WorldWideScience

Sample records for pits

  1. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  2. The Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    8 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a pit chain on the lower, northern flank of the giant martian volcano, Arsia Mons. Pits such as these commonly form as a result of collapse of surface materials into a subsurface void, possibly along a fault or into an old lava tube. The layered material, exposed near the top of several of the pits, is shedding house-sized boulders which can be seen resting on the sloping sidewalls and floors of many of the pits. Location near: 6.7oS, 120.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  4. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  5. Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Lockwood

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK. Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Increases in skin surface pH, hyperhidrosis, and prolonged occlusion allow these bacteria to proliferate. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment generally consists of a combination of hygienic measures, correcting plantar hyperhidrosis and topical antimicrobials.

  6. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  7. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  8. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  9. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  10. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  11. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  12. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  13. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  14. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  16. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  17. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  18. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...

  19. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  20. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  1. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  2. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  3. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  4. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  5. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  6. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Davies, G S; Evans, J J; Guzowski, P; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Holin, A; Huang, J; Kreymer, A; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Marshak, M L; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J; Miller, W; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Nichol, R J; Patterson, R B; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Proga, M; Radovic, A; Sanchez, M C; Schreiner, S; Soldner-Rembold, S; Sousa, A; Thomas, J; Vahle, P; Wendt, C; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  7. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  8. Geotechnical analysis of construction pit in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Grega

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis the design calculations were made for the excavation, which is located in Ljubljana between Glonarjeva street and railway track Ljubljana – Novo mesto. The depth of the excavation pit is approximately 6 m. The excavation pit is supported with bored pile wall and prestressed geotechnical anchors. For the calculation of lateral earth pressure the Rankine's theory was used. Three different profiles were analysed. Piles and anchors were dimensioned. The global stability was checked.

  9. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  10. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  11. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  12. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  13. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...... Relations across the Kattegat in the Middle Neolithic”. Stable isotope analysis of food residues on pottery show what the pottery was used for on different types of sites and which resources were exploited. In contrast to human bones, the food residues provide a snapshot of the food prepared at one point...

  14. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  15. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  16. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...

  17. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  18. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  19. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  20. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... holes were used for the analysis. ... retrieval and analysis, using Surpac software. .... economic and technical parameters were used to produce a set of nested pits. Fig. 4 depicts a summarised flow chart for the pit optimisation.

  1. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  2. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  3. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  4. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DEEP FOUNDATION PIT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN WUHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Xuan Loi, Wu Li*, Nguyen Khanh Tung

    2016-01-01

    Deep foundation pit construction project is one of hot and difficult problems in rock soil engineering. How to control the deformation of the pits effectively and economically is what we all want. Retaining structure deformation of foundation pit is an important factor on the deformation of foundation pit. Reference of domestic and foreign research and the experience of similar projects, combined with the characteristics of Wuhan project, calculation, analyses and compared two design options ...

  5. Methodology Using Inverse Methods for Pit Characterization in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Concordia, Michael; Judd, David R.; Lindgren, Eric; Knopp, Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology incorporating ultrasonic and eddy current data and NDE models to characterize pits in first and second layers. Approaches such as equivalent pit dimensions, approximate probe models, and iterative inversion schemes were designed to improve the reliability and speed of inverse methods for second layer pit characterization. A novel clutter removal algorithm was developed to compensate for coherent background noise. Validation was achieved using artificial and real pitting corrosion samples.

  6. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  7. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  8. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  9. Distribution, formation mechanisms, and significance of lunar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert V.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images reveal the presence of steep-walled pits in mare basalt (n = 8), impact melt deposits (n = 221), and highland terrain (n = 2). Pits represent evidence of subsurface voids of unknown extents. By analogy with terrestrial counterparts, the voids associated with mare pits may extend for hundreds of meters to kilometers in length, thereby providing extensive potential habitats and access to subsurface geology. Because of their small sizes relative to the local equilibrium crater diameters, the mare pits are likely to be post-flow features rather than volcanic skylights. The impact melt pits are indirect evidence both of extensive subsurface movement of impact melt and of exploitable sublunarean voids. Due to the small sizes of pits (mare, highland, and impact melt) and the absolute ages of their host materials, it is likely that most pits formed as secondary features.

  10. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  11. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  12. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  13. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  14. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  15. Parturition Pit: The Bony Imprint of Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. Results 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (pbirths. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (pbirth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. PMID:27270921

  16. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  17. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.

    2004-06-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional

  18. Space-time principles of reducing stripping in furrow pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The lower slope of furrow pits has following special features: small extent of weathering destruction, short time of production blasting damage, good arching effect of lower slope with small curvature radius, and good bottom effect ofa pit end for transferring and bearing initial horizontal stresses in lower slope. The new principles provided theoretical basis for convex slope in furrow pits to reduce stripping. Similar phenomena and examples are supplied simultaneously.

  19. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  20. EKA hoonelt rebiti maha kaunistav pits / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Ehituskulude vähendamiseks muudeti Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone projekti. Maja välisfassaadilt eemaldati kaunistav pits ja loobuti spiraalsest aatriumist. Ehitusplatsile hakatakse rajama metallist sulundseina

  1. Pit initiation on nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Bruce G

    2017-08-21

    Inclusions appear to play a crucial role in the initiation of pitting on nitinol, but the reason remains unclear. Furthermore, it has not been established whether the type of inclusion is a central factor. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization together with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to provide more insight into the initiation of pits on electropolished nitinol wire. Corrosion was limited to a single primary pit on each of the few wire samples that exhibited breakdown. The pit contained numerous Ti2 NiOx inclusions, but secondary pits that developed within the primary pit provided evidence that these inclusions were the sites of pit initiation. Although several theories have been proposed to account for pit initiation at inclusions in mechanically polished and electropolished nitinol, titanium depletion in the adjacent alloy matrix appears to provide the most viable explanation. The key factor appears to be the size of the inclusion and therefore the extent of titanium depletion in the alloy matrix. The type of inclusion evidently plays a secondary role at most. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water tabl

  3. [Spontaneous disappearance of herniation pit on the femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerais, J M; Jacob, D; Thibaud, J C; Fourrer, C; Cercueil, J P; Krause, D; Laredo, J D; Baudrillard, J C

    1995-09-01

    The authors present a case of a 39 years old patient who had a herniation pit of the left femoral neck, 5 years ago. This lesion disappeared spontaneously. To our knowledge, no report of healing of a herniation pit has been previously described.

  4. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  5. EXPERIMENTAL AND FIELD STUDY ON MINING-PIT MIGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ali Akbar Salehi NEYSHABOURI; Ali FARHADZADEH; Ata AMINI

    2002-01-01

    Rivers are one of the most essential sources of sand and gravel supply for civil works. However,undesirable effects of irregular in-stream mining have been reported on natural sources, environment and infrastructures close to rivers. Therefore, it is necessary to find the effects of mining on rivers in more details. This research concentrates on mining-pit migration phenomenon and its effects on the channel bed.This paper reports an experimental study on the migration of rectangular mining pits and variation of longitudinal profile in the channel bed composed of rather uniform sediments. Different values of widths and lengths were used for pit while pit depths and flow variables were kept constant. The results show that the migration speed changes with the length/width ratio of the pit. The migration speed in convection period is higher than that in diffusion period. In addition, by increasing the length or width, filling rate of pit increases, where the effect of width is more important than the effect of the length. Also is reported in this paper a field study on the changes of three pits excavated at different locations of a river. Some similarities between the pit migration in the straight reach of the river and that of the experimental work is realized and presented.

  6. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  7. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  8. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  9. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane strain, the pressure predicted by the model

  10. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  11. Resin Material Dependence of Pit Shape in Thermal Direct Mastering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshihiko; Shimo, Masanori; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Akira

    2007-06-01

    We report the resin material dependence of the shape of pits obtained by thermal direct mastering (TDM), which is a heat-mode mastering method utilizing the thermal decomposition of resins. By applying suitable resins, both circular and crescent pits can be obtained by TDM. This difference in shape was considered to originate from the temperature difference between the glass transition temperature and the thermal decomposition temperature of the resins. The resin with a relatively small temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the circular pits and random patterns, and the resin with a large temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the crescent pits and monotone patterns with high linear density. By using a deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser mastering system with a wavelength of 257 nm and a numerical aperture of 0.90, a monotone pattern of 40-nm-length pits was fabricated by applying a novolak-type resin with a relatively large temperature difference.

  12. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, .... quantify the effect of natural degradation and dehydration of pit latrine ... through the toilet pedestal.

  13. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  14. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  15. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  16. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... 1Clinical Microscopy Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of ... At a concentration of 10 µg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility ... in human victims of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit.

  17. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  18. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    have a performance measure which captures the essential features .... designs, user behaviour, pit dimensions, location and .... Mikhael G, Robbins, DM, Ramsay JE, Mbéguéré M (2014). ... Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organisation.

  19. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  20. Quarries, Gravel Pits, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Quarries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gravel Pits'. Data by this publisher are often...

  1. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  2. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters and are exploi......The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...

  3. Nobody’s perfect: Can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka ePlavcová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  4. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  5. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  6. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  7. Understanding Cavitation Intensity through Pitting and Pressure Pulse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, A.; Singh, S.; Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation erosion is of interest to the designers of ship propulsion devices because of its detrimental effects. One of the difficulties of predicting cavitation erosion is that the intensity of cavitation is not well predicted or defined. In this work we attempt to define the intensity of a cavitation erosion field through analysis of cavitation induced erosion pits and pressure pulses. In the pitting tests, material samples were subjected to cavitation field for a short duration of time selected within the test sample's incubation period, so that the test sample undergoes plastic deformation only. The sample material reacts to these cavitation events by undergoing localized permanent deformation, called pits. The resulting pitted sample surfaces were then optically scanned and analyzed. The pressure signals under cavitating jets and ultrasonic horns, for different conditions, were experimentally recorded using high frequency response pressure transducers. From the analysis of the pitting data and recorded pressure signals, we propose a model that describes the statistics, which in the future can be used to define the cavitation field intensity. Support for this work was provided by Office of Naval Research (ONR) under contract number N00014-08-C-0450, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  8. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  9. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  10. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  11. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  12. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  13. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  14. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  15. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  16. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  17. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  18. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  19. Lysosomal acid phosphatase is internalized via clathrin-coated pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Hille, A.; Geuze, H.J.; Peters, C.; Brodsky, F.M.; Figura, K. von

    1992-01-01

    The presence of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) in coated pits at the plasma membrane was investigated by immunocytochemistry in thymidine kinase negative mouse L-cells (Ltk-) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing human LAP (Ltk-LAP and BHK-LAP cells). Double immunogold labeling showed

  20. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  1. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  2. THE PITS PROPERTY OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIRICHLET SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  3. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red... for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...

  4. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  5. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  6. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  7. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  8. Pit Chains on Enceladus: A Discussion of Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R. L.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2008-03-01

    The surface of Enceladus displays a collection of pit-chains. We discuss various potential causes to their origin, including the drainage of unconsolidated surface material into dilational-fault-induced voids, which we believe to be the most likely explanation.

  9. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Protection of Metals and Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alexandrovich Grachev; Andrei Evgenievich Rozen; Gennadii Vasilievich Kozlov; Andrei Andreievich Rozen

    2016-01-01

    In this article authors set out a principle of pitting corrosion protection, suggested a new class of multilayer materials with high corrosion resistance. They substantiated the choice of the layers for the multilayer material designed for exploitation in oxidizing and non-oxidizing environment. The sphere of application of the multilayer materials was defined.

  10. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  11. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  12. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment.... 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire,'' in...

  13. Pitting Corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloy in Simulated Uterine Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangyi CHEN; Chenghao LIANG; Daojun FU

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical test technology and surface analysis method were employed to investigate the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The results showed that the breakage of the breakingrenovating equilibrium of surface layers resulted in the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The development of pitting corrosion was controlled by dissolution of surface layers. The critical pitting corrosion potential was 1.70 VsCE. The kinetics equation for the development of pitting corrosion for Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid was i0=465.68 t-0.5+1.5. Pitting appearances of pits could be two types: tortoise-shell, and anomaly abscess. Cl- ion facilitated the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy by competing adsorption and concentrating on alloy surface at high positive potential.

  14. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    measuring the maximum pit size and its effect on the fatigue life. Microstructure and corrosion currents were neglected. In this paper we present the...Figure 2 Appearance of the pits on the surface of 7075 -T6 (Wang et al., 2003) Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9437 94372E-2 2 Distribution Statement A. Approved... density (Harlow and Wei, 1994). It can be seen that the definition of pitting current Ip is the key element in the pitting corrosion modeling, which

  15. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  17. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  18. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  19. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... forms of information technology. Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  20. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  1. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  2. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  3. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  4. Distribution and abundance of pit vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae along the Western Ghats of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sawant

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of pit vipers in the Western Ghats namely Trimeresurus gramineus (Bamboo Pit Viper, T. malabaricus (Malabar Pit Viper and Hypnale hypnale (Hump-nosed Pit Viper was investigated in five wildlife sanctuaries of Goa from 2005 to 2009. Seasonal day-night data was collected based on band transect methods. All the pit viper species showed specific habitat preferences and their abundance changed with season. They were most abundant during monsoon. H. hypnale extended its range to the adjoining cashew plantations during the post monsoon and winter.

  5. Study on determination of the stable slope configuration for deep open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-long ZHU; Shi-xiong ZHANG; Shu-yu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The space effects of deep pit slope are analyzed by an elastic mechanics principle.The interaction among the critical slide angle,the friction coefficient,the cohesion,and the horizontal radius of the deep pits is derived in this paper.It indicates that the deeper the pit is excavated,the greater the critical slide angle is.Both the theory for reducing stripping waste rock in deep pit and the approach to determining the configuration of the stable slope are developed from the interaction.The theory in this paper comprises the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes and is suitable for analyzing that of deep pit.

  6. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  7. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  8. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  9. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  10. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  11. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  12. Fatigue Crack Initiation from Pitting Introduced during the Anodising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    C. Earthman (2008) Surface characterisation of 7075 -T73 aluminium exposed to anodizing pretreatment solutions. Journal of Materials Engineering and...University, Melbourne in 2004 having obtained a Bachelor of Engineering ( Materials ) with honours. Following 5 years at Rio Tinto as a Research...in pitting attack of aluminium alloys [5]. If the composition or temperature of the treatment baths is not correct, or if the components remain in a

  13. Fundamental Investigation of Pitting Corrosion in Structural Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to .1. Electrochem. Soc.; abbreviated version submitted to H. H. Uhlig 75th Birthday Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting...Films During the Initial Stages of Corrosion, Ext. Abs. No. 93, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, October 17-22, 1976. 2. T. R...Beck, Pitting of Titanium, III Electrical Properties of Salt Film, Ext. Abs. No. 64, The Electrochemical Society , Spring Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 21

  14. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  15. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  16. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  17. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF.

  18. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  19. Study of Pitting Morphology Fractal Characteristic of Corroded Surface of 304 Stainless Steel in FeCl3 Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 梁成浩

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the pitting corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments and SEM micrographs of the pitting corrosion morphology were obtained. The image processing technique combining with the fractal method was employed to analyze these pitting corrosion images and the self-similarity of pits morphology was observed. It indicates that fractal characteristics exist in pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel. The self-similarity and complexity of the pitting morphology phenomenon were described in terms of fractal dimension which can also be an important parameter related to characterize pitting morphology qualitatively and quantitatively.

  20. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Hung, E-mail: hmh2n@virginia.edu [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Taxen, Claes [SWEREA-KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Williams, Keith [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Scully, John [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > The effects of water composition on pit propagation kinetics on Cu were separated from pit initiation and stabilization using the artificial pit method in a range of dilute HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}-containing waters. > The effective polarization and Ohmic resistance of pits were lower in SO4{sup 2-}-containing solutions and greater in Cl{sup -}-containing solutions. > Relationship between the solution composition and the corrosion product identity and morphology were found. > These, in turn controlled the corrosion product Ohmic resistance and subsequently the pit growth rate. - Abstract: The pit propagation behavior of copper (UNS C11000) was investigated from an electrochemical perspective using the artificial pit method. Pit growth was studied systematically in a range of HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} containing-waters at various concentrations. Pit propagation was mediated by the nature of the corrosion products formed both inside and over the pit mouth (i.e., cap). Certain water chemistry concentrations such as those high in sulfate were found to promote fast pitting that could be sustained over long times at a fixed applied potential but gradually stifled in all but the lowest concentration solutions. In contrast, Cl{sup -} containing waters without sulfate ions resulted in slower pit growth and eventual repassivation. These observations were interpreted through understanding of the identity, amount and porosity of corrosion products formed inside and over pits. These factors controlled their resistive nature as characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A finite element model (FEM) was developed which included copper oxidation kinetics, transport by migration and diffusion, Cu(I) and Cu(II) solid corrosion product formation and porosity governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and a saturation index, as well as pit current and depth of penetration. The findings of the modeling were

  1. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Tobias; Colayori, Samantha E; Westhoff, Guido; Bakken, George S; Young, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membrane's neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.

  2. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Samuel L; Bourne, Keith J; Hermanson, John C; Glass, Samuel V; Costa, Adriana; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2015-10-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force-displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a mesomechanical testing system. The system consists of a quartz microprobe attached to a microforce sensor that is positioned and advanced with a micromanipulator mounted on an inverted microscope. Membrane displacement is measured from digital image analysis. Unaspirated pits from earlywood of never-dried wood of Larix and Pinus and aspirated pits from earlywood of dried wood of Larix were tested to generate force-displacement curves up to the point of membrane failure. Two failure modes were observed: rupture or tearing of the pit membrane by the microprobe tip, and the stretching of the pit membrane until the torus was forced out of the pit chamber through the pit aperture without rupture, a condition we refer to as torus prolapse.

  3. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  4. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  5. Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Polymer/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares D. Alsewailem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the fracture surfaces of polymer/date pits composites was investigated. Polymers used in this study were high density polyethylene (HDPE and polystyrene (PS. Date pits in the form of granules were two types of date pits: khlaas (K and sekari (S. Two coupling agents, diphenylmethane-4 4′-diisocyanate (DPMI and ethylene propylene grafted with malice anhydride (EP-g-MA, were used to ease the incorporation of date pit particles into polymer matrix. The SEM micrographs of the neat composites, that is, with no coupling agents, showed coarse morphology with bad dispersion, adhesion, and distribution of date pit particles within the polymer matrix. On the other hand, PS100/K composites coupled with DPMI and EP-g-MA had reasonable dispersed phase size with good distribution and adhesion to the composite matrix which in turn improve the mechanical properties of the resulted polymer/date pits composites.

  6. Effect of Temperature and Cl-Concentration on Pitting of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Chaofang; LUO Hong; XIAO Kui; SUN Ting; LIU Qian; LI Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of 2205 duplex stainless steel in NaCl solution with different temperatures and concentrations were studied by gravimetric tests,potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The experimental results show that temperature and chloride concentration have a great influence on the pitting resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steels.They not only effect the corrosion rate of pitting,but also change the shape of the pits.When NaCl solution was in low concentration and temperature below the critical pitting temperature,pits were very small and scattered with hemisphere-like shape.On the contrary,the pits of 2205 duplex stainless steel were large and sometimes had a lacy cover when the NaCl concentration was higher and the temperature was 70℃.

  7. Pit Formation during the Self-Assembly of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdairmid, A. R.; Cappello, M. L.; Keeler, W. J.; Banks, J. T.; Gallagher, M. C.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of pits one gold atom deep during the growth of alkanethiol monolayers on Au(111), has been observed previously by others. Explanations for pit formation include etching of the substrate, or mass transport of gold atom + thiol molecule on the surface, due to changes in surface energy^1. We have investigated the structure of dithiothreitol (DTT) SAMs on Au(111). Ex situ STM measurements indicate similar pitting occurs during formation of the dithiol monolayer. The degree of pitting depends on exposure time, sample temperature during formation, and subsequent annealing of the sample. Pitting is enhanced considerasbly when DTT is coordinated with Ti, in fact DTT/Ti films exhibit considerable pit motion during STM imaging. ^1 F. Teran et al. Electrochimica Acta 44, 1053 (1998).

  8. [Optic nerve pits: clinical and therapeutic review of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, M; Bonnet, M

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of optic nerve pits in patients referred to our clinic during the last 15 years was conducted. The study included 21 eyes in 19 patients. The optic pit was associated with a serous macular detachment (SMD) in 19 eyes (90%). Various treatments of the SMD were used depending on the time period. Systemic corticosteroids were used in five patients. The SMD did not respond to this treatment. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied to the temporal side of the optic disc in five patients. Intravitreal injection of pure gas was used as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment in eleven eyes. Pure SF 6 was used in 8 eyes, and C 3 F 8 in 3 eyes. The follow-up after treatment was over 6 months in 10 patients who underwent photocoagulation or the combination of photocoagulation and gas injection. The SMD remained unchanged in two eyes which underwent photocoagulation treatment without gas injection. In the group of patients treated by photocoagulation in association with SF 6 injection, the SMD totally reattached in one eye, decreased in 2 eyes and remained unchanged in 2 eyes. Total resorption of subretinal fluid and permanent retinal reattachment occurred in the 3 eyes treated by intravitreal injection of pure C 3 F 8 as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment. Further clinical investigations on large series of patients are required to determine whether prolonged retinal tamponade by C 3 F 8 gas in association with photocoagulation treatment is a valuable method in the management of SMD complicating optic nerve pits.

  9. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin

    2004-01-01

    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  10. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  11. Demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para todos

    OpenAIRE

    María C. Cañadas

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la gran diversidad de la muestra con la que se realiza la actividad que se presenta y la importancia de la demostración en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas en todos los niveles del sistema educativo. La demostración ha sido, en ocasiones, pensada sólo para los niveles más elevados de las matemáticas y con esta actividad pretendemos mostrar cómo utilizamos distintas demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para detectar...

  12. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  13. Giant weathering pits in the Entrada Sandstone, southeastern Utah: Preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netoff, D.I. (Sam Houston State Univ., Huntsville, TX (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology); Shroba, R.R. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Giant weathering pits formed in outcrops of the lower Entrada Sandstone slickrock of Jurassic age are present in two areas in the Glen Canyon region of arid southeastern Utah. The pits are far larger than any previously described in the geologic literature. The pits near Cookie Jar Butte are commonly cylindrical, typically have low width-to-depth ratios (1.5--3.6), and have a depth of closure of as much as 18 m. There are no obvious lithologic or structural controls that determine their shape or location. Many of the pits at Rock Creek Bay are elongate; several of them have long axes in excess of 53 m, and the longest one is 74 m. Many of the pit walls are breached at the top, and the depth of closure is generally less than 6 m. The shapes of these pits are influenced by point orientation and pit coalescence. Thin-section analyses of near-surface sandstone cores taken near Cookie Jar Butte from pit walls, floors, and rims reveal no significant diagenetic alteration of the fine-grained to very fine frained quartzose sandstone (quartz arenite). Quartz grains appear fresh, and feldspar grains are only slightly weathered. The cement between the grains is mostly CaCO[sub 3]. In several of the pits in both areas sandy sediment veneers the bedrock floor. This sediment is similar in character to the adjacent sandstone and is probably locally derived. Possible origins of the giant pits include various physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes that initiate pit development, followed by excavation by plunge-pool action, wind deflation, dissolution, and piping. Preliminary field and laboratory data do not clearly identify and single process of group of processes that account for pit development.

  14. Tellurite enters Escherichia coli mainly through the PitA phosphate transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Elías, Alex O; Abarca, María José; Montes, Rebecca A; Chasteen, Thomas G; Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

    2012-01-01

    Several transporters suspected to be involved in tellurite uptake in Escherichia coli were analyzed. Results showed that the PitA phosphate transporter was related to tellurite uptake. Escherichia coli ΔpitA was approximately four-fold more tolerant to tellurite, and cell viability remained almost unchanged during prolonged exposure to the toxicant as compared with wild type or ΔpitB cells. Notably, reduced thiols (toxicant targets) as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and fumarase C ac...

  15. Intermetallic particles-induced pitting corrosion in 6061-T651 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -Induced Pitting Corrosion in 6061-T651 Aluminium Alloy Kalenda Mutombo Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa kmutombo@csir.co.za Keywords: pitting corrosion, 6061-T651 aluminium alloy, intermetallic particles, 3.5% Na... extrudability, reasonable weldability and good corrosion resistance. This alloy finds widespread application in ship building and in the fabrication of tank containers for transporting various liquids. 6061-T651 aluminium alloy is, however, prone to pitting...

  16. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  17. Pitting Corrosion of 13Cr Steel in Oxygen-free Completion Fluids of Organic Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lining XU; Yao MENG; Yunguang SHI; Yan LIU

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of 13Cr steel in oxygen-free completion fluids of the organic salt at 180 ℃ was studied.Cross-sectional morphologies of the corrosion products were observed by scanning electron microscopy.Energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) was used to study the element distribution of the corrosion product inside and outside the pits.The results show that the organic salt causes severe pitting corrosion of 13Cr steel.The width and depth of the pits increase simultaneously when the test duration prolongs,and potassium enriches inside the pits.

  18. Comparing Central Peak and Central Pit Craters on Mercury and Mars: Implications for Crustal Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Horstman, Ryan M.

    2016-10-01

    We have measured and classified 20,782 impact craters on Mercury and 24,495 craters on Mars 5 km in diameter and larger for a comparison study of these features. We identified 1144 floor pit and 638 summit pit craters on Mars and 32 summit pit craters but no floor pits on Mercury. We also identified 1682 central peak craters on Mars and 1764 on Mercury. We computed the ratio of the pit or basal peak diameter to the crater diameter in each case and compared the results for the two bodies. Summit pits on Mars have a median pit-to-crater diameter (Dp/Dc) ratio of 0.12 compared to 0.09 on Mercury, indicating pits are slightly larger relative to their parent crater on Mars. We find no correlation of the distribution of Mercury's central pits with features attributed to volatiles, i.e. radar-bright polar craters and craters containing hollows. This indicates that Mercury's central pits form by collapse of a weak brecciated core in the central peak and do not require the presence of volatiles, as is commonly assumed for central pit formation. The median peak-to-crater diameter (Dpk/Dc) ratio for the peaks on which summit pits are found on both bodies is statistically identical to that of the respective normal unpitted central peaks. This indicates that the peaks on which summit pits occur form in the same manner as normal central peaks but subsequently undergo core collapse to create the summit pit. Interestingly, the median Dpk/Dc for Martian peaks is twice as high as for their Mercurian counterparts (0.30 versus 0.15, respectively). Because Mercury and Mars have essentially the same surface gravity, the only major difference between the two bodies that could explain this observation is target characteristics. Prior studies of the composition of the crust and the detection of larger-than-normal secondary craters have led to the proposal that Mercury's crust is stronger than the crusts of the other terrestrial planets. Mercury's low number of central pit craters, the

  19. Printability and inspectability of programmed pit defects on teh masks in EUV lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, I.-Y.; Seo, H.-S.; Ahn, B.-S.; Lee, D.-G.; Kim, D.; Huh, S.; Koh, C.-W.; Cha, B.; Kim, S.-S.; Cho, H.-K.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.

    2010-03-12

    Printability and inspectability of phase defects in ELlVL mask originated from substrate pit were investigated. For this purpose, PDMs with programmed pits on substrate were fabricated using different ML sources from several suppliers. Simulations with 32-nm HP L/S show that substrate pits with below {approx}20 nm in depth would not be printed on the wafer if they could be smoothed by ML process down to {approx}1 nm in depth on ML surface. Through the investigation of inspectability for programmed pits, minimum pit sizes detected by KLA6xx, AIT, and M7360 depend on ML smoothing performance. Furthermore, printability results for pit defects also correlate with smoothed pit sizes. AIT results for pattemed mask with 32-nm HP L/S represents that minimum printable size of pits could be {approx}28.3 nm of SEVD. In addition, printability of pits became more printable as defocus moves to (-) directions. Consequently, printability of phase defects strongly depends on their locations with respect to those of absorber patterns. This indicates that defect compensation by pattern shift could be a key technique to realize zero printable phase defects in EUVL masks.

  20. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-09-19

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems.

  1. A novel thymoma-associated autoimmune disease: Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Iguchi, Genzo; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Mokubo, Atsuko; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome has recently been reported and characterized by acquired growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies associated with autoimmunity to a pituitary specific transcription factor PIT-1, which plays an essential role in GH-, PRL-, and TSH-producing cells. Although circulating anti-PIT-1 antibody and PIT-1-reactive cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were detected in the patients, the pathophysiology and precise mechanisms for the autoimmunity remain unclarified. During the follow up, thymoma was diagnosed in all 3 cases with anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PIT-1 was strongly expressed in neoplastic cortical thymic epithelial cells. Importantly, after thymectomy, the titer of anti-PIT-1 antibody decreased and reactivity of CTLs toward PIT-1 diminished. These data strongly suggest that the aberrant expression of PIT-1 in the thymoma plays a causal role in the development of this syndrome. Thus, we define that this syndrome is a novel thymoma-associated autoimmune disease. PMID:28216655

  2. INTER-TRACHEID AND CROSS-FIELD PITTING IN COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tarmian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter-tracheid and cross-filed pit pairs in compression and opposite wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies were examined. The size, appearance, and frequency of bordered pits on the radial side of axial tracheids and their aperture specification were studied. The type, size, and number of half-bordered pits between the axial tracheids and rays per cross-field were also studied. Several techniques were employed for the measurements: Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Light Microscope (LM, and the Frankling method (FM. The structure, size, and frequency of both types of the pits varied between compression and opposite wood. Fewer pits of a smaller size and a smaller aperture diameter were observed in compression wood. The uniseriate arrangement of bordered pit pairs, unpitted tracheid walls, circular- or often slit-like pit aperture, dominantly piceoid but sometimes cupressoid and occasionally taxodioid cross-field pitting, and a number of fissures on the tracheid walls and bordered pits were characteristics of compression wood.

  3. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  4. Pit-like changes of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R. L.; Maumenee, A. E.; Green, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Six patients with open-angle glaucoma and acquired pit-like changes in the optic nerve head are presented. In 1 patient evolution of the pit-like defect is documented. In all 6 patients progression of associated visual field deficits is described. It is suggested that such pit-like changes in selected patients with glaucoma may not represent congenital lesions but rather local, progressive nerve head disease, occurring particularly in response to raised intraocular pressure. The management of patients with optic nerve head pitting and the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are discussed with respect to this observation. Images PMID:666988

  5. Pluto: Pits and mantles on uplands north and east of Sputnik Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; White, Oliver L.; Umurhan, Orkan M.; Schenk, Paul M.; Grundy, William M.; Schmitt, Bernard; Philippe, Sylvain; McKinnon, William B.; Spencer, John R.; Beyer, Ross A.; Stern, S. Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy B.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie A.

    2017-09-01

    The highlands region north and east of Sputnik Planitia can be subdivided into seven terrain types based on their physiographic expression. The northern rough uplands are characterized by jagged uplands and broad troughs, and it may contain a deeply-eroded ancient mantle. Dissected terrain has been interpreted to have been eroded by paleo-glaciation. The smooth uplands and pits terrain contains broad, rolling uplands surrounding complexes of pits, some of which contain smooth floors. The uplands are mantled by smooth-surfaced deposits possibly derived from adjacent pits through low-power explosive cryovolcanism or through slow vapor condensation. The eroded smooth uplands appear to have originally been smooth uplands and pits terrain modified by small-scale sublimation pitting. The bright pitted uplands features intricate texturing by reticulate ridges that may have originated by sublimation erosion, volatile condensation, or both. The bladed terrain is characterized by parallel ridges oriented north-south and is discussed in a separate paper. The dark uplands are mantled with reddish deposits that may be atmospherically deposited tholins. Their presence has affected long-term landform evolution. Widespread pit complexes occur on most of the terrain units. Most appear to be associated with tectonic lineations. Some pits are floored by broad expanses of ices, whereas most feature deep, conical depressions. A few pit complexes are enclosed by elevated rims of uncertain origin.

  6. A rare nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral doughnut shaped lip pits in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Balasubramani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lip pits are a rare congenital anomaly that presents on the upper or lower lip or the commissure of the lips. Lip pits are an autosomal dominant trait occurring almost always in association with cleft lip or palate. They most commonly occur in association with developmental disturbances such as Van der Woude's syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome, oro-facial-digital syndrome, Marres-Cremers syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Its occurrence in nonsyndromic individuals is extremely rare with only a handful of cases reported. The identification of lip pits with other associated anomalies is crucial for genetic counseling; we report a case of nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral lip pits.

  7. Sensory pits - Enigmatic sense organs of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus (Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Peter; Krumpholz, Katharina; Baumgartner, Werner

    2012-09-01

    The sensory pits of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus were investigated using light and electron microscopic techniques. Sensory pits consist of a bowl-shaped depression in the cuticle (25-70 μm in diameter) covered by a transparent cupola of presumably waxy material. Each pit is equipped with a long sensory hair that emerges from the inner wall of the pit and extends horizontally for about two thirds of the pit diameter. The cupola emerges from the rim of the pit opposite to the socket of this hair. Additional small sensory hairs extend into the base of the cupola. While the ultrastructure of these small hairs resembles that of other mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of insects, that of the long hairs shows several peculiarities. Sensory pits are dispersed over the frontal part of the head, the tergites of thoracic and abdominal segments. On the different parts of the exoskeleton, the orientation of long hairs within the pits varies in a systematic fashion with respect to the body axes. Size, location, and orientation of the pits show almost perfect bilateral symmetry. Their number increases with each moult. Comparative data show that the level of structural complexity of these sense organs varies considerably within this group of insects.

  8. Controls by saturation state on etch pit formation during calcite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H. Henry

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on {101¯4} cleavage faces of calcite at various under-saturations to determine how the saturation state controls etch pit formation. Experimental observations were made by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy. Three dissolution modes were observed. When the saturation index Ω > 0.541, no etch pit formation was seen and dissolution primarily occurred at existing steps. When Ω decreased to Ω c = 0.541-0.410, the first visible pits appeared and continuous reduction in saturation state slowly increased the pit density on terraces while dissolution simultaneously proceeded at step edges. Finally, when the saturation state fell below Ω max = ˜0.007, a precipitous increase in pit density took place that sharply contrasted to the ordered fashion of pit formation observed at saturation conditions above this level. These observations are interpreted to be two-dimensional and unassisted pit formation at Ω 0.541. The values of Ω c are in good agreement with the dislocation theory's predicted critical under-saturations for pit formation at line dislocations. The occurrence of Ω max is not directly predicted but is a logical consequence of dissolution thermodynamics. These findings suggest that (1) dissolution near and far from equilibrium (i.e., Ω > Ω c, Ω unassisted pit nucleation at Ω ˜ Ω max is not predicted by the current dissolution rate equations. This suggests that an accurate 'general' rate law describing universal dissolution processes has yet to be developed.

  9. The syndrome of pit of the lower lip and its association with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Van der Woude syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant developmental malformation usually associated with lower lip pits, cleft lip and palate. These congenital lip pits appear, clinically, as a malformation in the vermilion border of the lip, with or without excretion. Obligate carriers of this dominant mutation may have lip pits alone, cleft(s alone, clefts and pits or neither. Here, we present a case report of a 10 year-old male patient with Van der Woude syndrome and a brief literature on its treatment modalities.

  10. Expression of Pit2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter during murine odontogenesis is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Vaziri Sani, Forugh; Nilsson, Jeanette; Rodenburg, Michaela; Stocking, Carol; Linde, Anders; Gritli-Linde, Amel

    2006-12-01

    Different sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) uptake mechanisms play a major role in cellular P(i) homeostasis. The function and detailed distribution patterns of the type III Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter, PiT-2, in different organs during development are still largely unknown. We therefore examined the temporospatial expression patterns of Pit2 during murine odontogenesis. Odontoblasts were always devoid of Pit2 expression, whereas a transient, but strong, expression was detected in young secretory ameloblasts. However, the stratum intermedium and, later on, the papillary layer and cells of the subodontoblastic layer, exhibited high levels of Pit2 mRNA, which increased gradually as the tooth matured. Hormonal treatment or P(i) starvation of tooth germs in vitro did not alter Pit2 levels or patterns of expression, indicating mechanisms of regulation different from those of PiT-1 or other cell types. PiT-2 also functions as a retroviral receptor, and functional membrane-localized protein was confirmed throughout the dental papilla/pulp by demonstrating cellular permissiveness to infection by a gammaretrovirus that uses PiT-2 as a receptor. The distinct pattern of Pit2 expression during odontogenesis suggests that its P(i)-transporter function may be important for homeostasis of dental cells and not specifically for mineralization of the dental extracellular matrices. The expression of viral receptors in enamel-forming cells and the dental pulp may be of pathological significance.

  11. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F. [Titan Environmental Corp., Englewood, CO (United States); Bronson, J.M. [Titan Environmental Corp., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  12. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  13. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  14. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  15. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-12-01

    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  16. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  17. Orbital cyst associated with ocular pit in an adult without microphthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Valerie; Vignal-Clermont, Catherine; Berges, Olivier; Morax, Serge; Gaudric, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We describe an adult without microphthalmos who developed an acquired compressive optic neuropathy secondary to an orbital cyst which showed direct communication with an optic disc pit. Such pits may be revealed by late complications such as orbital compressive cyst of the optic nerve, even in previously normal adult patients.

  18. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Baas, P.; Gasson, P.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bordered pits play an important role in permitting water flow among adjacent tracheary elements in flowering plants. Variation in the bordered pit structure is suggested to be adaptive in optimally balancing the conflict between hydraulic efficiency (conductivity) and safety from air entry at the

  19. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    • The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. • I

  20. Compromises in orchestra pit design: A ten-year trench war in The Royal Theatre, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Mortensen, Bo

    1998-01-01

    of opera finally opened the way for a new renovation of the pit, which solved most of the problems. The paper describes the many lessons learned during the ten-year period in which the authors were involved with the case as acoustic consultants. Questions of how pit configuration influences mutual hearing...

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  2. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment o

  3. Floodplain restoration with flood control: fish habitat value of levee borrow pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthen flood control levees are often built using soil excavated from borrow pits lying parallel to and riverward of the finished levee. After construction, these pits can provide valuable floodplain habitats, and their value is well established along corridors of larger rivers. However, levee bo...

  4. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the distr

  5. A Comprehensive Investigation of Copper Pitting Corrosion in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper pipe pitting is a complicated corrosion process for which exact causes and solutions are uncertain. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of a cold water copper pitting corrosion problem in a drinking water distribution system, including a refi...

  6. A proper solution to study the etch pits on LiAlO 2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huichun; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Gan, Dershin; Shen, Pouyan

    2010-12-01

    Detailed structures of the etch pits on the (1 0 0), (0 1 0), and (0 0 1) surfaces of LiAlO 2 single crystals have been studied. The crystal was grown by the Czochralski-pulling technique. Hot water is found to be a good etching solution for LiAlO 2 crystal. On the (1 0 0) surface, many shallow rhomboidal etch pits with a deep rhombic pit at the center are revealed and can line up to form boundaries. These etch pits are categorized into two groups which are symmetric relative to the [0 1 0] direction and are separated by boundaries made up of dense etch pits. On the (0 0 1) surface, square pyramid-like etch pits are present. However, rectangle-like etch pits are found on the (0 1 0) surface, which may not be related to dislocations. The density and the distribution of dislocations are studied. A scheme of the domain structure is proposed to explain the observed shapes and distributions of etch pits.

  7. Detection of pit fragments in fresh cherries using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900nm to 2600nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries. Partial Least Squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) following various spectral pretreatments was applied to sp...

  8. FINITE ELEMENT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SEEPAGE CONTROL FOR DEEP FOUNDATION PIT DEWATERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; ZHANG Ying-ying; WU Yong-xia

    2008-01-01

    For deep foundation pit dewatering in the Yangtze River Delta, it is easy to make a dramatic decrease of the underground water level surrounding the dewatering area and cause land subsidence and geologic disasters. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element simulation method was applied in the forth subway of Dongjiadu tunnel repair foundation pit dewatering in Shanghai. In order to control the decrease of the underground water level around the foundation pit, the foundation pit dewatering method was used to design the optimization project of dewatering ,which was simulated under these conditions that the aquifers deposited layer by layer, the bottom of the aquifers went deep to 144.45 m, the retaining wall of foundation pit shield went deep to 65 m, the filters of the extraction wells were located between 44 m to 59 m, the water level in the deep foundation pit was decreased by 34 m, and the maximum decrease of water level outside the foundation pit was 3 m. It is shown that the optimization project and the practical case are consistent with each other. Accordingly, the three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation is the basic theory of optimization design of engineering structures of dewatering in deep foundation pit in such areas.

  9. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  10. The Tegelen clay-pits: a hundred year old classical locality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Having been described in 1904 by Dubois as a locality for fossil mammals, the Tegelen clay-pits are nowadays considered a ‘classical’ locality. It is the type locality of the Tiglian, a warm period of the Early Pleistocene or Late Pliocene. The pits are primarily known for their mammalian remains,

  11. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingyuan (王清远); N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials are known to have a considerable scatter due to the random nature of materials,loading,and environmental conditions.A probabilistic approach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effect of the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigue process (i.e.the pit nucleation and growth,pit-crack transition,short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size,corrosion pitting current,and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the failure probability distribution.Predicted cumulative distribution functions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  13. Effect of Trace Sn on Pitting Behaviors of High Voltage Anode Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo SONG; Weimin MAO; Hong YANG; Huiping FENG

    2008-01-01

    The effect of trace Sn on the pitting morphology of high voltage anode aluminum foils was investigated. The distributions of microelement Sn, Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foils with different Sn content were determined by using a secondary ion mass spectrometer. It was found that the micro-alloyed Sn is enriched at the external surface. The mechanism of pitting behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of lead. Enrichment of Sn in the surface layer provides large numbers of sites for initiation of pitting corrosion, while pitting sites appeared relatively inhomogenously in the foils without Sn. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils, in which the volume fraction of cube texture is not reduced.

  14. Pit chains on Enceladus signal the recent tectonic dissection of the ancient cratered terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily S.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Michaud, Robert L.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2017-09-01

    Enceladus is the first outer solar system body on which pit chains have been positively identified. We map the global distribution of pit chains and show that pit chains are among the youngest tectonic features on Enceladus's surface, concentrated in the cratered plains centered on Enceladus's Saturnian and anti-Saturnian hemispheres. Pit chains on Enceladus are interpreted as the surface expressions of subsurface dilational fractures underlying a cover of unconsolidated material, which we infer to be a geologically young cover of loose regolith that mantles the surface of Enceladus. A widespread layer of regolith may act to insulate the surface, which has implications for the thermal state of Enceladus's ice shell. The widespread distribution of pit chains across the cratered plains indicates that this ancient surface has recently been tectonically active.

  15. Susceptibility of two types of low-alloy hull steels to pit initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianmin Wang; Xuequn Chen; Guomin Li

    2004-01-01

    Four low-alloy hull steels with different alloy elements were selected. Their susceptibility to pitting corrosion was compared by means of electrochemical polarization test. The inclusions in the steels and their pitting corrosion characteristics were studied by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The results indicate that some inclusions are the main sources of pitting corrosion.The susceptibility of nickel-chromium steel to pit initiation is less than that of manganese steel. Under the same conditions, nickelchromium steel is easier to passivate than manganese steel, and the passive films on nickel-chromium steel surface are more stable than that on manganese steel. In low-alloy steels, the higher the contents of nickel and chromium, the lower the critical passive pH value. In the same kind of steel, multi-phase inclusions containing sulfide are easier to initiate pitting corrosion than other inclusions.

  16. Annealing to Mitigate Pitting in Electropolished Niobium Coupons and SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, L.D.; Hahn, E.; Hicks, D.; Romanenko, A.; Schuessler, R.; Thompson, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-08

    Ongoing studies at Fermilab investigate whether dislocations and other factors instigate pitting during cavity electropolishing (EP), despite careful processing controls and the inherent leveling mechanism of EP itself. Here, cold-worked niobium coupons, which exhibited increased tendencies for pitting in our past study, were annealed in a high vacuum furnace and subsequently processed by EP. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and special defect counting algorithms were used to assess the population of pits formed. Hardness measurements indicated that annealing for 2 hours at 800 C produced recovery, whereas annealing for 12 hours at 600 C did not, as is consistent with known changes for cavities annealed in a similar way. The 800 C anneal was effective in some cases but not others, and we discuss reasons why tendencies for pitting remain. We discuss implications for cavities and continued work to understand pitting.

  17. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOENGINEERED Cu DEFECTS ON ALUMINUM PITTING INITIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALL,F.D.; SON,K.A.; MISSERT,N.A.; BARBOUR,J.C.; MARTINEZ,M.A.; ZAVIDIL,K.R.; SULLIVAN,J.P.; GOPELAND,R.G.; CIESLAK,W.R.; BUCHHEIT,R.G.; ISAACS,H.S.

    1999-11-01

    Nanoengineering technologies have been used to generate well defined arrays of pure Cu islands within an Al thin film matrix in order to examine the impact of noble particle defects on the initiation of metastable pitting. The Cu particles form local galvanic cells with the surrounding Al matrix and drive metastable corrosion. Electrical isolation of the Cu particles from the Al occurs due to selective Al dissolution and appears to correlate to cessation of metastable events. Distributions of parameters related to the electrochemical signature of an event suggests that size and spacing of particles do not impact the signatures of individual events. However, event frequency data indicate that the propensity for a structure to induce localized events is linked to Cu island diameter and separation.

  19. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  20. Pitágoras y los números perfectos

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel J. Cadavieco Castillo

    2002-01-01

    Las matemáticas tienen un amplio campo de aplicaciones prácticas, pero en el caso de la teoría de números sus usos no fueron tan claros, sino hasta mediados del siglo XX. Ejemplos de ello son los cifrados de códigos usados en la segunda guerra mundial, criptografía, diseño de pantallas acústicas y en la comunicación de sondas espaciales lejanas. La intención es de situar a Pitágoras en el tiempo y en el espacio, como iniciador de la teoría de números y su repercusión actual en el desarrollo d...

  1. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization......The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...... techniques. On the other hand, unlike unpredictable disaster scenarios, mining is a carefully planned activity. Taking advantage of this predictability element, we propose a framework that integrates mine and network planning so that continuous and automated adaptation of the network becomes possible...

  2. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  3. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  5. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Effects of Nanoscale V-Shaped Pits on GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Li, Heng; Chang, Chia-Jui; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2017-01-28

    This paper reviews the formation of nanoscale V-shaped pits on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system and studies the effect of V-shaped pits on quantum efficiency. Since V-pits could provide potential barriers around threading dislocations to lessen non-radiative recombinations in such a high defect environment. In our study, multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well samples with different emission wavelengths of 380, 420, 460, and 500 nm were grown, each with different nanoscale V-shaped pits of three diameters for 150, 200, and 250 nm, respectively. It was found that the multiple quantum well (MQW) sample with larger V-pits had a lower pit density, but a relatively larger total V-pits defected area. The optimum diameter of V-pits showing the highest quantum efficiency from the MQW sample depended on the emission wavelength. MQW samples with wavelengths of 380 and 500 nm exhibited the best internal quantum efficiency (IQE) performance at the smallest V-pits area; however, the best performance for MQW samples with wavelength around 420 and 460 nm occurred when large V-pit areas were presented. Photoluminescence (PL) peak shifts and Raman shifts can provide a relationship between quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and IQE, as well as a comparison between strain and IQE. The results obtained in this phenomenological study shall provide a useful guide line in making high-performance GaN-based LEDs with wide emission spectra.

  7. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  8. Modeling and simulation of pit chemistry of 304 austenitic stainless steel under applied stress in sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuhui, E-mail: yhhuang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A corrosion model was developed to simulate a stressed metal surface with a pit. ► The stress state in the pit bottom was coupled with the local corrosion environment. ► An analytical expression was established for current density of deformed pit surface. ► Local deformation had a strong effect on potential and species concentration in pits. -- Abstract: A mathematical model for simulating the active dissolution of a pit on stressed metal surface had been developed. Based on active dissolution mechanism, dissolution current density on the pit surface was assumed and extended through accounting for the thermal activation energy and the multiaxial stress state in pit bottom. The influence of applied tensile stress, pit radius and temperature was addressed. The distribution of solution potential and species concentration was predicted for different applied tensile stresses based on finite element calculations.

  9. A single precursor pit for pitting corrosion on defect of tinplate alloy layer visualized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Guofeng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: cuiguofeng@hit.edu.cn; Wang Jinghe [Research of Precise Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Xingqiao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-06-10

    The gray points highly disperse on the alloy layer surface after free tin coating removed on poorly corrosion-resistant tinplate. The morphology and composition of normal area and the gray point were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) on the same tinplate sheet. Additional, the cyclic voltammetry results indicate that corrosion resistance of alloy layer containing gray points is less than that of normal area. Those indicate that gray points are defects of Sn-Fe alloy layer. AFM was applied to obtain detail information on topography change of the gray point in electrolyte. Furthermore, profile lines of the sample at varied time were determined and delivered additional arguments for corrosion rate of the gray point. The results of a single pit corrosion measurement show that corrosion rate is determined by a mass-transport controlled mechanism in acid electrolyte.

  10. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 in Carbon Dioxide Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-min; GUO Xing-peng; ZHENG Jia-shen

    2004-01-01

    The pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steel (SS) 304 in aqueous CO2-H2S-Cl- environment was investigated by potentiodynamic cyclic anodic polarization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The experimental results show that the pitting corrosion susceptivity of SS 304 increases with the increase of temperature. Chlorine ion is the prerequisite for pitting corrosion of SS 304 in H2S-CO2 environments. There is a linear relationship between the pitting corrosion potential (Eb-100) and chlorine ion concentration, and Eb-100 becomes noble with increasing pH value of the solution with or without H2S. pH value has little effect on the protection potential with the presence of H2S. H2S increases strongly the pitting corrosion susceptivity and deteriorates the pitting corrosion resistance of SS 304 in CO2 environments. The observations by EPMA show that SS 304 in CO2-saturated NaCl solution (3 %) with H2S suffers pitting corrosion accompanied with intergranular corrosion.

  11. Critical pitting temperature for Type 254 SMO stainless steel in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Meguid, E.A. [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: eameguid_nrc@yahoo.com; Abd El Latif, A.A. [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The variation with time of the open circuit potential of high molybdenum containing stainless steel (Type 254 SMO) was measured in 4% sodium chloride solution in the temperatures range 30-100 deg. C. The plot of steady state potentials as function of temperature showed an inflection at 50 deg. C, attributed to the decrease of oxygen solubility in test solution above 50 deg. C. Potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization technique was used to determine the critical pitting potential (E {sub pit}) and the critical protection potential (E {sub prot}) of the steel in 4-30% NaCl solutions at temperatures between 30 and 100 deg. C. By plotting the two values versus solution temperature, the corresponding critical pitting (CPT) and the critical protection (CPrT) temperatures were determined. Both parameters decreased with increasing chloride content. Above the CPT, E {sub pit} and E {sub prot} decreased linearly with log[Cl{sup -}]. The addition of bromide ions to the solution shifted both E {sub pit} and E {sub prot} towards positive values. In 4% NaCl, E {sub pit} increased linearly with pH in the range 1-10. The combined effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the morphology of the pits was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization.

  12. Effect of halide ions on passivation and pitting corrosion of copper in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gad Allah, A.G.; Abou-Romia, M.M.; Badawy, W.A.; Rehan, H.H. (Cairo Univ., Gizeh (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-11-01

    The passivity of copper in NaOH and borate buffer solutions containing chloride, bromide and fluoride ions was studied by using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic current transient measurements. At scan rates >> 20 mVs{sup -1}, the addition of halide ions does not nearly affect the cyclic voltammograms in the absence of pitting. But they differ considerably in presence of pitting. The pitting potential was found to depend on the solution pH and decreased linearly with increase of logarithm of halide ion concentration. The current transients in the passivity as well as in the pitting potential regions were analyzed. Before the pitting, i-time curves were rather similar to those obtained in the plain solutions. At times > 20 seconds, the current varies linearly with the reciprocal of the square root of time indicating diffusional characteristics of the metal corrosion through the passive layer. In presence of pitting, the pitting current versus time relations fit the Engell-Stolica equation. (orig.).

  13. The theoretical plausibility of central pit crater formation via melt drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Catherine M.; Bray, Veronica J.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2012-11-01

    Central pit craters are seen in large craters on some icy satellites and on Mars. We investigate the hypothesis that central pits form when impact melt drains into fractures beneath the impact crater. For this process to occur, the volume of melt generated during the impact, the volume of void space in fractures beneath the impact crater, and the volume of melt able to drain before the fractures freeze shut all must exceed the volume of the observed central pits. We estimate the volume of melt generated using results from previous numerical modeling studies. The fracture volume is estimated using gravity anomalies over terrestrial craters. To estimate the amount of melt able to drain before freezing, we consider flow through plane parallel fractures. These calculations all suggest that enough liquid water could drain into fractured ice beneath a crater on Ganymede to form a central pit. On Earth and the Moon, silicate impact melt will freeze before a large volume is able to drain, so we do not expect to see central pits in impact craters in targets with no ice. In summary, we find our calculations are consistent with observed central pits in craters on Ganymede and the lack of central pits in craters on Earth and the Moon.

  14. Fracture Characteristics in a Disposal Pit on Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David T. Vaniman; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-12-01

    The characteristics of fractures in unit 2 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff were documented in Pit 39, a newly excavated 13.7 m deep disposal pit at Material Disposal Area G on Mesita del Buey. The average spacing between fractures is about 1.0 to 1.3 m, the average fracture aperture is about 3 to 5 mm, and the average fracture dip is about 76o to 77o. Fracture spacing and dip in Pit 39 are generally consistent with that reported from other fracture studies on the Pajarito Plateau, although the fracture apertures in Pit 39 are less than reported elsewhere. Measured fracture orientations are strongly affected by biases imparted by the orientations of the pit walls, which, combined with a small data set, make identification of potential preferred orientations dlfflcult. The most prominent fracture orientations observed in Pit 39, about E-W and N20E, are often not well represented elsewhere on the Pajarito Plateau. Fracture fills contain smectite to about 3 m depth, and calcite and opal may occur at all depths, principally associated with roots or root fossils (rhizoliths). Roots of pifion pine extend in fractures to the bottom of the pit along the north side, perhaps indicating a zone of preferred infiltration of water. Finely powdered tuff with clay-sized particles occurs within a number of fractures and may record abrasive disaggregation associated with small amounts of displacement on minor local faults.

  15. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  16. Central Pit and Dome Formation as Seen in Occator Crater, Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Schmidt, Britney E.; O'Brien, David P.; Hiesinger, Harald; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Dawn mapping of Ceres revealed that central depressions (or pits) are common in craters >75 km. The best preserved of these is Occator (D~92 km), where the pit is associated with a major bright deposit dominated by carbonates. The pit is ~9 km wide, 600-800 m deep and flanked by asymmetric massifs 0.7 to 1.3 km high. The pit is partially filled by a fractured central dome ~3 km wide and 700 m high. Fracturing could have been due to dome inflation by "magma" or by subsurface freezing of ice. Within the bright material, two color units are mapped, including a paler surface unit and a more yellowish to reddish unit exposed within the most fractured parts of the dome surface and at small bright spots, at least some of which could be post-Occator small craters. Some bright materials form as discrete small spots midslope along the pit wall and others avoid small hills, suggesting partial topographic control. Stratigraphic relations are ambiguous but suggest formation of a smooth carapace some meters thick that was subsequently disrupted by fractures crossing the floor of Occator, and by uplift of the dome surface. Pit and dome morphologies, including dome fracturing are potentially analogous to central pits and domes in many craters on Ganymede and Callisto, suggesting some commonality in formation processes. The absence of center pits or domes on Saturnian satellites could be related to much lower temperatures on those bodies. The prominence of central pits and domes on Ceres confirms the importance of volatile materials, mostly likely water ice, in the outer layers of Ceres, especially as compared to Vesta.

  17. Atypical pit craters on Mars: new insights from THEMIS, CTX and HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper-range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters), and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey THermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night, and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially-drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower-resolution THEMIS visible-wavelength (VIS) observations. Here, we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  18. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  19. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  20. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN He; YANG Zhi-feng; WANG Xuan

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  1. New Generation Energy Efficient Refractory Application in Soaking Pits of Bhilai Steel Plant, Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Chintaiah, Perumetla; Bhattacharya, Ajoy Kr.; Garai, Swapan Kr.; Ray Choudhury, Pankaj Kr.; Tiwari, Laksman

    In Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP), soaking pits are used for heating ingots for successive rolling into blooms. Pits are operated at a temperature of around 1350°C. Mixed gas (Mixture of Blast Furnace gas & Coke Oven gas) of calorific value around 2040 kcal/Nm3 is used as fuel. The walls of soaking pits were lined with traditional 38% Al2O3 firebricks and top 500mm was cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castable (LCC). This type of lining results in frequent damages due to hitting by ingots while being lifted from pit by overhead cranes thus affecting the availability of pit. Life of pits was 2 to 2.5 years in BSP with 3-4 cold repairs and 3-4 hot repairs. Energy loss through the wall is also quite high in this type of lining. To triumph over the limitations of the conventional lining, a lining design was developed for the walls which consist of special 70% Al2O3 LCC having high hot strength (HMOR) in combination with specially design flexible SS-304 anchors. Ceramic fiber blanket and insulation bricks were provided between castable and the metallic shell of the pit to minimize the heat loss. A heating schedule was developed and introduced based on available infrastructure at BSP for proper curing of modified LCC based lining. After introduction of modified lining, pit no. 14/2 is running for more than 2.5 years without any repair. To capitalize the success, two more pits i.e. 12/1 and 9/2 were converted to modified lining. These pits are also running satisfactorily for more than 1.5 years. The modification has resulted in higher availability with substantial increase in production. Shell temperature of the modified pits reduced to 90° - 140°C from 120° - 200°C of conventional pits. This shows reduction in heat loss through walls, resulting less fuel consumption and energy saving of about 18%.

  2. Studies on surface pitting during laser assisted removal of translucent ellipsoidal particulates from metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, Bijoy; Nilaya, J. Padma; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Biswas, D. J.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the manifestation of field enhanced surface absorption during laser assisted removal of translucent particulates of ellipsoidal geometry from a metallic substrate surface. The surface pitting caused due to this effect has been experimentally probed as a function of the ratio of minor to major axis of the ellipsoid and the behavioral trend has been theoretically interpreted by invoking the principle of geometrical optics. The study also includes the effect of fluence and wavelength of the incident coherent radiation on the surface pitting. Probing of the surface topography has helped gain insight into the formation of multiple pits by a single particulate following its removal post laser exposure.

  3. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  4. Misfit dislocation gettering by substrate pit-patterning in SiGe films on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grydlik, Martyna; Groiss, Heiko; Brehm, Moritz; Schaeffler, Friedrich [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Boioli, Francesca; Montalenti, Francesco; Miglio, Leo [L-NESS and Department of Material Science, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Gatti, Riccardo; Devincre, Benoit [LEM, CNRS/ONERA, Chatillon Cedex (France)

    2012-07-02

    We show that suitable pit-patterning of a Si(001) substrate can strongly influence the nucleation and the propagation of dislocations during epitaxial deposition of Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloys, preferentially gettering misfit segments along pit rows. In particular, for a 250 nm layer deposited by molecular beam epitaxy at x{sub Ge} = 15%, extended film regions appear free of dislocations, by atomic force microscopy, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy sampling. This result is quite general, as explained by dislocation dynamics simulations, which reveal the key role of the inhomogeneous distribution in stress produced by the pit-patterning.

  5. Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng

    2001-07-01

    Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from

  6. Study on Electro-Polishing Process by Niobium-Plate Sample With Artificial Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Saeki, H. Hayano, S. Kato, M. Nishiwaki, M. Sawabe, W.A. Clemens, R.L. Geng, R. Manus, P.V. Tyagi

    2011-07-01

    The Electro-polishing (EP) process is the best candidate of final surface-treatment for the production of ILC cavities. Nevertheless, the development of defects on the inner-surface of the Superconducting RF cavity during EP process has not been studied by experimental method. We made artificial pits on the surface of a Nb-plate sample and observed the development of the pit-shapes after each step of 30um-EP process where 120um was removed by EP in total. This article describes the results of this EP-test of Nb-sample with artificial pits.

  7. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, P.D. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Llorente, C.L. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Saire Huaman, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gassa, L.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gervasi, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) and Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gervasi@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-10-15

    Cyclic potentiodynamic measurements and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze susceptibility to pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals. In order to carry out a critical assessment of the influence of microstructural factors on localized corrosion, different heat treatments were applied to the alloys under investigation. Volume fractions of austenite in tempered conditions as well as the amount and size of precipitated carbides strongly affect pitting resistance. Characteristic potentials (pitting potential and repassivation potential) increase according to the retained austenite content. Results can be discussed in terms of a model that describes the structural refinement resulting from a double-tempering procedure.

  8. Optimal Growth Conditions for Selective Ge Islands Positioning on Pit-Patterned Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschini R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate ordered nucleation of Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001 using an original hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo model. The method allows us to explore long time-scale evolution while using large simulation cells. We analyze the possibility to achieve selective nucleation and island homogeneity as a function of the various parameters (flux, temperature, pit period able to influence the growth process. The presence of an optimal condition where the atomic diffusivity is sufficient to guarantee nucleation only within pits, but not so large to induce significant Ostwald ripening, is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Passivation and pitting corrosion of. alpha. -brass (Cu/Zn: 63/37) in neutral buffer solutions containing chloride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, H.A. (Cairo Univ., Gizeh (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The passivation behaviour and pitting corrosion of a commercial grade {alpha}-brass (Cu/Zn: 63/37) in neutral buffer solutions (borate and phosphate) in the presence and absence of chloride ions were investigated by electrochemical techniques. The results indicated the dezincification in absence of chloride ions at highly enough anodic potentials and both dezincification and pitting corrosion in the presence of chloride ions. The pitting susceptibility was found to depend on the composition of the buffer solution, chloride ion concentration and nature of the passive layer on the metal surface before pitting. Current transients corresponding to passivity, dezincification and pitting corrosion were identified and analyzed. (orig.).

  10. Prediction of Pitting Corrosion Mass Loss for 304 Stainless Steel by Image Processing and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2005-01-01

    Image processing technique was employed to analyze pitting corrosion morphologies of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments. BP neural network models were developed for the prediction of pitting corrosion mass loss using the obtained data of the total and the average pit areas which were extracted from pitting binary image. The results showed that the predicted results obtained by the 2-5-1 type BP neural network model are in good agreement with the experimental data of pitting corrosion mass loss. The maximum relative error of prediction is 6.78%.

  11. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  12. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy of buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects with snow, adjust temperature gradients, adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism. Further study is needed to use absolute temperatures independently of supporting gradient data.

  13. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy with respect to buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects, adjust temperature gradients adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism.

  14. EXCAVATION OF PITS (CHANNELS BY IMPACT OF PULSE POWER LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakhaev Koshkinbai Nazirovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an innovative hydromechanical solution of the problem of profiles development of pits and channels by impact of pulse (blasting power load on a surface of homogeneous soil mass, for example, when excavating solid rocks, frozen soil, etc. Thus, soil would be considered as an ideal heavy liquid (disregarding its mechanical strength and plastic properties. The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of consecutive conformal mappings of physical flow region (in the form of Kirchhoff complex on the region of complex potential (in the form of a rectangle. Thus, the new technique of geometrical image generation of the latter in the presence in the flow region of a fixed point with discontinuous variations of pressure head-flow function and the direction of speed of flow and representation of an elliptic sine of Jacobi by means of elementary functions are used. The received analytical functional dependencies allow to determine an outline of a funnel of the soil ejection and all the required hydromechanical characteristics of flow (head-flow function, function of flow, speed of flow, etc.. Thus, the soil ejection funnel outline (for a benchmark problem completely coincides with subproduct of the known rigorous solution of Lavrentyev-Kuznetsov.

  15. Cargo and dynamin regulate clathrin-coated pit maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah Loerke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM has become a powerful tool for studying clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, due to difficulties in tracking and quantifying their heterogeneous dynamic behavior, detailed analyses have been restricted to a limited number of selected clathrin-coated pits (CCPs. To identify intermediates in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and factors that regulate progression through these stages, we used particle-tracking software and statistical methods to establish an unbiased and complete inventory of all visible CCP trajectories. We identified three dynamically distinct CCP subpopulations: two short-lived subpopulations corresponding to aborted intermediates, and one longer-lived productive subpopulation. In a manner dependent on AP2 adaptor complexes, increasing cargo concentration significantly enhances the maturation efficiency of productive CCPs, but has only minor effects on their lifetimes. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA depletion of dynamin-2 GTPase and reintroduction of wild-type or mutant dynamin-1 revealed dynamin's role in controlling the turnover of abortive intermediates and the rate of CCP maturation. From these data, we infer the existence of an endocytic restriction or checkpoint, responsive to cargo and regulated by dynamin.

  16. Are plague pits of particular use to palaeoepidemiologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H A

    2001-02-01

    The demography and pattern of disease of skeletal assemblages may not accurately reflect those of the living population of which they were once a part. The hypothesis tested here was that skeletons from a mass disaster would more closely approximate to a living population than those from a conventional cemetery. Six hundred skeletons recovered from a Black Death plague pit in London were compared with 236 skeletons recovered from an overlying medieval cemetery. Age and sex were determined by standard anthropological means by a single observer and adjustments were made to correct for those skeletons for which either or both could not be established. An estimate of age structure of the living medieval population of London was made, using model life tables. The age and sex distribution and the pattern of disease in the Black Death skeletons did not differ substantially from those in the control group of skeletons. Both assemblages tended to overestimate the numbers in the younger age groups of the model population and underestimate the numbers in the oldest age group. On the evidence from this single site, a skeletal assemblage from a mass disaster does not provide a better representation of the living population from which it was derived than that from a conventional cemetery.

  17. Regulation of cell proliferation and cell density by the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byskov Kristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background The inorganic phosphate (Pi transporter, PiT1 (SLC20A1, is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It has previously been shown that down-regulation of PiT1 severely impaired the proliferation of two transformed human cells lines, HepG2 and HeLa, and the tumorigenicity of HeLa cells in nude mice. Moreover, PiT1 knock-out mice do not survive past E12.5 and from E10.5, the embryos were found to be growth-retarded and showed reduced proliferation of liver cells. Isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts with knocked out as well as reduced PiT1 expression levels also exhibited impaired proliferation. Together these results suggest that a certain level of PiT1 is important for proliferation. We have here investigated the role of PiT1 in regulation of cell proliferation using two strictly density-inhibited cells lines, the murine MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cells. Results We found that knock-down of PiT1 in MC3T3-E1 cells led to impaired proliferation supporting that at least a certain level of PiT1 is important for wildtype level of proliferation. We, however, also observed that MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cells themselves regulate their endogenous PiT1 mRNA levels with lower levels in general correlating with decreased proliferation/increased cell density. Moreover, over-expression of human PiT1 led to increased proliferation of both MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cultures and resulted in higher cell densities in cultures of these two strictly density-inhibited cell lines. In addition, when we transformed NIH3T3 cells by cultivation in fetal bovine serum, cells over-expressing human PiT1 formed more colonies in soft agar than control cells. Conclusions We conclude that not only is a certain level of PiT1 necessary for normal cell division as suggested by previously published studies, rather the cellular PiT1 level is involved in regulating cell proliferation and cell density and an increased PiT1 expression can indeed make NIH3T3 cells more sensitive to

  18. Fabrication of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with excellent mechanical and pitting corrosion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    18Cr18Mn2Mo0.9N high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel exhibits high strength and good ductility at room temperature. The steel shows typical duc-tile-brittle transition behavior and excellent pitting corrosion resistance properties.

  19. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Residual Cap: Evidence for Pressurized Subsurface Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Titus, T.; Byrne, S.

    2005-12-01

    We present observations of small-scale pitting within the Swiss cheese terrain of the carbon dioxide South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) and consider the implications of their rapid cascade-like evolution. We show that such pitting cascades: (1) only occur near the walls of thick Swiss cheese mesas; (2) rarely occur in polygonally-cracked mesas; and (3) occur far more often in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Years 2 and 3 than in MGS Year 1. We propose that pitting results from depressurization of a sealed layer, which requires subsurface heating that cannot be presently maintained by lateral heat conduction. Instead, we attribute the pressurization and heating implied by pitting to a solid state greenhouse initiated by the recent formation of slab CO2 ice during the southern spring and summer of MGS Year 1, which we show is consistent with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) 25-micron band depth measurements of the SPRC over the last three Mars years.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清远; N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials axe known to have a considerablescatter due to the random nature of materials, loading, and environmental conditions. A probabilisticapproach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effectof the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigueprocess (i.e. the pit nucleation and growth, pit-crack transition, short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size, corrosion pittingcurrent, and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data. Monte Carlo simu-lations were performed to define the failure probability distribution. Predicted cumulative distributionfunctions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  1. Unsuccessful vitrectomy without gas tamponade for macular retinal detachment and retinoschisis without optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of subretinal fluid accumulation in optic disc pit maculopathy is unknown. A 67-year-old Japanese woman complaining of blurred vision in her right eye presented with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography examination showed maculopathy typically associated with optic disc pits, except that the patient had no optic disc pit. Long-acting gas tamponade was required to achieve reattachment of the retina and retinoschisis after initial failure of surgery using surgically induced vitreous detachment without either fluid-air exchange or gas injection. Vitreous traction may not have played a major role in introducing fluid into the submacular space in this case. Gas tamponade may be indispensable to achieve surgical success. This may also pertain to some cases of optic nerve pits.

  2. Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors firstly introduce deformation control of deep excavation pit in detail, and then put forward new conceptions such as: effective coefficient of excavation pit, effective area, ineffective area and critical line, and also put forward the referential criteria of deformation control. The System of Optimization Design with Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method (SDCDEFEM) is also briefly introduced. Factors influencing deformation of excavation pit are analyzed by the system. The measured and simulated data of maximum deformations (settlement, displacement and upheaval) and their positions are analyzed and discussed. The statistic formula estimating maximum deformations and their positions was gained, and economical-effective measures of deformation control were brought forward.

  3. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  4. Study on Deep Well Dewatering Optimization Design in Deep Foundation Pit and Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on analyses of the theories of groundwater unsteady flow in deep well dewatering in the deep foundation pit, Theis equations are chosen to calculate and analyze the relationship between water level drawdown of confined aquifer and dewatering duration. In order to reduce engineering cost and diminish detrimental effect on ambient surrounding, optimization design target function based on the control of confined water drawdown and four restriction requisitions based on the control of safe water level, resistance to throwing up from the bottom of foundation pit, avoiding excessively great subsidence and unequal surface subsidence are proposed. A deep well dewatering project in the deep foundation pit is optimally designed. The calculated results including confined water level drawdown and surface subsidence are in close agreement with the measured results, and the optimization design can effectively control both surface subsidence outside foundation pit and unequal subsidence as a result of dewatering.

  5. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  6. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  7. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  8. Short convalescence and minimal pain after out-patient Bascom's pit-pick operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of pilonidal sinuses with Bascom's pit-pick operation can easily be performed under local analgesia. We describe pain during and after the operation, time to return to work, time to healing and success rate.......Treatment of pilonidal sinuses with Bascom's pit-pick operation can easily be performed under local analgesia. We describe pain during and after the operation, time to return to work, time to healing and success rate....

  9. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    results in the Periodic Occupational Exposure Monitoring Summary ( POEMS ). Based on his review of the POEMS data, CPT Pratt opined: “The long term...is inconclusive regarding whether exposure to burn pit emissions creates a long -term health risk for deployed personnel. Contrary to this position...Air Field was "unhealthy" and concluded that the primary contributor was the burn pit. He also listed potential long -term health risks associated

  10. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  11. Enamel Pit Defects and Taurodontism in a Patient with Ring Chromosome 14 and 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Lacour, Letitia; Scheuerle, Angela E

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the clinical findings and management of a case involving a patient with co-occurring ring chromosome 14 syndrome and 47,XXX presenting with enamel pit defects and taurodontism. Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is an unusual condition with uncontrolled seizure disorder as its most significant finding; 47,XXX (trisomy X; triple X) is a more common condition and has characteristic physical and behavioral findings. Neither condition has been associated with enamel pit defects.

  12. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  13. Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT technology to mark large mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus. The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (± 5.6 mm with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD penetration depth of 22.2 mm (± 3.8 mm; n = 6. We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts.

  14. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Herniation pits and their renaissance in association with femoroacetabular impingement; Herniation Pits und ihre Renaissance im Zusammenhang mit femoroazetabulaerem Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Stephonie [Unfallklinik Murnau (Germany). Radiologie; Augat, P. [Unfallklinik Murnau (Germany). Radiologie; Paracelsus Univ. Salzburg (Austria). Biomechanisches Labor; Scheidler, J. [Radiologischs Zentrum Muenchen-Pasing (Germany). Radiologie

    2010-07-15

    Hernitation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in 1982. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the information concerning HPs published since then and to show their association with the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) which has occurred within the last years. HPs are predominantly located at the anterior-superior femoral neck with a typical radiological appearance, which makes it possible to differentiate them from the numerous differential diagnoses mentioned. In the early publications HPs were described as a separate entity, while recent studies increasingly assign them to intra-osseous ganglia. In contrast to the early publications depicting HPs as an incidental finding, they are currently mainly mentioned in association with FAI and at the same time are partly considered to be a radiological indicator of FAI. In summary, HPs should always be recognized and documented because they may contribute to the diagnosis of FAI which is essential for preventing or delaying osteoarthritis of the hip joint in the early stage. (orig.)

  16. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  17. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmunt, S.; Christensen, L.; Richardson, C.

    1997-12-12

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned.

  18. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  19. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  20. Computer aided design and analysis of Sapan Dalam open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baafi, E.Y.; Milawarma, E.; Cusack, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Sapan Dalam coal deposit of Indonesia consists of ten steeply dipping seams with thicknesses varying between 0.1 and 3.5 m and split by shale clay, silt and sandstone. The area contains four faults dipping about 75{degree} with four to 85 m vertical displacements. The complex nature of the deposit coupled with limited 27 exploration drillholes at an average spacing of 200 m made it difficult to create a realistic geological model. A three-dimensional gridded seam model gave a fair representation of the deposit. Attempts to create an optimum pit using the WHITTLE 3D pit optimiser proved unsuccessful since the pit optimiser is restricted to standard regular or fixed blocks. The gridded seam model was converted to a fixed block model prior to the optimum pit design. Smoothing and pit base controlling were also introduced to obtain a smoother pit. A mining scenario produced 3.6 million tonnes of coal, 28.4 million bcm of waste and 18.1 million US dollars revenue. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Finger nail pitting in psoriasis and its relation with different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of pitting, vary considerably in different types of psoriasis. In clinical practice, toe nail examination is inconvenient. There are inadequate studies which show relation of nail pitting with duration and severity of the disease. The objective was to examine the incidence of finger nail pitting in all types of cutaneous psoriasis and its relation with different variables. This is a clinico-epidemiological study. A careful clinical examination of finger nails was done in day time. Severity of disease was calculated by psoriasis area severity index (PASI. Statistical analysis was done using Microcomputer statistics software (MSTAT. In study group, 621 patients and in control group 350 people were taken. Finger nail pitting was present in 37% (total number was 60 in 12% in study group. In control group, it was present in 10% (in all cases total number was 1 year duration group it was 40.5%.In mild psoriasis, pitting was present in 34.2%, while in severe cases it was 47.6%. Finger nail pitting is an important nail finding in psoriasis and its incidence increases with duration and severity of disease.

  2. New pollution reduction technologies through tank sealing of slag and ashes pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruell, A.; Revenco, V. [Institutul de Stuidii Si Proiectari Energetice S.A. (ISPE), Bucharest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Under the Romanian environment protection law provision no. 137/1995, the existing slag and ashes pits raise problems due to the exfiltrations from the pits tank towards the phreatic water sheet. The design includes the following steps to be taken: pit bed waterproofing under new works; bed ends sealing, parallel with pit aggradation for dumps in operation; waterproofing of aggradation dikes. The conventional solution is clay plating. When works are performed under bad weather conditions, and clay must be brought from remote distances, the clay plating solution should be compared to the geocomponents one. The latter area combination of geotextiles and bentone material that can be placed easily, joint in situ, and can be paid at negative temperatures. Once wet, geo components become impermeable. The paper describes the sealing performed at the slag and ashes pit of Vales Ceplea at Turceni thermal power plant, and the sealing solution being developed at the Beterega Nord slag and ashes pit at Rovinari thermal power plant. The necessary geophysical characteristics of the material are pointed out.

  3. Structural Design and Monitoring Analysis of Foundation Pit Support in Yiwu Huishang Tiandi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsu

    2017-08-01

    Huishang Tiandi deep foundation pit in Yiwu is a two-story basement,which is located in the downtown area and adjacent to the city center main traffic trunk. The surrounding environment is too com-plex to slope. The excavation depth is large, the formation is weak and complex, and the groundwater level is high.In order to ensure the safety of the foundation wall and the surrounding environment, the deformation of the foundation pit support is strictly controlled, and the deformation and internal force of the foundation supporting structure and the surrounding building are monitored.The deformation law of the foundation pit is obtained through the analysis of the horizontal displacement, the deformation rate of the supporting struc-ture, the surrounding environment of the foundation pit and the internal force of the anchor cable. The relia-bility and rationality of the design of foundation pit support are verified. It is of reference value for the de-sign and construction of other deep foundation pit engineering in Yiwu area.

  4. Corrosion pathways in liquid sulfur run-down pits and other liquid sulfur handling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    2010-01-15

    This poster presentation explained why sulfur pits deteriorate over time and provided the detailed chemistry of the mechanisms for the deterioration of concrete in sulfur pits. Liquid and solid sulfur may build up in the pore structure of the concrete, which is followed by chemical reactions. The sulfur formation inside the concrete pore structure is catalyzed by concrete constituents. The sulfate formation in sulfur pit concrete was described. The chemical process that produces the corrosion of re-enforcing steel rods used in the construction of sulfur pits was also described. The consequence of such corrosion is the loss of structural integrity. The secondary corrosion processes at concrete pit reinforcing steel were also presented. To limit the deterioration of sulfur pit concrete, high-density silica facing should be used on the concrete to prevent the ingress of gases into the concrete. Silica does not catalyze the conversion of hydrogen disulfide and sulfur dioxide to sulfur, so there is no formation of stable sulfates and acidic intermediates. 8 figs.

  5. Origins of etch pits in β-Ga2O3(010) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Kenji; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Ueda, Osamu; Kasu, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Etch pits of various shapes were observed on etched β-Ga2O3(010) single crystals and classified into types A-F according to shape. Type-A etch pits changed in shape in the order of types B, C, and D by etching. Groove-shaped pits observed on as-grown β-Ga2O3(010) single crystal surfaces [K. Hanada et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 030303 (2016)] were classified into type G. Type-G pits, which were determined to be void defects because of three-dimentional spaces in single crystals, existed before etching and changed to type A after etching. Therefore, after etching, void defects must change in shape as follows: Type G → A → B → C → D. The exposed facets change with etching time. Types-E and -F etch pits were observed to be parallelograms and hexagons, respectively. Types-E and -F etch pits must include dislocations along the [010] direction because they did not change in shape after etching.

  6. Pit-1 inhibits BRCA1 and sensitizes human breast tumors to cisplatin and vitamin D treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Samuel; Arias, Efigenia; Sigueiro, Rita; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Martinez-Ordoñez, Anxo; Castelao, Esteban; Eiró, Noemí; Garcia-Caballero, Tomás; Macia, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Maestro, Miguel; Vizoso, Francisco; Mouriño, Antonio; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1), pertaining to the Pit-Oct-Unc (POU) family of transcription factors, has been related to tumor growth and metastasis in breast. However, its role in response to breast cancer therapy is unknown. We found that Pit-1 down-regulated DNA-damage and repair genes, and specifically inhibited BRCA1 gene expression, sensitizing breast cancer cells to DNA-damage agents. Administration of 1α, 25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3 (3-Epi, an endogenous low calcemic vitamin D metabolite) reduced Pit-1 expression, and synergized with cisplatin, thus, decreasing cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro, and reducing tumor growth in vivo. In addition, fifteen primary cultures of human breast tumors showed significantly decreased proliferation when treated with 3-Epi+cisplatin, compared to cisplatin alone. This response positively correlated with Pit-1 levels. Our findings demonstrate that high levels of Pit-1 and reduced BRCA1 levels increase breast cancer cell susceptibility to 3-Epi+cisplatin therapy. PMID:25992773

  7. Bacillus vini sp. nov. isolated from alcohol fermentation pit mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kedong; Chen, Xiaorong; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Zhao, Bingqiang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM0415(T), was isolated from an alcohol fermentation pit mud sample collected from Sichuan Luzhou-flavour liquor enterprise in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-10 % (w/v) (optimum: 1.0 %), 10-50 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 3.0-10.0 (optimum: 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T), with 98.4 and 97.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0415(T) and the two reference strains were 33.3 ± 1.2 and 42.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK7 and MK8. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0415(T) (=ACCC 06413(T) = JCM 19841(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vini sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeln, Terri G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-25

    A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

  9. White phosphorus pits focused feasibility study final July 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Martino, L.

    2007-08-21

    The White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP) Area of Concern (AOC) is a site of about 5.5 acres (2.2 ha) located in the J-Field Study Area, in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland (Figure 1.1). Considerable information about the WPP exists as a result of efforts to characterize the hazards associated with J-Field. Contamination in the J-Field Study Area was first detected during an environmental survey of the APG Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 (Nemeth et al. 1983) by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA; predecessor to the U.S. Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field (three of them at the WPP) (Nemeth 1989). Contamination was also detected in 1983 during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science (1984). The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved installing and sampling nine wells (four at the WPP) and collecting and analyzing surficial and deep composite soil samples (including samples from the WPP area). In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a post-wide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field. In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phase hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil-gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed (four at the WPP), a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today. The results of the USGS study were published by Hughes (1993).

  10. Discrete element modeling of Martian pit crater formation in response to extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.; Ferrill, David A.

    2011-04-01

    Pit craters, circular to elliptical depressions that lack a raised rim or ejecta deposits, are common on the surface of Mars. Similar structures are also found on Earth, Venus, the Moon, and smaller planetary bodies, including some asteroids. While it is generally accepted that these pits form in response to material drainage into a subsurface void space, the primary mechanism(s) responsible for creating the void is a subject of debate. Previously proposed mechanisms include collapse into lave tubes, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. In this study, we employ two-dimensional discrete element models to assess both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting as mechanisms for forming pit craters. We also examine the effect of mechanical stratigraphy (alternating strong and weak layers) and variation in regolith thickness on pit morphology. Our simulations indicate that both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting are viable mechanisms. Both mechanisms lead to generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles; extensional fracturing results in generally symmetric pits, whereas dilational normal faulting produces strongly asymmetric geometries. Pit width is established early, whereas pit depth increases later in the deformation history. Inclusion of mechanical stratigraphy results in wider and deeper pits, particularly for the dilational normal faulting, and the presence of strong near-surface layers leads to pits with distinct edges as observed on Mars. The modeling results suggest that a thicker regolith leads to wider but shallower pits that are less distinct and may be more difficult to detect in areas of thick regolith.

  11. Pitting Corrosion Behaviour of New Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement Bars in Chloride-Containing Concrete Pore Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Chu, Hong-yan; Wang, Danqian; Ma, Han; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the pitting behaviour of a new corrosion-resistant alloy steel (CR) is compared to that of low-carbon steel (LC) in a simulated concrete pore solution with a chloride concentration of 5 mol/L. The electrochemical behaviour of the bars was characterised using linear polarisation resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting profiles were detected by reflective digital holographic microscopy (DHM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical components produced in the pitting process were analysed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the CR bars have a higher resistance to pitting corrosion than the LC bars. This is primarily because of the periodic occurrence of metastable pitting during pitting development. Compared to the pitting process in the LC bars, the pitting depth grows slowly in the CR bars, which greatly reduces the risk of pitting. The possible reason for this result is that the capability of the CR bars to heal the passivation film helps to restore the metastable pits to the passivation state. PMID:28777327

  12. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the distribution and number of pit organs (free neuromasts) of sharks and rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Meredith B

    2003-04-01

    The distribution of pit organs (free neuromasts) has previously been documented for several species of pelagic sharks, but is relatively poorly known for rays and bottom-dwelling (demersal) sharks. In the present study, the complete distribution of pit organs was mapped in the demersal sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni, Orectolobus maculatus, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Asymbolus analis, and the rays Rhinobatos typus, Aptychotrema rostrata, Trygonorrhina sp. A, Raja sp. A, and Myliobatis australis. All of these species had pit organs scattered over the dorsolateral surface. The sharks also had "mandibular" pit organs (and "umbilical" pit organs in C. punctatum and A. analis) on the ventral surface, while pit organs were sparse or absent on the ventral surface of rays. All of the species examined here, except for M. australis, also had a "spiracular" group of pit organs adjacent to the eye and/or spiracle. Spiracular pit organs were also recorded for the sawshark Pristiophorus sp. A and the skate Pavoraja nitida, although the remainder of pit organs were not mapped in these species. The distribution and number of pit organs varied both within and among species. Pit organ distribution was asymmetrical in each individual examined, but no particular trend towards left or right "handedness" was observed in any species. Although rays have been thought to have fewer pit organs than sharks in general, this was not the case in the present study. All of the species examined here had few pit organs compared to the pelagic sharks previously documented, but it is not clear whether this is due to ecological or phylogenetic causes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  15. Pitting and galvanic corrosion behavior of stainless steel with weld in wet-dry environment containing Cl-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion test of stainless steel with weld was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior under the wetdry cyclic condition in the atmosphere containing Cl-. In the surface morphology, corrosion products were analyzed by metallographic observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the damage to stainless steel with weld in the atmosphere containing Cl- is due to localized corrosion, especially pitting and galvanic corrosion.Weld acts as the anode, whereas matrix acts as the cathode in the corrosion process. The pitting corrosion, including the nucleation and growth of a stable pit, is promoted by the presence of wet-dry cycles, especially during the drying stage. Pits centralizing in weld are found to be grouped together like colonies, with a number of smaller pits surrounding a larger pit. The composition of the corrosion products is Fe2O3, Cr2O3, Fe3O4, NiCrO4, etc.

  16. Association of bGH and Pit-1 gene variants with milk production traits in dairy Gyr bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Keiko Kusamura de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain genetic marker information in the Gyr breed by analyzing bGH and Pit-1 gene polymorphisms and to verify their association with milk production traits. One sample including 40 Gyr bulls were genotyped at two bGH gene restriction sites (bGH- AluI and bGH-MspI and at one restriction site in the Pit-1 gene (Pit-1 HinfI. The bGH-MspI(- allele was favorable for fat milk percentage. The heterozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/- bulls were superior for fat milk production, in relation to homozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/+. The Pit-1 and bGH genes are strong candidates in the dairy cattle QTL search, and zebuine populations are promising samples for this purpose.

  17. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    art show a celebration of beauty and experience -- abstract geology. The last design approach combines art and science in a human-nature ecosystem termed integration. With environmental concerns, an operating or reclaimed mine site can no longer be considered isolated from its surroundings. Site analysis of mine works needs to go beyond site-specific information and relate to the regional context of the greater landscape. Understanding design approach can turn undesirable features (mines and pits) into something perceived as desirable by the public.

  18. Prediction of microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel welds by modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilpas, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1999-07-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of several computer models to accurately predict the solidification, microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Emphasis was given to modelling the effect of welding speed on solute redistribution and ultimately to the prediction of weld pitting corrosion resistance. Calculations were experimentally verified by applying autogenous GTA- and laser processes over the welding speed range of 0.1 to 5 m/min for several austenitic stainless steel grades. Analytical and computer aided models were applied and linked together for modelling the solidification behaviour of welds. The combined use of macroscopic and microscopic modelling is a unique feature of this work. This procedure made it possible to demonstrate the effect of weld pool shape and the resulting solidification parameters on microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance. Microscopic models were also used separately to study the role of welding speed and solidification mode in the development of microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance. These investigations demonstrate that the macroscopic model can be implemented to predict solidification parameters that agree well with experimentally measured values. The linked macro-micro modelling was also able to accurately predict segregation profiles and CPT-temperatures obtained from experiments. The macro-micro simulations clearly showed the major roles of weld composition and welding speed in determining segregation and pitting corrosion resistance while the effect of weld shape variations remained negligible. The microscopic dendrite tip and interdendritic models were applied to welds with good agreement with measured segregation profiles. Simulations predicted that weld inhomogeneity can be substantially decreased with increasing welding speed resulting in a corresponding improvement in the weld pitting corrosion resistance. In the case of primary austenitic

  19. PRELIMINARY PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GRAVEL PIT AND WINTERPONDS NEAR JAGODNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of plankton populations have been performed in the gravel pit and two winterponds near the place Jagodno, Novo Čiće, in the vicinity of Velika Gorica. Our goal was to examine plankton composition of the gravel pit and winterponds, two ecosystems characterized by specific life–conditions which change with time and space. Investigations were conducted during June 2007. Plankton samples were collected from water surface layer at four locations (two locations in the gravel pit and one location in each of two winterponds. Along with plankton sample collecting, measurements were made of some physico–chemical parameters (water temperature, pH–values and dissolved oxygen content in water. Water temperature at two sampling locations in the gravel pit and one location at each of the winterponds depended on the surrounding air temperature, and ranged from 22.5ºC to 23.6ºC. pH–reaction was alkaline, ranging from 8. 23 to 9. 02. Dissolved oxygen content in the gravel pit was around 10 mg/O2; in winterponds it ranged from 7.6 to 9.7 mg/O2 (Table 1. At the gravel pit locations total number of 32 phytoplankton species were determined; in winterponds were determined 37 (microphytic species? while zooplankton was represented in the phytoplankton community composition at the four locations with 5 species. Phytoplankton species determined in the samples from two gravel pit locations belonged to the system groups Dinophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta while in the samples from winterpond locations, along with the mentioned system groups, were found as well the representatives from the groups Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Zooplankton species belonged to the groups Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda (Table 2. In gravel pit locations dominated diatoms or Bacillarophyceae while in winterponds the majority of phytoplankton mass consisted of the representatives of the species Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Qualitative

  20. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie

    2011-09-01

    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  1. Origin of pit chains in the floor of lunar Copernican craters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are small pit chains in the floor of lunar Copernican craters. They are usually so small in scale that there are few lunar spacecrafts to detect their detailed morphology. Combining camera data from Lunar Orbiter, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Kaguya and Chang’e-1 missions, 5 representative large Copernican craters on various terrains of the lunar surface are chosen to study the origin of the pit chains in the crater floor. The morphology and distribution characteristic of the pit chains are referred by the high resolution images in this research. It is suggested that it is the magma activities from the subsurface magma layer combining with the existence of fractures and faults under the crater floor that leaded the formation of the pit chains. The model is further verified and discussed using the regolith thickness data in the crater floor. Our model suggests that the pit chains are still developing in the floor of the Copernican craters and the Moon may not be totally cold. Finally, the model limitation and potential future work are discussed based on available data.

  2. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyungnam [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39 , acetabular index (AI) {<=}0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI. (orig.)

  3. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion behaviors of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yan Yang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion behaviors of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels (HNSS) were investigated by electrochemical and immersion testing methods in chloride solution, respectively. The chemical constitution and composition in the depth of passive films formed on HNSS were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). HNSS has excellent pitting and crevice corrosion resistance compared to 316L stainless steel. With increasing the nitrogen content in steels, pitting potentials and critical pitting temperature (CPT) increase, and the maximum, average pit depths and average weight loss decrease. The CPT of HNSS is correlated with the alloying element content through the measure of alloying for resistance to corrosion (MARC). The MARC can be expressed as an equation of CPT=2.55MARC-29. XPS results show that HNSS exhibiting excellent corrosion resis-tance is attributed to the enrichment of nitrogen on the surface of passive films, which forms ammonium ions increasing the local pH value and facilitating repassivation, and the synergistic effects of molybdenum and nitrogen.

  5. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  6. Microstructural Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steels Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qifeng; Pan, Tongyan

    2017-05-01

    Two microscale numerical models are developed in this work using a moving-mesh approach to investigate the growth process of pitting in different iron phases and the corrosion prevention capability of polyaniline (PANi) on steels. The distributions of corrosion potential and current in the electrolyte-coating-steel system are computed to evaluate the anti-corrosion ability of PANi. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was used to accomplish the continuous remesh process as was needed to simulate the dynamic growing forefront of the modeled pitting domain. Experimental validation of the numerical models was conducted using the technique of scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The SKPFM-scanned surface topography and Volta potential difference exhibit comparable results to and thereby prove the numerical results. The potential distribution in the electrolyte phase of the validated models shows that the corrosion pit grows faster in the epoxy-only-coated steel than that in the PANi-primer-coated steel over the simulation time; also, the corrosion pit grows faster in the ferrite phase than in the cementite phase. The simulation results indicate that the epoxy-only coating lost its anti-corrosion capability as the coating was penetrated by electrolyte, while the PANi-based coating can still protect the steel from corrosion after the electrolyte penetration. The models developed in this work can be used to study the mechanisms of pitting corrosion as well as develop more effective corrosion prevention strategies for general metallic materials.

  7. Microstructural Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steels Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qifeng; Pan, Tongyan

    2017-03-01

    Abstracts Two microscale numerical models are developed in this work using a moving-mesh approach to investigate the growth process of pitting in different iron phases and the corrosion prevention capability of polyaniline (PANi) on steels. The distributions of corrosion potential and current in the electrolyte-coating-steel system are computed to evaluate the anti-corrosion ability of PANi. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was used to accomplish the continuous remesh process as was needed to simulate the dynamic growing forefront of the modeled pitting domain. Experimental validation of the numerical models was conducted using the technique of scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The SKPFM-scanned surface topography and Volta potential difference exhibit comparable results to and thereby prove the numerical results. The potential distribution in the electrolyte phase of the validated models shows that the corrosion pit grows faster in the epoxy-only-coated steel than that in the PANi-primer-coated steel over the simulation time; also, the corrosion pit grows faster in the ferrite phase than in the cementite phase. The simulation results indicate that the epoxy-only coating lost its anti-corrosion capability as the coating was penetrated by electrolyte, while the PANi-based coating can still protect the steel from corrosion after the electrolyte penetration. The models developed in this work can be used to study the mechanisms of pitting corrosion as well as develop more effective corrosion prevention strategies for general metallic materials.

  8. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  9. Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Li, Juiki; Salamh, Yousef; Al-Laqtah, Nasir; Walker, Gavin; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2010-04-15

    A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu(2+)), and cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g(-1), respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu(2+) and Cd(2+). For Cu(2+), binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd(2+), the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pitting Behavior of L415 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Leaching Liquid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H. X.; Yang, X. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Song, D. D.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion behavior and laws of the west-east gas pressure pipeline of L415 steel were studied in simulated leaching liquid. The failure of the L415 steel during the pressure testing process was investigated using electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test. The corrosion rate of the L415 steel increased with ion concentration in the leaching liquid. This rate reached about 0.8 mm a-1 and belonged to the severe corrosion grade. Pitting corrosion was observed in various simulated solutions with different aggressive species concentrations. The original ion concentration in the leaching liquid (1×) is the key factor influencing pitting initiation and development. Pitting showed easy nucleation, and its growth rate was relatively slow, in the basic simulating solution of the leach liquid (i.e., the ion content is compactable to the real condition in the rust on the inner steel pipe surface). Pitting was also highly sensitive and easily grew in the solution with doubled ion concentration in the basic simulating solution (2×). A uniform corrosion, instead of pitting, mainly occurred when the ion concentration was up to 10× of the basic solution.

  11. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang [KAIST, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys.

  12. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  13. Differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were conducted to examine the response of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.number/sup 1/ IPOLA), and ivy leaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. number IPOHE) to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen. In field studies, greatest soybean injury was observed with acifluorfen and lactofen. All treatments provided 80% or greater control of pitted morning glory 15 days after treatment. Only acifluorfen and fomesafen at 0.6 kg ai ha/sup -1/ provided 80% or greater ivy leaf morning glory. The differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to these diphenyl ether herbicides was reflected in soybean seed yields. In laboratory studies, 71 to 84% of applied /sup 14/C-acifluorfen was not absorbed into the leaf surface of ivy leaf morning glory. Thirty-two to 46% of applied acifluorfen was recovered from the leaf surface of pitted morning glory. Sixty-four percent of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was recovered from leaf surfaces of both morning glory species 96 h after treatment. Treated leaves of pitted morning glory contained 35 to 37% more /sup 14/C-acifluorfen than ivy leaf morning glory. Less than 28% of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was absorbed into treated leaves of both morning glory species at 24, 48, and 96 h harvests.

  14. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  15. Effect of boron addition on pitting corrosion resistance of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel: Application of electrochemical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujar, M.G., E-mail: pujar55@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Brijitta, J.; Tata, B.V.R. [Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Weibull probability plots separate pitting and passive corrosion events. {yields} Gumbel distribution analysis gives maximum metastable pit depths. {yields} Addition of boron results in superior pitting corrosion resistance in 0.1 M NaCl. {yields} Incorporation of B into M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides refines them and improves pitting resistance. {yields} Coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and delta-ferrite result in inferior pitting resistance. - Abstract: 9Cr-1Mo steels indigenously melted with the addition of boron (Alloy B) and without it (Alloy D) along with Alloy C (without boron addition with minor changes in the trace element concentrations) were studied for their pitting corrosion resistance in 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.05 M and 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions using electrochemical noise (EN) technique. Weibull probability plots were used to determine the pit embryo generation rates. Gumbel extreme value analysis was conducted to determine the maximum metastable as well as stable pit radii. The analysis of the data showed superior pitting corrosion resistance of the Alloy B compared to Alloy C as well as Alloy D.

  16. Microscopic investigation of pitting corrosion in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel; Mikroskopische Untersuchung von Lochkorrosion an plasmanitriertem austenitischem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalada, Lisandro; Simison, Silvia N. [Univ. of Mar del Plata (Argentina). Faculty of Engineering; Bruehl, Sonia P. [National Univ. of Technology, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina). Surface Engineering Group

    2014-10-01

    UNS 31603 austenitic stainless steel was nitrided using different techniques, and pitting corrosion resistance was analysed in a chloride solution. All nitriding techniques, LEII, PI. and convectional DC nitriding produced a nitrided layer called S phase which is corrosion resistant. Pits morphology and layer structure was investigated using optical and electronic microscopy, SEM-FIB, EDS, and a 3D reconstruction of a pit was assessed using FIB tomography. It was concluded that pits are initiated in MnS inclusions and a channel was generated passing through the nitrided layer, connecting the steel with the electrolyte. Base alloy dissolution was observed beneath the nitrided layer.

  17. Electrochemical and pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel subjected to massive laser shock peening treatment with different coverage layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. Z.; Han, B.; Cui, C. Y.; Li, C. J.; Luo, K. Y.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) treatment with different coverage layers on residual stress, pitting morphologies in a standard corrosive solution and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel were investigated by pitting corrosion test, potentiodynamic polarisation test, and SEM observations. Results showed massive LSP treatment can effectively cause an obvious improvement of pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel, and increased coverage layer can also gradually improve its corrosion resistance. Massive LSP treatment with multiple layers was shown to influence pitting corrosion behaviour in a standard corrosive solution.

  18. Association of bGH and Pit-1 gene variants with milk production traits in dairy Gyr bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Keiko Kusamura de; Del Lama Silvia Nassif; Martinez Mario Luiz; Freitas Ary Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain genetic marker information in the Gyr breed by analyzing bGH and Pit-1 gene polymorphisms and to verify their association with milk production traits. One sample including 40 Gyr bulls were genotyped at two bGH gene restriction sites (bGH- AluI and bGH-MspI) and at one restriction site in the Pit-1 gene (Pit-1 HinfI). The bGH-MspI(-) allele was favorable for fat milk percentage. The heterozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/-) bulls were superior for fat milk produ...

  19. Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome; a novel clinical entity leading to hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Iguchi, Genzo; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Hidaka-Takeno, Ryoko; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Various hypothalamic-pituitary diseases cause hypopituitarism. Inflammation related to autoimmunity also causes hypopituitarism. Hypophysitis is a representative disease caused by autoimmunity. Generally, anterior pituitary hormones are non-specifically impaired in this condition, but specific hormone defects have been reported in some cases. Anti-PIT-1 (pituitary-specific transcription factor 1) antibody syndrome is a novel clinical entity that presents an acquired combined pituitary hormone deficiency characterized by a specific defect in growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Circulating anti-PIT-1 antibody along with various autoantibodies are detected with multiple endocrine organopathy, meeting the definition of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Mechanistically, cytotoxic T lymphocytes that specifically react with PIT-1 protein play an important role in the development of this syndrome.

  20. A case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankurt, Murat; Aslan, Lokman; Aksoy, Adnan; Başkan, Ahmet M

    2015-03-01

    To report a case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit. A 29-year-old male patient followed up because of the left established and right subclinical keratoconus presented with blurred vision on the left eye that occurred within days. In addition to a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, computerized corneal topography (CT), corneal pachymetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination were performed. The corneal CT showed a mild keratoconus pattern, with a minimum corneal pachymetry of 472 in the right eye and moderate keratoconus pattern with a minimum pachymetry of 435 micron in the left eye. The OCT scans showed the presence of the optic disc pit and related maculopathy. This is the second report of the coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit in the literature. The association of these two entities is therefore less likely to be accidental. Further histopathological studies will be necessary to explain this relationship between two entities.

  1. Uncertainty Representation Method for Open Pit Optimization Results Due to Variation in Mineral Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to quantitatively represent the uncertainty existing in open pit optimization results due to variations in mineral prices. After generating multiple mineral prices using Monte Carlo simulation with data on past mineral prices, a probability model that represents the uncertainty was developed by integrating multiple open pit optimization results derived from the mineral prices. The results of applying the proposed method to the copper-zinc deposits showed that significant uncertainty exists in open pit optimization results due to the variation in copper prices. It was also found that the method has a potential as a tool for classifying the estimation results of ore reserve based on confidence level.

  2. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  3. Surgical Management of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy with Outer Retinal Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Shreekant Kelkar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the successful outcome of a rare optic pit-associated maculopathy with an outer retinal hole following 23 G vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling and fluid-gas exchange without additional endolaser. Method: Interventional case report. Results: This case report documents a 56-year-old male patient with complaints of progressive diminution of vision in the right eye more than in the left eye due to an optic disc pit with an outer retinal hole and a cataract. Optical coherence tomography confirmed the presence of an outer retinal hole. The case report shows the successful outcome of a rare optic pit-associated maculopathy with an outer retinal hole and a cataract following phacoemulsification with 23 G vitrectomy, ILM peeling and fluid-gas exchange without additional endolaser.

  4. The Great Bear Flare Pit Project : review of work to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridal, J. [St. Lawrence River Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Cornwall, ON (Canada); Lean, D. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Biology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Findlay, S.C. [Ottawa Univ., Inst. for Research on Environment and Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-04-30

    Published information regarding potential toxic agents associated with flare emissions and a study to determine the risk posed to Treaty 8 First Nations (T8FN) peoples and wildlife was reviewed as part of the Great Bear Flare Pit Project (GBFPP). The project is concerned with the study of water and soil contamination in the immediate vicinity of flare pits in the Del Rio, Doig basin, Blueberry River, and Halfway River regions of T8FN lands in Alberta. The GBFPP has established good baseline data on metal contamination, and other contaminants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the immediate vicinity of selected flare pits. Based on a critical assessment of reports published to date a series of prioritized recommendations for further research are made. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Calculation of slope-cover height under price fluctuation in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jinyan; Cai Qingxiang; Liu Fuming; Chen Shuzhao

    2014-01-01

    Leaving ditches between adjacent mining areas can effectively reduce re-stripping in the latter mining area and simultaneously lead to an increment in internal dumping costs in the former mining area. This paper establishes calculation models for these two marginal costs. The optimizing model for slope cover height can be determined by including marginal cost models in the objective function. The paper has two main contributions:(a) it fully considers redistribution of dumping space in the model;(b) it introduces price fluctuations and cash discounts in the model. We use the typical open-pit mine as an example to test and prove the model. We conclude that a completely covered slope is reasonable in Haerwusu open pit mine;in addition to an increasing price index, the slope cover height can be reduced;and that price changes are one of the most important influencing factors of slope cover height optimization in an open-pit mine.

  6. Dynamics of pit filling in heteroepitaxy via phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth on a pit-patterned substrate is investigated by phase-field simulations, tackling both film and substrate geometry and elastic properties. The dynamics results from material deposition and redistribution via surface diffusion according to the tendency toward free-energy minimization. The balance between surface energy, misfit strain, and wetting effects is taken into account. Numerical solution by finite-element method permits to properly account for the role played by the actual pit morphology in determining strain relaxation. The mechanisms leading to island growth into the pit are discussed. Different growth parameters and pattern geometries are considered and their effects on island ordering are explained and related to experimental evidences in literature.

  7. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  8. An assessment of a partial pit ventilation system to reduce emission under slatted floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wentao; Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt;

    2012-01-01

    CFD simulations were carried out to assess the feasibility of using RANS (Reynolds – averaged Navier– Stokes) turbulence models to evaluate the performance of a partial pit ventilation system to reduce gas emission under slatted floor. The entire system included a pit model with slatted floor...... and pit exhaust system, a wind table to simulate ground and a wind tunnel to simulate room space of a naturally ventilated livestock house. CFD simulations started with the selection of a proper domain. Two domains were chosen to evaluate the effect of domain simplification. The results showed...... that the effect was significant. The assessment of different turbulence models including the standard, RNG, realizable k _ e models; transition SST k _ x model; Reynolds Stress Models were conducted. Results of RSM were found out to agree best with measured results. In order to understand the transportation...

  9. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  10. The Suggestion of the Macrophoto Method for the Evaluation of the Gear Damages by Pitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiláková, Beáta; Bošanský, Miroslav; Zápotočný, Ján

    2012-12-01

    It is necessary to determine regularly the span of a damaged gear surface caused by pitting. It is an arduous task, because the size of the damage on the tooth flank depends on the number of cycles and the torque. Therefore it is needed to check continually the degree of the surface damage during the testing. When evaluating it is needed to take into account both the area of one tooth and all teeth. In the past various tedious methods with the arduous manual evaluating were used to evaluate pitting . The article deals with the analysis and evaluating of pitting by a new original macrophoto method via the electronic microscope with the computer processing. The main advantage of this method is its speed, exactness and universality.

  11. Pitting Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel under Low Stress below Yield Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shengjie; CHENG Xuequn; LI Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) under various stress was studied by potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results of polarization curves show that,with the increase of the stress,the pitting potentials and the passive current density markedly decrease firstly (180 MPa),and then increase greatly (200 MPa).The corresponding surface morphologies of the samples after the polarization test well correspond to the results.Mott-Schottky analysis proved the least Cl- adsorbed to the surface of passive film with more positive flat potential,indicating that a moderate stress could increase the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L SS in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  12. Co-Evolution Optimization of Anchored Row Piles for Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 吴恒; 李陶声; 韦日钰; 陈秋莲

    2001-01-01

    The thinking of co-evolution is applied to the optimization of retaining and protecting structure for deep foundation excavation, and the system of optimization of anchored row piles for deep foundation pit has been already developed successfully. For the co-evolution algorithm providing an evolutionary mechanism to simulate ever-changing problem space, it is an optimization algorithm that has high performance, especially applying to the optimization of complicated system of retaining and protecting for deep foundation pit. It is shown by many engineering practices that the co-evolution algorithm has obvious optimization effect, so it can be an important method of optimization of retaining and protecting for deep foundation pit. Here the authors discuss the co-evolution model, object function, all kinds of constraint conditions and their disposal methods, and several key techniques of system realization.

  13. Research on deformation prediction method of soft soil deep foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng-hai; ZHENG Yan; YANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of soft soil deep foundation pit for the construction and geotechnical characteristics of the special medium,it is difficult to calculate theoretically accurately structural deformation of the foundation pit,so in the course of excavation on the construction of the information is particularly important.The analysis and comparison of several popular non-linear forecasting methods,combined with the actual projects,set up a grey theoretical prediction model,time series forecasting model,improved neural network model to predict deformation of the foundation pit.The results show that the use of neural network to predict with high accuracy solution,it is the foundation deformation prediction effective way in underground works with good prospects.

  14. Research on deformation prediction method of soft soil deep foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng-hai; ZHENG Yan; YANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of soft soil deep foundation pit for the construction and geotechnical characteristics of the special medium, it is difficult to calculate theoreti-cally accurately structural deformation of the foundation pit, so in the course of excavation on the construction of the information is particularly important. The analysis and compari-son of several popular non-linear forecasting methods, combined with the actual projects, set up a grey theoretical prediction model, time series forecasting model, improved neural network model to predict deformation of the foundation pit. The results show that the use of neural network to predict with high accuracy solution, it is the foundation deformation prediction effective way in underground works with good prospects.

  15. Evaluation of pitting corrosion with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for alumina/aluminium alloys composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, C.; Bronson, A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The pitting susceptibility of monolithic aluminum 6061 alloy and alumina/aluminum alloy composites has been analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and subsequent comparison with their polarization scans. The composites consisting of 0.10 and 0.15 volume fraction of alumina particles (VFAP) and the monolith as cylindrical electrodes were rotated at 1500 rpm while immersed in NaCl solution. The passive currents of the composites were greater than that of the monolith as per the polarization scans. The impedance spectra were acquired at constant potential increments along the passive region up to the pitting potential. The impedance spectra represented by semicircles on a Nyquist plot acquired above the pitting potential collapsed underneath the spectra obtained in the passive region near the corrosion potential for the monolithic alloy and composites. The impedance spectra modeled with a simplified equivalent circuit indicate that the effective capacitance for the composites is greater than that of the monolithic alloy.

  16. Primitive environment control for preservation of pit relics in archeology museums of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Luo, Xilian; Meng, Xiangzhao; Wang, Zanshe; Ma, Tao; Yu, Chuck; Rong, Bo; Li, Ku; Li, Wenwu; Tan, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Immovable historical relics in some archeology museums of China suffer deterioration due to their improper preservation environment. The existing environmental control systems used in archeology museums are often designed for the amenities of visitors, and these manipulated environments are often inappropriate for the conservation of abiotic relics. This paper points out that the large open space of the existing archeology museum could be a cause of deterioration of the relics from the point of view of indoor air convective flow. The paper illustrates the need to introduce a local pit environmental control, which could reintegrate a pit primitive environment for the preservation of the historical relics by using an air curtain system, orientated to isolate the unearthed relics, semiexposed in pits to the large gallery open space of the exhibition hall.

  17. Determination of the Stable Slope Configuration of Oval-Shaped Furrow Pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Nai-long; ZHANG Shi-xiong

    2004-01-01

    The space effects of oval-shaped furrow pit slopes were analyzed by the elastic mechanics principle. The interaction of limit equilibrium slope angle, friction coefficient, cohesion and horizontal radius of oval-shaped furrow pits has been derived. The oval trumpet-like rock mass is homogeneous and elastic while only loadedby its dead weight. The interaction indicates that the deeper an oval-shaped furrow pit is excavated, the greater thelimit equilibrium slope angle. Both the theory base for reducing stripping waste rock in an oval- shaped furrow pitand the basic way to determine the configuration of a stable slope were developed from the mentioned interaction.The theory includes the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes. Compared with the configuration deter-mined by traditional theory of slope stability, a great quantity of stripping waste rock can be reduced by that deter-mined in this paper under stable conditions.

  18. Ecological condition around the uranium tailing pits in Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsaidov, I.; Mirsaidov, U.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, 33 Rudaki avenue, Dushanbe 734025 (Tajikistan)

    2010-07-01

    One of the basic sectors of the economy in Tajikistan is the mining industry. Its development in the past led to an accumulation of large amounts of waste mainly associated with the uranium milling facilities. These wastes contain radionuclides in high concentrations (basically uranium- thorium series) and other hazardous substances. These facilities are often located in residential areas and in the upper side of the main watersheds of the region, such as Amu-Daria and Syr-Daria. Tajikistan has a number of uranium ore deposits and mining and milling facilities, which operated in the past. This country's own ores and imported raw materials were processed mainly at the former Leninabad Geochemical Combine facility (currently State Enterprise (SE) 'Vostokredmet') and also at other hydro-metallurgical plants located in the vicinity of uranium ore extraction sites (Adrasman, Taboshar, Isphara etc.). Presently the only operating enterprise in the Republic of Tajikistan, which still has the potential to process Uranium ores, using an acid leach extraction process, is the SE 'Vostokredmet'. It is interesting is to note that the mine wastes at the Adrasman site were recently successfully reprocessed to produce a lead concentrate. Otherwise, all underground and open pit mines and old radium and uranium facilities have been decommissioned, but most of them are still not remediated. Due to the recent significant increase in the price of uranium, the uranium mining residues have become a focus of interest for various different investors and commercial companies who are considering reprocessing the waste rock piles and mill tailings of Northern Tajikistan. Based on estimates from SE 'Vostokredmet', the total amount of residual uranium in the tailings and waste rock piles in the Republic of Tajikistan is about 55 million tons. The total activity of these wastes is estimated to be approximately 240-285 10{sup 12} Bq. The total volume of waste

  19. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  20. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  1. Stationary and transient thermal states of barometric pumping in the access pit of an underground quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-15

    The transition zone between free and underground atmospheres hosts spectacular phenomena, as demonstrated by temperature measurements performed in the 4.6m diameter and 20m deep vertical access pit of an abandoned underground quarry located in Vincennes, near Paris. In summer, a stable stratification of the atmosphere is maintained, with coherent temperature variations associated with atmospheric pressure changes, with a barometric tide S2 larger than 0.1°C peak to peak. When the winter regime of turbulent cold air avalanches is initiated, stratification with pressure induced signals can be restored transiently in the upper part of the pit, while the lower part remains fully mixed and insensitive to pressure variations. The amplitude of the pressure to temperature transfer function increases with frequency below 5×10(-4)Hz, with values at 3×10(-5)Hz varying from 0.1°C·hPa(-1) at the bottom up to 2°C·hPa(-1) towards the top of the pit. These temperature variations are accounted for by cave breathing, which is pressure induced motion of air amplified by the large volume of the quarry. This understanding is supported by a numerical model including advective heat transport, heat diffusion, and heat exchange with the pit walls. Mean lifetime in the pit is of the order of 9 to 13h, and barometric pumping results in an effective ventilation rate of the quarry of the order of 10(-7)s(-1). This study illustrates the important role of barometric pumping in heat and matter transport between atmosphere and lithosphere. The resulting stationary and transient states, revealed in this pit, are probably a general feature of functioning interface systems, and therefore are an important aspect to consider in problems of contaminant transport, or the preservation of precious heritage such as rare ecosystems or painted caves.

  2. PITTING CORROSION OF AISI 316Ti STAINLESS STEEL WITH POLISHED SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Zatkalíková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AISI 316Ti is Cr–Ni–Mo austenitic stainless steel with the high Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREN. The effect of the surface finishing by polishing on the pitting corrosion resistance was tested in aggressive 5% FeCl3 solution. The immersion tests were curried out at the temperature 30, 50, 80 °C. The electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic tests were carried out in the same solution at temperature 30 and 50 °C. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance arose from the comparison of the results of the immersion and the cyclic potentiodynamic tests.

  3. Posthandling survival and PIT tag retention by alewives—a comparison of gastric and surgical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Voni, Volney

    2013-01-01

    We compared survival and tag retention of Alewives Alosa pseudoharengus tagged with PIT tags, using intraperitoneal (IP) surgical implants, gastric implants (GI), and untagged controls held for 38 d. Retention was 100% for IP-tagged Alewives and 98% for GI-tagged implants. No significant difference in survival was observed among any of these groups. These results lend support to the use of PIT telemetry for studying fish passage and migration of anadromous herring. Both methods hold promise for improving estimates of freshwater survival of adult anadromous clupeids; further research should make it also possible to refine estimates of adult marine survival.

  4. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  5. Peripapillary subretinal neovascularization and serous macular detachment. Association with congenital optic nerve pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodic, G E; Gragoudas, E S; Edward, W O; Brockhurst, R J

    1984-02-01

    Congenital anomalous disc changes were associated with acquired macular detachment and peripapillary choroidal neovascularization in two cases. The anomalous disc changes resembled optic nerve pits. In one case, the peripapillary choroidal neovascularization was treated with argon laser photocoagulation, with subsequent reattachment of the macula and considerable improvement in the visual acuity. Although the pathogenesis of macular detachment occurring with optic nerve pits is usually not disclosed by fluorescein angiography, leakage from choroidal neovascularization can occur with this congenital defect and may contribute to the formation of a neurosensory macular detachment. If found, choroidal neovascularization may represent a remedial cause for visual loss in a condition with an otherwise poor prognosis.

  6. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Gokcen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema is a rare rheumatological disorder that presents with symmetrical hand and/or foot edema resembling rheumatoid arthritis. It is generally seen in male patients in older age, but atypical cases in different age groups have been documented. Although no clear mechanism has been described, certain genetic and environmental factors have been suggested for etiopathogenesis. Medical treatment is mainly focused on glucocorticoid therapy. This article aims to discuss the Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome and to review the current literature. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 147-154

  7. A Funeral Objects Pit of the Warring States Period at Jiefang Road, Luoyang City, Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永建; 赵振华; 亦囡; 曹楠

    2003-01-01

    To suit a project of capital construction, the Luoyang Municipal Archaeological Team excavated a test trench (T1) at the intersection of Jiefang 解放 and Wuqi 五七 roads in Luoyang 洛阳 City in August, 1982, which brought to a revelation of a bronze pit numbered (C1M395) to light. The pit is at the north center of the Eastern Zhou Royal City, and 30 m southwest of No.1 burial of the Warring States period, which was excavated in 1957.

  8. Design of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Zoran; Minov, Kirco; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Stojanov, Slobodan; Doneva, Blagica

    2011-01-01

    With the deepening of the open pit, the transport distances for the sterile mass and the ore increased. This paper deals with the formation of an internal waste dump within the boundaries of the open pit. The development of such waste dump should be in function of the space for disposing the waste according to existing situation on the field and the space for dumping. The internal waste dump will be used for permanent dumping and waste storage. Modern methods will be used to asses...

  9. Relationship between hydrogen-induced phase transformations and pitting nucleation sites in duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Liqiu; Yang, Binjie; Qin, Sixiao [University of Science and Technology Beijing (China). Corrosion and Protection Center

    2016-02-15

    This paper demonstrates the hydrogen-induced phase transformation and the associated pitting nucleation sites of 2507 duplex stainless steel using scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. The low potential sites in Volta potential images, which are considered as the pitting nucleation sites, are strongly dependent on the hydrogen-induced phase transformation. They firstly initiate on the magnetic martensite laths in the austenite phase or at the ferrite/austenite boundaries, and then appear near the needle-shaped microtwins in the ferrite phase, because of the difference in physicochemical properties of hydrogen-induced phase transformation microstructures.

  10. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AY-01A pump pit upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-05-19

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the upgrade of the 241-AY-0IA Pump Pit for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AY-01A Pump Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  11. Study on Environment Characteristics for Mining Management at East Pit 3 West Banko Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Neny Rochyani; Eddy Ibrahim; M. Faizal; Ngudiantoro Ngudiantoro

    2014-01-01

    The management on mining environment is closely related to the environmental characteristics and the condition of mining itself.  In East PIT 3 West Banko Coal Mine Tanjung Enim mine drainage system has been developed which refers to the open pit method employed by the company. The observation and analysis showed that the sludge settling ponds have been constructed as well as adequate catchment area. To discharge water into the channel at 0.3016 m 3 / sec can still be accommodated due to the ...

  12. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AY-02A pump pit upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-05-19

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the upgrade of the 241-AY-02A Pump Pit for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AY-02A Pump Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  13. The effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of paracetamol crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.E. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center, Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Boldyrev, V.V.; Shakhtshneider, T.P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zakharov, Yu.A.; Krasheninin, V.I. [Kemerovo State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A.E. [Institute of Physics of Metals, Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-04-01

    In the present study we investigate the effect of magnetic field on the shape of etch pits of the crystals of p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol), which is widely used in pharmacy as antipyretic, antiphlogistic medicine. It was discovered that the magnetic field (H=0.5 T, {tau}=15 min) changes the morphology of etch pits and shifts dislocations in paracetamol crystal. Activation energy of the changes induced by the action of the magnetic field was determined to be 63 kJ/mol, which is comparable with the energy of hydrogen bonds in crystal lattice. (orig.)

  14. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  15. Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis-maize interaction requires inhibition of host cysteine proteases by the fungal effector Pit2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André N Mueller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi.

  16. VOC identification and inter-comparison from laboratory biomass burning using PTR-MS and PIT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Warneke; J. M. Roberts; P. Veres; J. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; I. Burling; R. Yokelson; J. A. de Gouw

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from fires of biomass commonly found in the southeast and southwest U.S. were investigated with PTR-MS and PIT-MS, which are capable of fast measurements of a large number of VOCs. Both instruments were calibrated with gas standards and mass dependent calibration curves are determined. The sensitivity of the PIT-MS linearly...

  17. Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis-maize interaction requires inhibition of host cysteine proteases by the fungal effector Pit2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, André N; Ziemann, Sebastian; Treitschke, Steffi; Aßmann, Daniela; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-02-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi.

  18. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six Laur

  19. Chemical Composition of Date-Pits and Its Potential for Developing Value-Added Product - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mohammad Zakir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture, protein, oil and carbohydrate contents of date-pits varied from 3.1-12.5, 2.3-6.9, 5.0-12.5 and 70.9-86.9 g/100 g date-pits, respectively. BET-monolayer (i.e. strongly bound moisture content, solids-melting peak (at moisture: 6.7 g/100 g date-pits, and melting point of oil were 4.3 g/100 g dry-solids, 106oC, and 1.8oC, respectively. The major fatty acids were lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and polyphenol content varied from 21.0-62.0 mg/g date-pits depending on the varieties, types of solvent and temperature used for extraction. Date-pits showed effectives in animal and poultry feeds and it could be used as value added products, such as: dietary fibres, functional polysaccharides, caffeine-free drinks (similar to coffee, oil (biofuel or cooking oil, and other functional or medicinal products. Date-pits powder and activated carbon from date–pits showed effective in purifying water by removing different types of pollutants, such as heavy metals, boron, dyes, phenolic compounds, and pesticides. Date-pits also showed effective to be used as ingredient for composed, biomass, and fermentation processes.

  20. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 Under Biaxial and Uniaxial Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    general conical , hemispherical, and roughly saucer-shaped for steel and many alloys [41], as shown in Figure 2.2. Pits usually nucleate at chemical or...performed in a piezoelectric resonance system. Their results indicated that the presence of corrosion pits notably reduces the fatigue life of the

  1. Deregulation of the Pit-1 transcription factor in human breast cancer cells promotes tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Batalla, Isabel; Seoane, Samuel; Garcia-Caballero, Tomas; Gallego, Rosalia; Macia, Manuel; Gonzalez, Luis O.; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The Pit-1 transcription factor (also know as POU1F1) plays a critical role in cell differentiation during organogenesis of the anterior pituitary in mammals and is a transcriptional activator for pituitary gene transcription. Increased expression of Pit-1 has been reported in human tumorigenic breast cells. Here, we found that Pit-1 overexpression or knockdown in human breast cancer cell lines induced profound phenotypic changes in the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Some of these protumorigenic effects of Pit-1 were mediated by upregulation of Snai1, an inductor of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In immunodeficient mice, Pit-1 overexpression induced tumoral growth and promoted metastasis in lung. In patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and node-positive tumor, high expression of Pit-1 was significantly correlated with Snai1 positivity. Notably, in these patients elevated expression of Pit-1 was significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of distant metastasis. These findings suggest that Pit-1 could help to make a more accurate prognosis in patients with node-positive breast cancer and may represent a new therapeutic target. PMID:21060149

  2. New Observations Reveal How the Martian Residual South Polar Cap Develops Quasi-Circular Pits, Heart-Shaped Pits, Troughs, and Moats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Peter Benjamin; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fassett, Caleb; Head, James W.

    2016-10-01

    The martian residual south polar cap (RSPC) is a ~1-10 m thick deposit of CO2 ice perched on the much larger H2O ice cap. Because it is the only known CO2 reservoir annually exchanging with the predominantly-CO2 martian atmosphere, understanding its evolution is important to understanding the modern martian climate. The 8 x 105 m2 RSPC is perennial and characterized by mesas dissected by quasi-circular pits, heart-shaped pits, linear troughs and ridges, and moats (a low, CO2-free boundary surrounding a mesa wholly contained within another mesa) that evolve at meter-scales each year [1,2]. However, the underlying processes leading to the development of these landforms have not yet been described. Using repeat-coverage HiRISE (25-50 cm/px) imagery, we observe previously undescribed features on the RSPC, which reveal the processes leading to the emergence of its meter-to-kilometer-scale morphology. We observe dark fans emanating from the sides of RSPC mesas and widespread fracturing and collapse of the upper surface of mesas, which we interpret as evidence for sublimation in the interiors of mesas. On relatively smooth areas of the RSPC, even small relief (~10 cm) collapses generate surface roughness, which concentrates sunlight and enhances sublimation, leading to the development of steep, eroding scarps. Typically, CO2 deposition during the winter then smooths terrain and creates gently sloping scarps (although uneven CO2 deposition can also create steep scarps). A collapse that drops down, such that it is entirely bounded by a steep scarp, develops into a quasi-circular pit. However, when a portion of the collapsing area remains attached to the upper surface, the perimeter is partially bounded by a steep scarp and partially bounded by a gently sloping ramp, which develops into either a heart-shaped pit, linear trough, or moat, depending on the local interplay between deposition and erosion. Finally, we use the spatial distribution of pits in order to determine the

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  4. SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.

  5. A Critical Review of IR Drops and Electrode Potentials within Pits, Crevices and Cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    be when the IR>IR* condition is not otherwise met. In the pitting of iron at ambient temperatures when a particular electrode potential within the...Potencial Local De Electrodo En Caridades, Fisuras Y. Grietas Y. Su Papel Como Cause Del Deterioro De Materials Estructurales," II Congress Iberoamericano

  6. Magnetic survey of the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    The R-Area Bingham Pump Outage pits are a series of parallel trenches in which construction materials were buried. The suspected locations of three of the trenches are marked by HP orange waste unit marker balls, in addition to concrete pit monuments that were placed based on historical information. In order to confirm the locations of the trenches and to evaluate the presence of other buried ferric material, a magnetic survey was conducted at the R-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pits. The survey is defined by lines spaced 10 ft apart oriented subperpendicular to the trench elongation direction, with survey stations spaced at 5-ft intervals along each line. This resulted in a 10-ft by 5-ft rectangular grid node pattern. The magnetic survey resolved at least four linear arrays of magnetic field and gradient anomalies that result from buried ferric material. Three of the linear arrays correspond to suspected trench locations as delineated by HP orange marker balls and pit monuments. However, a fourth linear anomaly occurs between two of the suspected trenches, indicating the presence of an unmarked trench. In addition to linear anomalies that are associated with the trenches, other isolated anomalies occur due to ferric sources that can be identified on the surface, such as signs, monuments, and metal pipes.`

  7. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS Coporation

    2012-06-26

    been made to utilize the remaining disposal capacity within MDA G to the greatest extent possible. One approach for doing this has been to dispose of low-activity waste from cleanup operations at LANL in the headspace of selected disposal pits. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the material placed in the headspace of pits 15, 37, and 38 have been developed (LANL, 2010) and the impacts of placing waste in the headspace of these units has been evaluated (LANL, 2012a). The efforts to maximize disposal efficiency have taken on renewed importance because of the disposal demands placed on MDA G by the large volumes of waste that are being generated at LANL by cleanup efforts. For example, large quantities of waste were recently generated by the retrieval of waste formerly disposed of at TA-21, MDA B. A portion of this material has been disposed of in the headspace of pit 38 in compliance with the WAC developed for that disposal strategy; a large amount of waste has also been sent to off-site facilities for disposal. Nevertheless, large quantities of MDA B waste remain that require disposal. An extension of pit 38 was proposed to provide the disposal capacity that will be needed to dispose of institutional waste and MDA B waste through 2013. A special analysis was prepared to evaluate the impacts of the pit extension (LANL, 2012b). The analysis concluded that the disposal unit could be extended with modest increases in the exposures projected for the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis, as long as limits were placed on the radionuclide concentrations in the waste that is placed in the headspace of the pit. Based, in part, on the results of the special analysis, the extension of pit 38 was approved and excavation of the additional disposal capacity was started in May 2012. The special analysis presented here uses performance modeling to identify a disposal plan for the placement of waste in pit 38. The modeling uses a refined design of the disposal unit and

  8. Infiltration and planting pits for improved water management and maize yield in semi-arid Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.; Nyagumbo, I.

    2014-01-01

    Realising that rainwater harvesting (RWH) improves crop productivity, smallholder farmers in semi-arid Zimbabwe modified contour ridges traditionally used for rainwater management by digging infiltration pits inside contour ridge channels in order to retain more water in crop fields. However, scient

  9. The use of holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser as pit and fissure cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armasastra Bahar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevention and management of pit and fissure caries has become relatively more important in recent times. There is a need for an effective preventive measure against pit and fissure caries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser beam as a cleaning method of pits and fissures. Methods: Ho-YAG laser which has a wavelength of 2.1 µm was used in this experiment. The specimens were extracted human teeth. The effect of three cleaning methods was examined comparatively by scoring the cleaned area of fissure, namely laser irradiation with Ho-YAG laser, chemico-mechanical with combination of 10% NaOCl and ultrasonic scaler and mechanical with ultrasonic scaler. Vertico-bucco-lingual serial ground sections of each tooth were observed under light microscopy. Scoring the depth of cleaned area was performed by comparing the depth of fissure. result: Progressive result was obtained on the cleaning effect of three methods laser irradiation methods which was the most effective compared to other methods but statistically was not significant. Cleaned area of laser irradiation method was 48.91%, chemico-mechanical method was 41.77% and mechanical method was 36.78%. Conclusion: Holmium -yttrium aluminum garner laser is a relatively new method for pit and fissure cleaning even though the effectivity is not yet maximal. More research is needed to maximize the use of this laser.

  10. Electromagnetic Simulations of Ground-Penetrating Radar Propagation near Lunar Pits and Lava Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Carter, L. M.; Farrell, W. M.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Placing an Orion capsule at the Earth-Moon L2 point (EML2) would potentially enable telerobotic operation of a rover on the lunar surface. The Human Exploration Virtual Institute (HEVI) is proposing that rover operations be carried out near one of the recently discovered lunar pits, which may provide radiation shielding for long duration human stays as well as a cross-disciplinary, science-rich target for nearer-term telerobotic exploration. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) instrumentation included onboard a rover has the potential to reveal many details of underground geologic structures near a pit, as well as characteristics of the pit itself. In the present work we employ the full-wave electromagnetic code MEEP to simulate such GPR reflections from a lunar pit and other subsurface features including lava tubes. These simulations will feed forward to mission concepts requiring knowledge of where to hide from harmful radiation and other environmental hazards such as plama charging and extreme diurnal temperatures.

  11. Vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruta M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta, Rika Kamada, Yumi Umeno, Ryoji YamakawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with or without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment.Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of four consecutive patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy in one eye for the treatment of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy, with an emphasis on the preoperative condition of the posterior hyaloid membrane.Results: Two of four eyes were confirmed to have an attached posterior hyaloid membrane, which was subsequently removed during surgery. Following vitrectomy, these two eyes experienced an improvement in visual acuity with complete retinal attachment of the macula. However, the other two eyes, which already had a posterior vitreous detachment at the time of surgery, showed a decrease in visual acuity with persistent maculopathy postoperatively.Conclusion: Pars plana vitrectomy for optic disc pit-associated maculopathy was beneficial for improving visual acuity in two eyes without preoperative posterior vitreous detachment but not in two eyes with preoperative posterior vitreous detachment. Our study suggests that preoperative assessment of a posterior hyaloid membrane is clinically important in predicting the surgical outcome of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy.Keywords: gas tamponade, internal limiting membrane, macular hole, optical coherence tomography, posterior hyaloid membrane, retinal detachment

  12. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide.

  13. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The mi

  14. The time of groundwater free surface lowering before foundation pit construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Girgidov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of plane free surface gravitations groundwater flow model and some assumptions similar to ones employing in infiltration and quasistationary problems the time of the necessary lowering of free surface before the building of pit is considered. For the lowering the group of wells along the pit perimeter is used. The wells are located so close to each other that formation a filtration flow by them is equivalent to dewatering by using a narrow vertical slit along the perimeter of the excavation.The time is calculated on the basis of condition that at the beginning of construction the level of ground water within the excavation must be below the design elevation of excavation bottom, and outside it smoothly changing water flow to the slit must be formed.The formulas for the time of lowering from initial natural level before building of pit to finite level equal to the bottom of pit are obtained. The example of calculation is discussed.

  15. Modeling the isotopic composition of Antarctic snow using backward trajectories: simulation of snow pit records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsen, M.M.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Scheele, M.P.; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of isotope records (d18O, dD, and d excess) in ice cores can benefit from a comparison of observed meteorology with associated isotope variability. For this reason we studied four isotope records from snow pits in western Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, covering

  16. Shindand Airbase: Use of Open-Air Burn Pit Violated Department of Defense Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    discontinue the use of the burn pit as soon 7 A refractory liner is made from a cement -like...initial combustion ), asbestos, mercury, foam tent material, or any item containing any of the above items. The instruction allows for a small

  17. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oberdorfer, J.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); McIlvride, W.A. (Weiss Associates, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2007-01-22

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-F-20, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Parallel Pits waste site. This waste site consisted of two earthen trenches thought to have received both radioactive and nonradioactive material related to the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  19. Contributions of wood ash magnetism to archaeomagnetic properties of fire pits and hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Richard G.; Kean, W. F.

    1993-09-01

    Magnetic studies were conducted on a variety of plant ash and ash material from fire pits to investigate the possible contribution of ash to the magnetic signature of hearths. The measurements included magnetic susceptibility, remanence acquisition to saturation (SIRM), alternating field demagnetization of SIRM and remanent coercivity (B(sub rc)). We conclude from these studies that wood ash produces fine-grained magnetic iron oxides. These oxides are probably magnetite that is concentrated enough to add to the magnetic signature of hearths and fire pits. At one site (Ellicottville, New York), the ash layer exhibits a magnetic susceptibility that is 22 times greater than a control soil sample from the site. We attribute this large enhancement to repeated burns at the site which continued to add ferromagnetic material to the fire pit. The source of the magnetic material is probably phytoferritin from plants. The variation in the intensity of magnetic anomalies over ancient hearths and fire pits may in part be caused by the magnetic contribution from ash.

  20. Effect of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on Pitting Corrosion of Pure Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injoon Son

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP on the pitting corrosion of pure Al was investigated using electrochemical techniques in solutions containing 0.1 m mol·dm−3 of Na2SO4 and 8.46 mol·dm−3 of NaCl (300 ppm Cl− and followed by surface analysis. The potential for pitting corrosion of pure Al was clearly shifted in the noble direction by the ECAP process indicating that this process improves resistance to pitting corrosion. The time dependence of corrosion potential and the anodic potential at 1 A·m−2 revealed that the rate of formation of Al oxide films increased due to a decrease in the grain size of the Al after ECAP. Since there exists a negligible amount of impurity precipitates in pure Al, the improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of pure Al by ECAP appears to be attributable to an increase in the rate of formation of Al oxide films.

  1. High-powered conveyor systems: long distance, downhill, open-pit, and high capacity conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Paper indicates the conditions under which belt conveyors are superior to other forms of transport, the limitations of these conveyors. Long distance, downhill, open-pit and high capacity conveyor installations are described, including a 60-mile long conveyor in the Sahara.

  2. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear-tooth-pitting-fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4 [Ed. 's note: See Appendix A-Definitions D were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters perfomu:d average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant 8lDOunt of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  3. Monitoring of Open-pit mining using geomorphometry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Sofia, Giulia; Lai, Zili; Huang, Haozhong; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Mining activities have a significant impact on the Earth's surface, and open-pit mines are the most evident landscape signatures of the mining operations. Despite the importance of such human impacts, an open challenge for the Earth Science community is to explore a fast, accurate and low-cost method to monitor changes in open-pit mining. The main goal of this work is to develop such a methodology. In this study, we used an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) to collect two series of photographs(August 2014 and October 2016). Through the structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques, the images were used to generate high-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs). DSMs were co-registered by seven ground control points, and the accuracy of the co-registration was checked and corrected by comparing non-change areas. Finally, two kinds of landscape metric were used to detect the changes: (1) the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC)(Sofia et al., 2014), which allows to estimate the surface covered by open-pit mining by using a simple empirical model; (2) the DSM of Difference (DoD) , which calculated the changes between two DSMs on a cells-by-cells basis, to accurately estimate the volumetric changes. The results underline the effectiveness of the UAV survey techniques and adopted landscape metrics. This study has demonstrated a robust and rapid workflow to dynamic monitor the open-pit mine and support sustainable environmental planning.

  4. Seam-wave measurements in the pits of Nogrod coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toros, E.; Bodoky, T.

    1988-01-01

    The principle of measuring seismic seam-waves is shortly reviewed and measurement examples are given from the coal mines of Nograd County. Reflection measurements and time sections are exemplified by different figures from different pits. The preliminary results of the method obtained in these mines as well as further application possibilities of the method are described.

  5. Estimating root biomass and distribution after fire in a Great Basin woodland using cores and pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin M. Rau; Dale W. Johnson; Jeanne C. Chambers; Robert R. Blank; Annmarie Lucchesi

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying root biomass is critical to an estimation and understanding of ecosystem net primary production, biomass partitioning, and belowground competition. We compared 2 methods for determining root biomass: a new soil-coring technique and traditional excavation of quantitative pits. We conducted the study in an existing Joint Fire Sciences demonstration area in...

  6. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-28

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been used in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1(dw)), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a prominent Hensen's stripe, elevated beta-tectorin composition, and disrupted striated-sheet matrix. They lack distortion product otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic responses, and exhibit reduced endocochlear potentials, suggesting defects in outer hair cell function and potassium recycling. Auditory system and hair cell physiology, histology, and anatomy studies reveal novel defects of hormone deficiency related to deafness: (1) permanently impaired expression of KCNJ10 in the stria vascularis of Pit1(dw) mice, which likely contributes to the reduced endocochlear potential, (2) significant outer hair cell loss in the mutants, which may result from cellular stress induced by the lower KCNQ4 expression and current levels in Pit1(dw) mutant outer hair cells, and (3) sensory and strial cell deterioration, which may have implications for thyroid hormone dysregulation in age-related hearing impairment. In summary, we suggest that these defects in outer hair cell and strial cell function are important contributors to the hearing impairment in Pit1(dw) mice.

  7. Microbiologically mediated reduction in the pitting of mild steel overlaid with plywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soracco, R J; Berger, L R; Berger, J A; Mayack, L A; Pope, D H; Wilde, E W

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the role of microorganisms in the pitting of mild steel flooring, which had been overlaid with plywood. The experimental setups consisted of 4.8 mm (3/16 in.) mild steel plates covered with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) thick pieces of plywood which were exposed to several different aqueous media supplemented with various combinations of a soil suspension and selected inorganic and organic compounds. Half of the replicate metal-wood-water setups were sterilized and aseptically maintained during incubation after which they were checked for the presence of viable microorganisms and pitting of the mild steel. Results of the first set of experiments showed that pitting of the mild steel specimens in many of these setups occurred after a reasonably short incubation period (3 to 6 months). However, the method used to exclude microorganisms by sterilizing the components separately was unsuccessful. In a second set of experiments, setups were sterilized by exposure to gamma irradiation after they had been assembled. The sterilized setups remained sterile after incubation while those which were not originally sterile still contained viable microorganisms. Pitting of the mild steel specimens was more severe when they were exposed to sterile conditions than when viable microorganisms were present. These experiments showed that while microorganisms are known to enhance corrosion processes in some circumstances, their presence can reduce corrosion in others.

  8. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, D. G.

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  9. Assessment of PIT tag retention and post-tagging survival in metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Lee G; Sotola, V Alex; Marsden, J Ellen; Miehls, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags have been used to document and monitor the movement or behavior of numerous species of fishes. Data on short-term and long-term survival and tag retention are needed before initiating studies using PIT tags on a new species or life stage. We evaluated the survival and tag retention of 153 metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus tagged with 12 mm PIT tags on three occasions using a simple surgical procedure. Results: Tag retention was 100% and 98.6% at 24 h and 28-105 d post-tagging. Of the lamprey that retained their tags, 87.3% had incisions sufficiently healed to prevent further loss. Survival was 100% and 92.7% at 24 h and 41-118 d post-tagging with no significant difference in survival between tagged and untagged control lamprey. Of the 11 lamprey that died, four had symptoms that indicated their death was directly related to tagging. Survival was positively correlated with Sea Lamprey length. Conclusions: Given the overall high level of survival and tag retention in this study, future studies can utilize 12 mm PIT tags to monitor metamorphosing juvenile Sea Lamprey movement and migration patterns.

  10. The intrinsically high pitting corrosion resistance of mechanically polished nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhijun; Rotermund, Harm H

    2011-10-01

    Nitinol wires have been widely used in many biomedical applications, such as cardiovascular stent due to their superelasticity and shape memory effect. However, their corrosion properties and the related biocompatibility are not well understood, and the reported results are controversial. In this study, we evaluate the pitting corrosion property of nitinol, titanium, nickel, and 316L stainless steel (316LSS) wires with different surface roughnesses in a saline solution at 37 °C. The cyclic potentiodynamic polarization results show that mechanically polished nitinol and Ti wires are highly resistant to pitting corrosion, while Ni and 316LSS wires are susceptible to pitting corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to study the interface of oxide film/solution and all mechanically polished nitinol wires are covered by 2-3 nm thick films formed under open circuit potential. Furthermore, the electronic structures and semiconducting properties of passive films on nitinol, Ti and Ni wires are studied by Mott-Schottky analysis. Passive films formed on nitinol and Ti exhibit n-type semiconducting characteristics, whereas films on Ni show p-type semiconducting characteristics. Scanning Kelvin Microscopy is used to measure the surface potential difference between common inclusions from the nitinol matrix and the results indicate that the inclusions are more electrochemically noble than the nitinol matrix. Band energy theory is used to model the electrochemical interface between the passive films of nitinol and the solution under different applied potential conditions. A mechanism for the strong pitting corrosion resistance of nitinol in saline solution is proposed.

  11. Cavitation pitting and erosion of Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The authors are currently carrying out a study of the cavitation erosion of different bearing metals and alloys in mineral oils were studied. The variations of weight loss, the pit diameter and depth due to cavitation erosion on Al 6061-T6 in mineral oil and water are presented.

  12. Near-Field Optical Drilling of Sub-λ Pits in Thin Polymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Mertens, Jan; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2017-06-21

    Under UV illumination, polymer films can undergo chain scission and contract. Using this effect, tightly focused laser light is shown to develop runaway near-field concentration that drills sub-100 nm pits through a thin film. This subwavelength photolithography can be controlled in real time by monitoring laser scatter from the evolving holes, allowing systematic control of the void diameter. Our model shows how interference between the substrate and film together with near-field focusing by the evolving crevice directs this formation and predicts minimum pit sizes in films of 100 nm thickness on gold substrates. The smallest features so far are 60 nm diameter pits using 447 nm light focused onto polystyrene through a ×100 objective (NA = 0.8). Such arrays of pits can be easily used as masks for fabricating more complex nanostructures, such as plasmonic nanostructures and biomicrofluidic devices. This demonstration shows the potential for harnessing near-field feedback in optical direct-writing for nanofabrication.

  13. SCFA lead lab technical assistance review of the Pit 7 Complex source containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, D.; Janeday, D.; Woodward, D.; Imrich, J.; Evans, J.; Morris, M.; Reimus, P.; Hazen, T.

    2001-01-29

    On January 29-30, 2001 a technical assistance team (TAT) met with the Pit 7 project team at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to review technologies being evaluated for remediation in the Site 300 Pit 7 Complex and the process for selecting these technologies. Specifically, the project team presented the TAT with a core need to identify technically and economically practicable technologies and methods to stabilize, contain, or control the tritium and uranium in the source areas at the Pits 3 and 5 landfill area to prevent further releases of these contaminants to groundwater and the migration of tritiated and uranium-contaminated groundwater. The approaches and needs for the systems surrounding the landfills were also presented and discussed. With encouragement from the project team, the TAT expanded its focus to include additional site characterization, a water balance model, and computational models. The TAT was comprised of leading technical and regulatory experts from around the country and was assembled by SCFA's Lead Lab in response to a technical assistance request from John Ziagos, Project Manager for the Pit 7 Area (Technical Assistance Request: LLNL No.1). A list of the TAT members is included below and contact information the TAT members and site participants is in Appendix B. To familiarize the TAT assistance team with Pit 7 Complex issues, the project team gave a presentation outlining the site geology, contaminant hydrogeology, land-use issues, stakeholder concerns, regulatory requirements, groundwater flow and transport modeling efforts, pit source characterization efforts, and remedial options. Time for clarification and questions between the TAT and the site team was integrated into the presentation schedule. On the morning of the second day, the TAT reconvened with the site team and John Evans of the TAT presented information about a helium soil gas survey method that could potentially be used to locate and characterize tritium

  14. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  15. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Zhengya; Guo, Huihui; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea); a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™), a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05), whereas the eluents did not show any detectable antibacterial activity. The commercial control also showed no detectable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the aged experimental material retained its property of contact inhibition of biofilm formation. The fluorescence analysis of CLSM images demonstrated that the cured MAE-DB-incorporated sealant could hamper the adherence of S. mutans and exert a detrimental effect on bacterial membrane integrity. The incorporation of MAE-DB can render a pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane integrity of S

  16. Fractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbrera, Ramiro; Tarquis, Ana M.; Gascó, Gabriel; Millán, Humberto

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImage analysis could be a useful tool for investigating the spatial patterns of apparent soil moisture at multiple resolutions. The objectives of the present work were (i) to define apparent soil moisture patterns from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images and (ii) to describe the scaling of apparent soil moisture distribution using fractal parameters. Twelve soil pits (0.70 m long × 0.60 m width × 0.30 m depth) were excavated on a bare Mazic Pellic Vertisol. Six of them were excavated in April/2011 and six pits were established in May/2011 after 3 days of a moderate rainfall event. Digital photographs were taken from each Vertisol pit using a Kodak™ digital camera. The mean image size was 1600 × 945 pixels with one physical pixel ≈373 μm of the photographed soil pit. Each soil image was analyzed using two fractal scaling exponents, box counting (capacity) dimension (DBC) and interface fractal dimension (Di), and three prefractal scaling coefficients, the total number of boxes intercepting the foreground pattern at a unit scale (A), fractal lacunarity at the unit scale (Λ1) and Shannon entropy at the unit scale (S1). All the scaling parameters identified significant differences between both sets of spatial patterns. Fractal lacunarity was the best discriminator between apparent soil moisture patterns. Soil image interpretation with fractal exponents and prefractal coefficients can be incorporated within a site-specific agriculture toolbox. While fractal exponents convey information on space filling characteristics of the pattern, prefractal coefficients represent the investigated soil property as seen through a higher resolution microscope. In spite of some computational and practical limitations, image analysis of apparent soil moisture patterns could be used in connection with traditional soil moisture sampling, which always renders punctual estimates.

  17. Prefractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbrera, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.; Millán, H.

    2012-04-01

    Image analysis could be a useful tool for investigating the spatial patterns of apparent soil moisture at multiple resolutions. The objectives of the present work were (i) to define apparent soil moisture patterns from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images and (ii) to describe the scaling of apparent soil moisture distribution using fractal parameters. Twelve soil pits (0.70 m long x 0.60 m width x 0.30 m depth) were excavated on a bare Mazic Pellic Vertisol. Six of them were excavated in April/2011 and six pits were established in May/2011 after three days of a moderate rainfall event. Digital photographs were taken from each Vertisol pit using a KodakTM digital camera. The mean image size was 1600 x 945 pixels with one physical pixel ≈ 373 μm of the photographed soil pit. Each soil image was analyzed using two prefractal scaling exponents, box counting (capacity) dimension (DBC) and interface fractal dimension (Di), and three prefractal scaling coefficients, the total number of boxes intercepting the foreground pattern at a unit scale (A), fractal lacunarity at the unit scale (Γ1) and Shannon entropy at the unit scale (S1). All prefractal scaling parameters identified significant differences between both sets of spatial patterns. Fractal lacunarity was the best discriminator between apparent soil moisture patterns. Soil image interpretation with prefractal parameters can be incorporated within site-specific agriculture toolbox. While fractal exponents condense information on space filling characteristics of the pattern, prefractal coefficients represent the investigated soil property as seen through a higher resolution microscope. In spite of some computational and practical limitations, image analysis of apparent soil moisture patterns could be used in connection with traditional soil moisture sampling, which always renders punctual estimates. Key words: Image analysis, fractal scaling, apparent soil moisture, Vertisols Acknowledgements This work has been

  18. Optical coherence tomography findings and retinal changes after vitrectomy for optic disc pit maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the optical coherence tomography (OCT patterns in optic disc pit maculopathy and retinal changes after vitreous surgery. Materials and Methods : Retrospective review of consecutive cases with optic disc pit maculopathy seen at two tertiary eye institutes from January 2005 to June 2009. Results : Twenty-four eyes of 23 patients are included. The presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/400 to 20/20 (median:20/80. The median age at presentation was 24 years (range, 6-57 years. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated a combination of retinoschisis and outer layer detachment (OLD in 19 (79.17% eyes, OLD only in 3 (12.5% eyes and retinoschisis only in 2 (8.33% eyes. An obvious communication (outer layer hole between the schisis and OLD was seen in 14 (73.68% of the 19 eyes with both features. Of the 21 eyes with retinoschisis, schisis was present in multiple layers in 15 (71.43% and single layer in 6 (28.57% eyes. Eleven eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy including creation of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, fluid-air exchange, low intensity laser photocoagulation at the temporal edge of the optic disc pit and non-expansile perfluoropropane gas (14% injection. Five (45.45% of 11 eyes undergoing vitrectomy had complete resolution and 4 (36.36% eyes had partial resolution of maculopathy. Visual acuity improved in 8 (72.72% of 11 eyes. Conclusion : Optical coherence tomography demonstrates multiple layer schisis and outer layer detachment as main features of optic disc pit maculopathy. Vitrectomy with PVD induction, laser photocoagulation and gas tamponade results in anatomical and visual improvement in most cases with optic disc pit maculopathy.

  19. Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, P M; Foppen, J W; Kulabako, R; Muwanga, A; Uhlenbrook, S

    2013-06-15

    The lack of proper on-site sanitation in unsewered low-income areas is becoming an important source of nutrient-rich wastewater leaching to groundwater and can potentially lead to eutrophication. For typical conditions in sub-Saharan Africa, the nutrient loading of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from on-site sanitation systems to aquifers is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the dissolved nutrient loads (nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4) and orthophosphate (o-PO4)) and the processes likely affecting them in aquifers underlying two on-site sanitation systems in an unsewered low-income urban slum in Kampala, Uganda; a domestic solid waste dump and a site with two pit latrines. The impact of the two types of sites was assessed by comparing the upgradient and downgradient nutrient concentrations and loads along groundwater flow lines. Significant pollution to groundwater originated from the pit latrine site with downgradient nutrient loads increasing by factors of 1.7 for NO3, 10.5 for NH4 and 49 for o-PO4. No effect of leaching of nutrients to groundwater was found from the waste dump. We estimated that approximately 2-20% of total N and less than 1% of total P mass input was lost to groundwater from the pit latrines. The bulk of N leached to groundwater was in the form of NH4. Mn-reducing conditions prevailed in the shallow aquifer which suggested that nitrification was the main process affecting NH4 concentrations. Phosphorus was likely retained in the soils by precipitating as MnHPO4 and Ca5(PO4)3(OH). Our results indicated that pit latrines in alluvial aquifer systems can be highly effective for the removal of nutrients depending on hydrological, hydrochemical and geochemical conditions in the aquifer receiving wastewater. Improvements to make the current pit latrine systems better for nutrient containment are suggested based on findings from this study.

  20. An evaluation of nanocomposites as pit and fissure sealants in child patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries affects populations of all ages in all the regions of the world, with the child patient being at the highest risk. Fifty percent of the permanent molars are decayed by the age of 12, due to lack of information about protection and occlusal morphology. Pit and fissure sealing undoubtedly plays a fundamental role in preventing occlusal caries. The most common approach to assess the sealing ability of pit and fissure sealants of tooth/restoration is the measurement of dye penetration along the interface. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the microleakage and penetration depth of three different types of dental materials, namely (A Conventional pit and fissure sealant, (B Flowable composite, (C Flowable nanocomposite. Study Design: This in-vitro comparative study comprised of extracted human posterior teeth mounted as blocks. Materials and Methods: In the present study, microleakage and penetration depths of conventional sealants/flowable composite and nanocomposite were measured with the help of a dye under stereomicroscope. Statistical Analysis: A student′t′ test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were performed to compare the mean microleakage and penetration depth. Results: Microleakage was found to be highest for the flowable composites, and least for the conventional sealant. The nanocomposite values were intermediate. Penetration depth was highest for nanocomposite and least for flowable composite. Conclusions: According to the results, the nanocomposite was found to be an excellent dental material for penetration in deep pits and fissures, though it exhibits mild microleakage. Hence, it can be recommended for use in pediatric dental patients, as a pit and fissure sealing agent.

  1. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP to underground (UG transition in coal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phu Minh Vuong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG on open pit mining (OP, illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  2. Pit-1 gene polymorphism, milk yield, and conformation traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaville, R; Gengler, N; Vrech, E; Prandi, A; Massart, S; Corradini, C; Bertozzi, C; Mortiaux, F; Burny, A; Portetelle, D

    1997-12-01

    The growth hormone factor-1/pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 is responsible for the expression of growth hormone in mammals. Mutations in Pit-1 have been found in growth hormone disorders of mice and humans. We studied the eventual association between Pit-1 polymorphism using the HinfI enzyme and the milk yield and conformation traits of 89 Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls. A strategy employing polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a 451-bp fragment from semen DNA. Digestion of polymerase chain reaction products with HinfI revealed two alleles: allele A was not digested (451-bp fragment), and allele B was cut at one restriction site, generating two fragments of 244 and 207 bp. Three patterns were observed; frequencies were 2.2, 31.5, and 66.3% for AA, AB, and BB, respectively. Fixed and mixed linear models were fitted on daughter yield deviations for milk yields and on deregressed proofs for conformation traits. Predictions were weighted using the inverse of the estimated variance of records. The models used contained mean and gene substitution effects for Pit-1 A allele as fixed effects and random sire effect for the mixed model. The A allele was found to be superior for milk and protein yields, inferior for fat percentage, and superior for body depth, angularity, and rear leg set, which is difficult to explain. A canonical transformation revealed that Pit-1 had three actions, one linked to milk yield traits and angularity, a second linked to body depth and rear leg set, and a third linked to lower fat yields and to higher angularity.

  3. The effect of previous experience on trap construction and movement distance in a pit-building predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Shay; Scharf, Inon; Dor, Roi

    2016-10-01

    Wormlion larvae are sit-and-wait predators that construct cone-shaped pits in sandy patches to capture prey. Wormlions select microhabitats that feature favorable conditions for pit construction, in a similar way to other trap-building predators, like spiders and antlions. We investigated whether wormlions exhibit an experience-based behavioral plasticity in their pit construction behavior. In a laboratory experiment, pit sizes and relocation distances were compared between larvae that experienced either a period of unfavorable conditions, i.e., surface obstacles, shallow or coarse sand, or a period of favorable conditions, i.e., clear, deep, and fine sand and were able to construct pits undisturbed. We expected that wormlions experiencing improving conditions would build larger pits than those experiencing deteriorating conditions. In addition, we expected that larvae experiencing unfavorable conditions would be less choosy in their new microhabitat and move over shorter distances. We observed a certain effect of recent experience on the trap-building behavior; however, it was not consistent among treatments. Additionally, we detected a correlation between larval body mass, relocation distance, and pit area. These findings might suggest that past experience does not influence wormlion foraging behavior in a simple manner but that different types of experience induce different behavioral responses.

  4. Natural aversive learning in Tetramorium ants reveals ability to form a generalizable memory of predators' pit traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; McNew, Kelsey; Sosa, Talisa; Harrsch, Felicia A; Nowbahari, Elise

    2017-06-01

    Many species of ants fall prey to pit-digging larval antlions (Myrmeleon spp.), extremely sedentary predators that wait, nearly motionless at the bottom of their pit traps, for prey to stumble inside. Previous research, both in the field and laboratory, has demonstrated a remarkable ability of these ants to rescue trapped nestmates, thus sabotaging antlions' attempts to capture them. Here we show that pavement ants, Tetramorium sp. E, an invasive species and a major threat to biodiversity, possess yet another, more effective, antipredator strategy, namely the ability to learn to avoid antlion traps following a single successful escape from a pit. More importantly, we show that this learned antipredator behavior, an example of natural aversive learning in insects, is more complicated than a single cue-to-consequence form of associative learning. That is, pavement ants were able to generalize, after one experience, from the learned characteristics of the pit and its specific location, to other pits and other contexts that differed in many features. Such generalization, often described as a lack of precise stimulus control, nonetheless would be especially adaptive in nature, enabling ants to negotiate antlions' pit fields, which contain a hundred or more pits within a few centimetres of one another. Indeed, the ability to generalize in exactly this way almost certainly is responsible for the sudden, and heretofore inexplicable, behavioural modifications of ants in response to an invasion of antlions in the vicinity of an ant colony. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The dependence receptor Ret induces apoptosis in somatotrophs through a Pit-1/p53 pathway, preventing tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañibano, Carmen; Rodriguez, Noela L; Saez, Carmen; Tovar, Sulay; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montse; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Vidal, Anxo; Costantini, Frank; Japon, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Alvarez, Clara V

    2007-01-01

    Somatotrophs are the only pituitary cells that express Ret, GFRα1 and GDNF. This study investigated the effects of Ret in a somatotroph cell line, in primary pituitary cultures and in Ret KO mice. Ret regulates somatotroph numbers by inducing Pit-1 overexpression, leading to increased p53 expression and apoptosis, both of which can be prevented with Ret or Pit-1 siRNA. The Pit-1 overexpression is mediated by sustained activation of PKCδ, JNK, c/EBPα and CREB induced by a complex of Ret, caspase 3 and PKCδ. In the presence of GDNF, Akt is activated, and the Pit-1 overexpression and resulting apoptosis are blocked. The adenopituitary of Ret KO mice is larger than normal, showing Pit-1 and somatotroph hyperplasia. In normal animals, activation of the Ret/Pit-1/p53 pathway by retroviral introduction of Ret blocked tumor growth in vivo. Thus, somatotrophs have an intrinsic mechanism for controlling Pit-1/GH production through an apoptotic/survival pathway. Ret might be of value for treatment of pituitary adenomas. PMID:17380130

  6. The dependence receptor Ret induces apoptosis in somatotrophs through a Pit-1/p53 pathway, preventing tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañibano, Carmen; Rodriguez, Noela L; Saez, Carmen; Tovar, Sulay; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montse; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Vidal, Anxo; Costantini, Frank; Japon, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Alvarez, Clara V

    2007-04-18

    Somatotrophs are the only pituitary cells that express Ret, GFRalpha1 and GDNF. This study investigated the effects of Ret in a somatotroph cell line, in primary pituitary cultures and in Ret KO mice. Ret regulates somatotroph numbers by inducing Pit-1 overexpression, leading to increased p53 expression and apoptosis, both of which can be prevented with Ret or Pit-1 siRNA. The Pit-1 overexpression is mediated by sustained activation of PKCdelta, JNK, c/EBPalpha and CREB induced by a complex of Ret, caspase 3 and PKCdelta. In the presence of GDNF, Akt is activated, and the Pit-1 overexpression and resulting apoptosis are blocked. The adenopituitary of Ret KO mice is larger than normal, showing Pit-1 and somatotroph hyperplasia. In normal animals, activation of the Ret/Pit-1/p53 pathway by retroviral introduction of Ret blocked tumor growth in vivo. Thus, somatotrophs have an intrinsic mechanism for controlling Pit-1/GH production through an apoptotic/survival pathway. Ret might be of value for treatment of pituitary adenomas.

  7. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  8. Etch-pit morphology of tracks caused by swift heavy ions in natural dark mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, M. E-mail: m.lang@gsi.de; Glasmacher, U.A.; Moine, B.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G.A

    2004-06-01

    Ion tracks in solids can be visualized by appropriate etching. During the etching procedure, size and depth of the etch pits grow linearly with time. Their shape is mainly controlled by the crystal structure. For example, in muscovite, ion tracks have a rhombic cross-section after HF etching, whereas in polycarbonate etch pits are circular after NaOH etching. Natural phlogopite (dark mica) may contain fission tracks and alpha-recoil tracks (ART) as latent radiation damage. HF can be used to make them visible by optical, scanning electron and scanning force microscopy (SEM, SFM). ART, generated by collisions of the recoil nuclei with the lattice atoms, provide etch pits, which are triangular at the surface, whereas the fission tracks, created via electronic energy loss (dE/dx), have hexagonal etch pits. After ion irradiation of phlogopite in the electronic dE/dx regime, the etch pits are triangular below 5.7 keV/nm and hexagonal above 8.8 keV/nm in shape. To examine more precisely the shape transition and its relation to the radiation damage, phlogopite from the Kerguelen Islands (French territory, Indian Ocean) was first annealed (500 deg. C, 3.5 h) and subsequently irradiated at GSI with {sup 58}Ni (kinetic energy {approx}81 MeV), dE/dx amounting to 10.4 keV/nm (according to SRIM 2000). Using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils of seven different thicknesses as a degrader, dE/dx in the sample could be reduced stepwise to 2.4 keV/nm. The irradiated samples were etched with 4% HF at room temperature and afterwards imaged with SEM and SFM. It was observed that the triangles relate to the octahedral sites (represented by OH, O, Fe, Mg and other ions) and the hexagons to the SiO{sub 4}-tetahedral positions in the tetrahedral sheet. We interpret our findings as evidence that the dE/dx-dependent etch-pit morphologies are controlled by the lattice structure.

  9. Etch-pit morphology of tracks caused by swift heavy ions in natural dark mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Moine, B.; Neumann, R.; Wagner, G. A.

    2004-06-01

    Ion tracks in solids can be visualized by appropriate etching. During the etching procedure, size and depth of the etch pits grow linearly with time. Their shape is mainly controlled by the crystal structure. For example, in muscovite, ion tracks have a rhombic cross-section after HF etching, whereas in polycarbonate etch pits are circular after NaOH etching. Natural phlogopite (dark mica) may contain fission tracks and alpha-recoil tracks (ART) as latent radiation damage. HF can be used to make them visible by optical, scanning electron and scanning force microscopy (SEM, SFM). ART, generated by collisions of the recoil nuclei with the lattice atoms, provide etch pits, which are triangular at the surface, whereas the fission tracks, created via electronic energy loss (d E/d x), have hexagonal etch pits. After ion irradiation of phlogopite in the electronic d E/d x regime, the etch pits are triangular below 5.7 keV/nm and hexagonal above 8.8 keV/nm in shape. To examine more precisely the shape transition and its relation to the radiation damage, phlogopite from the Kerguelen Islands (French territory, Indian Ocean) was first annealed (500 °C, 3.5 h) and subsequently irradiated at GSI with 58Ni (kinetic energy ˜81 MeV), d E/d x amounting to 10.4 keV/nm (according to SRIM 2000). Using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils of seven different thicknesses as a degrader, d E/d x in the sample could be reduced stepwise to 2.4 keV/nm. The irradiated samples were etched with 4% HF at room temperature and afterwards imaged with SEM and SFM. It was observed that the triangles relate to the octahedral sites (represented by OH, O, Fe, Mg and other ions) and the hexagons to the SiO 4-tetahedral positions in the tetrahedral sheet. We interpret our findings as evidence that the d E/d x-dependent etch-pit morphologies are controlled by the lattice structure.

  10. Impact cratering experiments in brittle targets with variable thickness: Implications for deep pit craters on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikami, T.; Hagermann, A.; Miyamoto, H.; Miura, S.; Haruyama, J.; Lykawka, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution images reveal that numerous pit craters exist on the surface of Mars. For some pit craters, the depth-to-diameter ratios are much greater than for ordinary craters. Such deep pit craters are generally considered to be the results of material drainage into a subsurface void space, which might be formed by a lava tube, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. Morphological studies indicate that the formation of a pit crater might be triggered by the impact event, and followed by collapse of the ceiling. To test this hypothesis, we carried out laboratory experiments of impact cratering into brittle targets with variable roof thickness. In particular, the effect of the target thickness on the crater formation is studied to understand the penetration process by an impact. For this purpose, we produced mortar targets with roof thickness of 1-6 cm, and a bulk density of 1550 kg/m3 by using a mixture of cement, water and sand (0.2 mm) in the ratio of 1:1:10, by weight. The compressive strength of the resulting targets is 3.2±0.9 MPa. A spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7 mm) is shot perpendicularly into the target surface at the nominal velocity of 1.2 km/s, using a two-stage light-gas gun. Craters are formed on the opposite side of the impact even when no target penetration occurs. Penetration of the target is achieved when craters on the opposite sides of the target connect with each other. In this case, the cross section of crater somehow attains a flat hourglass-like shape. We also find that the crater diameter on the opposite side is larger than that on the impact side, and more fragments are ejected from the crater on the opposite side than from the crater on the impact side. This result gives a qualitative explanation for the observation that the Martian deep pit craters lack a raised rim and have the ejecta deposit on their floor instead. Craters are formed on the opposite impact side even when no penetration

  11. Localization and expression of LHβmRNA in the brain and Hatschek's pit of amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永强; 周寿康; 翁幼竹; 赵瑞钦

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether gonadotropin-like substance in the brain and Hatschek' s pit of amphioxus issynthesized by the tissue in situ or transported from other tissue, a histochemical study was carried out by in situ hy- bridization using digoxigenin (DIG)-labelled LHβRNAprobes. The results showed that LHβmRNA expressed in the nerve cells of brain and the epithelial cells of Hatschek' s pit, thus providing new evidence for the homology of pituitary of ver- tebrates with Hatschek' s pit and the functional evolution of gonadotropin.

  12. Pencegahan Karies pada Pit dan Fisura Gigi Molar Pertama Tetap dengan Semen Glass Ionomer Type III (Studi Pustaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Pratiwi Indra Yoga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gigi molar pertama tetap merupakan gigi yang penting untuk oklusi sehingga diharapkan dapat bertahan seumur hidup. Tetapi karena erupsi pada anak umur 5-6 tahun yang kemampuan untuk membersihkan gigi masih terbatas dan seringkali mempunyai pit dan fisura yang dalam sehingga sukar dibersihkan maka kemungkinan terserang karies lebih besar daripada gigi yang lain. Berbagai cara telah dilakukan untuk mencegah karies pada gigi molar pertama tetap, diantaranya dengan menutup pit dan fisura gigi tersebut dengan semen glass-ionomer. Keuntungan pemakaian semen glass-ionomer ialah selain menutup pit dan fisura gigi molar pertama tetap juga tidak mengiritasi pulpa karena tidak memakai teknik etsa email serta mempunyai sifat anti kariogenik.

  13. Monitoring dispatch information system of trucks and shovels in an open pit based on GIS/GPS/GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing-hua; LU Cai-wu; LI Fa-ben; WAN Chang-yong

    2008-01-01

    Using GIS, GPS and GPRS, an intelligent monitoring and dispatch system of trucks and shovels in an open pit has been designed and developed. The system can monitor and dispatch open-pit trucks and shovels and play back their historical paths. An intelligent data algorithm is proposed in a practical application. The algorithm can count the times of deliveries of trucks and loadings of shovels. Experiments on real scenes show that the performance of this system is stable and can satisfy production standards in open pits.

  14. Evaluation of the pitting potential of modified aluminum alloys in Arabian gulf water by potentiostatic and potentiodynamic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Z.; Aleem, B.

    1995-09-15

    The pitting potential of modified aluminum alloys have been evaluated by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques. It has been observed that pitting potential obtained by potentiodynamic technique does not allow accurate predictions to be made and the results do not agree with the more reliable long term studies. On the other hand the values of E{sub p} obtained by potentiostatic induction time technique provide a fairly accurate measure or pitting resistance of modified aluminum alloys. The results are also in agreement with the long term exposure studies. 18 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. COGEMA experience on retrieving and conditioning solid rad waste waste previously stored in pits. - the La Hague north-west pit case-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, F.; Alexanddre, D.; Fournier, Ph. [COGEMA La Hague, Beaunont-Hague cedex (France)

    1999-07-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called {sup t}echnological waste produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at {sup *}ANDRA's Centre de Stockage della Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m{sup 3} of humid solid rad waste, stored in bulk in pits. On account of the variety of rad waste kinds, retrieving and conditioning operations represented real challenge. One goal of these operations was to ensure that the work was performed in complete safety towards environment with optimum containment and with the best radiation protection for the personnel involved. COGEMA decided to split the work into two phases. The feedback from the first phase was very helpful to the second phase. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account rad waste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m{sup 3} of old solid rad waste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. {sup *}ANDRA: National Rad waste Management Agency.

  16. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  17. Real-time electronic monitoring of a pitted and leaking gas gathering pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Hewitt, P.G.

    1986-08-01

    Hydrogen patch, flush electrical resistance, and flush linear polarization proves wre used with flush coupons to monitor corrosion rates in a pitted and leaking sour gas gathering line. Four inhibitors were evaluated in stopping the leaks. Inhibitor residuals and the amount and ratio of water and condensate in the lines were measured at five locations along the line. The best inhibitor reduced reduced the pit-leak frequency by over a factor of 10. Inhibitor usage rate was optimized using the hydrogen patch current as a measure of the instantaneous corrosion rate. Improper pigging was identified as a cause of corrosion transients. This problem is discussed in relation to the pigging of pipelines in stratified flow where moving fluids are the carriers for continuously injected corrosion inhibitors.

  18. An imperialist competitive algorithm for solving the production scheduling problem in open pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mokhtarian Asl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Production scheduling (planning of an open-pit mine is the procedure during which the rock blocks are assigned to different production periods in a way that the highest net present value of the project achieved subject to operational constraints. The paper introduces a new and computationally less expensive meta-heuristic technique known as imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA for long-term production planning of open pit mines. The proposed algorithm modifies the original rules of the assimilation process. The ICA performance for different levels of the control factors has been studied and the results are presented. The result showed that ICA could be efficiently applied on mine production planning problem.

  19. The pathogenesis of retinal detachment with morning glory disc and optic pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, A R; Crawford, J B; Sullivan, J H

    1986-01-01

    A child with nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with morning glory disc underwent first a vitrectomy and then, some months later, an optic nerve sheath fenestration. The latter procedure led to retinal reattachment. It also produced a biopsy specimen that confirmed the perineural herniation of poorly differentiated retinal tissue in this condition, similar to that in congenital pit of the optic nerve. It demonstrated continuity of the vitreous cavity with the perineural space, both histologically and by the fact that gas injected through the pars plana into the vitreous cavity bubbled out the window in the optic nerve sheath. The authors suggest that morning glory disc and optic pit share similar anatomic features, differing more in degree than in kind, and that the porous nature of the poorly differentiated tissue herniated around the optic nerve into the subarachnoid space in these conditions makes several sources of subretinal fluid possible.

  20. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Effects of damage of Hatschek's pit of amphioxus on its structure and function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is found for the first time that, after the structure and endocrine function of Hatschek's pit of Branchiostoma belcheri are damaged by monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment in breeding season, the ovulation of mature ovary, as well as the development of both ovary and testis of large-growth stage are obstructed and stagnated;and in non-breeding season, the process of gonadal development is delayed. The disturbed ovulation and gonadal development can definitely be restored with exogenous gonadotropic hormone as the therapeutical substitute. These results may provide new proof for the complete understanding of the evolutional process of pituitary function in vertebrates and playing an important role in the reproductive endocrine control system of Hatschek's pit of amphioxus.

  2. Charging for the waste dumping of open-pit metal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunbing Hou; Zhaoxiang Zhang; Haifeng Duan; Liming Xue

    2006-01-01

    Based on the externality theory and the environmental value theory, the hypothesis of charging for waste dumping of open-pit metal mines was put forth. The charging methods were designed according to the characteristics of waste dumping of openpit metal mines, including charging based on the dumping amount of the total waste, multi-charging factors, exceeding standard punishment charging, and so on. The main charging parameter is based on the dumping area rather than the total amount of waste dumping.The charging model of waste dumping of open-pit mines was formulated, and the charging rate was divided into two parts, i.e., the standard charging rate and the differential charging rate. The standard charging rate was derived using the equilibrium dynamic model,whereas the differential one was obtained by establishing the fuzzy synthesized evaluation model.

  3. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  4. Pitting corrosion transformation of SUS304 stainless steel in lithium bromide solution at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.X.; Ma, X.H.; Chen, J.B.; Bo, S.S. [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2009-05-15

    The foundational data and rules of SUS304 corrosion in aqueous lithium bromide solution at 150-200 C have been investigated by means of weight loss in this paper. The Taguchi method was chosen to investigate the effects of variables on corrosion at higher temperature. Concentration of dissolved oxygen was controlled by keeping the vessel pressure at 1.3 kPa (absolute) before the experiment. The results showed that there was a transformation tendency from pitting corrosion to general corrosion and transition concentration of pitting and film corrosion decreased with increase in solution temperature. The adsorption, activity, and diffusivity of bromine ion led to different corrosion modalities. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  6. Evaluation of a vibration diagnostic system for the detection of spur gear pitting failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    1993-06-01

    A vibration diagnostic system was used to detect spur gear surface pitting fatigue in a closed-loop spur gear fatigue test rig. The diagnostic system, comprising a personal computer with an analog-to-digital conversion board, a diagnostic system unit, and software, uses time-synchronous averaging of the vibration signal to produce a vibration image of each tooth on any gear in a transmission. Several parameters were analyzed including gear pair stress wave and raw baseband vibration, kurtosis, peak ratios, and others. The system provides limits for the various parameters and gives a warning when the limits are exceeded. Several spur gear tests were conducted with this system and vibration data analyzed at 5-min. intervals. The results presented herein show that the system is fairly effective at detecting spur gear tooth surface fatigue pitting failures.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL FEATURES DURING PITTING CORROSION OF LY12 ALUMINUM ALLOY IN DIFFERENT NEUTRAL SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.H. Cao; Z. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; J.F. Li; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical features of commercial airframe material, Al alloy LY12, in 0. 349mol/L neutral sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solutions were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The microstructure of the as-tested samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the Nyquist plots of LY12 at different immersion time displayed different fe atures, indicating that the Cl- ions elevate the corrosion rate and inhibit the repassivation of a metastable pit. It also shows that the corrosion product of LY12 formed in SO2-4 solution isn't easy to dissolve, and it will cover the surface of working electrode in the electrolyte. SEM images indicate that the corrosion apparent area and pit number of LY12 in NaCl solution are greater than that in Na2SO4 solution.

  8. STS-47 crew during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit during fire fighting exercises. Manning the hose in the foreground are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson, at rear. Lined up on the second hose are Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran firefighter monitors the effort from a position between the two hoses. In the background, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, donning gloves, and MS Mae C. Jemison look on. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai all represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  9. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  10. GRAPHICS DATA STRUCTURES IN MICROCOMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FOR OPEN PIT PLANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴力心

    1991-01-01

    This paper discribes the importance and necessity of the study on the data structures for displaying the mining field using the interactive technology in open pit design and planning,based upon the grid block model. The commonly used data structures--rectangular array structure and quadtree structure ,are analyzed. Two compressed data structures--compressed circular link array structure and compressed doubly-linked circular array structure,are proposed,which are much more suitable for displaying the regularly gridded block model. When the two compressed data structures are adopted,the storage space can be tremendously saved and the algorithms are simple,while the requirements of the accuracy and the manipulating speed will be both satisfied for the interactive open pit short range plan formulation.

  11. [Tegumentary glands of the supra-anal pit of Scutigerellidae (Symphala, Myriapoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberthie-Jupeau, L

    1975-01-01

    Tegumentary glands of the 'supra-anal pit' in the genus Scutigerella are ductule-associated glandular cells. The invaginated cavity consists of two distinct parts, the inner bearing microvilli collector. The efferent ductule penetrates into the upper part of the cavity by means of a receiving tubule, the wall of which is perforated and composed of two layers having different electron densities. The glandular cell cytoplasm is packed with smooth endoplasmic reticulum which arises from rough endoplasmic reticulum and by blebbing of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope, blebs immediately losing their ribosomes. Secretion granules are released into the extracellular invaginated cavity between the microvilli and form an amorphous layer that covers the cuticular invagination of the 'supra-anal pit'.

  12. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  13. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S. [Golder Associates, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  14. Effect of heat treatments on 8090 AlLi alloy pitting susceptibility in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, A.M. [CNR, Genova (Italy). Istituto per la Corrosion Marina dei Metalli; Traverso, P. [CNR, Genova (Italy). Istituto per la Corrosion Marina dei Metalli

    1996-05-01

    The pitting susceptibility of 8090 Al-Li alloy in sea water, after different heat treatments, was investigated. Free corrosion and electrochemical tests were carried out at 25 C, in quiescent sea water at pH=8.2 and dissolved oxygen =6.5 ppm. The microstructure was examined by metallographic microscopy and by X-Ray microdiffractometry, while the corrosion layer was characterized by chemical methods and by Infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The following was observed: . aging treatments lead to a non homogeneous microstructure which increases the average corrosion rate as well as pitting susceptibility; . heat treatments do not affect the average passive film composition; . in all examined states, Al-Li alloy 8090 is subject to localized corrosion which takes place preferentially at the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  15. Development of Retrieving and Conditioning Technologies of Low- and Intermediate- level Solid Waste From Storage Pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During the past 40 years or so, large volumes of the low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid wastes (LILW) have been generated from different nuclear facilities in China. All these wastes are temporarily stored in pit-type repositories in different sites of China, of which most of the facilities are seriously aged and damaged. Focusing on this situation, we had developed some key technologies and equipment of retrieving, sorting and compaction of LILW, The following

  16. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Prevention by Nitrite in Carbon Steel Exposed to Dilute Salt Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. Zapp; John W. Van Zee

    2002-02-01

    The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during waste removal for permanent disposition and waste tank closure to ensure that the tanks are maintained safely. The results of the research provide the insight necessary to develop solutions that prevent further degradation.

  17. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior at Corrosion Pit in 7075-T6 High Strength Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was not used to measure the transition from corrosion pit to long crack [25]. . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1 Composition of a typical sample of 7075 -T6...lives. 24 III. Methodology 3.1 Material Research was conducted using 7075 -T6 aluminum. This alloy is commonly used in aerospace applications and as a... material properties of this alloy. It is important to note that these properties were also used in all finite element models. Table 3.1: Composition of

  18. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen stainless steel

    OpenAIRE

    Raffi Mohammed; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen steel made of Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microscopic studies were carried out using optical microscopy (OM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Energy back scattered diffraction (EBSD) method was used to determine t...

  19. Effect of LED curing on the marginal leakage of a pit and fissure sealant

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Mejia, Martha Elena; Magister en Estomatología. Profesor Principal. UNMSM. Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.; Gloria Zevallos, Waldo; Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.; Abuhadba Hoyos, Tulio; Dpto. Estomatología Rehabilitadora. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the curing effect of a light-emitting diode LED unit and conventional halogen light on the marginal leakage of a pit and fissure sealant. We used 40 caries-free permanent premolars recently extracted, which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 20), sealed with a resin based fissure sealant, Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent), according to the manufacturer patterns, then photopolymerized using either L.E.D. light or conventional halogen ligh...

  20. Screening Health Risk Assessment Burn Pit Exposures, Balad Air Base, Iraq and Addendum Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    http://deploymenthealthlibrary.fhp.osd.mil/accessLog.jsp?prodid=313). ii. Health Effects of Dioxin Exposure for Service Members, (http...uncertainty, regulatory agencies try to lower dioxin exposure levels in human populations as much as possible. g. Recent research has shown that some...pit, time spent indoors versus outdoors, frequency of meteorological conditions promoting exposure, or other factors that could impact dioxin

  1. Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    W David Walter; Anderson, Charles W.; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2012-01-01

    Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT) have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfull...

  2. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The micromorphology and distribution of vestures were studied in 22 species representing all families within the order Myrtales based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Vestures are consistently ...

  3. Design and construction of the backfilled pit cover system at Whistle Mine, Canada : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, B.K.; O' Kane, M. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Lanteigne, L. [Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of an engineered cover system developed during the decommissioning of Inco's Whistle Mine in Sudbury, Ontario. The process involved the relocation of 6.4 million tonnes of acid-generating waste rock to the open pit from 2 adjacent stockpiles. The cover system, which works as a barrier to minimize the entry of atmospheric oxygen and water to the underlying material, was developed for backfilling the pit to reduce acid-rock drainage. The effectiveness of a range of cover systems was determined through geochemical modelling. Field trials were also conducted at the site to monitor the performance of the cover system and to estimate full-scale construction costs. A calibrated model of covered waste rock was developed using the VADOSE/W two-dimensional soil-atmosphere model and field data. Net percolation and oxygen infiltration through various cover system alternatives were predicted for site-specific climate conditions. The runoff management and final landform for the pit cover system was determined through erosion and landform evolution numerical modelling. The long-term performance of the pit cover system is affected by physical process such as erosion, slope instability, wet-dry cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, consolidation, extreme climate events and brush fires. Efforts were made to minimize the chemical processes that affect liner performance such as osmotic consolidation, dispersion, dissolution, acidic hydrolysis, mineralogical consolidation, sorption, salinization and oxidation. It was noted that the performance of the liner is also influenced by biological processes such as root penetration, burrowing animals, bioturbation, human intervention, bacteriological clogging and the establishment of vegetation. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a Pit Turbine with Ultralow Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A developed pit turbine with ultralow head was optimization designed under the design head of about 2 meters to achieve the goal of improving the turbine unit's efficiency. At the same time, the turbine's synthetic characteristic curve was drawn to predict the turbine's overall performance. Navier-Stokes equations and SIMPLEC algorithm were used for pit turbine's whole flow passage numerical simulation of the 3D, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow field. Through the CFD numerical simulation, the influence to ultralow head turbine's performance was analyzed by runner blade's different setting angles and guide vane's different axes. Considering the hydraulic performance of various methods, the best blade's setting angle and guide vane's axis were chosen. The results show that, the turbine unit has the best performance on efficiency, hydraulic loss, and so forth, with the blade's setting angle 23° and the angle 72° between the guide vane and the centerline of unit, meeting the power station's design requirements. The development pit turbine with ultralow head shows the highest efficiency of 87.6% under condition of design head of 2.1 meters and design discharge of 10 m3/s. The energy performance of pit turbine with ultralow head was researched by the model test of GD-WS-35 turbine. The model turbine's characteristic curve was drawn. The model turbine's high efficiency area is wide and the efficiency changes mildly. The numerical simulation results are essentially consistent with the model test results, while the former one is slightly higher than the latter one. The error range is ±3%.

  5. Open Pit Mining & The Cost of Water Potential Opportunities Towards Sustainable Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien J.R. Fortin

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations require vast quantities of water to run ore processing facilities and thus have a responsibility to manage this critical resource. Operations are often located in areas of limited water supply, which may create a competitive climate for water consumption. Make-up water for mineral processing can represent a significant portion of production cost for mining companies. While necessary for mining, water in open pits is problematic for extraction activities and leads to increase...

  6. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A.; Duncan, R. Keith

    2009-01-01

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been utilized in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1dw), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a pr...

  7. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Xiao-Yu; Kong Xiao; Zhang Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new ...

  8. Pitting Corrosion of Super Duplex Stainless Steel - Effect of Isothermal Heat Treament

    OpenAIRE

    Lauritsen, Christian Rene

    2016-01-01

    Super duplex stainless steels (SDSS), with a chromium content of 25 wt$\\%$, contain a duplex structure which consists of ferrite and austenite, and have a pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) equal or higher than 40. SDSS are affected by the alloying elements, microstructure and fabrication processes. The high degree of alloying elements in SDSS can lead to formation of intermetallic precipitates and secondary phases during heat treatments. Detrimental phases, such as sigma ($\\sigma$) ...

  9. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.

  10. Atomic-scale decoration for improving the pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. T.; Zhang, B.; Zheng, S. J.; Wang, J.; San, X. Y.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels are susceptible to the localized pitting corrosion that leads to a huge loss to our society. Studies in the past decades confirmed that the pitting events generally originate from the local dissolution in MnS inclusions which are more or less ubiquitous in stainless steels. Although a recent study indicated that endogenous MnCr2O4 nano-octahedra within the MnS medium give rise to local nano-galvanic cells which are responsible for the preferential dissolution of MnS, effective solutions of restraining the cells from viewpoint of electrochemistry are being tantalizingly searched. Here we report such a galvanic corrosion can be greatly resisted via bathing the steels in Cu2+-containing solutions. This chemical bath generates Cu2-δS layers on the surfaces of MnS inclusions, invalidating the nano-galvanic cells. Our study provides a low-cost approach via an atomic scale decoration to improve the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steels in a volume-treated manner.

  11. Corrosion Resistance and Pitting Behaviour of Low-Carbon High-Mn Steels in Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of the X4MnSiAlNbTi27-4-2 and X6MnSiAlNbTi26-3-3 type austenitic steels, after hot deformation as well as after cold rolling, were evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. A type of nonmetallic inclusions and their pitting corrosion behaviour were investigated. Additionally, the effect of cold deformation on the corrosion resistance of high-Mn steels was studied. The SEM micrographs revealed that corrosion damage formed in both investigated steels is characterized by various shapes and an irregular distribution at the metallic matrix, independently on the steel state (thermomechanically treated or cold worked. Corrosion pits are generated both in grain interiors, grain boundaries and along the deformation bands. Moreover, corrosion damage is stronger in cold deformed steels in comparison to the thermomechanically treated specimens. EDS analysis revealed that corrosion pits preferentially nucleated on MnS and AlN inclusions or complex oxysulphides. The morphology of corrosion damage in 3.5% NaCl supports the data registered in potentiodynamic tests.

  12. Characterizing o- and p-nitrophenols adsorption onto innovative activated carbon prepared from date pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaher, Hossam; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The production and performance of activated carbon prepared from date pits was investigated. Date pits are an abundant local waste product in many countries; converting them to a commercial product would increase the sustainability of this fruit crop. The date pit activated carbon was shown to have similar characteristics of pore size and surface functional groups as other commercial carbons. Batch experiments were conducted with o- and p-nitrophenol to evaluate the performance of this carbon. Results were analyzed according to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of o-nitrophenol was 142.9 mg/g while that of p-nitrophenol was 108.7 mg/g. The adsorption process was physical in nature. The position of the -NO(2) group in the benzene ring has a considerable effect on the adsorption capacity and rate of uptake. The kinetic results showed that a pseudo second-order model appropriately describes the experimental data. The analysis of kinetic data revealed that the mechanism of adsorption is complex with both liquid film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion contributing to adsorption of both adsorbates.

  13. Floristic Survey of Summer Aspect in Chosen China Clay Pits in Western Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Botková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five different china clay pits in the western part of the Czech Republic were explored and plant species were determined. These chosen pits were: Hájek-western part, Chlumčany, Horní Bříza, Otovice and Podlesí II. China clay pits with active excavation represent a specific environment concerning both physical and chemical characteristics. This article is presenting a list of the higher plants which were found within active excavation or former excavation areas. Species with a protection status according to the Czech legislation are presented in more detail. 189 different species have been found in total, including 2 species from category C4 – potentially vulnerable taxa, 6 species from category C3 – endangered taxa and 1 species from the C1 – critically threatened taxa from the Red List of Vascular Plants of the Czech Republic. 28 different species occurred at each of the five sites. Predominant species favour sandy substratum and bare surface.

  14. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen steel made of Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microscopic studies were carried out using optical microscopy (OM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. Energy back scattered diffraction (EBSD method was used to determine the phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance in aerated 3.5% NaCl environment using a GillAC electrochemical system. The investigation results showed that the selected Cr–Mn–N type electrode resulted in a maximum reduction in delta-ferrite and improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of the weld zone was attributed to the coarse austenite grains owing to the reduction in active sites of the austenite/delta ferrite interface and the decrease in galvanic interaction between austenite and delta-ferrite.

  15. Powder-in-tube (PIT) $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  16. ANALYSIS OF PITTING CORROSION ON AN INCONEL 718 ALLOY SUBMITTED TO AGING HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rocha Caliari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is one of the most important superalloys, and it is mainly used in the aerospace field on account of its high mechanical strength, good resistance to fatigue and creep, good corrosion resistance and ability to operate continuously at elevated temperatures. In this work the resistance to pitting corrosion of a superalloy, Inconel 718, is analyzed before and after double aging heat treatment. The used heat treatment increases the creep resistance of the alloy, which usually is used up to 0.6 Tm. Samples were subjected to pitting corrosion tests in chloride-containing aqueous solution, according to ASTM-F746-04 and the procedure described by Yashiro et al. The results of these trials show that after heat treatment the superalloy presents higher corrosion resistance, i.e., the pitting corrosion currents of the as received surfaces are about 6 (six times bigger (~0.15 mA than those of double aged surfaces (~0.025 mA.

  17. Ancient hypogeous manufactures: the cereal pits in San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia De Nicolò

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the analysis of the hypogeous pits for the conservation of cereals in the historical center of San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini. This small town in the low Valle del Conca (Conca Valley, on the border between Marche and Romagna, 3 km away from the sea, has a high concentration of underground silos protected by a fortified enclosure, this was known already in the late Middle Ages. Those silos were used to store the cereal products of a very productive territory, it is a sort of “wheat bank”, a huge container for cereals that was the reason why the castle in modern times was called: “The barn of the Malatesta family” (noble family. Some research was carried out in archives and according to notarial sources of the XIV-XVI centuries, and it was confirmed by other information from ancient city statutes and printed texts (XV-XIX centuries concerning the problems on the conservation of wheat and on the making of underground silos. That research provided interesting information on the making, the placing and the capacity of these pits, furthermore recently a diagnostic exploration was executed in the underground of San Giovanni in Marignano, analyzing high-frequency electromagnetic waves penetrating into the ground (Ground Penetrating Radar, such exploration located and detected precisely the pits.

  18. Detection of fungal infectous agent of wheat grains in store-pits of Markazi province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi-Riseh, R; Javan-Nikkhah, M; Heidarian, R; Hosseini, S; Soleimani, P

    2004-01-01

    Wheat is an economic and important crop that provides approximately 20% of food calorie in the world. It is first crop in Iran and cultivated in the most areas of this country. Store-pit fungi make undesirable changes in quality and appearance of wheat grains. Even, some fungi produce different mycotoxins which are toxic to human and livestock's that use wheat grains as source of food. In this study, several samples were randomly collected from each of five store-pits located in different areas of Markazi Province including: Arak, Mahallat, Khomein, Saveh and Sarband. Grains were treated on PDA, and blotter, agar and washing test also used for isolating and detection of fungi. At least 100 grains per each sample were randomly used for each test and treatment. The fungi that determined in this study were Cochliobolus australiensis, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum sp., Tilletia leavis, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Penicillium italicum, P. digitatum, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus sp., Ustilago tritici, Scytalidium sp. Among these fungi the most isolates were belonged to Cladosporium, Alternaria, Rhizopus and Fusarium. Cladosporium herbarum was the most common in different sampling areas. Tilletia laevis and Ustilago tritici were just recovered in washing test. This study revealed that different fungi are associated with wheat grains in store-pits in Markazi Province. Some of them like Aspergillus flavus normally produce aflatoxin, a very toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin that is harmful for human.

  19. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  20. FOVEA: a new program to standardize the measurement of foveal pit morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret A. Moore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is one of the most studied retinal specializations in vertebrates, which consists of an invagination of the retinal tissue with high packing of cone photoreceptors, leading to high visual resolution. Between species, foveae differ morphologically in the depth and width of the foveal pit and the steepness of the foveal walls, which could influence visual perception. However, there is no standardized methodology to measure the contour of the foveal pit across species. We present here FOVEA, a program for the quantification of foveal parameters (width, depth, slope of foveal pit using images from histological cross-sections or optical coherence tomography (OCT. FOVEA is based on a new algorithm to detect the inner retina contour based on the color variation of the image. We evaluated FOVEA by comparing the fovea morphology of two Passerine birds based on histological cross-sections and its performance with data from previously published OCT images. FOVEA detected differences between species and its output was not significantly different from previous estimates using OCT software. FOVEA can be used for comparative studies to better understand the evolution of the fovea morphology in vertebrates as well as for diagnostic purposes in veterinary pathology. FOVEA is freely available for academic use and can be downloaded at: http://estebanfj.bio.purdue.edu/fovea.

  1. Research on surveying technology applied for DTM modelling and volume computation in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Wajs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial information systems of mining company can be used for monitoring of mining activity, excavation planning, calculations of the ore volume and decision making. Nowadays, data base has to be updated by sources such as surveying positioning technologies and remote sensed photogrammetry data. The presented paper contains review of the methodology for the digital terrain model, i.e. DTM, modelling and obtaining data from surveying technologies in an open pit mine or quarry. This paper reviews the application of GPS, total station measurements, and ground photogrammetry for the volume accuracy assessment of a selected object. The testing field was situated in Belchatow lignite open pit mine. A suitable object had been selected. The testing layer of coal seam was located at 8’th pit sidewall excavation area. The data were acquired two times within one month period and it was connected with monthly DTM actualization of excavation. This paper presents the technological process and the results of the research of using digital photogrammetry for opencast mining purposes in the scope of numerical volume computation and monitoring the mines by comparison of different sources. The results shows that the presented workflow allow to build DTM manually and remote sensed and the accuracy assessment was presented by the volume computation pathway. Major advantages of the techniques are presented illustrating how a terrestrial photogrammetry techniques provide rapid spatial measurements of breaklines 3D data utilized to volume calculation.

  2. MuPIT interactive: webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryangguk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D; Cooper, David N; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    Mutation position imaging toolbox (MuPIT) interactive is a browser-based application for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the exome sequencing project. MuPIT interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu .

  3. MuPIT Interactive: Webserver for mapping variant positions to annotated, interactive 3D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknafs, Noushin; Kim, Dewey; Kim, Ryang Guk; Diekhans, Mark; Ryan, Michael; Stenson, Peter D.; Cooper, David N.; Karchin, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Mutation Position Imaging Toolbox (MuPIT) Interactive is a browser-based application for single nucleotide variants (SNVs), which automatically maps the genomic coordinates of SNVs onto the coordinates of available three-dimensional protein structures. The application is designed for interactive browser-based visualization of the putative functional relevance of SNVs by biologists who are not necessarily experts either in bioinformatics or protein structure. Users may submit batches of several thousand SNVs and review all protein structures that cover the SNVs, including available functional annotations such as binding sites, mutagenesis experiments, and common polymorphisms. Multiple SNVs may be mapped onto each structure, enabling 3D visualization of SNV clusters and their relationship to functionally annotated positions. We illustrate the utility of MuPIT Interactive in rationalizing the impact of selected polymorphisms in the PharmGKB database, somatic mutations identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas study of invasive breast carcinomas, and rare variants identified in the Exome Sequencing Project. MuPIT Interactive is freely available for non-profit use at http://mupit.icm.jhu.edu. PMID:23793516

  4. Analysis of the Pit Removal Methods in Digital Terrain Models of Various Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamanović, S.; Medak, D.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    Digital terrain model (DTM) is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow) in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes) and the filling method (fill sink) were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals). The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  5. Pathological Status of Pyricularia angulata Causing Blast and Pitting Disease of Banana in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sangeetha; Singh, Hari Shankar; Petikam, Srinivas; Biswal, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of leaf blast on nursery plants and pitting disease on maturing banana bunches has been recorded in banana plantations during rainy season in Eastern India during 2014 to 2015. Taxonomical identification as well as DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungus isolated from affected tissue culture derived plantlets and fruits confirmed the pathogen to be Pyricularia angulata Hashioka “in both the cases”. Koch’s postulates were proved on young plantlets as well as on maturing fruits of cv. Grand Naine under simulated conditions. Evolutionary history was inferred and presented for our P. angulata strain PG9001 with GenBank accession no. KU984740. The analysis indicated that the P. angulata is phylogenitically distinct from other related species related to both Pyricularia and Magnaporthe. Detailed symptoms of blast lesions on young leaves, transition leaves, mid rib, petioles, peduncle, maturing bunches, bunch stalks and cushions were documented. Notably, the distinct small pitting spots on maturing bunches reduced the visual appeal of mature fruits. Appearance of pitting symptoms on fruits in relation with age of fruits and their distribution pattern on bunch and fingers was also documented in detail. Further, the roles of transitory leaves, weed hosts, seasonality on disease occurrence have also been documented. PMID:28167884

  6. The Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Enamel Shear Bond Strength of Pit and Fissure Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Rebecca A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Sanders, Brian J; Yepes, Juan F; Jones, James E

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fluoride varnish on the enamel shear bond strength of pit and fissure sealants. Ninety-six teeth were divided into three duplicated test groups: sealant (S)/sealant thermocycle (ST) received Clinpro Sealant only; varnish sealant (VS)/varnish sealant thermocycle (VST) received five percent sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish plus sealant (VPS); and VPS/VPS thermocycle (VPST) received NaF, polish with Clinpro Prophy Paste, plus sealant. One set of each group (ST, VST, VPST) was thermocycled to represent aging, and one set (S, VS, PVS) was not. The shear bond strengths for the thermocycled groups and nonthermocycled groups were determined, and two-way analysis of variance tested the effects of thermocycling and varnish. Thermocycling did not have a significant effect on the peak stresses of the groups (P=0.0552), so sets were combined. The peak stress for S/ST was significantly higher than for VS/VST (PFluoride varnish applied immediately before pit and fissure sealant placement negatively affected the shear bond strength of the sealant. Mechanically cleaning a fluoride varnish-coated tooth with prophy paste did not provide pit and fissure sealant enamel shear bond strengths comparable to those of untreated enamel.

  7. Ganymede crater dimensions - Implications for central peak and central pit formation and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Jay Melosh, H.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Collins, Gareth S.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of impact craters on the icy Galilean satellites differs from craters on rocky bodies. The differences are thought due to the relative weakness of ice and the possible presence of sub-surface water layers. Digital elevation models constructed from Galileo images were used to measure a range of dimensions of craters on the dark and bright terrains of Ganymede. Measurements were made from multiple profiles across each crater, so that natural variation in crater dimensions could be assessed and averaged scaling trends constructed. The additional depth, slope and volume information reported in this work has enabled study of central peak formation and development, and allowed a quantitative assessment of the various theories for central pit formation. We note a possible difference in the size-morphology progression between small craters on icy and silicate bodies, where central peaks occur in small craters before there is any slumping of the crater rim, which is the opposite to the observed sequence on the Moon. Conversely, our crater dimension analyses suggest that the size-morphology progression of large lunar craters from central peak to peak-ring is mirrored on Ganymede, but that the peak-ring is subsequently modified to a central pit morphology. Pit formation may occur via the collapse of surface material into a void left by the gradual release of impact-induced volatiles or the drainage of impact melt into sub-crater fractures.

  8. Pits formation from volatile outgassing on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Brugger, B; Jorda, L; Kargel, J S; Bouquet, A; Auger, A -T; Lamy, P; Vernazza, P; Thomas, N; Sierks, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the thermal evolution of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's subsurface in the Seth_01 region, where active pits have been observed by the ESA/Rosetta mission. Our simulations show that clathrate destabilization and amorphous ice crystallization can occur at depths corresponding to those of the observed pits in a timescale shorter than 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's lifetime in the comet's activity zone in the inner solar system. Sublimation of crystalline ice down to such depths is possible only in the absence of a dust mantle, which requires the presence of dust grains in the matrix small enough to be dragged out by gas from the pores. Our results are consistent with both pits formation via sinkholes or subsequent to outbursts, the dominant process depending on the status of the subsurface porosity. A sealed dust mantle would favor episodic and disruptive outgassing as a result of an increasing gas pressure in the pores, while a high porosity should allow the formation of large voids in the subsur...

  9. Antileishmanial Activity of Date (Phoenix dactylifera L) Fruit and Pit Extracts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakhit, Sedighe; Khademvatan, Shahram; Doudi, Monir; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. Current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of Phoenix dactylifera against Leishmania major promastigotes. L major promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated at 25°C ± 1°C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For obtaining the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, MTT assay was employed. Furthermore, promastigotes were examined in terms of morphology under light microscope. About 48 hours after treatment, IC50s were estimated 23 μg/mL and 500 mg/mL for methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of P dactylifera, respectively. Both extracts exhibited a dose and time-dependent antileishmanial activity against L major parasites. Also, some visible morphological changes were seen. This finding revealed both date fruit and pit, are effective against L major promastigotes. Further studies should be designed in future based on apoptosis induction in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Ultrasonic scattering from a hemispherical pit theory and experimental measurement precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy and precision of pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness measurement systems are influenced by systematic and environmental factors including the topographic profile of the back-wall surface. For the case of thickness measurement from the outside surface of a pipe, the back-wall surface can vary in roughness as a result of internal corrosion. A single corrosive pit can be geometrically represented by a hemisphere in a half-space to model the initiation point of rough surface corrosion, or to model isolated pitting degradation as is possible with naphthenic acid corrosion in oil refineries. The elastic wave scattering from a single hemispherical pit has been studied in the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) community, as well as scattering from a hemispherical canyon in the seismology community for various incident and reflected wave angles, modes, and frequency ranges with both analytical and discretized numerical methods. This paper looks to first review recent scattering theory (developed in the seismology community) on a full frequency range analytical solution for a normal incident longitudinal wave at a normal reflection angle from a hemispherical canyon, and then extend this theory to NDE applications with the introduction of a new far-field scattering amplitude term. Next, a selection of new theoretical scattering amplitude solutions are presented along with semi-analytical simulation and experimental measurement results. Finally, a statistical methodology to determine thickness measurement accuracy and precision taking into consideration asymmetric measurement uncertainty is referenced.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PIT REMOVAL METHODS IN DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS OF VARIOUS RESOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šamanović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital terrain model (DTM is the base for calculation of the surface runoff under the influence of the gravity (gravity flow in hydrological analysis. It is important to produce hydrologically corrected DTM with the removed natural and artificial depressions to avoid numerical problems in algorithms of the gravity flow. The pit removal procedure changes geomorphometry of the DTM. GIS software packages use pit removal algorithm independently of geomorphmetric features of the analyzed area. In need of minimally modified DTM after the pit removal areas, the carving method (deepen drainage routes and the filling method (fill sink were analyzed on three different geomorphometric areas (bare mountain range, hilly wooded area and the plain area intersected with the network of the drainage canals. The recommendation is given for the choice of geomorphometric least changing DTM algorithm. The input data are raster data of elevation points created by stereoscopic photogrammetry method in 5x5 and 25x25 meter resolution. Differences have been noticed during the process of creating raster data. The recommendation is given for the choice of the most acceptable method for each type of area on the basis of comparison of the original elevation points with the elevation points in created DTM.

  12. Pit formation on stainless steel surfaces pre-treated with biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagbert, Catherine [ECP-LGPM, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: catherine.dagbert@ecp.fr; Meylheuc, Thierry; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noelle [INRA, UMR 763 Bioadhesion et Hygiene des Materiaux, F-91300 Massy (France); AGROPARISTECH, UMR 763 Bioadhesion et Hygiene des Materiaux, F-91300 Massy (France)

    2008-12-01

    Today, it is widely established that the surface tension of water can be reduced by some microorganisms capable of synthesizing surface-active compounds called biosurfactants (BS). BS characteristics depend on the microorganism that produces them and therefore, on the microorganism culture conditions. Some studies on chemical surfactants have shown that the adsorption of surface-active compounds plays a major role in corrosion; indeed they are used as a good corrosion inhibition tool. The purpose of this study was first, to estimate the importance and behavior of the stainless steels passive film on the adsorption of BS, produced by the Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, and secondly, to study the impact of these treatments on the pitting corrosion. In this paper, the galvanostatic polarization technique, used as accelerated method for determining the characteristic pit potentials on stainless steels, is examined. Pit growth, shape and cover formation were also observed. The surface topography of the corroded specimens was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)

  13. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  14. Acoustical measurements of sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit inside an historical opera house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-Ichi; Prodi, Nicola; Sakai, Hiroyuki

    2004-05-01

    To clarify the relationship of the sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit, we conducted acoustical measurements in a typical historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale of Ferrara, Italy. Orthogonal factors based on the theory of subjective preference and other related factors were analyzed. First, the sound fields for a singer on the stage in relation to the musicians in the pit were analyzed. And then, the sound fields for performers in the pit in relation to the singers on the stage were considered. Because physical factors vary depending on the location of the sound source, performers can move on the stage or in the pit to find the preferred sound field.

  15. Corrective action investigation plan: Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Unit 332. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains a detailed description and plan for an environmental investigation of the Area 2 Photo Skid 16 Wastewater Pit. The site is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. The Photo Skid Wastewater Pit was used for disposal of photochemical process waste, and there is a concern that such disposal may have released photochemicals and metals to the soil beneath the pit and adjacent to it. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the presence and nature of contamination present in and adjacent to the wastewater pit and to determine the appropriate course of environmental response action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure through remediation, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  16. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household ventilated improved pits: a case study from South Africa K. Wall, O. Ive, J. Bhagwan, F. Kirwan, W...

  17. Can the Point Defect Model Explain the Influence of Temperature and Anion Size on Pitting of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwood, Daniel J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    The pitting behaviours of 304L and 316L stainless steels were investigated at 3 °C to 90 °C in 1 M solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI by potentiodynamic polarization. The temperature dependences of the pitting potential varied according to the anion, being near linear in bromide but exponential in chloride. As a result, at low temperatures grades 304L and 316L steel are most susceptible to pitting by bromide ions, while at high temperatures both stainless steels were more susceptible to pitting by small chloride anions than the larger bromide and iodide. Thus, increasing temperature appears to favour attack by smaller anions. This paper will attempt to rationalise both of the above findings in terms of the point defect model. Initial findings are that qualitatively this approach can be reasonably successful, but not at the quantitative level, possibly due to insufficient data on the mechanical properties of thin passive films.

  18. Inhibition of the ultrasonic microjet-pits on the carbon steel in the particles-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayun Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the incubation period of ultrasonic cavitation, due to the impact of microjets on the material surface, the needle-like microjet-pits are formed. Because the formation of microjet-pits relates with the evolution of cavitation erosion on engineering materials, corresponding study will promote the understanding on the mechanism of cavitation erosion. However, little study on the microjet-pits has been carried out, especially in the particles-water mixture. In this study, we firstly demonstrated the microjet-pits on the carbon steel would be significantly inhibited by Al particles in water. Such inhibition effect indicated that particular particles might not only provide growth sites for cavitation bubbles but also affect the collapse of cavitation bubbles near a solid surface. Our study deepened the understanding on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion in the particles-water mixture.

  19. Acoustical measurements of sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit inside an historical opera house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-Ichi; Prodi, Nicola; Sakai, Hiroyuki

    2001-05-01

    To clarify the relationship of the sound fields between the stage and the orchestra pit, we conducted acoustical measurements in a typical historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale of Ferrara, Italy. Orthogonal factors based on the theory of subjective preference and other related factors were analyzed. First, the sound fields for a singer on the stage in relation to the musicians in the pit were analyzed. And then, the sound fields for performers in the pit in relation to the singers on the stage were considered. Because physical factors vary depending on the location of the sound source, performers can move on the stage or in the pit to find the preferred sound field.

  20. LabVIEW 2010 Computer Vision Platform Based Virtual Instrument and Its Application for Pitting Corrosion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rogelio; Zlatev, Roumen; Valdez, Benjamin; Stoytcheva, Margarita; Carrillo, Mónica; García, Juan-Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A virtual instrumentation (VI) system called VI localized corrosion image analyzer (LCIA) based on LabVIEW 2010 was developed allowing rapid automatic and subjective error-free determination of the pits number on large sized corroded specimens. The VI LCIA controls synchronously the digital microscope image taking and its analysis, finally resulting in a map file containing the coordinates of the detected probable pits containing zones on the investigated specimen. The pits area, traverse length, and density are also determined by the VI using binary large objects (blobs) analysis. The resulting map file can be used further by a scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) system for rapid (one pass) "true/false" SVET check of the probable zones only passing through the pit's centers avoiding thus the entire specimen scan. A complete SVET scan over the already proved "true" zones could determine the corrosion rate in any of the zones.

  1. THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT EXCHANGE ON THE PIT ASPIRATION IN ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis (L. Link. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamiyet Şahin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of solvent Exchange drying utilizing low surface tension force of organic solvents on pit aspiration in Oriental spruce wood. All trees used for experiments were obtained from Maçka-Karahava region. Investigations for pit aspiration was carried out on electron microscope. Prior to the experiments, samples dried with solvent Exchange method. The principle of this method was the replacement of free water in wood with an organic solvent, low in surface tension. The applied organic solvents were acetone, benzene and pentane. For comparison purposes, pit aspiration experiment also were conducted on oven-dried and air-dried wood samples. Result inticated that solvent Exchange drying was observed to be effective on pit aspiration, and the best result was obtained by acetone treatment.

  2. DECREASING PITTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PASSIVE FILMS ON X70 PIPELINE STEEL IN NaCl SOLUTIONS BY ILLUMINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.C. Zhu; W.H. Leng; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2006-01-01

    The influence of UV illumination on passivity and pitting susceptibility on X70 pipeline steel in a borate buffer (pH=8.4) solution containing NaCl is described. It is observed that illumination of the sample leads to a decrease in its pitting susceptibility as indicated by pitting potential and incubation time measurements in chloride containing electrolytes. This effect is strongly dependent on the applied potential during passivation. The electronic properties of the passive films on X70steel were studied by Mott-Schottky analysis and photocurrent transient measurements. The results indicated that illumination during passivation led to modifications in the electronic properties of the passive films, mainly to a decrease of the bulk doping and an increase in the surface state density. The cause for the decrease in the pitting susceptibility is preliminary explained in terms of such modifications of the passive film.

  3. Trails, RS2477, cinter pit rd, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'cinter pit...

  4. Trails, RS2477, cinter pit ev, Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'cinter pit...

  5. Is it possible to win back a part of coal resources confined to the safety pillar of a pit shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzysztof Ogieglo; Mieczyslaw Lubryka; Jerzy Sliwinski; Piotr Malkowski [Stone Coal Mine ' JAS-MUS' , Jastrzcbic (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Results of the analysis of the impact of exploitation carried out in three mines of Jastrzebie Mining Joint Stock Company, in Poland close to pillars and exploitation encroaching upon safety pillars of 4 pit shafts on deformation of and damage to pit shaft pipes have been described in this paper. For some mines a period has been analyzed even since 1965. Making use of measurements and observations gained in natural conditions and numeric simulation in a method of finite elements with the use of COSMOS/M program a thesis has been proved that in the conditions of stone coal mines with the increase of the depth of exploitation there is a possibility of partial disturbance of defined boundaries of pillars of pit shafts without damaging and deforming these pit shafts. The course of walls prolonged in this way allows additional extraction without additional expenses. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Report: Independent Ground Water Sampling Generally Confirms EPA’s Data at Wheeler Pit Superfund Site in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0218, September 8, 2010. With minimal exceptions, our independent sampling results at the Wheeler Pit Superfund Site were consistent with the sampling results that EPA Region 5 has obtained historically.

  7. Implementing a parametric maximum flow algorithm for optimal open pit mine design under uncertain supply and demand

    OpenAIRE

    M W A Asad; R Dimitrakopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Conventional open pit mine optimization models for designing mining phases and ultimate pit limit do not consider expected variations and uncertainty in metal content available in a mineral deposit (supply) and commodity prices (market demand). Unlike the conventional approach, a stochastic framework relies on multiple realizations of the input data so as to account for uncertainty in metal content and financial parameters, reflecting potential supply and demand. This paper presents a new met...

  8. PCR-RFLP analyses for studying the diversity of GH and Pit-1 genes in Slovak Simmental cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of growth hormone (GH and specific pituitary transcription factor (Pit-1 genes diversity in population of 353 Slovak Simmental cows. The analyses were based on single nucleotide polymorphisms GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI detections. A polymorphic site of GH gene (AluI has been linked to differences in circulating metabolites, metabolic hormones and milk yield. Bovine Pit-1 is responsible for pituitary development and hormone secreting gene expression, including GH gene. The Pit-1/HinfI locus was associated with growth, milk production and reproduction performance in cattle. Samples of genomic DNA were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Digestion of GH gene PCR products with restriction enzyme AluI revealed allele L and V with frequency 0.695 and 0.305, respectively. The digested Pit-1 gene PCR products with enzyme HinfI revealed alleles A (0.249 and B (0.751. Dominant genotypes were for GH gene heterozygous LV (0.47 and for Pit-1 gene homozygous BB (0.56 animals. The observed heterozygosity, effective allele numbers and polymorphism information content of GH/AluI and Pit-1/HinfI bovine loci population were 0.42/0.37, 1.73/1.59 and 0.33/0.30, respectively. The median polymorphic information content of loci was also transferred to the higher observed homozygosity in population (0.58/0.63. Keywords: cattle, growth hormone, leptin, PCR, Pit-1, polymorphism.

  9. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  10. ProtQuant: a tool for the label-free quantification of MudPIT proteomics data

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective and economical methods for quantitative analysis of high throughput mass spectrometry data are essential to meet the goals of directly identifying, characterizing, and quantifying proteins from a particular cell state. Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) is a common approach used in protein identification. Two types of methods are used to detect differential protein expression in MudPIT experiments: those involving stable isotope labelling...

  11. Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES): The United State's demonstration line for pit disassembly and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Timothy O.

    1998-03-01

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) is a pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line at Los Alamos National Laboratory's plutonium facility. Pits are the core of a nuclear weapon that contains fissile material. With the end of the cold war, the United States began a program to dispose of the fissile material contained in surplus nuclear weapons. In January of 1997, the Department of Energy's Office of Fissile Material Disposition issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the disposition of surplus plutonium. This decision contained a hybrid option for disposition of the plutonium, immobilization and mixed oxide fuel. ARIES is the cornerstone of the United States plutonium disposition program that supplies the pit demonstration plutonium feed material for either of these disposition pathways. Additionally, information from this demonstration is being used to design the United States Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility. AH of the ARIES technologies were recently developed and incorporate waste minimization. The technologies include pit bisection, hydride/dehydride, metal to oxide conversion process, packaging, and nondestructive assay (NDA). The current schedule for the ARIES integrated Demonstration will begin in the Spring of 1998. The ARIES project involves a number of DOE sites including Los Alamos National Laboratory as the lead laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories. Moreover, the ARIES team is heavily involved in working with Russia in their pit disassembly and conversion activities.

  12. Trace metal contamination influenced by land use, soil age, and organic matter in montreal tree pit soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Maryam; Jutras, Pierre; Clark, O Grant; Hendershot, William H; Prasher, Shiv O

    2013-09-01

    The short life span of many street trees in the Montreal downtown area may be due in part to higher than standard concentrations of trace metals in the tree pit soils. The effects of land use, soil organic matter, and time since tree planting in a given tree pit (soil age) were studied with respect to the total concentration of trace metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in soil collected from tree pits on commercial and residential streets. Contingency table analysis and multiple linear regression were applied to study how these variables were related to the total concentrations of trace metals in soil. Other variables, such as pH, street width, distance of the tree pit from the curb, and tree pit volume, were also used as input to statistical analysis to increase the analysis' explanatory power. Significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were observed in soils from commercial streets, possibly as a result of heavier traffic as compared with residential streets. Soil organic matter was positively correlated with the concentrations of Cu and Pb, probably due to the ability of organic matter to retain these trace metals. Nickel, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were positively correlated with the soil age presumably because trace metals accumulate in the tree pit soil over time. This knowledge can be helpful in providing soil quality standards aimed at improving the longevity of downtown street trees.

  13. Comparative Performance of Acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockersmith, Eric E.; Brown, Richard S.; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2008-02-01

    Numerous research tools and technologies are currently being used to evaluate fish passage and survival to determine the impacts of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) on endangered and threatened juvenile salmonids, including PIT tags, balloon tags, hydroacoustic evaluations, radio telemetry, and acoustic telemetry. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but options are restricted in some situations because of limited capabilities of a specific technology, lack of detection capability downstream, or availability of adequate numbers of fish. However, there remains concern about the comparative effects of the tag or the tagging procedure on fish performance. The recently developed Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitter is the smallest active acoustic tag currently available. The goal of this study was to determine whether fish tagged with the JSATS acoustic-telemetry tag can provide unbiased estimates of passage behavior and survival within the performance life of the tag. We conducted both field and laboratory studies to assess tag effects. For the field evaluation we released a total of 996 acoustic-tagged fish in conjunction with 21,026 PIT-tagged fish into the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam on 6 and 13 May. Travel times between release and downstream dams were not significantly different for the majority of the reaches between acoustic-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. In addition to the field evaluation, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if growth and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters is different than untagged or PIT tagged juvenile Chinook salmon. Only yearling fish with integrated and non-integrated transmitters experienced mortalities, and these were low (<4.5%). Mortality among sub-yearling control and PIT-tag treatments ranged up to 7.7% while integrated and non-integrated treatments had slightly higher rates (up to 8.3% and 7

  14. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  15. Radionuclide and metal contamination in pit lakes in former U mining sites in Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipperud, L.; Rosseland, B.O.; Heier, L.S.; Salbu, B. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU (Norway); Stegnar, P. [Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Yunusov, M. [IA Vostokredmet (Tajikistan); Burkitbaev, L.M. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in the USSR was established in the late 1940's - early 1950's in the former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as part of the nuclear weapon program. In most countries, uranium mining is considered a hazardous step of nuclear materials production, both in terms of radiation doses and in the number of people affected. Key problems have been associated with the transport of uranium and its daughters in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, where radionuclides are transferred from air, water, and soils into plants, fish/animals and finally to man. In this paper, special attention is paid to the assessment of radionuclides and metals in Central Asian Pit Lakes. Field works to Kurday, Kasakhstan, and Taboshar, Tajikistan, Pit Lakes have been performed. In addition to sampling of water, fish, sediments, and vegetation, in situ fractionation of water were achieved. The concentrations of U and associated trace metals were enriched in the Kurday Pit Lake and in the artesian water at the Kurday site (U exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water), and decreased downstream from the mining area. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were predominantly present as mobile low molecular mass species in waters, while a significant proportion of Cr, Mn and Fe were associated with colloids and particles. Due to oxidation of divalent iron in the artesian ground water upon contact with air, Fe served as scavenger for other elements, and peak concentrations of U, Ra-isotopes, As and Mn were seen. The U concentrations in water from Taboshar Pit Lake (2.0 mg U/L) were higher than waters collected in other areas in Tajikistan. The Pit Lake and the stream water from the tailing mountain were also characterized by elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Mn and Fe, exceeding the WHO recommended values for drinking water. Uranium, As, Mo and Ni were present as low molecular mass species in the waters, and are therefore considered

  16. Characterization of ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers, Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to characterize ground-water flow conditions between the Canisteo Mine Pit, Bovey, Minnesota, and surrounding aquifers following mine abandonment. The objective of the study was to estimate the amount of steady-state, ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers at pit water-level altitudes below the level at which surface-water discharge from the pit may occur. Single-well hydraulic tests and stream-hydrograph analyses were conducted to estimate horizontal hydraulic conductivities and ground-water recharge rates, respectively, for glacial aquifers surrounding the mine pit. Average hydraulic conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 ft/day for sands and clays and from 0.01 to 121 ft/day for coarse sands, gravels, and boulders. The 15-year averages for the estimated annual recharge using the winter records and the entire years of record for defining baseflow recession rates were 7.07 and 7.58 in., respectively. These recharge estimates accounted for 25 and 27 percent, respectively, of the average annual precipitation for the 1968-82 streamflow monitoring period. Ground-water flow rates into and out of the mine pit were estimated using a calibrated steady-state, ground-water flow model simulating an area of approximately 75 mi2 surrounding the mine pit. The model residuals, or difference between simulated and measured water levels, for 15 monitoring wells adjacent to the mine pit varied between +28.65 and –3.78 ft. The best-match simulated water levels were within 4 ft of measured water levels for 9 of the 15 wells, and within 2 ft for 4 of the wells. The simulated net ground-water flow into the Canisteo Mine Pit was +1.34 ft3/s, and the net ground-water flow calculated from pit water levels measured between July 5, 1999 and February 25, 2001 was +5.4 ft3/s. Simulated water levels and ground-water flow to and from the mine

  17. Association of PIT1 genotypes with growth traits in Canchim cattle Associação de genótipos PIT1 com características de crescimento em gado Canchim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Mara Carrijo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of genetic markers can aid on the identification of animals with highest breeding values in beef cattle. The PIT1 gene codes for the Pit-1 transcription factor is essential for the activation of prolactin, growth hormone and PIT1 genes. This research is an investigation of the effect of PIT1-HinfI polymorphism on growth traits of 509 Canchim animals, from two lineages, GG1 and GG2. PIT1 genotypes were identified through PCR-RFLP. Genotype effect on phenotypic values for birth weight (BW, standardized weaning weight (W240, weight at 12 months of age (W365, and the average daily weight gain from birth to weaning (AGBW, and from weaning to 12 months of age (AGW12 were analyzed by the least squares method. Effects of the interaction between the animal's genetic group and PIT1 genotype for W240, AGBW and AGW12 were observed (P O uso de marcadores genéticos pode favorecer a identificação de animais geneticamente superiores em bovino de corte. O gene PIT1 codifica para o fator de transcrição Pit-1, crítico para ativar a expressão dos genes da prolactina, hormônio de crescimento e PIT1. Esta pesquisa investiga o efeito do polimorfismo HinfI-PIT1 sobre características de crescimento em 509 animais da raça Canchim, pertencentes à duas linhagens, GG1 e GG2. Os genótipos do gene PIT1 foram identificados pela técnica PCR-RFLP. Os efeitos dos genótipos sobre valores fenotípicos para pesos ao nascimento (PN, pesos padronizados à desmama (P240 e ao ano (P365, ganhos médios diários de peso do nascimento à desmama (GMND, e da desmama aos 12 meses de idade (GMD12 foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos. Foram observados efeitos de interação entre grupo genético do animal e genótipo de PIT1 sobre P240, GMND e GMD12 (P < 0.05. Diferenças entre médias dos genótipos HinfI (-/-, HinfI (+/+ e HinfI (+/- para P240 e GMND foram observadas em GG2 (P < 0,05, revelando superioridade do genótipo HinfI (-/-. As médias dos gen

  18. Photocarrier dynamics near V-shaped pits in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Taeho; Li, Xiang-Shu; Ko, Dong-Su; Won, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Seong-Heon [Analytical Science Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Joosung; Tak, Youngjo; Kim, Jun-Youn [GaN Device Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gyeong-Su [Analytical Science Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunha, E-mail: eunhayo.lee@samsung.com [Analytical Science Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-03

    Highlights: • Correlations between carrier dynamics and structural defects of InGaN MQWs exist. • PL intensity is much weaker in the V-shaped pits than in the regular c-plane. • Blue-shifted photoluminescence spectrum is not observed at the V-pits. • A kinetic model including carriers recombination and diffusion is presented. • The model estimates the nonradiative recombination time as 10 ps at the V-pits. - Abstract: Space- and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) has been employed to investigate correlations between the carrier dynamics and structural defects known as V-shaped pits in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The pits exhibit much lower PL intensity compared to MQWs of the normal c-plane indicating a high density of nonradiative recombination centers in the pits. However, the PL peak wavelength, which is expected to experience a blueshift at the pits due to the stronger confinement effect and reduced quantum-confined Stark effect, do not show any spatial dependence that is correlated with the defects. This is ascribed to dominant ultrafast (<10 ps) nonradiative recombination at the pits and additional diffusion into the c-plane leading to radiative recombination. By contrast, weak but clear correlations between the pits and PL decay time were observed on nanosecond timescales. This can be explained by a kinetic model that includes the nonradiative recombination and diffusion of carriers at the pits.

  19. Improved micro-distribution of antibody-photon absorber conjugates after initial near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Tadanobu; Nakamura, Yuko; Sato, Kazuhide; Harada, Toshiko; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-06-28

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a targeted cancer therapy which uses an antibody-photo absorber conjugate (APC) and near infrared light exposure, dramatically improves nano-drug delivery into treated tumor beds due to enhanced vascular permeability. We investigated the micro-distribution of APCs in a variety of NIR-PIT treated tumors. Either cetuximab (cet) or trastuzumab (tra) conjugated with IR700 (cet-tra-IR700) was administered, as appropriate, to each mouse model of tumor. Tumor-bearing mice implanted with A431-GFP, MDAMB468-GFP, 3T3Her2-GFP or N87-GFP were separated into 5 groups: group 1=no treatment; group 2=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., no light exposure; group 3=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure; group 4=cet-tra-IR700 i.v. and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. at 24h but no light exposure; group 5=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. immediately after NIR but no additional NIR light exposure. In vivo, ex vivo and microscopic fluorescence imaging was performed. Fluorescence from the surface of the tumor (s-tumor) was compared to fluorescence from deeper areas of the tumor (d-tumor). In general, there was no significant difference in the fluorescence intensity of GFP in the tumors among all groups, however the highest IR700 fluorescence intensity was consistently shown in group 5 tumors due to added APC after NIR-PIT. Fluorescence microscopy in all tumor types demonstrated that GFP relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) in s-tumor was significantly lower in group 3 and 5 (NIR-PIT groups) than in group 1, 2, and 4 (no NIR-PIT) yet there was no significant difference in d-tumor RFI among all groups. IR700 fluorescent RFI in the d-tumor was highest in group 5 (NIR-PIT+additional APC) compared to the other groups. Cell killing after NIR-PIT was primarily on the surface, however, APCs administered immediately after NIR-PIT penetrated deeper into tissue resulting in improved cell killing after a 2nd NIR-PIT session. This

  20. Ecological succession and its impact on malaria vectors and their predators in borrow pits in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiszewski, Anthony E; Teffera, Zelalem; Wondafrash, Melaku; Ravesi, Michael; Pollack, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Soil pits excavated for home construction are important larval habitats for malaria vectors in certain parts of Africa. Borrow pits in diverse stages of ecological succession in a maize-farming region of Western Ethiopia were surveyed to assess the relationships between stage of succession and the structure and composition of invertebrate and plant communities, with particular attention to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. coustani, the primary local malaria vectors. An array of 82 borrow pits was identified in a multi-lobed drainage basin in the community of Woktola. Each pit was evaluated on its physical features and by faunal and floral surveys during August, 2011, at the height of the longer rainy season (kiremt). Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. coustani were the sole immature anophelines collected, often coexisting with Culex spp. Sedges were the most common plants within these pits, and included Cyperus elegantulus, C. flavescens, C. erectus and C. assimilis. The legume Smithia abyssinica, Nile grass (Acroceras macrum), cutgrass (Leersia hexandra), clover (Trifolium spp.), and the edible herb Centella asiatica, were also common in these habitats. No plant species in particular was strongly and consistently predictive of the presence or absence of mosquito immatures, particularly with regard to An. coustani. The presence of An.gambiae s.l. immatures in borrow pit habitats was negatively correlated with the presence of backswimmers (Notonectidae) (Z = -2.34, P = 0.019). Young (freshly excavated) borrow pits more likely contained immature An. gambiae s.l. (Z =-2.86, P=0.004). Ecological succession was apparent in older pits, and as they aged, they became less likely to serve as habitats for An. gambiae s.l. (Z=0.26, P=0.796), and more likely to support An. coustani (Z=0.728, P=0.007). As borrow pits age they become less suitable for An. gambiae s.l. breeding and more likely to harbor An. coustani. The abundance of notonectids in habitats was a negative indicator for

  1. Influence of thymol and a urease inhibitor on coliform bacteria, odor, urea, and methane from a swine production manure pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, Vincent H; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens, ammonia, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions are serious environmental concerns associated with swine production. This study was conducted in two manure pits (33,000 L each) to determine the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 g thymol L(-1) and 80 mg L(-1) urease inhibitor amendments on urea accumulation, coliform bacteria, odor, and methane emission. Each experiment lasted 18 or 19 d, during which time 30 to 36 250-mL samples (six per day) were withdrawn from underneath each pit and analyzed for urea, thymol, volatile fatty acids, coliform bacteria, and Campylobacter. At the end of each experiment, six 50-g samples from each pit were placed in serum bottles, and gas volume and composition were determined periodically for 28 d. Compared with the control pit, volatile fatty acids production was reduced 64 and 100% for the thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. Viable coliform cells were reduced 4.68 and 5.88 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry for the 1.5 and 3.0 g thymol L(-1), respectively, and Escherichia coli were reduced 4.67 and 5.01 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry, respectively. Campylobacter was not detected in the pits treated with thymol, in contrast to 63% of the samples being positive for the untreated pit. Urea accumulated in the treated pits from Day 3 to 6. Total gas production from serum bottles was reduced 65 and 76% for thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively, and methane was reduced 78 and 93%, respectively. These results suggest that thymol markedly reduces pathogens, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions from a swine production facility. The urease inhibitor produced a temporary response in conserving urea.

  2. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of Veterans Women Veterans Determine Costs Copays ... Vets Performance Based Interviewing Clinical Trainees (Academic Affiliations) Employees & Contractors Talent Management System (TMS) VA Learning University ( ...

  3. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  4. Characterisation of Crevice and Pit Solution Chemistries Using Capillary Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J.K. Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict structural degradation in-service is often limited by a lack of understanding of the evolving chemical species occurring within a range of different microenvironments associated with corrosion sites. Capillary electrophoresis (CE is capable of analysing nanolitre solution volumes with widely disparate concentrations of ionic species, thereby producing accurate and reliable results for the analysis of the chemical compositions found within microenvironment corrosion solutions, such as those found at crevice and pit corrosion sites. In this study, CE with contactless conductivity detection (CCD has been used to characterize pitting and crevice corrosion solution chemistries for the first time. By using the capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (CE-CCD system, direct and simultaneous detection of seven metal cations (Cu2+, Ni2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, and Al3+ and chloride anions was achieved with a buffer solution of 10 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and 0.5 mM cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide at pH 4 using a pre-column complexation method. The detection limits obtained for the metal cations and chloride anions were 100 and 10 ppb, respectively. The CE-CCD methodology has been demonstrated to be a versatile technique capable of speciation and quantifying the ionic species generated within artificial pit (a pencil electrode and crevice corrosion geometries for carbon steels and nickel-aluminium bronze, thus allowing the evolution of the solution chemistry to be assessed with time and the identification of the key corrosion analyte targets for structural health monitoring.

  5. The highly successful safe remediation of the Fernald waste pits undertaken under the privatization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Mark; Lojek, Dave; Murphy, Con

    2003-02-23

    Remediation of eight waste pits at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, involves excavating approximately one million tonnes in-situ of low-level waste which were placed in pits during Fernald's production era. This unique project, one of the largest in the history of CERCLA/Superfund, includes uranium and thorium contaminated waste, soils and sludges. These wet soils and sludges are thermally dried in a processing facility to meet Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation and disposal facility waste acceptance criteria, loaded into railcars and shipped to the Envirocare waste disposal facility at Clive, Utah. This project is now approximately 60% complete with more than 415,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) of waste material safely shipped in 74 unit trains to Envirocare. Work is scheduled to be completed in early 2005. Success to date demonstrates that a major DOE site remediation project can be safely and successfully executed in partnership with private industry, utilizing proven commercial best practices, existing site labor resources and support of local stakeholders. In 1997 under the DOE's privatization initiative, Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald) solicited the services of the remediation industry to design, engineer, procure, construct, own and operate a facility that would undertake the remediation of the waste pits. The resulting procurement was awarded to IT Corporation, currently Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw). The contractor was required to finance the procurement and construction of its facilities and infrastructure. The contract was performance-based and payment would be made on the successful loadout of the waste from the facility on a per-ton basis meeting the Envirocare waste acceptance criteria. This paper details the performance to date, the challenges encountered, and the seamless partnering between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fluor Fernald

  6. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  7. Hydraulic performance improvement of the bidirectional pit pump installation based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    At present, the efficiency of bidirectional pit pump installation with lift under 2m is still low because of lack of research on it in the past. In the paper, the CFD numerical method and experimental test were applied to study flow characteristic of bidirectional pit pump installation under positive and reverse condition. Through changing airfoil type and position of blade and stay vane, the comprehensive performance of improved model were obtained by calculating many different models. The results showed that when improved model is obtained with type A runner with 4 blades that is 0.7D away from pit exit and unsymmetrical guide vane 0.25dh which away from the impeller outlet, and the flow pattern of the improved solution is steady with high efficiency. Compared with the original scheme, the efficiency of positive and reverse design condition reach to 67.23% and 58.32% respectively, which is increased 6% more than original model on the design condition and 5% on the optimum operating condition, and it achieved the purpose of improvement. According to the runner blade angle of the optimization solution, model synthetic characteristic curve was drawn and internal flow field characteristics was analyzed under optimal positive and reverse conditions. The numerical calculation shows that owing to the lack of stay vane to recycle the energy in outlet runner chamber, the water flow regime is not steady enough in the outlet passage, and that is the main reason for lower efficiency at reverse condition than that at positive condition.

  8. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  9. Supercondcuting properties in MgB2/Fe wires prepared by PIT method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guo; FENG Yong; FU Baoquan; LIU Chunfang; JI Ping; ZHANG Pingxiang; ZHOU Lian

    2003-01-01

    The MgB2 formation was analyzed physically and chemically and the MgB2/Fe wires were fabricated by powder in tube (PIT) technology. The microstructureof MgB2 in wires was studied by the scanning electrical microscope (SEM), whichshows a good connection of grains and the size of MgB2 grain is 1-3μm. The results of Jc measured by the standard four probes method show that Jc value reaches 6.1×104 A/cm2 at 20 K in self field.

  10. Metagenomic investigation of the microbial diversity in a chrysotile asbestos mine pit pond, Lowell, Vermont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Driscoll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on a metagenomics investigation of the microbial diversity in a serpentine-hosted aquatic habitat created by chrysotile asbestos mining activity at the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG Mine in northern Vermont, USA. The now-abandoned VAG Mine on Belvidere Mountain in the towns of Eden and Lowell includes three open-pit quarries, a flooded pit, mill buildings, roads, and >26 million metric tons of eroding mine waste that contribute alkaline mine drainage to the surrounding watershed. Metagenomes and water chemistry originated from aquatic samples taken at three depths (0.5 m, 3.5 m, and 25 m along the water column at three distinct, offshore sites within the mine's flooded pit (near 44°46′00.7673″, −72°31′36.2699″; UTM NAD 83 Zone 18 T 0695720 E, 4960030 N. Whole metagenome shotgun Illumina paired-end sequences were quality trimmed and analyzed based on a translated nucleotide search of NCBI-NR protein database and lowest common ancestor taxonomic assignments. Our results show strata within the pit pond water column can be distinguished by taxonomic composition and distribution, pH, temperature, conductivity, light intensity, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen. At the phylum level, metagenomes from 0.5 m and 3.5 m contained a similar distribution of taxa and were dominated by Actinobacteria (46% and 53% of reads, respectively, Proteobacteria (45% and 38%, respectively, and Bacteroidetes (7% in both. The metagenomes from 25 m showed a greater diversity of phyla and a different distribution of reads than the two upper strata: Proteobacteria (60%, Actinobacteria (18%, Planctomycetes, (10%, Bacteroidetes (5% and Cyanobacteria (2.5%, Armatimonadetes (<1%, Verrucomicrobia (<1%, Firmicutes (<1%, and Nitrospirae (<1%. Raw metagenome sequence data from each sample reside in NCBI's Short Read Archive (SRA ID: SRP056095 and are accessible through NCBI BioProject PRJNA277916.

  11. STS-35 Pilot Gardner during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner extinguishes a small blaze during a fire handling training session for crewmembers at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing a navy blue flight suit, Gardner approaches fire while operating a fire extinguisher as Commander Vance D. Brand (far right) and Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance look on. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  12. Polypropylene/olive pit & almond shell polymer composites: wear and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, M.

    2017-05-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are made from wood and annual plant fiber or flours, mixing with plastics materials. WPC provide better properties than resources that form it. This renewable material has many utilization areas because of outstanding properties such as enhanced strength, stiffness, creep, physical and mechanical properties and dimension stability. In the present work, series of filled Polypropylene (PP) composites with olive pit and almond shell flour loading (between 0-40 wt %) were prepared, to study the effect of the filler content on the mechanical, wear and friction properties of polypropylene polymer composites.

  13. Feasibility Study for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (KBPOP) is one of four BPOP areas at Savannah River Site (SRS), collectively referred to as the BPOP waste unit group. This Feasibility Study (FS) of Remedial Alternatives serves as the lead FS for the BPOP waste unit group. This section identifies the purpose and scope of the FS and presents site background information summarized from the Final Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment (RI/BRA) WSRC-RP- 95-1555, Rev. 1.2 (WSRC 1997).

  14. STS-35 crewmembers during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 crewmembers extinguish a small blaze during a fire handling training session at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing navy blue flight suits, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker (second right) and MS John M. Lounge (third left) approach fire while operating a fire extinguishers. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. Also pictured are (left to right) Commander Vance D. Brand, Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, and training officer Al Putnam. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  15. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    . In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...... less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential...

  16. A statistical study of equipment operating time in an open pit lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xerokostas, D.; Polyzos, P.; Galitis, N.; Michiotis, A.; Dalakas, G. (National Technical University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The production planning of an open pit lignite mine, as of any mining operation in general, is influenced by a series of factors. Of great importance among these factors is the operating time of the equipment used in the production process. In this paper the authors use applied statistical methods (specially comparison tests) to study the net operating time of some excavation branches of the Ptolemais lignite mining district in Greece. Thus, it is hoped that the paper will contribute to estimating and predicting equipment performance in a more accurate way. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Influence of Trash-Barriering on Operation of Pumping Station with Wet-Pits

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Baoyun; He, Shuquan; Chu, Shiji; Feng, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Trash racks are set before inlet sumps of a pumping station with wet-pits in order to block trash. The flow fields before and behind the trash rack were numerically simulated and flow fields in the inlet sump were calculated using the simulated velocity distribution of the section behind the trash rack as the inlet boundary condition. Local head loss of trash-barriering increases with the increase of blockage ratio of the trash rack. When waterweeds block upper part of the trash rack, flow pa...

  18. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jull, A.J.T. E-mail: jull@email.arizona.edu; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O' Malley, J.M.; MacPhee, R.D.E.; McDonald, H.G.; Martin, P.S.; Moody, J.; Rincon, A

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 {+-} 280 to 11 880 {+-} 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  19. Radiocarbon dating of extinct fauna in the Americas recovered from tar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M.; O'Malley, J. M.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDonald, H. G.; Martin, P. S.; Moody, J.; Rincón, A.

    2004-08-01

    We have obtained radiocarbon dates by accelerator mass spectrometry on bones of extinct large mammals from tar pits. Results on some samples of Glyptodon and Holmesina (extinct large mammals similar to armadillos) yielded ages of >25 and >21 ka, respectively. We also studied the radiocarbon ages of three different samples of bones from the extinct Cuban ground sloth, Parocnus bownii, which yielded dates ranging from 4960 ± 280 to 11 880 ± 420 yr BP. In order to remove the tar component pretreat the samples sufficiently to obtain reliable dates, we cleaned the samples by Soxhlet extraction in benzene. Resulting samples of collagenous material were often small.

  20. Pitting corrosion of A357 aluminium alloy obtained by semisolid processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidas, J.M.; Polo, J.L.; Torres, C.L. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Forn, A.; Baile, M.T. [Polytechnic Univ. of Catalonia, Vilanova i la Geltru (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    This paper studies the pitting corrosion of a structural component of A357 aluminium alloy obtained by a semisolid metal forming process. The mechanical properties of the A357 alloy were improved by applying standard heat treatments T5 and T6. Impedance measurements were conducted at the rest potential and polarisation curves were plotted using a 3% NaCl test solution. After polarisation experiments the specimens were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion process is favoured through the eutectic regions. The results show that T6 heat treatment improved the corrosion resistance of the A357 aluminium alloy. (orig.)