07-10

    The scientific community has been seeking cost-competitive and green solvents with good dissolving capacity for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. At this point, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are currently emerging as a new class of promising solvents that are generally liquid eutectic mixtures formed by self-association (or hydrogen-bonding interaction) of two or three components. DESs are attractive solvents for the fractionation (or pretreatment) of lignocellulose and the valorization of lignin, owing to the high solubility of lignin in DESs. DESs are also employed as effective media for the modification of cellulose to afford functionalized cellulosic materials, such as cellulose nanocrystals. More interestingly, biomassderived carbohydrates, such as fructose, can be used as one of the constituents of DESs and then dehydrated to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in high yield. In this review, a comprehensive summary of recent contribution of DESs to the processing of lignocellulosic biomass and its derivatives is provided. Moreover, further discussion about the challenges of the application of DESs in biomass processing is presented. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of reaction solvent on hydroxyapatite synthesis in sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Muhammad Anwaar; Yilgor, Emel; Yagci, Mustafa Baris; Unal, Ugur; Yilgor, Iskender

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) through sol-gel process in different solvent systems is reported. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (CNTH) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. Three different synthesis reactions were carried out by changing the solvent media, while keeping all other process parameters constant. A measure of 0.5 M aqueous DAHP solution was used in all reactions while CNTH was dissolved in distilled water, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at a concentration of 0.5 M. Ammonia solution (28-30%) was used to maintain the pH of the reaction mixtures in the 10-12 range. All reactions were carried out at 40 ± 2°C for 4 h. Upon completion of the reactions, products were filtered, washed and calcined at 500°C for 2 h. It was clearly demonstrated through various techniques that the dielectric constant and polarity of the solvent mixture strongly influence the chemical structure and morphological properties of calcium phosphate synthesized. Water-based reaction medium, with highest dielectric constant, mainly produced β-calcium pyrophosphate (β-CPF) with a minor amount of HA. DMF/water system yielded HA as the major phase with a very minor amount of β-CPF. THF/water solvent system with the lowest dielectric constant resulted in the formation of pure HA.

  8. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A novel integrated process of coal pyrolysis and methane CO{sub 2} reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Wang; Pengfei Wang; Lijun Jin; Haoquan Hu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2007-07-01

    In the paper, a novel pyrolysis method, namely coal pyrolysis coupling with CO{sub 2} reforming of methane (CRMP) or catalytic pyrolysis of coal coupling with CO{sub 2} reforming of methane (CRMCP), for improving the tar yield of coal pyrolysis was introduced. The behaviours of YM coal in both processes were investigated and compared with pyrolysis under N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The results show that the tar yield of coal pyrolysis in both processes obviously increase compared with that in N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. When YM coal pyrolysis was carried out in stream of mixture gas CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} (1:1) with the existence of the catalyst at 0.1 MPa and 800{sup o}C, the tar yield is 2.8 times for CRMP and 4.3 times for CRMCP as that of pyrolysis under N{sub 2} and 1.7 and 2.6 times as that of hydropyrolysis at the same conditions, respectively. Sulfur content of char obtained from CRMP and CRMCP process are lower, especially in CRMP process, than that from N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of direct observation aparatus of coal carbonization process by x-ray computerized tomography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakawa, Mitsuhiro; Shiraishi, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Shimomura, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    Coke production by chamber ovens has a long history and efforts are being continued to make the manufacturing process efficient and to preserve the environment. In this production by this method, however, it is hardly possible to obtain direct information during coal carbonization. Since the elements that compose coal and coke are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc. and are similar to those of the human body, authors has developed a coke oven that permits the direct observation of the coal carbonization process using a soft X-ray computerized tomography (CT) apparatus used in medical treatment. The following phenomena can be observed as images by the coke oven for the CT method : 1) Changes in the bulk density of charge coal (including the difference in the water content), 2) Width of the plastic layer and movement of the plastic layer in the coke oven chamber, 3) Expansion and shrinkage of the charge in the coke oven chamber, 4) Initiation and growth of cracks. (author)

  11. Method for processing coal-enrichment waste with solid and volatile fuel inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, A. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.; Osintsev, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    The method relates to the field of industrial heat and power engineering. It can be used in coal preparation plants for processing coal waste. This new way is realized to produce a loose ash residue directed to the production of silicate products and fuel gas in rotary kilns. The proposed method is associated with industrial processing of brown coal beneficiation waste. Waste is obtained by flotation separation of rock particles up to 13 mm in size from coal particles. They have in their composition both solid and volatile fuel inclusions (components). Due to the high humidity and significant rock content, low heat of combustion, these wastes are not used on energy boilers, they are stored in dumps polluting the environment.

  12. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  13. [A Brief Homophobia Scale in Medical Students From Two Universities: Results of A Refinement Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    The process of evaluating measurement scales is an ongoing procedure that requires revisions and adaptations according to the characteristics of the participants. The Homophobia Scale of seven items (EHF-7) has showed acceptable performance in medical students attending to two universities in Colombia. However, performance of some items was poor and could be removed, with an improvement in the psychometric findings of items retained. To review the psychometric functioning and refine the content of EHF-7 among medical students from two Colombian universities. A group of 667 students from the first to tenth semester participated in the research. Theirs ages were between 18 and 34 (mean, 20.9±2.7) years-old, and 60.6% were females. Cronbach alpha (α) and omega of McDonald (Ω) were calculated as indicators of reliability and to refine the scale, an exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. EHF-7 showed α=.793 and Ω=.796 and a main factor that explained 45.2% of the total variance. EFA and CFA suggested the suppression of three items. The four-item version (EHF-4) reached an α=.770 and Ω=.775, with a single factor that accounted for 59.7% of the total variance. CFA showed better indexes (χ 2 =3.622; df=1; P=.057; Root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.063, 90% CI, .000-.130; Comparative Fit Indices (CFI)=.998; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=.991). EHF-4 shows high internal consistency and a single dimension that explains more than 50% of the total variance. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations, that can be taken as preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing of (in)tractable polymers using reactive solvents, 4: Structure development in the model system poly(ethylene)/styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, J.G.P.; Rastogi, S.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents provides a unique opportunity to extend the processing characteristics of both intractable and standard (tractable) polymers beyond existing limits. The polymer to be processed is dissolved in the reactive solvent (monomer) and the solution is transferred into a mould.

  15. Variations in the stable isotope ratios of specific aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, C.; Snape, C.E.; Fallick, A.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    To establish the scope for applying gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry ({sup {delta}-13}C GC-IRMS) to molecular recognition problems in coal utilisation, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios were determined for n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of coal rank and process conditions. Six coals ranging from a lignite to a low volatile bituminous coal were subjected to chloroform extraction, fixed-bed pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis) and fluidised-bed (flash) pyrolysis. No significant variations in the stable isotope ratios of n-alkanes were evident as a function of either rank or conversion regime. In contrast, the isotope ratios of PAHs show large variations with those for hydropyrolysis (-23 to -25 parts per thousand) being similar to the bulk values of the initial coals and being isotopically heavier (less negative) than their fluidised-bed pyrolysis counterparts by 2-3 parts per thousand. However, the PAHs from fluidised-bed pyrolysis, which resemble closely those obtained from high temperature coal carbonization, are still heavier (by 2-3 parts per thousand) than those from diesel particulates and coal gasification and combustion residues. This provides a firm basis for the source apportionment of airborne PAHs in the proximity of coking plants, particularly with no major variations in the PAH isotope ratios being found as a function of rank.

  16. Dispatcher's monitoring systems of coal preparation processes. Systemy dyspozytorskiej kontroli procesow wzbogacania wegla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierpisz, S [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland); Cierpisz, T; Glowacki, D; Puczylowski, T [Min-Tech Sp. z o.o., Katowice (Poland)

    1994-08-01

    The computer-based control and dispatcher's monitoring systems for coal preparation plants are described. The article refers to the local automation systems of coal blending production, control systems of heavy media separation process and dispatcher's visualization systems of technological lines operation. The effects of implementation of the above mentioned systems as well as some experiences gained at the designing and operational stages are given. (author). 2 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation processes for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Mendonca, Luciano A. de; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    From the batch solvent extraction process, in this work it has been carried out a preliminary study aiming the determination of the optimal operating conditions for zirconium recovery (10 ppm) using alamine 336 (tricaprylylamine) as extractor. The results have shown that the extraction takes place instantaneously (5s of manual agitation) and that at pH around 2.0 the extraction efficiency is up to 98-99% for an aqueous/organic phase volumetric ratio of 10. Based on these results, it is proposed to evaluate the possibility of using of a pioneering technology for metal recovery at low concentrations, using a experimental set-up that associates standard solvent extraction process with liquid-liquid flotation process. (author)

  18. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  19. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  20. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  1. Analysis of briquetting process of sewage sludge with coal to combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosturkiewicz Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be achieved by several thermal technologies, but before those processes sewage sludge requires special pretreatment. The paper presents the investigation of the sewage sludge with coal briquettes as a fuel for combustion process. Research is conducted at Department of Manufacturing Systems and Department of Thermal Engineering and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology to develop a technology of briquette preparation. The obtained results showed possibility of briquetting of municipal sewage sludge with coal in roll presses, equipped with asymmetric thickening gravity feed system. The following properties were determined for the obtained briquettes: density, drop strength and compressive strength. Based on physical and chemical analysis of prepared briquettes it was confirmed that briquettes have good fuel properties to combustion process. Thermal behaviour of studied sewage sludge and prepared mixture was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. For the thermo gravimetric analysis (TG the samples were heated in an alumina crucible from an ambient temperature up to 1000 °C at a constant rates: 10 °C/min, 40 °C/min and 100 °C/min in a 40 ml/min flow of air.

  2. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  3. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  4. Detection of solvent losses (entrainment) in gas streams of process vessels using radioisotope tracing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Juhari Mohd Yusof

    2002-01-01

    Liquid droplets (MDEA aqueous solution) entrained in the gas streams can cause severe problems on chemical plants. On-line detection of liquid entrainment (carry over) into gas streams from process vessel is investigated using radioisotope iodine ( 131 I). In order to obtain information on whether there is any carry-over of MDEA in the vapour space leaving from the process system, a number of test and calibration injections involving the released of certain amount of tracer activity (mCi) at the inlet and overhead lines of the process vessels were made using a special injection device. MDEA solvent- tagged tracer in the overhead line of the designated process vessels was monitored using radiation scintillation detectors mounted externally at specified locations of the vessels. Output pulses (response curves) with respect to time of measurements from all detectors were plotted and analysed for the finger prints of solvent losses leaving the vessels. From this study, no distinguishable peaks were detected at the outlet vessels of the overhead lines. Thus, no significant MDEA solvent losses in the form of vapour being discovered along the gas streams due to the process taking place in the system. (Author)

  5. Separation of actinide elements by solvent extraction using centrifugal contactors in the NEXT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Masaumi; Sano, Yuichi; Koma, Yoshikazu; Kamiya, Masayoshi; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Koyama, Tomozo

    2007-01-01

    Using the advanced aqueous reprocessing system named NEXT process, actinides recovery was attempted by both a simplified solvent extraction process using TBP as an extractant for U, Pu and Np co-recovery and the SETFICS process for Am and Cm recovery from the raffinate. In U, Pu and Np co-recovery experiments a single cycle flow sheet was used under high nitric acid concentration in the feed solution or scrubbing solution. High nitric acid concentration in the feed solution aided Np oxidation not only in the feed solution, but also at the extraction section. This oxidation reaction accomplished Np extraction by TBP with U and Pu. Most of Np could be recovered into the product solution. In the SETFICS process, a TRUEX solvent of 0.2 mol/dm 3 CMPO and 1.4 mol/dm 3 TBP in n-dodecane was employed instead of 0.2 mol/dm 3 CMPO and 1.0 mol/dm 3 TBP in n-dodecane in order to increase the loading of metals. Instead of sodium nitrate, hydroxylamine nitrate was applied to this experimental flow sheet in accordance with a 'salt-free' concept. The counter current experiment succeeded with the Am and Cm product. On the high-loading flow sheet, compared with the previous flow sheet, the flow of the aqueous effluents and spent solvent were expected to decrease by about one half. Two solvent extraction experiments for actinides recovery demonstrated the utility of the flow sheet of these processes in the NEXT process. (author)

  6. Crude biodiesel refining using membrane ultra-filtration process: An environmentally benign process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic membrane separation system was developed to simultaneously remove free glycerol and soap from crude biodiesel. Crude biodiesel produced was ultra-filtered by multi-channel tubular membrane of the pore size of 0.05 μm. The effects of process parameters: transmembrane pressure (TMP, bar, temperature (°C and flow rate (L/min on the membrane system were evaluated. The process parameters were then optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The best retention coefficients (%R for free glycerol and soap were 97.5% and 96.6% respectively. Further, the physical properties measured were comparable to those obtained in ASTMD6751-03 and EN14214 standards.

  7. Mineral conversion and microstructure change in the melting process of Shenmu coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jianguo; Deng Furong; Zhao Hong; Cen Kefa [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

    2007-05-15

    China has rich reserves of Shenmu coal, which has the typical characteristic of low-melting-point ash. If used in the pulverized-coal boiler of a power plant, Shenmu coal would cause serious slagging. In order to solve the slagging problem of Shenmu coal, the melting mechanism of Shenmu coal ash was studied. One of the Shenmu coals - Wenjialiang coal - was selected for the study. Using thermogravimetry-differential scanning colorimetry (TG-DSC) methods, the change of the coal ash's physicochemistry with temperature was studied. The typical temperature points in the melting process were obtained. Ash samples of the different temperature points were prepared in a high-temperature furnace with parameters similar to those used in the TG-DSC test, and were then cooled quickly in water. Later, the ash samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) methods in detail. Wenjialiang coal ash started to melt at 980{sup o}C. The ash was found to melt to a great extent at 1200{sup o}C and formed a multiform microstructure. At 1260{sup o}C, it was found to melt into a dense body with many pores, and formed a piece of vitreous body at 1340{sup o}C. Anorthite and gehlenite are the intermediate products that exist between 980 and 1340{sup o}C. They may be the main cause of the ash having low melting points, so that they could convert into a eutectic at low temperatures.

  8. Lipase mediated synthesis of rutin fatty ester: Study of its process parameters and solvent polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisali, C; Belur, Prasanna D; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2017-10-01

    Lipophilization of antioxidants is recognized as an effective strategy to enhance solubility and thus effectiveness in lipid based food. In this study, an effort was made to optimize rutin fatty ester synthesis in two different solvent systems to understand the influence of reaction system hydrophobicity on the optimum conditions using immobilised Candida antartica lipase. Under unoptimized conditions, 52.14% and 13.02% conversion was achieved in acetone and tert-butanol solvent systems, respectively. Among all the process parameters, water activity of the system was found to show highest influence on the conversion in each reaction system. In the presence of molecular sieves, the ester production increased to 62.9% in tert-butanol system, unlike acetone system. Under optimal conditions, conversion increased to 60.74% and 65.73% in acetone and tert-butanol system, respectively. This study shows, maintaining optimal water activity is crucial in reaction systems having polar solvents compared to more non-polar solvents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Studying the dependence of quality of coal fine briquettes on technological parameters of their production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Александрова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study characterizes the role of coal in the fuel and energy balance of the Far East Region and points out the issue of losses of coal fines in the processes of coal mining, transportation and processing. To solve the problem of losses of coal fines, the mined coal is sorted into different size classes and fuel briquettes are produced from coal fines. Physical foundations are presented in short of briquetting solid combustible mineral resources. The dependences and variations of briquette compression strength limit are studied vs. charge humidity and briquetting pressure. Optimal parameters are retrieved for briquetting coal fines. The principal technological scheme is given of the process of briquette production. The developed technological solutions include sorting regular coal and briquetting coal fines, as well as the involvement of technogenic carbon-containing wastes from the hydrolysis production lines, plus residuals from oil refining.

  11. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Refining of the cracked products of mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1928-06-02

    A process is disclosed for the refining of the distilled or cracked products from mineral oil, shale oil, or brown-coal-tar oil, with the aid of alkali-plumbite solution, characterized by adding to the plumbite solution from oxide, iron hydroxide, basic oxide, or an iron salt.

  13. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  14. Coal Combustion Behavior in New Ironmaking Process of Top Gas Recycling Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenfeng; Xue, Qingguo; Tang, Huiqing; Wang, Guang; Wang, Jingsong

    2017-10-01

    The top gas recycling oxygen blast furnace (TGR-OBF) is a new ironmaking process which can significantly reduce the coke ratio and emissions of carbon dioxide. To better understand the coal combustion characteristics in the TGR-OBF, a three dimensional model was developed to simulate the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway of a TGR-OBF. The combustion characteristics of pulverized coal in TGR-OBF were investigated. Furthermore, the effects of oxygen concentration and temperature were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the coal burnout increased by 16.23% compared to that of the TBF. The oxygen content has an obvious effect on the burnout. At 70% oxygen content, the coal burnout is only 21.64%, with a decrease of 50.14% compared to that of TBF. Moreover, the effect of oxygen temperature is also very obvious.

  15. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  16. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase I: solvent and process development. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Paasch, R.A.; Hall, T.M.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1979-01-01

    A program to demonstrate chemical cleaning methods for removing magnetite corrosion products from the annuli between steam generator tubes and the tube support plates in vertical U-tube steam generators is described. These corrosion products have caused steam generator tube ''denting'' and in some cases have caused tube failures and support plate cracking in several PWR generating plants. Laboratory studies were performed to develop a chemical cleaning solvent and application process for demonstration cleaning of the Indian Point Unit 2 steam generators. The chemical cleaning solvent and application process were successfully pilot-tested by cleaning the secondary side of one of the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Although the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators do not have a tube denting problem, the pilot test provided for testing of the solvent and process using much of the same equipment and facilities that would be used for the Indian Point Unit 2 demonstration cleaning. The chemical solvent selected for the pilot test was an inhibited 3% citric acid-3% ascorbic acid solution. The application process, injection into the steam generator through the boiler blowdown system and agitation by nitrogen sparging, was tested in a nuclear environment and with corrosion products formed during years of steam generator operation at power. The test demonstrated that the magnetite corrosion products in simulated tube-to-tube support plate annuli can be removed by chemical cleaning; that corrosion resulting from the cleaning is not excessive; and that steam generator cleaning can be accomplished with acceptable levels of radiation exposure to personnel

  17. Effect of HEH[EHP] impurities on the ALSEP solvent extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Campbell, Emily L. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Peterman, Dean R. [Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA; Standaert, Robert F. [Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Department of Biochemistry & amp, Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Biology & amp, Soft Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Shull Wollan Center — a Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Paulenova, Alena [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    2017-12-20

    In solvent extraction processes, organic phase impurities can negatively impact separation factors, hydrolytic performance, and overall system robustness. This affects the process-level viability of a separation concept and necessitates knowledge of the behavior and mechanisms to control impurities in the solvent. The most widespread way through which impurities are introduced into a system is through impure extractants and/or diluents used to prepare the solvent, and often development of new purification schemes to achieve the desired level of purity is needed. In this work, the acidic extractant, 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP])—proposed for application in extractive processes aimed at separating trivalent minor actinides from lanthanides and other fission products—is characterized with respect to its common impurities and their impact on Am(III) stripping in the Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) system. To control impurities in HEH[EHP], existing purification technologies commonly applied for the acidic organophosphorus reagents are reviewed, and a new method specific to HEH[EHP] purification is presented.

  18. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  19. Correlation between the coal quality from 'Suvodol' and briquetting processes for coals, peat and other combustible materials (coal deposit in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanovski, Dragan; Popovski, Dushko; Mitrevski, Pece

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the regression equations for the characteristics of Suvodol coal and the technological parameters of obtained briquets are given. It is shown that correlations between the coal characteristics are linear, while correlations between briquetting parameters are nonlinear

  20. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junfeng, E-mail: qianjunfeng80@126.co [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  1. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junfeng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yun, Zhi; Shi, Haixian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. (author)

  2. Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Gas-Containing Coal during Loading Dilation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw coal was used as the study object in this paper to identify the evolution characteristics of acoustic emission (AE during the dilation process of gas-containing coal. The coal specimens were stored in gas seal devices filled with gas at different pressures (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa for 24 h prior to testing. Then, the specimens were tested in a rock-testing machine, and the deformation and crack fracture patterns were recorded by using strain gauges and an AE system. The axial and volumetric strains–stress curves were analyzed in relation to the AE and the failure mode. Results show that as gas pressure increases, the uniaxial compression strength and elasticity modulus of gas-containing coal decreases, whereas the Poisson’s ratio increases. In all the coal specimens, the dilation initiation stress decreases, and the dilation degree increases. During the dilation process, before the loaded coal specimens reach peak stress, and as the load increases, the changes in the specimens and in the AE energy parameter of specimens can be divided into four phases: crack closure deformation, elastic deformation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation (dilation process. Across the four phases, the AE energy increases evidently during crack closure and elastic deformation but decreases during stable crack propagation. As the gas pressure increases, the AE signal frequency increases from 4.5 KHz to 8.1 KHz during the dilation process. Thus, the gas presence in coal specimens exerts a significant influence on the closure of sample cracks and dilation damage.

  3. Losses in the coal supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This report examines the way coal can change as it passes along the coal chain. A great deal of the change is intended, through separation and sizing, to ensure the coal being mined matches the specification demanded by the customer. This report attempts to identify these changes and presents some of the issues faced by the coal supplier and user. Much of the change leads to a loss of mass in the coal. Some of the coal is left in the ground (intentionally and unintentionally), while elsewhere, full extraction might occur with the addition of non-coal materials from the surrounding rocks. In both cases, the mined coal often requires further processing. Coal processing by separation at preparation plants refines coal further and is where most of the mass loss occurs. Value is added by reducing ash content and improving heating value, thus providing a much more saleable product for the market. As soon as the coal leaves the mine, mass loss can occur either through natural deterioration of the fuel, through spillage or dust, or in extreme cases theft. In all cases measuring the amount of coal as it passes through the supply chain is required to verify that the coal reaching the consumer is of satisfactory quality and quantity. This can be done crudely by measuring stockpiles, to more sophisticated weighing systems at various points along the supply chain, and even measuring the volume held in a ship. Measurement is subject to error which must be minimised. Biomass needs to be processed in much the same way as coal, such as removing mineral matter and taking care in avoiding contamination.

  4. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jeffrey C.S.; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, W.-C.

    2001-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO 2 was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500 deg. C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO 2 was further hydrogen-reduced at 300 deg. C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO 2 particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO 2 and reduced Cu/TiO 2 range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p 3/2 is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu 2 O form on the TiO 2 supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO 2 support

  5. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey C. S.; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, Wan-Chen

    2001-06-01

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO2 was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500°C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO2 was further hydrogen-reduced at 300°C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO2 particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO2 and reduced Cu/TiO2 range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p3/2 is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu2O form on the TiO2 supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO2 support.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of the coal-to-olefins process in comparison with the oil-to-olefins process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Qian, Yu; Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Present the opportunities and challenges of coal-to-olefins (CTO) development. • Conduct a techno-economic analysis on CTO compared with oil-to-olefins (OTO). • Suggest approaches for improving energy efficiency and economic performance of CTO. • Analyze effects of plant scale, feedstock price, CO 2 tax on CTO and OTO. - Abstract: Olefins are one of the most important oil derivatives widely used in industry. To reduce the dependence of olefins industry on oil, China is increasing the production of olefins from alternative energy resources, especially from coal. This study is concerned with the opportunities and obstacles of coal-to-olefins development, and focuses on making an overall techno-economic analysis of a coal-to-olefins plant with the capacity of 0.7 Mt/a olefins. Comparison is made with a 1.5 Mt/a oil-to-olefins plant based on three criteria including energy efficiency, capital investment, and product cost. It was found that the coal-based olefins process show prominent advantage in product cost because of the low price of its feedstock. However, it suffers from the limitations of higher capital investment, lower energy efficiency, and higher emissions. The effects of production scale, raw material price, and carbon tax were varied for the two production routes, and thus the operational regions were found for the coal-to-olefins process to be competitive

  7. Rare and Rare-Earth Metals in Coal Processing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Tatiana; Cherkasova, Elizaveta; Tikhomirova, Anastasia; Bobrovni-kova, Alyona; Goryunova, Irina

    2017-11-01

    An urgent issue for power plants operating on solid fuels (coal) is the issue of utilization or use of accumulated production waste - ash and slag materials - in the related production. Ash-slag materials are classified as "waste", usually grade 5; tens of millions of tons of them being pro-duced annually in the Kemerovo region, which threatens the ecology of the region. At the same time, ash and slag is a very promising raw material. The use of this material as a base for the final product allows us to signifi-cantly expand the possibilities of using coal. The most widespread is the system of ash and slag involving in construction or as a replacement for sand in road construction, or as an additive to building mixtures. However, there are both industrially valuable and environmentally dangerous ele-ments in ash-slag materials. Ash-slag materials can be considered as inde-pendent ore deposits located on the surface and requiring the costs of their extraction.

  8. Rare and Rare-Earth Metals in Coal Processing Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkasova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An urgent issue for power plants operating on solid fuels (coal is the issue of utilization or use of accumulated production waste - ash and slag materials - in the related production. Ash-slag materials are classified as “waste”, usually grade 5; tens of millions of tons of them being pro-duced annually in the Kemerovo region, which threatens the ecology of the region. At the same time, ash and slag is a very promising raw material. The use of this material as a base for the final product allows us to signifi-cantly expand the possibilities of using coal. The most widespread is the system of ash and slag involving in construction or as a replacement for sand in road construction, or as an additive to building mixtures. However, there are both industrially valuable and environmentally dangerous ele-ments in ash-slag materials. Ash-slag materials can be considered as inde-pendent ore deposits located on the surface and requiring the costs of their extraction.

  9. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  10. Techno-economic analysis and comparison of coal based olefins processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is proposed and analyzed. • The CFTO suffers from lower energy efficiency and serious CO 2 emissions. • Approaches for improving techno-economic performance of the CFTO are obtained. - Abstract: Traditional olefins production is heavily dependent on oil. In the background of the scarcity of oil and richness of coal in China, olefins production from coal has been attracting more attention of the chemical process industry. The first coal based methanol-to-olefins (CMTO) plant has been commercialized in China. For shorter process route and lower capital cost, Fischer–Fropsch has been put forward in the last few years. The coal based Fischer–Tropsch-to-olefins (CFTO) process is designed in this paper and then its techno-economic and environmental performance was detailed studied in this paper, in comparison with the CMTO. Results show that at the present olefins selectivity, the CFTO suffers from relative lower energy efficiency and higher CO 2 emissions. In economic aspect, the capital investment and product cost of the CFTO are roughly equivalent to that of the CMTO. Although the conversion route of the CFTO is shorter, its techno-economic performance is still inferior to that of the CMTO. It is also found that increase of olefins selectivity by cracking oil or decrease of CO 2 selectivity by improving catalyst could significantly improve the performance of the CFTO.

  11. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  12. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  13. Swelling kinetics of several residues from Shenhua coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mei-xia; Shui, Heng-fu; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    In order to understand the mechanism of swelling and the relation between swelling behavior and solvent extraction, the swelling kinetics of residues from Shenhua coal extracted by CS{sub 2}/NMP with different mixing ratios were studied in different solvents. The result shows that the swelling rates of extraction residues increase along with swelling temperature. The swelling rate in polar solvent NMP is much higher than that in non-polar solvent THN. Solvent extraction has a great effect on the swelling of extraction residues. The swelling activation energy of extraction residues increases and the swelling rate decreases with the increase of extraction yield. The swelling activation energies of extraction residues in NMP and THN are less than 10 kJ/mol, suggesting that the swelling process is controlled by solvent molecular diffusion in coal structure. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Bubble feature extracting based on image processing of coal flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Lu, M.; Liu, W. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Chemical Engineering and Environment

    2001-11-01

    Using image processing the contrast ratio between the bubble on the surface of flotation froth and the image background was enhanced, and the edges of bubble were extracted. Thus a model about the relation between the statistic feature of the bubbles in the image and the cleaned coal can be established. It is feasible to extract the bubble by processing the froth image of coal flotation on the basis of analysing the shape of the bubble. By means of processing the 51 group images sampled from laboratory column, it is thought that the use of the histogram equalization of image gradation and the medium filtering can obviously improve the dynamic contrast range and the brightness of bubbles. Finally, the method of threshold value cut and the bubble edge detecting for extracting the bubble were also discussed to describe the bubble feature, such as size and shape, in the froth image and to distinguish the froth image of coal flotation. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  15. High linear energy transfer degradation studies simulating alpha radiolysis of TRU solvent extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jeremy [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Miller, George [Department of Chemistry- University of California Irvine, 2046D PS II, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Nilsson, Mikael [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of used nuclear fuel through solvent extraction separation processes is hindered by radiolytic damage from radioactive isotopes present in used fuel. The nature of the damage caused by the radiation may depend on the radiation type, whether it be low linear energy transfer (LET) such as gamma radiation or high LET such as alpha radiation. Used nuclear fuel contains beta/gamma emitting isotopes but also a significant amount of transuranics which are generally alpha emitters. Studying the respective effects on matter of both of these types of radiation will allow for accurate prediction and modeling of process performance losses with respect to dose. Current studies show that alpha radiation has milder effects than that of gamma. This is important to know because it will mean that solvent extraction solutions exposed to alpha radiation may last longer than expected and need less repair and replacement. These models are important for creating robust, predictable, and economical processes that have strong potential for mainstream adoption on the commercial level. The effects of gamma radiation on solvent extraction ligands have been more extensively studied than the effects of alpha radiation. This is due to the inherent difficulty in producing a sufficient and confluent dose of alpha particles within a sample without leaving the sample contaminated with long lived radioactive isotopes. Helium ion beam and radioactive isotope sources have been studied in the literature. We have developed a method for studying the effects of high LET radiation in situ via {sup 10}B activation and the high LET particles that result from the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction which follows. Our model for dose involves solving a partial differential equation representing absorption by 10B of an isentropic field of neutrons penetrating a sample. This method has been applied to organic solutions of TBP and CMPO, two ligands common in TRU solvent extraction treatment processes. Rates

  16. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, I.; Mazurkiewicz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  17. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p -Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardhyanti, D S; Tyaningsih, D S; Afifah, S N

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such as p -cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p -Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p -Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted in the baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p -Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p -Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p -Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10 -6 kg/m 2 s. (paper)

  18. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  19. Continuum model of non-equilibrium solvation and solvent effect on ultra-fast processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyuan; Fu Kexiang; Zhu Quan

    2006-01-01

    In the past 50 years, non-equilibrium solvation theory for ultra-fast processes such as electron transfer and light absorption/emission has attracted particular interest. A great deal of research efforts was made in this area and various models which give reasonable qualitative descriptions for such as solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer and spectral shift in solution, were developed within the framework of continuous medium theory. In a series of publications by the authors, we clarified that the expression of the non-equilibrium electrostatic free energy that is at the dominant position of non-equilibrium solvation and serves as the basis of various models, however, was incorrectly formulated. In this work, the authors argue that reversible charging work integration was inappropriately applied in the past to an irreversible path linking the equilibrium or the non-equilibrium state. Because the step from the equilibrium state to the nonequilibrium state is factually thermodynamically irreversible, the conventional expression for non-equilibrium free energy that was deduced in different ways is unreasonable. Here the authors derive the non-equilibrium free energy to a quite different form according to Jackson integral formula. Such a difference throws doubts to the models including the famous Marcus two-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer and the Lippert-Mataga equation for spectral shift. By introducing the concept of 'spring energy' arising from medium polarizations, the energy constitution of the non-equilibrium state is highlighted. For a solute-solvent system, the authors separate the total electrostatic energy into different components: the self-energies of solute charge and polarized charge, the interaction energy between them and the 'spring energy' of the solvent polarization. With detailed reasoning and derivation, our formula for non-equilibrium free energy can be reached through different ways. Based on the

  20. The Analysis of the Chloride and Fluoride Influences on the Reducer Refinement Processes (Carbo-N-Ox Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A. W.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.

  1. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Przybysz Buzała

    Full Text Available Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp's susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time, increased water retention value (WRV and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics.

  2. An Efficient, Solvent-Free Process for Synthesizing Anhydrous MgCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Vemuri, Venkata Rama S.; Barpaga, Dushyant; Schaef, Herbert T.; Loring, John S.; Martin, Paul F.; Lao, David; Nune, Satish K.; McGrail, Bernard P.

    2018-01-02

    A new efficient and solvent-free method for the synthesis of anhydrous MgCl2 from its hexahydrate is proposed. Fluidized dehydration of MgCl2·6H2O feedstock at 200 °C in a porous bed reactor yields MgCl2·nH2O (0 < n < 1), which has a similar diffraction pattern as activated MgCl2. The MgCl2·nH2O is then ammoniated directly using liquefied NH3 in the absence of solvent to form MgCl2·6NH3. Calcination of the hexammoniate complex at 300 °C then yields anhydrous MgCl2. Both dehydration and deammoniation were thoroughly studied using in situ as well as ex situ characterization techniques. Specifically, a detailed understanding of the dehydration process was monitored by in situ PXRD and in situ FTIR techniques where formation of salt with nH2O (n = 4, 2, 1, <1) was characterized. Given the reduction in thermal energy required to produce dehydrated feedstock with this method compared with current strategies, significant cost benefits are expected. Overall, the combined effect of activation, macroporosity, and coordinated water depletion allows the formation of hexammoniate without using solvent, thus minimizing waste formation.

  3. The effect of coarse second-phase particles on the rate of grain refinement during severe deformation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apps, P.J.; Bowen, Jacob R.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of second-phase particles on the rate of grain refinement during severe deformation processing has been investigated, by comparing the microstructure evolution in an AA8079 aluminium alloy, containing 2.5 vol.% of ~2 μm particles, with that in a high purity, single-phase, Al-0.13% Mg a...... by an effective strain of only five in the particle-containing alloy, compared to ten in the single-phase material. The mechanisms that contribute to this acceleration of the grain refinement process are discussed.......The effect of second-phase particles on the rate of grain refinement during severe deformation processing has been investigated, by comparing the microstructure evolution in an AA8079 aluminium alloy, containing 2.5 vol.% of ~2 μm particles, with that in a high purity, single-phase, Al-0.13% Mg...... alloy, deformed identically by ECAE to an effective strain of ten. The materials were analysed by high-resolution EBSD orientation mapping, which revealed that grain refinement occurred at a dramatically higher rate in the particle-containing alloy. A submicron grain structure could be achieved...

  4. Synthesis of Titania-supported Copper Nanoparticles via Refined Alkoxide Sol-gel Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jeffrey C.S., E-mail: Cswu@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Tseng, I.-Hsiang; Chang, W.-C. [National Taiwan University, Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2001-06-15

    Nanoparticles of titania and copper-loaded titania were synthesized by a refined sol-gel method using titanium butoxide. Unlike the conventional sol-gel procedure of adding water directly, the esterification of anhydrous butanol and glacial acetic acid provided the hydrolyzing water. In addition, acetic acid also served as a chelating ligand to stabilize the hydrolysis-condensation process and minimize the agglomeration of titania. Following the hydrolysis, Cu/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by adding copper chloride to titania sol. The sol was dried, then calcined at 500 deg. C to remove organics and transformed to anatase titania which was verified by XRD. Cu/TiO{sub 2} was further hydrogen-reduced at 300 deg. C. The recovery of Ti was exceeded by an average of 95% from titanium butoxide. TEM micrographs show that the Cu/TiO{sub 2} particles are near uniform. The average crystallite sizes are 17-20 nm estimated from the peak broadening of XRD spectra. The bandgaps of TiO{sub 2} and reduced Cu/TiO{sub 2} range from 2.70 to 3.15 eV estimated from the diffusive reflective UV-Vis spectra. XPS analysis shows that Cu 2p{sub 3/2} is 933.4 eV indicating primary Cu{sub 2}O form on the TiO{sub 2} supports. The binding energy of Ti does not exhibit chemical shift suggesting negligible interaction of Cu cluster and TiO{sub 2} support.

  5. Microstructure Refinement and Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel by Repetitive Thermomechanical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhalah, Khaled; Aleem, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Repetitive thermomechanical processing (TMP) was applied for evaluating the effect of strain-induced α'-martensite transformation and reversion annealing on microstructure refinement and mechanical properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel. The first TMP scheme consisted of four cycles of tensile deformation to strain of 0.4, while the second TMP scheme applied two cycles of tensile straining to 0.6. For both schemes, tensile tests were conducted at 173 K (- 100 °C) followed by 5-minute annealing at 1073 K (800 °C). The volume fraction of α'-martensite in deformed samples increased with increasing cycles, reaching a maximum of 98 vol pct. Examination of annealed microstructure by electron backscattered diffraction indicated that increasing strain and/or number of cycles resulted in stronger reversion to austenite with finer grain size of 1 μm. Yet, increasing strain reduced the formation of Σ3 boundaries. The annealing textures generally show reversion of α'-martensite texture components to the austenite texture of brass and copper orientations. The increase in strain and/or number of cycles resulted in stronger intensity of copper orientation, accompanied by the formation of recrystallization texture components of Goss, cube, and rotated cube. The reduction in grain size with increasing cycles caused an increase in yield strength. It also resulted in an increase in strain hardening rate during deformation due to the increase in the formation of α'-martensite. The increase in strain hardening rate occurred in two consecutive stages, marked as stages II and III. The strain hardening in stage II is due to the formation of α'-martensite from either austenite or ɛ-martensite, while the stage-III strain hardening is attributed to the necessity to break the α'-martensite-banded structure for forming block-type martensite at high strains.

  6. Application of Electrocoagulation Process for Continuous Coal Stockpile Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdianasari Rusdianasari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal wastewater is characterized by high total suspended solid (TSS, heavy metals, and low acidity (pH. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, the number of electrodes, and reaction time on a real coal stockpile wastewater in the continuous electrocoagulation process. For this purpose, aluminum electrodes were used in the presence of potassium chloride as an electrolyte. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of TSS and heavy metals content increased with increasing the applied voltage and reaction time. The results indicate that the electrocoagulation process is efficient and able to achieve 88.67% TSS removal, 95.65% ferrous removal, 99.11% manganesse removal, and pH increased until 7.1 at 24 volts during 120 min, respectively. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation methods for the treatment of coal stockpile wastewater.

  7. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  8. Unambiguous Determination of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond of NMR Structure by Molecular Dynamics Refinement Using All-Atom Force Field and Implicit Solvent Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Jun Goo

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that AMD refinement is very useful for defining an intermolecular hydrogen bond in NMR structure calculation. The refined structure also provides a clue for explaining the pH dependence in Ub and UIM complexes. As reported by Choi et al., serine-mediated hydrogen bonds are the third most populated hydrogen bonds found in protein-protein intermolecular interactions, after the backbone-backbone and backbone-aspartate ones. The abundance imposes the requirement of an method to determine the interface of protein-protein complexes. The precise geometry is particularly important in the complex structures between Ub and UBDs. Ub recognizes various targets with the same surface, where both hydrophobic and hydrophobic interactions are involved. Hence, the details of the hydrophilic interactions are necessary to find the common binding modes. The structure determination of a biomolecule by NMR depends heavily on the distance restraints derived by the NOE cross peaks that are observed between two protons within 6 A through space. Therefore, the existence of the NOE peaks and their correct assignments to two corresponding protons are essential for an accurate and precise structure determination. Recent developments of NOE assignment and calculation algorithms have enabled the determination of protein 3D structures without any manual interpretation, provided chemical shifts are assigned in most atoms and sufficient NOE peaks exist. Along with these advances, the necessity of determining complicated structures such as complexes is increasing

  9. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  10. Numerical modelling of surface waves generated by low frequency electromagnetic field for silicon refinement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geža, V.; Venčels, J.; Zāģeris, Ģ.; Pavlovs, S.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus, therefore, approach under development will address this problem. An approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface is proposed in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which include coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

  11. Report on evaluation/selection surveys on coal species, processes and others. Appendix; Tanshu process nado hyoka sentei chosa hokokusho. Furoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report, consisting of 7 chapters, summarizes literature related to liquefaction of coal. Chapter 1 describes the results of the (Project Lignite), i.e., development of the concept of two-stage liquefaction of lignite. Chapter 2 describes the COSTEAM process, which uses synthesis gas (CO-H{sub 2}) as the reducing agent and coal moisture as the hydrogen source for liquefaction of coal of low degree of carbonization, e.g., brown coal. Chapter 3 describes solubilization of coal with alcohol, where coal is reacted with ethanol and NaOH at 300 to 420 degrees C. Chapter 4 describes liquefaction of coal and production of lighter products with tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor. Chapter 5 describes low-temperature carbonization as the process for liquefying coal, in particular brown coal. Chapter 6 describes possibility of development of new liquefaction techniques for brown coal, including solvolysis for liquefaction, role, recovery and reuse of catalysts, short contact time processes, and coal pretreatment. Chapter 7 describes economic viability of the secondary hydrogenation. (NEDO)

  12. Applications of genetic algorithms to optimization problems in the solvent extraction process for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Ryota, Sakakibara, Yasushi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1997-01-01

    Applications of genetic algorithms (GAs) to optimization problems in the solvent extraction process for spent nuclear fuel are described. Genetic algorithms have been considered a promising tool for use in solving optimization problems in complicated and nonlinear systems because they require no derivatives of the objective function. In addition, they have the ability to treat a set of many possible solutions and consider multiple objectives simultaneously, so they can calculate many pareto optimal points on the trade-off curve between the competing objectives in a single iteration, which leads to small computing time. Genetic algorithms were applied to two optimization problems. First, process variables in the partitioning process were optimized using a weighted objective function. It was observed that the average fitness of a generation increased steadily as the generation proceeded and satisfactory solutions were obtained in all cases, which means that GAs are an appropriate method to obtain such an optimization. Secondly, GAs were applied to a multiobjective optimization problem in the co-decontamination process, and the trade-off curve between the loss of uranium and the solvent flow rate was successfully obtained. For both optimization problems, CPU time with the present method was estimated to be several tens of times smaller than with the random search method

  13. Paraffin wax removal from metal injection moulded cocrmo alloy compact by solvent debinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandang, N. A. N.; Harun, W. S. W.; Khalil, N. Z.; Ahmad, A. H.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Johari, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most crucial and time consuming phase in metal injection moulding (MIM) process is “debinding”. These days, in metal injection moulding process, they had recounted that first debinding practice was depend on thermal binder degradation, which demanding more than 200 hours for complete removal of binder. Fortunately, these days world had introduced multi-stage debinding techniques to simplified the debinding time process. This research study variables for solvent debinding which are temperature and soaking time for samples made by MIM CoCrMo powder. Since wax as the key principal in the binder origination, paraffin wax will be removed together with stearic acid from the green bodies. Then, debinding process is conducted at 50, 60 and 70°C for 30-240 minutes. It is carried out in n-heptane solution. Percentage weight loss of the binder were measured. Lastly, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and visual inspection were observed for the surface of brown compact. From the results, samples debound at 70°C exhibited a significant amount of binder loss; nevertheless, sample collapse, brittle surface and cracks were detected. But, at 60°C temperature and time of 4 hours proven finest results as it shows sufficient binder loss, nonappearance of surface cracks and easy to handle. Overall, binder loss is directly related to solvent debinding temperature and time.

  14. Development of advanced coal cleaning process; Kodo sekitan kaishitsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osaka, S [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Akimoto, A; Yamashita, T [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a clean coal production process which excellently removes environmental pollutant, is low-costed, and need no particular systems for distribution of products. The result of the development was described paying attention to column flotation which is a technology to high-efficiently select particulate regions, particulate heavy media cyclone, magnetic separation, and the basic design of the process into which those above were integrated. The two-stage selection process, which is an integration of column flotation and particulate heavy media cyclone into the conventional coal preparation equipment, can produce low-ash clean coal at high separation efficiency and also suppress the rise in processing cost. This process was also effective for removal of sulfur content and trace metal elements. The use of clean coal at power plant can be effective for not only the reduction in ash treatment amount, but the aspect of boiler operation characteristics such as heat transfer efficiency of boiler furnace wall, ash related troubles, loads of electrostatic precipitator, loads of flue gas desulfurization facilities. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Physical refining of edible oils using nitrogen as stripping gas. Process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciani Constante, E.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen as a stripping gas in physical refining of edible oils represents a technological improvement with potential advantages such as the possibilities of recovering high quality deodorized distillates and eliminating pollution.
    The objectives of the present paper are to study, evaluate and optimize, as far as possible, independent variables involved in the process (nitrogen flow, operating temperature and the height of the oil layer inside the deodorizer in reference to the quality of the obtained oils as well as the manufacturing requirements.
    All the experiments were carried out with sunflower oil in a discontinuous deodorizer with a 200 Kg capacity. A 4x4 latin square experimental design was used, consisting of three factors, each of which had four different levels.
    The results led to the establishment of charts that allow to determine the most suitable conditions in which to carry out the processing in accord with the desired quality of the finished oil and the functional objectives of the factory. These charts are presented in the paper. The results were checked by another set of experiments.

    La utilización de nitrógeno como gas de arrastre en la refinación física de aceites comestibles representa un avance tecnológico con ventajas potenciales, como la posibilidad tanto de recoger destilados de desodorización de alta calidad como de eliminar polución.
    Los objetivos del presente trabajo son estudiar, evaluar y optimizar, tanto como sea posible, las variables que intervienen en el proceso (flujo de nitrógeno, temperatura de operación y altura de la capa de aceite en el desodorizador en función de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos así como de los requerimientos de producción.
    Los ensayos se han realizado con aceite de girasol en un desodorizador discontinuo de 200 kg de capacidad. Se ha utilizado un diseño de experimento en cuadrado latino de 4x4, constituido por tres

  16. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evaporated. Vacuum distillation assembly. All glass (for purification of dimethyl sulfoxide) 2-liter.... The first 100 milliliters of eluate are used. Purification can also be accomplished by distillation.... Protect the sulfoxide from air and moisture during this operation by covering the solvent in the funnel...

  17. Processing and refinement of steel microstructure images for assisting in computerized heat treatment of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhank; Panda, Aditi; Naskar, Ruchira; Mishra, Dinesh Kumar; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-11-01

    Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, widely used in construction and other applications. The evolution of steel microstructure through various heat treatment processes is an important factor in controlling properties and performance of steel. Extensive experimentations have been performed to enhance the properties of steel by customizing heat treatment processes. However, experimental analyses are always associated with high resource requirements in terms of cost and time. As an alternative solution, we propose an image processing-based technique for refinement of raw plain carbon steel microstructure images, into a digital form, usable in experiments related to heat treatment processes of steel in diverse applications. The proposed work follows the conventional steps practiced by materials engineers in manual refinement of steel images; and it appropriately utilizes basic image processing techniques (including filtering, segmentation, opening, and clustering) to automate the whole process. The proposed refinement of steel microstructure images is aimed to enable computer-aided simulations of heat treatment of plain carbon steel, in a timely and cost-efficient manner; hence it is beneficial for the materials and metallurgy industry. Our experimental results prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Semi Refined Kappa Carrageenan-based Composite Edible Film and Its Application on Minimally Processed Chicken Breast Fillet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Maimuni, B. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as the concentration of PA increased (from 5% to 15% w/w). Composite SRKC-based edible film incorporating 15% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 5% and 10% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 15% w/w PA was used as a wrapping material for film application on minimally processed chicken breast fillet. The application results showed that the incorporation of PA in film caused an effect (p 0.05) change the color of minimally processed chicken breast fillet.

  19. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  20. Evidence for the TICT mediated nonradiative deexcitation process for the excited coumarin-1 dye in high polarity protic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Atanu [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumbhakar, Manoj [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Nath, Sukhendu [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pal, Haridas [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2005-08-29

    Photophysical properties of coumarin-1 (C1) dye in different protic solvents have been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Correlation of the Stokes' shifts ({delta}{nu}-bar ) with the solvent polarity ({delta}f) suggests the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character for the dye fluorescent state. Fluorescence quantum yields ({phi}{sub f}) and lifetimes ({tau}{sub f}) of the dye show an abrupt reduction in high polarity solvents having {delta}f >{approx}0.28. In these solvents {tau}{sub f} is seen to be strongly temperature dependent, though it is temperature independent in solvents with {delta}f <{approx}0.28. It is inferred that in high polarity protic solvents there is a participation of an additional nonradiative decay process via the involvement of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Unlike present results, no involvement of TICT state was observed even in strongly polar aprotic solvent like acetonitrile. It is indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the dye with protic solvents in addition with the solvent polarity helps in the stabilization of the TICT state for C1 dye. Unlike most TICT molecules, the activation barrier ({delta}E{sub a}) for the TICT mediated nonradiative process for C1 dye is seen to increase with solvent polarity. This is rationalized on the basis of the assumption that the TICT to ground state conversion is the activation-controlled rate-determining step for the present system than the usual ICT to TICT conversion as encountered for most other TICT molecules.

  1. Solvent extraction for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthy, R.G.; Dzombak, D.A.; Peters, C.; Ali, M.A.; Roy, S.B.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the feasibility of solvent extraction for removing coal tar from the subsurface or for treating contaminated soil excavated at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. In situ solvent extraction would involve injection, recovery, and reclamation for reinjection of an environmentally-benign, water-miscible solvent. Accelerated dissolution and removal of coaltar from the subsurface might be desirable as a remedial approach if excavation is not practical (e.g., the site underlies facilities in current use), direct pumping of coal tar is ineffective, and bioremediation is not feasible because of the presence of high concentrations of coal tar. Both laboratory experiments and engineering evaluations were performed to provide a basis for the initial feasibility assessment. Laboratory work included identification and evaluation of promising solvents, measurement of fundamental properties of coal tar-solvent-water systems, and measurement of rates of dissolution of coal tar in porous media into flowing solvent-water solutions. Engineering evaluations involved identification of common hydrogeologic features and contaminant distributions at MGP sites, and identification and evaluation of possible injection-recovery well deployment schemes. A coupled flow-chemistry model was developed for simulation of the in situ process and evaluation of the well deployment schemes. Results indicate that in situsolvent extraction may be able to recover a significant amount of coal tar from the subsurface within a reasonable time frame (on the order of one year or so) provided that subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. Some important implementation issues remain to be addressed

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-first quarterly report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines.

  3. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  4. Effects of coal contamination on early life history processes of a reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Brinkman, Diane L; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-01-15

    Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments. Fertilisation was the most sensitive reproductive process tested. Embryo survivorship decreased with increasing suspended coal concentrations and exposure duration, effects on larval settlement varied between treatments, while effects on juvenile survivorship were minimal. Leachate exposures had negligible effects on fertilisation and larval settlement. These results indicate that coral recruitment could be affected by spills that produce plumes of suspended coal particles which interact with gametes and embryos soon after spawning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  6. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  7. Process for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing of coal from any source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limberg, T

    1916-10-15

    A process is described for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing coal from any source, especially of humid and bituminous coals as well as bituminous shale and peat for recovering an especially light tar with a large aliphatic hydrocarbon content that is characterized in that it is exposed to internal heating under vacuum at a temperature below dull-red heat. The distillation products of the material are washed away by the heating gases for the whole length of the furnace and are removed immediately and carried into separate condensers.

  8. Remote control of safety and technological mining processes in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjanovic, D. (Elektronska Industrija RO IRI OOUR Razvoj, Nis (Yugoslavia))

    1989-02-01

    Discusses importance of data relevant to remote monitoring of production and safety at work in underground coal mines. The EI PS 2000 multi-purpose system developed by Elektronska Industrija, Nis, for use with AP-X1 and AP-X2 microcomputers in Serbian mines is described. Component parts include the CUM-8 central unit, the CIP-8 communication interface processor, the SNM-64 disjunction unit, the NM-64 energy supply unit and the CRT alarm monitor. This system is designed to warn of mine fires, methane and coal dust explosions, to help in evacuating mine crews, to control production processes and mine management and other functions. 8 refs

  9. Application of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of dispersed organic solvent in developing new microencapsulation process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honghwa; Lee, Sunhwa; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Sah, Hongkee

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new microencapsulation technology employing an acid-catalyzed solvent extraction method in conjunction to an emulsion-based microencapsulation process. Its process consisted of emulsifying a dispersed phase of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and isopropyl formate in an aqueous phase. This step was followed by adding hydrochloric acid to the resulting oil-in-water emulsion, in order to initiate the hydrolysis of isopropyl formate dissolved in the aqueous phase. Its hydrolysis caused the liberation of water-soluble species, that is, isopropanol and formic acid. This event triggered continual solvent leaching out of emulsion droplets, thereby initiating microsphere solidification. This new processing worked well for encapsulation of progesterone and ketoprofen that were chosen as a nonionizable model drug and a weakly acidic one, respectively. Furthermore, the structural integrity of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) was retained during microencapsulation. The new microencapsulation technology, being conceptually different from previous approaches, might be useful in preparing various polymeric particles.

  10. An integrated program for developing auxillary processes and mechanization of physical labor in coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lostorfer, R.; Bendzsak, I.; Jakucs, S.; Lahorszki, L.; Rosa, A.; Szalai, K.

    1979-01-01

    After explaining the long-term plan of coal enterprises, a review is given of the engineering and economic system of an enterprise. A detailed analysis of the auxilliary processes and mechanization of physical labor is presented. A description of underground and surface transport, repair of mining vehicles, stock-piling and preservation of tailings are presented.

  11. Process from removing benzine, toluene, etc. , from petroleum residues, coal tar, and shale tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawaty, F

    1888-08-11

    A process is described for the preparation of ligroin and its homologs as well as naphthalene and anthracene consisting in leading superheated water vapor into a mixture of petroleum residues (or mineral coal tar, etc.) heated to about 400/sup 0/C with cellulosic substances as sage shreds, sea grass, or straw, with addition of caustic alkali.

  12. Process for treating bituminous coal, lignite, peat, and shale, and products obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabelitz, E J

    1951-06-27

    A process is described comprising leaching bituminous coal, lignite, peat, or shale by immersing said material in ethylene dichloride for a period of time sufficient to remove the ethylene dichloride-soluble constituents, separating the treated material from the ethylene dichloride solution and recovering from the solution the soluble constituents of the material dissolved in the solution. Soluble constituents include oils and waxes.

  13. Monetization of Nigeria coal by conversion to hydrocarbon fuels through Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguejiofor, G.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Given the instability of crude oil prices and the disruptions in crude oil supply chains, this article offers a complementing investment proposal through diversification of Nigeria's energy source and dependence. Therefore, the following issues were examined and reported: A comparative survey of coal and hydrocarbon reserve bases in Nigeria was undertaken and presented. An excursion into the economic, environmental, and technological justifications for the proposed diversification and roll-back to coal-based resource was also undertaken and presented. The technology available for coal beneficiation for environmental pollution control was reviewed and reported. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and its advances into Sasol's slurry phase distillate process were reviewed. Specifically, the adoption of Sasol's advanced synthol process and the slurry phase distillate process were recommended as ways of processing the products of coal gasification. The article concludes by discussing all the above-mentioned issues with regard to value addition as a means of wealth creation and investment.

  14. Change in electric and dielectric properties of some Australian coals during the processes of pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, V.; Prezhdo, V. [Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 5 Checinska Street, 25-020 Kielce (Poland)

    2006-03-01

    The investigation of change in electric and dielectric properties of Australian coals was carried out during their pyrolysis. The relation between the increase of the tangent of dielectric losses and electrical resistivity in the pre-plastic state of pyrolysis was established. It was shown that at the pre-plastic stage of pyrolysis, when the organic coal mass is in the glassy state, the decrease in value of electrical resistivity is caused by the increase in rotational movement of segments of macromolecules as evidenced by the increase in tg{delta} parameter. The character of change in curves r=f(T{sup o}) and tg{delta}=f(T{sup o}C) in the pre-plastic state of the process of coal pyrolysis predetermines the values of parameters of coke durability. (author)

  15. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  16. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  17. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  18. New catalysts for coal processing: Metal carbides and nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ted Oyama; David F. Cox

    1999-12-03

    The subject of this research project was to investigate the catalytic properties of a new class of materials, transition metal carbides and nitrides, for treatment of coal liquid and petroleum feedstocks. The main objectives were: (1) preparation of catalysts in unsupported and supported form; (2) characterization of the materials; (3) evaluation of their catalytic properties in HDS and HDN; (4) measurement of the surface properties; and (5) observation of adsorbed species. All of the objectives were substantially carried out and the results will be described in detail below. The catalysts were transition metal carbides and nitrides spanning Groups 4--6 in the Periodic Table. They were chosen for study because initial work had shown they were promising materials for hydrotreating. The basic strategy was first to prepare the materials in unsupported form to identify the most promising catalyst, and then to synthesize a supported form of the material. Already work had been carried out on the synthesis of the Group VI compounds Mo{sub 2}C, Mo{sub 2}N, and WC, and new methods were developed for the Group V compounds VC and NbC. All the catalysts were then evaluated in a hydrotreating test at realistic conditions. It was found that the most active catalyst was Mo{sub 2}C, and further investigations of the material were carried out in supported form. A new technique was employed for the study of the bulk and surface properties of the catalysts, near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), that fingerprinted the electronic structure of the materials. Finally, two new research direction were explored. Bimetallic alloys formed between two transition metals were prepared, resulting in catalysts having even higher activity than Mo{sub 2}C. The performance of the catalysts in hydrodechloration was also investigated.

  19. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  20. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated