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Sample records for pithecellobium flexicaule benth

  1. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

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    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  2. Physical properties of ebony seed (Pithecellobium flexicaule) and functional properties of whole and defatted ebony seed meal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A partial characterization was done of ebony (Pithecellobium flexicaule) seed physical properties, and how defatting affected some functional properties of ebony seed meal. Average seed dimensions were 13.02 mm length, 8.78 mm width and 9.65 mm thickness. Geometric diameter was 10.76 mm, volume was 530 mm3, surface area was 364.33 mm2, sphericity was 83.26 % and aspect ratio was 68.24 %. Thousand-seed weight was 0.70 Kg, of which 0.42 Kg (60 %) represented the kernel. Defatted ebony seed meal...

  3. Perbedaan Percepatan Penyembuhan Luka Bakar dari Ekstrak Kulit Buah Jengkol (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin

    2011-01-01

    Dog fruit (Pithecellobium lobatum Benth.) is one of the herbs are efficacious. Rind dog fruit including waste in traditional markets and provide less economic value. Leaf dog fruit efficacious as eczema, scabies, sores and ulcers medicine, the bark as lowering blood sugar and rind can be used as a skin ulcer medication, insect repellent, burn. One of the chemical compounds from dog fruit rind is tannin. Serves as an astringent tannins that cause shrinkage pores of the skin, ...

  4. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  5. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Govindarajan Marimuthu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions. Results: The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC 50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce. Conclusions: From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

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    Dnyaneshwar Madhukar Nagmoti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to asses and characterizes the inhibitory action of methanolic extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce seeds on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes as well as to characterize compounds responsible for these activities. The methanolic extract was assessed for total phenolic, flavanoid and triterpenoids content by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 and Vaniline-perchloric acid assay, respectively. The methanolic extract was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA reagent, respectively. The IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against maltase and sucrase enzymes was found to be 10.32±1.52 and 2.84±0.96 mg/ml respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values of methanolic extract of P. dulce against pancreatic α-amylase was found to be 16.75±1.81 mg/ml. The kinetics of glucosidase enzyme was determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and it was found to be non competitive in nature. Reversed phase HPLC analysis revealed oleanolic acid as the main triterpenoid constituent in the extract compared with standard oleanolic acid. Therefore, the enzyme inhibitory activity of P. dulce methanolic extract may be endorsed to the presence of oleanolic acid triterpenoid, thus justifying its traditional use in the management of diabetes.

  7. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. (Fabaceae against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae

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    M Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  8. Effect of Pithecellobium jiringa as antimicrobial agent

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    Ruzilawati Abu Bakar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pithecellobium jiringa is Malay traditional local delicacy. There is no local data on antimicrobial nature of P. jiringa is available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of P. jiringa. Leaves, pods and seeds of P. jiringa were extracted using methanol. Ten test microorganisms were used in the study. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, while the liquid dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. Chloramphenicol was used as a reference standard. The results revealed that all extracts of P. jiringa showed the antimicrobial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. Amongst the active extracts, the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC determination showed that the extract of P. jiringa leaf was the most active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and M. gypsum (100 mg/mL. The results provided evidence that the studied plants extract might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.

  9. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindarajan Marimuthu; Rajeswary Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant, Pithecellobiumdulce (P. dulce) against filariasis vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO (2005). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The ovicidal activity was determined against Cx.quinquefasciatus mosquito eggs to various concentrations ranging from 100-750 mg/L under the laboratory conditions.Results:The methanol extract of the leaves and seed of P. dulce was the most effective against the larvae with LC50 and LC90 values 164.12 mg/L, 214.29 mg/L, 289.34 mg/L and 410.18 mg/L being observed after 24 h of exposure. The efficacy of methanol was followed by that of the ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene and hexane extracts. The mean percent hatchability of the egg rafts were observed after 48 h of treatment. About 100% mortality was observed at 500 mg/L for leaf and 750 mg/L for seed methanol extracts of P. dulce.Conclusions:From the results, it can be concluded that the larvicidal and ovicidal effect of P. dulce against Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.

  10. Screening of natural polysaccharides extracted from the fruits of Pithecellobium dulce as a pharmaceutical adjuvant.

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    S, Preethi; A, Mary Saral

    2016-11-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from the dried fruiting bodies of Pithecellobium dulce with 20% ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction. The polysaccharides were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and afford three water-soluble polysaccharides PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3. These isolated compounds were subjected to acid hydrolysis, methylation, IR and GC-MS for its compositional analysis and revealed that all the three fractions are heteropolysaccharides. PDP-1 was found to be composed of xylose, mannose, galactose and Rhamnose. PDP-2 and PDP-3 composed of xylose, Rhamnose, glucose, ribose, galactose, and mannose. The micromeretic properties of the extracted polysaccharides possessed a bulk density of 0.69g/ml, 0.65g/ml and 0.71g/ml for PDP-1, PDP-2, and PDP-3 respectively. The Hausner's ratio and Carr's index confirm the good flow property and compressibility of the polysaccharides. The polysaccharides extracted from Pithecellobium dulce fruits were tested for its application as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. The in vitro drug release study suggests that the extracted polysaccharides are potential candidates as a pharmaceutical adjuvant. Furthermore, the three isolated polysaccharides were subjected to its radical scavenging activity using DPPH, phospho molybdenum assay and reducing power assay. The results exhibited that the polysaccharides can be explored as a novel natural antioxidant and can be recommended as a functional food.

  11. Triterpenos de Hyptis fasciculata Benth.

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    D.Q. Falcão

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Partes aéreas do arbusto Hyptis fasciculata Benth. foram estudadas do ponto de vista químico. Após vários processos cromatográficos em coluna de gel de sílica, foi possível isolar um triterpeno livre (ácido betulínico, além de triterpenos em mistura (ácido ursólico com ácido betulínico e ácido ursólico com ácido oleanólico, esteróides em mistura (sitosterol e estigmasterol e misturas de estigmasterol com ácido caféico e sitosterol com lignana. Tais substâncias foram identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H e 13C.The species Hyptis fasciculata Benth. is a shrub that is still unknown by the chemical point of view. This species has been studied in our group using their aerial parts. After many cromatographic processes over silica gel column, it was possible to isolate free triterpene (betulinic acid and triterpenes in mixture (ursolic acid with betulinic acid and ursolic acid with oleanolic acid, one steroid mixture (sitosterol and stigmasterol and a mixture of steroid with cafeic acid (stigmasterol and cafeic acid and with lignan (sitosterol and sesamin. These compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic ressonance 1H and 13C.

  12. Indeks Pertumbuhan Larva Aedes aegypti L yang Terdedah Dalam Ekstrak Air Kulit Jengkol (Pithecellobium lobatum

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    Firda Yanuar Pradani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue fever (DBD vector generally use the synthetic insecticides, however it’s utilization had negative effect to the environment. Jengkol (Pithecellobium lobatum was one of the plants which could be used as larvacide alternative because it had phenolate acid, alkaloid, terpenoid and saponin in its rind. This research was conducted to know the growth index of Aedes aegypti larvae which was soaked in the extract of P. lobatum rind. This experiment used P. lobatum rind ekstract at concentration 36%, 18%, 9% and 0% . The data were analyzed by using Zhang et.al methode (1993. The P. lobatum rind extract were toxic to larvae especially in first and second instar at concentration 17,94% respectively. Relativelly growth index range from 0,817-1, it is mean that some larvae were stuned, and some were growth into the next phase.

  13. Ionic Liquid-Based Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth.

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    Wei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids (IL-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min. The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth. Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  14. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

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    Janet P.-C. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5, gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A. Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s, working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase.

  15. Anatomia da madeira de Mimosa eriocarpa Benth.

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    Celso Carnieletto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos da madeira de Mimosa eriocarpa Benth. e fornecidos 31 dados quantitativos de sua estrutura xilemática. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias tomadas nos três planos anatômicos. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins, em uma análise de caráter taxonômico-filogenética.

  16. Chemical Constituents of Phacellaria compressa Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new compounds, 1-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane (1) and 5, 7,3'-trimethyoxyflavan-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Phacellaria compressa Benth., together with 2,3-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-methyl]-1,4-butanediol (3), ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (4), methyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate (5), β-sitosterol (6), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavan (7), lupeol (8), zhebeiresinol (9), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (10), (+)-catechin (11),betulin (12), β-daucosterol (13), (+)-syringaresinol (14), scopoletin (15), and proximadiol (16). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectral evidence or by comparing them with authentic samples.Compound 9 showed α-amylase inhibitory activity of 57.55% at a concentration of 50 μg/mL.

  17. Mosquito repellent potential ofPithecellobium dulce leaf and seed against malaria vectorAnopheles stephensi (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract ofPithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi). Methods:Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cmí30 cmí25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to theWHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts ofP. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract ofP. dulceprovided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts ofP. dulceexhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquitoAn. stephensi.

  18. Extracción y Caracterización fisicoquímica del pigmento colorido presente en la madera del guamúchil (Pithecellobium dulce).

    OpenAIRE

    Resendiz Villagómez, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue extraer por métodos químicos y microbiológicos, el colorante presente en la madera del Guamúchil (Pithecellobium dulce) y caracterizar dicho pigmento para determinar su uso potencial como colorante natural en alimentos. Para ello, inicialmente se determinaron la solubilidad del pigmento en diferentes solventes y después se determinaron las condiciones óptimas para la extracción química del pigmento por extracción a reflujo (tipo de solvente, relación mader...

  19. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

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    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  20. Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nepeta floccosa Benth.

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    Liaqat Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the substances which significantly delay or prevent the development of age-related degenerative and chronic diseases caused by oxidative damage. Due to this, there is a considerable interest in the identification of lead molecules, which can inhibit the oxidation process or slow it down considerably. Based on the spectrofluorimetric analysis of superoxide and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, the bio-assay guided isolation of methanolic extract of Nepeta floccosa Benth. was carried out. As a result of this study, one new flavanonol named nepetavanol (1 and four known flavonoids; dihydrokaempferol (2, naringenin (3, caulesnarinside (4, and poncirin (5 have been isolated. The structure of the new flavanonol was assigned on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and FABMS, EIMS, HR-MS data. Compound 1 , 2, and 3 showed significant activity whereas compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate activity against antioxidant assays.

  1. [Banana tree pests attacking Heliconia latispatha Benth. (Heliconiaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2005, the caterpillars Antichloris eriphia (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Calligo illioneus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) which are banana tree pests, were found attacking six-month old stalks of Heliconia latispatha Benth., planted near a banana tree plantation in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil. The attack by C. illioneus is observed by the first time in Brazil.

  2. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  3. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  4. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  5. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  6. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

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    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  7. Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua LIU; Jing-Quan YUAN; Mao-Rong SUO; Jun-Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive constituents from traditional Chinese medicines, a new steroidal saponin, named vernonioside G (1), was isolated from the roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth. (Compositae).The structure of vernonioside G was elucidated using spectral methods, particularly two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, eight known compounds were also isolated and identified from the roots of V. cumingiana, among which, VE-1 (2) and 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3β-ol acetate (3) were assigned NMR data for the first time and compound 3 was obtained as a natural product from a plant for the first time.

  8. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE AMOUNT OF FLAVONOIDS IN THE HERB OF SALVIA FARINACEA BENTH.

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    O. I. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic researches conducted have allowed determination of the flavonoids presence in raw materials of Salvia farinacea Benth. They were rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and 5 phenol carbonic acids: caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, and cinnamic acids. The quantitative content of the sum of flavonoids in Salvia farinacea Benth. was conducted by the method of differential spectrophotometry, and it amounted to 0.55-0.60% in terms of rutin. The research conducted made it possible to expand the scientific data of phenolic compounds of Salvia farinacea Benth. and to offer the possibility of recycling, monitoring procurement and targeted use of Salvia farinacea Benth. herb in pharmacy and medicine.

  9. The influence of a 21 kDa Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from nonhost madras thorn, Pithecellobium dulce, seeds on H. armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prabhash K; Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh

    2015-05-01

    A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10(-8) M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose-dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of H. armigera.

  10. Effects of supplementing rice straw with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliages on digestibility, microbial N supply and nitrogen balance of growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paengkoum, P; Paengkoum, S

    2010-10-01

    A total of 12 crossbred (Boer × Anglo-Nubian) goats were chosen from a commercial farm on the basis of similar body weight (25.0 ± 3.1 kg). The goats were housed in individual pens and allowed 3 weeks to adapt to experimental conditions. The goats were randomly allocated to three treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment (replicated four times). Within each period, each goat was given rice straw as roughage plus the respective treatment diet. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic containing cassava pulp, molasses, urea and commercial mineral and vitamin mix. The experimental treatments were (i) soybean meal (SBM), (ii) partial substitution of SBM with Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) foliage and (iii) partial substitution of SBM with Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) foliage. Nutrient intakes, ruminal characteristics (pH, ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids), nitrogen balances, plasma urea nitrogen and microbial N supply were not significantly different among treatments. The results of this study indicate that protein foliages from locally grown shrubs and trees can substitute imported feedstuff concentrates (e.g. SBM) as protein supplement for goat production.

  11. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  12. Biometria de frutos e sementes e germinação de Plathymenia reticulata benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae Biometry of fruits and seeds and germination of Plathymenia reticulata benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa benth. (Fabaceae - mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Melo Ferreira Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou comparar características biométricas de frutos e sementes e o efeito de diferentes escarificações, temperaturas e luz na germinação de Plathymenia reticulata Benth. e Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. Foram registrados comprimento, largura, espessura, massa da matéria seca e fresca de frutos (n = 100 e sementes (n = 100 de cada espécie. Os diferentes tratamentos foram escarificações mecânica e química e temperaturas (fotoperíodo/nictoperíodo de 20, 30 e 35/15 °C (12/12 e 0/24 e 25 e 35 °C (12/12. Os frutos de P. foliolosa mostraram-se mais largos, espessos e pesados e as sementes, mais compridas e espessas do que as de P. reticulata. As sementes de ambas as espécies não apresentaram fotoblastismo. A escarificação ácida não aumentou significativamente a germinabilidade das sementes em relação ao grupo-controle, enquanto a escarificação mecânica incrementou significativamente a germinabilidade apenas de P. foliolosa. As germinabilidades a 25 °C das sementes de P. reticulata intactas, escarificadas com ácido e lixa foram, respectivamente, de 55%, 60% e 89%. Para as sementes de P. foliolosa esses valores foram 48%, 37,5% e 83%, respectivamente.Esses resultados apontam limitações na germinação de P. foliolosa impostas pelo tegumento, entretanto o efeito deste restringindo a germinação das sementes intactas decresceu com a elevação da temperatura.This study aimed to compare the biometry of fruits and seeds, as well as the effect of different scarification, temperature and light conditions on the germination of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. and Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. We measured the length, width, thickness, and fresh mass of fruits (n= 100 and seeds (n= 100 of each specie. The different treatments were mechanic and acid scarification, temperatures (photoperiod/nictoperiod of 20, 30 and 35/15 °C (12/12 and 0/24 and 25 and 35 °C (12/12. P. foliolosa fruits were wider, thickener and heavier

  13. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

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    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  14. Pharmacological evaluation of antihypertensive effect of aerial parts of Thymus linearis benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Haroon-Ur-Rash; Karim, Sabeha; Rasool, Shahid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Khan, Kifayatullah; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally Thymus linearis Benth. have been used for treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Thymus linearis Benth. in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Acute and subchronic studies were also conducted. The aqueous methanolic extract produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP and heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. LDv, of the extract was found to be 3000 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a reduction in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels, while a significant increase in HDL level was observed. It is conceivable therefore, that Thymus linearis Benth. contains certain active compound(s) that are possibly responsible for the observed antihypertensive activity. Moreover, these findings further authenticate the traditional use of this plant in folklore medicine.

  15. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth. Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  16. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth

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    Saeidnia Soodabeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca. Results The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6, oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10. Conclusions In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, some of the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S. hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  17. Terpenes From the Root of Salvia Hypoleuca Benth

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    Ahmad R Gohari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:The genus Salvia, with nearly 900 species, is one of the largest members of Lamiaceae family. In the Flora of Iran, the genus Salvia is represented by 58 species of which 17 species are endemic. Salvia hypoleuca Benth., is one of these species growing wildly in northern and central parts of Iran. Salvia species are well known in folk medicine and widely used for therapeutic purposes. Literature review shows that there is no report on phytochemical investigation of the roots of S. hypoleuca.Results:The separation and purification process were carried out using various chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis of NMR and MS data, in comparison with those reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were identified as sitosteryl oleate (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3, manool (4, 7α-acetoxy royleanone (5, ursolic acid (6,oleanolic acid (7, 3-epicorosolic acid (8, 3-epimaslinic acid (9 and coleonolic acid (10.Conclusions:In the present study, three sterols, two diterpenes and five triterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of S. hypoleuca. As the chemotaxonomic significance, someof the isolated compounds (1–7, 9 have not been previously reported from the species S.hypoleuca, while the triterpenes 8 and 10 are now documented from Salvia genus for the first time.

  18. STUDIUL COMPLEX Al ULEIULUI VOLATIL DIN SPECIA PEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.

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    Maricica COLŢUN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare sunt prezentate rezultatele unui studiu vast privind biologia, compoziția chimică, fitochimia cantitativă și calitativă a uleiului volatil din specia Perovskia atriplicifolia, care se comportă ca plantă perenă, erbacee din familia Lamiaceae. În R. Moldova nu este cercetată ca plantă aromatică şi medicinală. Are o plasticitate ecologică mare, nu are cerinţe deosebite faţă de factorii climaterici. Se utilizează pentru proprietăţile sale febrifuge, în medicină – pentru scăderea febrei, deține proprietăți culinare dar şi decorative ori de purificare a aerului.THE COMPLEX STUDY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE SPECIESPEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.The paper presents the results of a vast study on the biology, chemical composition and qualitative phytochemistry of the essential oil of the species Perovskia atriplicifolia, which behaves like a perennial, herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae family. In theRepublic ofMoldova, it has not been investigated as an aromatic and medicinal plant. It has a high ecological plasticity and no special requirements to climatic factors. It has febrifuge properties and is used in medicine to reduce fever. Besides, this plant is used for culinary, ornamental purposes and for air purification.

  19. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  20. New adduct of abietane-type diterpene from Salvia leriifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad; Adhikari, Achyut; Iqbal Choudhary, M; Ayatollahi, Syed Abdulmajid; Atta-Ur-Rahman

    2016-07-01

    A new adduct of abietane-type diterpene, salvialeriicone (1), was isolated from Salvia leriifolia Benth., along with a new chemical entity nor-abietane diterpene, 2-isopropyl-8,8-dimethyl-7,8-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4,5(6H)-trione (2). Their structures were determined using mass spectrometry, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Cultivos celulares de Choibá Dipteryx oleifera Benth

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    Paola Andrea Murillo Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Cell cultures of Choiba Dipteryx oleifera BenthTítulo corto: Cultivos celulares de ChoibáResumen: Choibá (Dipteryx oleifera Benth es un árbol de la familia Fabaceae (Papilionoideae, con una distribución geográfica reportada desde Nicaragua  hasta Colombia a una altura de hasta 1000 msnm. Crece en bosque húmedo, muy húmedo o premontano húmedo. Esta especie es considerada vulnerable debido a la sobreexplotación de su madera, ya que es un árbol altamente apetecido por esta y por sus frutos. Su almendra almacena una buena cantidad de aceites con potencial para la industria alimentaria, lo que podría resultar en una nueva fuente alimenticia, por lo cual el cultivo in vitro de vegetales con el propósito de producir compuestos de interés, marca un punto de partida para reducir el uso del suelo y lograr componentes bioactivos bajo condiciones controladas. En este trabajo, como una primera etapa experimental, se evaluó el crecimiento celular en suspensiones,  a partir de callo inducido en explantes de cotiledón; se ensayaron 6 tratamientos diferentes, la mitad de estos con MS como medio basal y la otra mitad con B5, cada uno de los dos grupos con un control y la combinación hormonal de 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de BAP o kinetina, suplementado con adenina, biotina, glutamina y ácido pantoténico y 30 g/L de sacarosa, bajo completa oscuridad. Se encontró que dos tratamientos con MS en combinación con 2.5 mg/L de 2,4-D y 1 mg/L de kinetina o BAP fueron los mejores.Palabras clave: Biomasa, choibá, cultivos celulares, Dipteryx oleifera.Abstract: Choibá (Dipteryx olifera is a tree of the Fabaceae family, with a geographical distribution reported from Nicaragua to Colombia, nearly 1.000 msnm in a tropical rain forest. This species is a highlydesiredtreefor its timber andfruits, thekernelstore alot ofimportant oilsfor the food industry, resulting in a new possible food source,so we are making in vitro cultivation

  2. Analysis of the Chemical Constituents of Volatile Oil from Leaves and Stems of Ancient Pithecellobium dulce by GC-MS%古牛蹄豆茎、叶挥发油成分GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰晶; 简蓝; 曾靖; 江智伟; 李超

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of volatile oils from leaves and stems of ancient Pithecellobium dulce, the analyzing sample was water vapor distillation, the volatile oils of leaves and steins were analyzed and determined by GC-MS. 36 peaks were isolated from the leaves by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 93.377% and only 2 peaks were isolated from the stems by gas chromatography, the amount of the identified compounds was account for 100.000%. The main chemical constituents are alkanes, heterocyclic, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons compounds,and types of volatile oils from leaves and stems differed largely.%利用水蒸气蒸馏法制备古树牛蹄豆(Pithecellobium dulce)待测样品,采用气质联用法分析牛蹄豆古树茎、叶中挥发油的化学成分.结果表明,从叶中分离出36个峰,占总化学成分种类的93.377%,从茎中分离出2个峰,占总化学成分种类的100.000%.古树牛蹄豆叶中挥发性油主要化学成分为烷烃、杂环、酯、芳香烃化合物,茎叶中挥发油物质种类相差很大.

  3. Hepatics alterations and genotoxic effects of Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA in diabetic rats Alterações hepáticas e efeitos genotóxicos do Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA em ratos diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of Croton cajucara Benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth extract during 5 and 20 days; diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth during 5 and 20 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg. Eight weeks later we measured glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and hepatic transaminases on blood. The bone marrow micronucleus assay was used to assess the genotoxic activity of Croton cajucara Benth. RESULTS: Treatment with aqueous extrat of Croton cajucara was able to significantly reduce levels of triglycerides in diabetic animals, however, did not modify significantly the levels of glucose and cholesterol in these animals. There was no significant elevation in liver transaminases in the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth, as there was no genotoxic effect of treatment in this model. Our results did not show a significant effect on glucose and cholesterol reduction, the treatment was able to significantly reduce triclycerides plasmatic level. There was no significant alterations on hepatic transferase in the animals from the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth. It was observed no genotoxic effect of the treatment in the model studied. CONCLUSION: In this study Croton cajucara bark extract showed absence of hepatotoxicity in this animal model and presented a hypolipidemic activity, and could be used to reverse dyslipidemia associated with diabetes and to prevent the cardiovascular complications that are very prevalent in diabetic

  4. Post-harvest Treatment of the Pogostemon cablin Benth Oil Yield

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Patchouli oil is one of the essential oils that are important in the perfume industry, cosmetics, and medicine. Patchouli oil is obtained from the distillation of the trunk, branches, and leaves of patchouli. One of the factors affecting the yield of patchouli oil is a post-harvest treatment. This study aims to determine the yield of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) oil from different processes in post-harvest management. There were two post-harvest treatments committed to patchouli leaves...

  5. DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco; Vilmar Luciano Mattei; Valderez Pontes Matos; Lúcia Helena de Moura Sena; Anna Gorett de Figueiredo Almeida Sales

    2011-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth. is an important native forest species coming from Cerrado and Caatinga due to its economical and ecological use, what justifies the existence of programs of seedling production. This paper aimed to study the efficient methodology to overcome dormancy in seeds and to evaluate, in natural nursery, the effects of distinct substrates and the fertilization on the initial growth of plants. The following treatments applied: T1 - control (seeds whithout scarification); T2 ¿...

  6. Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides with interesterification from Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuqiang; Yang, Zhuo; Jia, Qi; Dorje, Gaawe; Zhao, Zhili; Guo, Fujiang; Li, Yiming

    2013-10-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (1-2), along with seven known ones (3-9), were isolated from the whole plant of Scrophularia dentata Royle ex Benth. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 failed to separated, because they can easily transform into each other by acyl migrant reaction. In this paper, the interesterification mechanism was discussed firstly and the rule can be used in the similar structure elucidation in future.

  7. BIOLOGIA DA REPRODUÇÃO EM QUATRO ESPÉCIES DE Centrosema (DC. BENTH

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    Alice Battistin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com a finalidade de obter informações básicas sobre biologia floral das espécies: C. brasilianum (L. Benth., C. Virginianum (L Benth., C. shottii (Mill. K. Sch. e C. pascuorum (Mart. Benth., foram estudados comparativamente três parâmetros biológicos: número de óvulos por ovário, sementes por vagem que chegaram à maturidade e grãos de pólen viáveis. Os dados foram coletados no Campo Experimental do Instituto de Genética da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP e no Jardim Botânico do Departamento de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM - Santa Maria, RS. As diferenças ocorridas nos parâmetros analisados mostram, de uma certa forma, a individualidade comportamental de cada espécie, decorrente de uma sensibilidade e variabilidade específicas. Todas as espécies estudadas tiveram uma produção de óvulos férteis acima de 78% e pólen viável acima de 95%. que refletiu uma elevada porcentagem de sementes viáveis (com exceção de C. shottii e C. pascuorum - Santa Maria, RS, garantindo desta forma a perpetuação da espécie.

  8. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth Anatomy of the secondary xylem of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth., fornecidos dados quantitativos, determinações estereológicas e fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram encontrados raios muito finos, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes não septadas, pontoações ornamentadas e poros agrupados em cachos, com arranjo tendente a diagonal. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para a família Leguminosae e gênero Mimosa, em análise filogenética, taxonômica e ecológica.The wood anatomy of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth. is described. Photomicrographs as well as quantitative and stereological data of its minute structure were furnished. Very fine rays, paratracheal parenchyma, libriform and not septated fibres, vestured pits and pores in clusters, tending to a diagonal pattern, were found. The wood anatomy was checked with literature of the Leguminosae family and genus Mimosa, considering its phylogenetical, taxonomical and ecological aspects.

  9. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Efectos centrales de los constituyentes de Mimosa opthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,Leônia Maria; Nóbrega de Almeida, Reinaldo

    1997-01-01

    La fracción conteniendo los alcaloides totales (FTA) obtenidos de Mimosa opthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. en dosis de 50 y 100 mg/kg por vía intraperitoneal (v. ip.) y N, N- Dimetiltriptamina (DMT) en dosis de 32,64 y 128 mg/kg (v. ip.) produjo, en ratones, el "síndrome serotonérgico". En el caso de hordenina, el otro compuesto obtenido de M. Opthalmocentra, no mostró diferencias significativas en relación a los animales del grupo utilizado como control. En los ratones tratados con quetanserina...

  11. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, J. M.; D. A. Rodríguez-Trejo; E. Guizar-Nolazco; R. Bonilla-Beas

    2008-01-01

    Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control), régi...

  12. Two New Koumine-Type Indole Alkaloids from Gelsemium elegans Benth.

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    Huanhuan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new indole alkaloids, 21-oxokoumine (1 and furanokoumine (2, were isolated from the roots of Gelsemium elegans Benth together with three known compounds. The structures of the two novel compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including NMR, HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, CD and molecular modeling. Compound 1 is the first instance of a koumine-type alkaloid with a carbonyl at the C-21 position, while compound 2 possesses a tetrahydrofuran ring located on C-20 and C-21.

  13. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  14. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological...

  15. Antioxidant activity of A New Flavone Glycoside from the seeds of Albizzia Odoratissima Benth.

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    Prakrati Yadav

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new compound (A  3,5,7,3¢-tetrahydroxy-4¢-methoxyflavone-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl (1®2O-β-D-glucopyranoside alongwith with  two known compounds Luteolin (B and  Acacetin  (C were isolated from methanolic extracts of the defatted seeds of Albizzia Odoratissima Benth. The structure of a new compound was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, colour reactions and chemical degradations. Compound A exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay system.  

  16. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

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    Vladimir Morocho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  18. Vascular Reactivity Concerning Orthosiphon stamineus Benth-Mediated Antihypertensive in Aortic Rings of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Nurul Maizan Manshor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthosiphon stamineus Benth has been traditionally used to treat hypertension. The study aimed to investigate the vascular reactivity of water extract (WOS and water : methanolic (1 : 1 extract (WMOS of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and AT1 receptors blocker in the mechanisms of antihypertensive mediated by α1-adrenergic receptor and EDNO and PGI2 releases in the SHR aortic rings. SHR (230–280 g were divided into four groups: control, WOS, WMOS, and losartan. After being fed orally for 14 days, the aorta was harvested and subjected to PE (10−9 to 10−5 M and ACh (10−9 to 10−5 M with and without L-NAME (100 µM and indomethacin (10 µM, respectively. WOS, WMOS, and losartan significantly reduced the contractile responses to PE intact suggesting the importance of endothelium in vasorelaxation. Losartan significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. L-NAME significantly inhibited the ACh-induced relaxation in all groups. Indomethacin enhanced ACh-induced vasorelaxation in WMOS. Collectively, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves extract reduced vasoconstriction responses by the alteration of α1-adrenergic and AT1 receptors activities. The involvement of EDNO releases was clearly observed in this plant. In WOS, PGI2 releases might not participate in the ACh-induced vasorelaxation. However, in WMOS, enhancement of vasorelaxation possibly due to continuous release of PGI2.

  19. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic

  20. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato

  1. Dormancy and Germination of Castilla Blackberry Seeds (Rubus glaucus Benth / Latencia y Germinación de Semillas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackberry, harvested during the dry and rainy seasons. The seeds were germinated under light and dark conditions. The highest germination counts were obtained with the dry-season-collected seeds incubated in darkness and with the rainy-season seeds incubated under light conditions. Differential germination responses were also independently determined by genotype, incubation conditions (light or darkness and collecting season. / Se categorizaron la latencia y la germinación ensemillas de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth, provenientes del Sistema de Bancos de Germoplasma para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de la Nación Colombiana. La prueba del tetrazolio demostró que las semillas tenían la capacidad para dar origen a una plántula normal; sin embargo, al contacto con el agua la imbibición fue restringida por la impermeabilidad de la testa, lo que se considera como una expresión de latencia exógena. Ésta pudo ser removida con la inmersión de las semillas durante 16 a 21 horas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%. El tratamiento fue aplicado a 10 accesiones de mora de Castila cosechadas en épocas seca y lluviosa; las semillas se germinaron bajo condiciones deluz y oscuridad, con una mayor germinación al incubar lasprovenientes de tiempo seco en condiciones de oscuridad y en aquellas de época lluviosa al ser germinadas con luz. También al aplicar el procedimiento de remoción de latencia exógena se observaron respuestas germinativas diferenciales

  2. Diterpene esters and phenolic compounds from Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Purusotam; Yahara, Shoji

    2009-11-01

    From the leaves of Sapium insigne (ROYLE) BENTH. ex HOOK. fil., two new phorbol derivatives, such as 16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (4) and 4beta-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol-16-acetate (5) along with twelve known phenolic compounds such as 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1,3-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3), rutin (6), 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (7), quercetin (8), guaijaverin (9), nicotiflorin (10), scopolin (11), methyl gallate (12), corilagin (13) and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14) were isolated. All of these compounds have been isolated for the first time from this plant.

  3. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

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    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  4. Peningkatan kadar patchouli alcohol pada minyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth dengan metode distilasi fraksinasi vakum

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    Rahma Isfaroiny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth oil depend on it patchouli alcohol value. At there time nilam farmers just has produced nilam oil with patchouli alcohol value about 26–28%. To increase this value, fractional vacuum distillation had been done in this study. Nilam oil has been isolated from drying leaf of nilam plant. Patchouli alcohol in this oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, next the oil was distillated by fractional vacuum and the patchouli alcohol was determined from each fraction. This study showed that fractional vacuum distillation of nilam oil gives a higher patchouli alcohol value. The increasing was 23.3387%; from 35.022% at nilam oil before fractination vacuum distillation to 58.3515% at the third fraction from fractional vacuum distillation. In fact, the fourth fraction had the highest patchouli alcohol, but it had dark colour so isn’t fill the standard quality.

  5. Anti-bacterial activity of the methanolic extract of leucas hyssopifolia (Benth.

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    Devendra Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Methanolic extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots was investigated for its anti-bacterial property. Aim: Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of Leucas hyssopifolia Benth. Settings and Design: Roots of the plant were collected, extracted and finally evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion method and microdilution technique were employed for the determination of zone of inhibition and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The extract showed anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains except Escherichia coli. Conclusions: Anti-bacterial activity of extract of Leucas hyssopifolia roots may be due to the presence of secondary plant metabolites like terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, which are present in the extract. The extract can be further studied for the isolation of chemical compounds and their biological activity.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  7. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  8. Nothoapiole and α -Asarone Rich Essential Oils from Himalayan Pleurospermum angelicoidesBenth

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    Chandra S. Mathela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurospermum angelicoides Benth. , a herb used in folk medicine, was collected from near Milam glacier of Uttarakhand. Different plant parts were investigated for their terpenoid compositions, antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Nothoapiole (5-allyl-4,6,7-trimethoxy-benzo[1,3] dioxide 1 was observed as a single major constituent (87.3% in the root essential oil while α -asarone was the major constituent of leaf and flower essential oils (23.2%, 20.7% respectively. Monoterpenes viz. limonene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene and perilla aldehyde were other constituents of leaf and flower oils. All the essential oils exhibited broad range of antioxidant potential. The leaf essential oil showed significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

  9. Uma nova lignana e outros constituintes químicos de Hypenia salzmannii (Benth.) Harley (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Hellane Fabricia Sousa de

    2012-01-01

    A família Lamiaceae possui 7.193 espécies distribuidas em aproximadamente 260 gêneros que ocorrem na forma de ervas, arbustos e árvores distribuídos em ambos os hemisférios e inclui um grande número de plantas medicinais de importância significativa. No Brasil ocorrem aproximadamente de 26 gêneros e 350 espécies. O gênero Hypenia (Mart. ex Benth) R. Harley possui distribuição restrita na América do Sul com aproximadamente 27 espécies distribuídas em algumas regiões da Venezuela, Paraguai, Bol...

  10. EFFECT OF THE ORTHOSIPHON STAMINEUS, BENTH ON AMINOPYRINE METABOLISM IN RAT HEPATOCYTES

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    CHIN JIN HAN1

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used herbal medicines in Malaysia is Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth (family: Lamiaceae or locally known as Misai Kucing. This experiment was undertaken to evaluate possible interaction of methanol extract of O. stamineus with aminopyrine, a model drug, in different age groups (young, adult and old of Sprague-Dawley (SD female rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were prepared by collagenase perfusion technique. Determination of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was done by measuring formaldehyde formed. From these findings, only normal young female rat hepatocytes in the presence of 0.001 mg/ml of methanol extract of O. stamineus showed significant increase in aminopyrine N-demethylase activity. However, aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was not affected in hepatocytes of normal adult and old female SD rats. In conclusion, exposure of methanol extract of O. stamineus could affect phase I aminopyrine metabolism in normal young female SD rat hepatocytes but this effect was age-dependent.

  11. RP-HPLC method for the quantitation of β-Sitosterol in Elaeagnus Gonyanthes Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish an RP-HPLC method for the determination of β-Sitosterol in Elaeagnus Gonyanthes Benth.Methods The separation was performed on a luna C8(2)(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)column with the mobile phase of methanol-water(88∶12,v/v)at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min,the detection wavelength was set at 210 nm,and the temperature of the column was maintained at 35 ℃.Results The calibration curve of β-Sitosterol was linear over the concentration range of 0.075-0.375 mg/mL(r=0.9999)and the average recovery of β-...

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

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    Rupali Vitthal Sarpate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth belongs to family Acanthaceae. The plants have been the subject of scientific research which confirms its use in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory drugs showing potent anti-rheumatic effects. Previous research claims the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of Lupeol and 19α-H Lupeol isolated from Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala roots. Based on the literature cited, the unexplored parts stems and leaves of the two species were selected for the present study. Aim: The present study is designed to isolate steroidal and alkaloidal components from the two species Strobilanthus callosus and Strobilanthus ixiocephala using the unexplored parts viz. stems and leaves and to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect. Settings and Design: The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated employing subacute anti-inflammatory models namely cotton pellet granuloma and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using isolated test components RVS-A (Lupeol, RVS-C (Doctriacantone and standard drug Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg. Results: The present study has dealt up with isolation of two phytoconstituents Lupeol and Dotriacontane which gave marked anti-inflammatory activity at the dose 20 mg/kg in both the models Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and Cotton pellet granuloma. Conclusion: The results confirm that the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of RVS-A (Lupeol and RVS-C (Doctriacantone involves reduction of prostaglandins through inhibition of cyclooxygenase and suppression of proliferative phase of sub acute inflammation. Thus the steroidal and alkaloidal components Lupeol and Doctriacantone isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees and Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth shows marked anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  14. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariaceae) sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera : Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nacoulma OG.; Ouedraogo AP.; Kiendrebeogo M.

    2006-01-01

    Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth (Scrophulariacecae) on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleptera Bruchidae). This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del.) (Scrophulariaceae) in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L.) Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain) exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emer...

  15. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

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    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  16. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

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    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  17. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of extracts and condensed tannins from Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. Atividades antioxidante e antifúngica de extratos e taninos condensados de Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth.

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    Andréia Cristina Conegero Sanches

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of stem-bark extracts from Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth., including fractions and isolated compounds, was evaluated by DPPH in thin-layer chromatography. All the fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity. Antifungal activity was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC against the yeasts Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. All extracts (CE, EtOAc and FW, subfractions (F1-F12 and the compounds I, II and III were inactive against the yeasts. Against C. parapsilosis and C. albicans, fractions F13-15 and F20 showed moderate antifungal activity, and fractions F16-19 and F21-22 showed good activity. Chemical isolation of the ethyl-acetate fraction resulted in the identification of three compounds: epigallocatechin, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin-(4b®8-gallocatechin.Atividade antioxidante de extrato, frações, subfrações e substâncias isoladas das cascas de Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. foi avaliada através da redução do radical 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazila (método DDPH· em cromatografia em camada delgada. O extrato bruto (CE, acetona:água, as frações acetato de etila (EtOAc e aquosa (FW, as subfrações (F1-F12 e as substâncias isoladas I, II e III apresentaram a capacidade de reduzir o radical DDPH·. A atividade antifúngica foi determinada pela concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM frente às amostras de leveduras Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei e Candida tropicalis. O extrato bruto (CE, as frações (EtOAC e FW, e os compostos isolados I, II e III, como também as subfrações cromatográficas (F1-F12 foram inativos frente a todas as leveduras testadas. Por outro lado, as subfrações cromatográficas F13-15 e F20 apresentaram atividade antifúngica moderada. Já as subfrações F16-19 e F21-22 mostraram boa atividade

  18. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  19. (L. Benth. en bosques secundarios en Escárcega, Campeche, México

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    J. L. López-Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El T´zalam Lysiloma latisiliquum (L. Benth. en la región de Escárcega, Campeche, México, es la especie más abundante y con mayor importancia económica en bosques secundarios derivados de selva mediana subperennifolia, después haber sido intervenida mediante el sistema rosa-tumba-quema. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento del crecimiento en diámetro de esta especie, en un periodo de 20 años de desarrollo. A partir de la variable diámetro normal (d1.3, agrupada en categorías diamétricas, se estimaron los incrementos anuales medio, máximo y mínimo para cada categoría. Los resultados indican que en el escenario más ventajoso se requiere de 10.6 años para que los árboles pasen de categoría reserva a categoría aprovechable y, en promedio, es necesario de 21.5 años para alcanzar la misma condición. El incremento en diámetro fue, en promedio, de 0.511 cm y se clasifica como medio.

  20. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  1. Seasonal variability of the essential oil of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling.

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    C. G. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was developed to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling, a native species from the Brazilian Pampa. Leaves were collected from four specimens of a single population in each of the four seasons for a year and were extracted in triplicate by hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The yield of EO (% w/w was calculated on fresh weight basis (FWB, and the 16 oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used as statistical tools to evaluate differences in chemical composition. The highest yields were obtained in autumn, spring and summer (2.32-4.38%, while the lowest yields were detected in winter, ranging from 1.15 to 1.91%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the predominant class of chemical constituents in the EO obtained in all seasons, showing the highest contents in autumn and summer, and pulegone was identified as a major compound, whose contents varied between 54.13 and 81.17%. The EO samples were divided into three chemical groups by HCA and PCA and were assigned to the same group, except for the three samples gathered in winter. The results showed a seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the EO.

  2. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benomari, Fatima Zahra; Djabou, Nassim; Medbouhi, Ali; Khadir, Abdelmounaim; Bendahou, Mourad; Selles, Chaouki; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. collected in 24 Algerian localities was investigated from the first time using GC-FID, GC/MS and (13) C-NMR. Altogether, 83 components which accounted for 94.7% of the total oil composition were identified. The main compounds were trans-sesquisabinene hydrate (1; 20.9%), α-terpinyl acetate (2; 19.8%), globulol (3; 4.9%), caryophyllene oxide (4; 4.3%), β-bisabolol (5; 2.9%) and trans-7-epi-sesquisabinene hydrate (6; 2.6%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Algerian M. inodora oil and indicated that 1 might be used as taxonomical marker. The study of the chemical variability allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential-oil compositions and the soil nature of the harvest locations. Biological activity of M. inodora essential oil was assessed against fourteen species of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections using paper disc diffusion and dilution agar assays. The in vitro study demonstrated a good activity against Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis, and moderate activity against Candida albicans. These results might be useful for the future commercial valorization of M. inodora essential oil as a promising source of natural products with potential against various nosocomial community and toxinic infections.

  3. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  4. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas (CPQBA)]. E-mail: foglioma@cpqba.unicamp.br; Tamashiro, Jorge Y. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6{alpha}-acetoxi 7{beta}-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI{sub 50} (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC{sub 50} (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI{sub 50} values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC{sub 50} value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  5. RESISTÊNCIA NATURAL DA MADEIRA DE SABIÁ (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. A CUPINS SUBTERRÂNEOS

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    FRANCISCO HUGO HERMÓGENES DE ALENCAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the wood natural resistance of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. of phenotypes (plants with and without prickles to subterranean termite (Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. in forced feeding and feeding preference assays, under laboratory conditions. Wood test samples measuring 2.54 x 1.50 x 0.64 cm (forced feeding and 10.00 x 1.50 x 0.64 cm (feeding preference, with the largest measurement in the fiber direction, were obtained from three positions from pith to bark direction. The samples were exposed for 28 days (forced feeding and 45 days (feeding preference to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. termites. In forced feeding assay the termites caused superficial attack in wood and lived during 8 to 10 days, thus the wood was classified as resistant. In forced feeding assay more mass loss and attack in wood of external positions to both phenotypes was observed. To the waste and survival time of termites were similar to both types. In feeding preference a larger mass loss and waste to inner position in both phenotypes was observed. In general, the plants with prickles lost more mass than the one without prickles. Therefore, the wood of plants without prickles is more suitable to be use in construction of fences, sheepfolds and other similar uses where the wood shall be subject to attack by termites.

  6. PEMANFAATAN BAKTERI PELARUT FOSFAT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS KUDZU TROPIKA (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.

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    N. G. K Roni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is one of the essential nutrients for plants that availability is strongly influenced by soil pH. In acid soils, most of the P is given will form insoluble compounds and is not available to plants. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria is a soil microorganism that can improve the provision ofP in acid soils. The study aimed to determine the effect of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the productivity of tropical kudzu was conducted using a completely randomized design with four treatments ie without isolate (I0, standard isolate (I1, isolate B.80.1649-1 (I2 and isolate B.80.1649-8 (I3, each treatment was repeated four times. The results showed that both isolates were isolated and selection were able to increase the length of the plants, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, shoot P content,  N uptake, P uptake, and production of crude protein of tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth.. The ability of isolates B.80.1649-1 higher than isolates B.80.1649-8, and comparable with standard isolate.

  7. Chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels leaf oil from ivory coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Zana Adama; Boti, Jean Brice; Attioua, Koffi Barthelemy; Ahibo, Antoine Coffy; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2013-11-01

    The chemical composition of 48 leaf oil samples isolated from individual plants of Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. et Diels harvested in four Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID (determination of retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The main components identified were β-pinene (traces-59.1%), sabinene (traces-54.2%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.3-39.3%), linalool (0.1-38.5%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.1-33.2%), germacrene D (0.0-33.1%), α-pinene (0.1-32.3%), and germacrene B (0-21.2%). The 48 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical clustering and principal components analyses, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The oil composition of the major group (GroupI, 33 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene and linalool. The oils of Group II (eight samples) contained mainly β-pinene and α-pinene, while those of Group III (seven samples) were dominated by sabinene, limonene, and β-phellandrene. Moreover, the compositions of the Ivoirian C. patens leaf oils differed from those of Nigerian and Cameroonian origins. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

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    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  9. Mutagenicity induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of the medicinal plant Plathymenia reticulata Benth

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    A Della Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plathymenia reticulata Benth has an anti-inflammatory effect and is capable of neutralizing the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu or Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, probably by precipitating venom proteins (an effect caused by plant tannins. The present study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic activity of P. reticulata by using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test and the micronucleus test in CHO-K1 cells. P. reticulata extract concentrations of 2.84, 5.68, 11.37, and 19.90 mg/plate were assayed by the Ames test using TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 bacterial strains, with (+S9 and without (-S9 metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5, 1.6 and 0.5 μg/mL of P. reticulata extract were used for the micronucleus test. P. reticulata extract was mutagenic to TA98 (-S9 and showed signs of mutagenic activity in TA97a and TA102 (both -S9 strains. Micronucleus test CBPI values showed that the endogenous metabolic system increased the number of viable cells when compared to the non-activated samples and the micronucleus frequency increased when the cells were treated in the absence of S9. We concluded that P. reticulata extract may present direct mutagenic properties.

  10. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  11. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  12. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations.

  13. Color, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arozarena, Íñigo; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Urretavizcaya, Inés; Salvatierra, Sara; Córdova, Inés; Marín-Arroyo, María Remedios; Noriega, María José; Navarro, Montserrat

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-eight blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines elaborated under different processing conditions were analyzed for total phenolics, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, color, and antioxidant activity. Ellagitannins were the main phenolic compounds and the most determinant factor in the antioxidant capacity of wines (r = 0.980). The major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside (64 ± 6%) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (19 ± 4%), followed by several minor compounds (17 ± 4%). Two of them were native blackberry anthocyanins, namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin 3-xylorutinoside. The remaining seven compounds were anthocyanin-related pigments generated during and after the alcoholic fermentation, identified as A-type and B-type vitisins and hydroxyphenylpyranoanthocyanins. The presence of fruit solids in contact with the liquid fraction during fermentation and the ratio of water to fruit employed in the preparation of the musts had a great impact on the content of ellagitannins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activity of wines and a minor impact on their color and anthocyanin composition.

  14. DORMÊNCIA DE SEMENTES E PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth. is an important native forest species coming from Cerrado and Caatinga due to its economical and ecological use, what justifies the existence of programs of seedling production. This paper aimed to study the efficient methodology to overcome dormancy in seeds and to evaluate, in natural nursery, the effects of distinct substrates and the fertilization on the initial growth of plants. The following treatments applied: T1 - control (seeds whithout scarification; T2 ¿ manual scarification with sandpaper number 50; T3 - immersion in water at 80 and (T4 at 100ºC; T5 - boil in water at 100ºC for 10, (T6 30 and (T7 60 seconds; T8 - chemical scarification with sulfuric acid for 20, (T9 30 and (T10 40 minutes. For the seedling production, the experiment was arranged in 4 x 2 factorial, complete randomized design (4 substrates: Tropstrato® pure, and the others: Tropstrato®, coconut fiber and vermiculite with organic compost; without and with fertilization. The best results for overcoming dormancy are obtained with the manual scarification with sandpaper nº50 or boil in water at 100ºC for 10 seconds. The coconut fiber and the vermiculite with organic compost are good substrates for the seedling production of Dimorphandra mollis.

  15. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity.

  16. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

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    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  17. Regulatory roles of 24-epibrassinolide in tolerance of Acacia gerrardii Benth to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; Hashem, Abeer; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2017-07-11

    This experiment aimed to investigate the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) against NaCl-induced salinity stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. NaCl (200 mM) imparted deleterious effects on the growth and chlorophyll contents of A. gerrardii, but foliar application of EBL (1.0 mg/l; each plant received 2.5 ml) mitigated the negative effect considerably. NaCl reduced chlorophyll content but this was significantly ameliorated by the application of EBL. EBL reduced significantly NaCl-induced oxidative stress hence protect membranes and also improved the relative water content significantly by 6.6% as compared with control. Nitrate reductase activity declined after NaCl treatment but EBL application sustained its activity under normal and stressed conditions. Exogenous application of EBL significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway thereby protecting the photosynthetic electron transport chain and other metabolic processes in A. gerrardii from NaCl-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats Avaliação dos efetos imunotoxicológicos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological...

  19. Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L-1) and a completely random experimental...

  20. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

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    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, is popularly used as an antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerative, antihepatotoxic and anticancer agent. The goal of this research was to perform the morphoanatomy study of H. canumleaves and stem and identify the main classes of secondary metabolites present in the of H. canumleaves. Such data have not been reported in the

  1. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  2. Gastroprotective effects of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth. on gastric ulcer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite; Vieira, Charliene Freire Xavier; Santos, Edgleyson Chaves Dos; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Aragão, Kalynca Kayla Viana; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Araújo, Pâmella Cristina da Costa; Vasconcelos, Yuri de Abreu Gomes; Oliveira, Ariclécio Cunha de; Oliveira, Hermógenes David de; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha

    2013-10-07

    Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "hortelã-brava" or "hortelã do campo", is widely distributed in the northeast of Brazil. In Brazil, the leaves of this plant have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, including gastric ulcers. In an attempt to experimentally validate this claimed antiulcerogenic activity, the gastroprotective effects of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of the Hyptis crenata Pohl ex Benth (EOHc) were evaluated in recognized gastric ulcer models in mice. EOHc was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Swiss male mice (25-30g) were used for the studies. The gastric ulcers were induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45min after oral pretreatment with EOHc, vehicle and positive control drugs. One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomachs were removed and the area of the lesions was measured. The volume, pH and total acidity of the gastric secretions were determined using the pylorus ligature model. The gastrointestinal motility was measured using gastric emptying and intestinal transit. The ethanol-induced gastric mucus depletion and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed. Our findings are as follows: A significant inhibition of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol was observed in the mice pre-treated with EOHc, at a dose of 30 and 100 and 300mg/kg (5.56±1.51, 2.88±0.82 and 1.71±0.54mm(2), respectively) compared to control group (118.03±35.4mm(2)). Also, EOHc (300mg/kg) produced a gastroprotective effect against the gastric lesions induced by indomethacin (16.07±4.68mm(2)) compared to control group (38.64±6.1mm(2)). EOHc pretreatment produced a reduction in the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation from 3.9±0.22 to 2.4±0.1μmol/mg tissue (EOHc-300mg/kg and control group, respectively). We also observed that EOHc pretreatment decreased the gastric emptying, but did

  3. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  4. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  5. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  6. Salvia leriifolia Benth (Lamiaceae) extract demonstrates in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Conforti, Filomena; Menichini, Federica; Bonesi, Marco; Nadjafi, Farsad; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Salvia leriifolia Benth extracts and fractions. The functional role of herbs and spices and their constituents is a hot topic in food-related plant research. Salvia species have been used since ancient times in folk medicine for cognitive brain function and have been subjected to extensive research. Thus, we hypothesize that S leriifolia, because of its functional properties, would be a good candidate to use as a nutraceutical product for improving memory in the elderly or patients affected by Alzheimer disease (ad). To test this hypothesis, we examined the cholinesterase inhibitory activity using the modified colorimetric Ellman's method against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The n-hexane exhibited the highest activity, with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 0.59 and 0.21 mg/mL, for AChE and BChE, respectively. This extract was fractionated, and 9 of these fractions (A-I) were obtained and tested. Fraction G, characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes as major components, was the most active against AChE (IC(50) = 0.05 mg/mL). Because oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD, we decided to screen the antioxidant activity (AA) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test, β-carotene bleaching test, and bovine brain peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid) assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity, with IC(50) values of 2 and 33 μg/mL on β-carotene bleaching test and thiobarbituric acid test, respectively. These results suggest potential health benefits of S leriifolia extracts. However, this finding requires additional investigation in vivo.

  7. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively.

  8. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae.

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. is an aromatic plant found in abundance in northeastern Brazil that is used in ethnomedicine to treat gastric disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of action involved in the gastroprotection of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM and to evaluate its healing capacity. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols and subsequently were treated with 1% Tween-80 aqueous solution (negative control, pantoprazole, carbenoxolone, N-acetylcysteine (depending on the specificity of each model or EOHM. The antisecretory activity (basal or stimulated was determined using the pyloric ligature method. The gastroprotective action of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups (-SH groups, as well as the quantification of adherent mucus and the levels of malondialdehyde and -SH groups in gastric mucosa, were evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. The healing ability was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer model and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (HE, PAS and PCNA. EOHM (400 mg/kg reduced the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by histamine and pentagastrin. The gastroprotective effect of EOHM involves the participation of endogenous sulfhydryl groups. EOHM increased mucus production (54.8%, reduced levels of MDA (72.5% and prevented the depletion of -SH groups (73.8% in the gastric mucosa. The treatment with EOHM reduced in 70.3% the gastric lesion area, promoting significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, as confirmed by histological analysis and analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The results show that gastroprotective effect of EOHM is mediated by cytoprotective and antioxidant mechanisms and by their antisecretory activity, and suggest that the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii is a promising candidate for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  9. Mechanism of antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from Croton cajucara Benth.

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    Ana Beatriz A. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Croton cajucara Benth. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Transdehydrocrotonin (DHC isolated from the bark of Croton cajucara has antiulcerogenic activity25. The presence of similar activity in semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from dehydrocrotonin from Croton cajucara was observed in gastric ulcer-induced models (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pylorus ligature. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanisms involved in the antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin. We investigated the effects of semi-synthetic crotonin on the response to histamine of right atria isolated from guinea pigs and on the response to carbachol of stomach fundus strips from rats. Semi-synthetic crotonin (3, 10 or 30 mM induced a shift to the right in the concentrationresponse curves to carbachol in the isolated rat stomach at the pD2 level (pD2: 5.42±0.05, 5.76±0.061, 5.77±0.076, 6.48±0.012, respectively, without any alteration in the maximum response. Semi-synthetic crotonin also induced a shift to the right in the concentration-response curves to histamine in guinea pig right atria, pD2 (5.54±0.06, 6.01±0.06, 5.89±0.06, 5.92±0.03 and (% maximum response (80±6.18, 118±6.18, 114±6.18, 122±1.4, respectively. Thus, the protective effect of semi-synthetic crotonin on induced gastric lesions could be due to antagonism of histaminergic and cholinergic effects on gastric secretion.

  10. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  11. Echophytochemical, Antioxidant and Ethnopharmacological Properties of Stachys inflata Benth.Extract from Chahar Bagh Mountain

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    Amir Mohammadi (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stachys inflata Benth. is used as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent in traditional medicine in most mountain villages of Golestan province. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical properties of extract from different parts of S. inflata, collected from Chahar Bagh Mountain. METHODS: Flowering branches and root of the plant were collected from Chahar Bagh Mountain (2100 m in July 2013. At the same time, the most important information about traditional uses of the plant (ethnopharmacology was recorded by questioning local people. Phytochemical evaluation (total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanins content of ethanolic extract of plant organs was done using spectrophotometry and folin-ciocalteu. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The amount of chemical compounds in the extract of flowering branches and root extract was significantly different. The total phenolic (129.96 ± 5.6 mgGAE/g, flavonoid (29.62 ± 1.4 mgQUE/g and anthocyanin (0.021 ± 0.001 µg/g content in the extract of aerial parts of the plant was approximately 1.5 to 3 times higher than those in the root. Due to higher production of active compounds, the antioxidant activity of the aerial parts’ extract showed a greater potential in free radical scavenging (IC50= 76.33 ± 4.2 µg/ml compared to the root extract. CONCLUSION: Phytochemical findings and antioxidant activity of the extract of aerial parts of the plant in free radical scavenging, confirm the traditional applications of this plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent in treatment of rheumatism, wounds, burns and diarrhea. It is recommended that further evaluation of the plant’s traditional applications be conducted in vivo and in vitro.

  12. [Investigation of determining strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by flame atomic absorption spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Rao, Zhi-Jun; Guan, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Ming

    2010-12-01

    The present paper is aimed to establish the method of determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by means of air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectra, and also provide reference for the determination of the strontium in other traditional Chinese medicine. M. Nitida Benthvarhirsutissima Z. Wei. was taken as the object. The authors used nitric-perchloric acid as digestion solution to digest samples by microwave which was controlled by pressure, and used EDTA-2Na as the releasing agent to add in the samples for determining the strontium in M. nitida Benth. var. hirsutissima. Z. Wei. by FAAS. The results showed that the samples were entirely digested by microwave. The working curve was Y = 0.036 5x -0.001 1, r = 0.999 4, the range was 0-1.6 microg x mL(-1), the average recovery rate was 101.5% with RSD 2.04%, and the method detection limit was 0.008 2 microg x mL(-1) (n = 21). It is concluded that this method is simple and accurate. It has high sensitivity and can be effectively used for determining the strontium in this traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Optimization of Extracting Technology for Essential Oil from Elsholizia densa Benth%超声辅助提取密花香薷精油工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕蒙蒙; 吴夏; 谢云芳; 穆小珍; 康淑荷

    2013-01-01

    [目的]优选密花香薷精油最佳提取工艺条件.[方法]采用超声辅助水蒸气蒸馏,通过正交试验考察了药材粒度、超声时间、料液比、浸泡时间4因素3水平对密花香薷精油得率的影响.[结果]密花香薷精油提取的最佳工艺条件为药材粒度50目,超声时间12min,浸泡时间6h,料液比1∶16 g/ml.在该工艺条件下,精油的平均得率为0.407%.[结论]优选的密花香薷精油提取工艺得率较高,条件合理,简单可行.%[ Objective] The study aims to optimize the extracting technology conditions of essential oil from Elsholtzia densa Benth. [ Method] Volatile oil was extracted from Elsholtzia densa Benth using steam distillation , and the effects of four extracting factors (the size of the medicinal herb, ultrasonic time, soaking time and the ratio of the material to liquid) on the yield of essential oil extracted from Elsholtzia densa Benth was analyzed through the orthogonal test method. [ Result] The optimized extraction process of essential oil from Elsholtzia densa Benth was as follows: the size of the medicinal herb 50 mesh, ultrasonic time 12 min, being soaked in the water for 6 h , and the ratio of the material to liquid 1 : 16 g/ml. Under this conditions, the average extracting rate of the essential oil was 0. 407%. [ Conclusion ] The optimized extraction process of essential oil from Elsholtzia densa Benth was simple and practicable, and its extracting rate was higher.

  14. Superação da dormência em sementes de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth Dormancy breaking of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A faveira é planta semidecídua, heliófita, que ocorre em formações secundárias e áreas abertas de terreno elevado do agreste nordestino e campinas amazônicas. A madeira dessa espécie é empregada para caixotaria, compensados, brinquedos, lenha e carvão, as vagens maduras constituem-se em excelente forragem para todos os ruminantes e a árvore é recomendada para arborização paisagística. O primeiro problema encontrado foi a baixa germinação das sementes devido à impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a metodologia mais eficiente para superação da dormência de sementes de Parkia platycephala, as quais foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica com lixa d'água n. 80 (T2, imersão em ácido muriático concentrado (98% por 30 min e 1 h (T3 e T4, respectivamente, escarificação mecânica com brita por 5, 10 e 15 min (T5, T6 e T7, respectivamente e imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado (98% por 5, 15, 30, 45 e 60 min (T8, T9, T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados através da porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas, além de comprimento e massa seca da raiz e parte aérea. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em todas as variáveis. A causa mais evidente da dormência foi a impermeabilidade do tegumento, cujos tratamentos mais eficientes para superar a dormência das sementes foram a escarificação mecânica do tegumento com lixa e a imersão em ácido sulfúrico (15 a 45 min.The faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. is a perennial, heliophyte, secondary plant that occurs in (non-flooded areas of the Amazon area. The wood of this species is used to make boxes, supports and

  15. Antitrypanosomal activity of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergia, Ermias; Shibeshi, Workineh; Terefe, Getachew; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2016-09-15

    African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall. It is traditionally used to treat wound, stomachache, viral infection, cancer, sunstroke, fever, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hemorrhage, anthrax, and hepatitis. The efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of V. sinaiticum was evaluated in a randomized experiment with Swiss albino mice infected with T. congolense field isolate. The extracts were administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for seven days at 12 Days Post-Infection (DPI) when the peak parasitaemia level was approximately 10(8) trypanosomes/ml. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), mean survival time and change in body weight were used as indices for monitoring the efficacy of the extracts. Diminazene (28 mg/kg) was used as a positive control while 2 % Tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals screening were conducted following standard methods. The extracts showed no toxicity effect in Swiss albino mice and had LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. The phytochemicals screened in V. sinaiticum were alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, and tannins. The mice treated with absolute methanol leaf extract of V. sinaiticum at 400 mg/kg dose had significantly lower mean parasitaemia (7.20 ± 0.16) (p < 0.001) as compared to the negative control group (8.82 ± 0.12) on day 14 of treatment. Animals treated with the same dose had significant (p < 0.001) higher PCV value and body

  16. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

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    J. M. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control, régimen de temperatura día/noche en cámaras de ambiente controlado (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C y luz (con y sin. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar, con los bloques anidados dentro del factor temperatura. Se realizó un análisis de varianza mixto (con el procedimiento mixto de SAS y la prueba de Tukey. La pureza fue 97.1 %, el peso 66,666.7 semillas·kg-1, el contenido de humedad (base anhidra 7.1 % y la viabilidad 98 % (prueba de tetrazolio. Para la germinación, resultó significativa (P=0.0101 la interacción entre tratamiento escarificatorio, temperatura y luz. La máxima germinación (82.5 % se registró para semilla escarificada químicamente durante 30 o 40 min, a 25/20 °C y con luz. A mayor tiempo de escarificación química, mayor porcentaje de germinación. A 20/15 °C y con luz, la germinación posterior a la escarificación con fuego (38.5 % superó al control (18.5 %. Generalmente el control mostró valores de germinación menores a 30 % en los diferentes tratamientos, denotando latencia física con diferentes intensidades en el lote. Destaca la eficiencia de la escarificación química para cesar la latencia.

  17. Effect of Four Kinds of Environment Factors on Seed Germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth%4种环境因子对少花蒺藜草(Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth.)种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 朱明星; 王巍; 韩志松; 吕林有; 李天来

    2011-01-01

    本试验以少花蒺藜草种子为研究材料,通过设定不同的温度、土壤湿度、土壤基质和光照等条件研究环境因子对少花蒺藜草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:少花蒺藜草种子萌发最适温度为25℃,萌发最低温度为20℃,萌发最高温度为30℃;光照对少花蒺藜草种子萌发有一定影响,光照促进种子萌发;土壤湿度对其萌发有影响,最适萌发湿度为20%,最低萌发湿度为6%;少花蒺藜草种子萌发对土壤基质要求不严格,于沙土及草炭土中均可萌发.%With Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth. seed as material to study the effect of different emperature, soil moisture, soil substrate and illumination on seed germination. The result showed that temperature had great influence on seed germination of Cenchrus pauciflorus Benth, and the lowest germination at 20 ℃, and the highest germination rate at 30 ℃ ,and the best suitable germination temperature was 25 ℃. Light could improve seed germination. Soil moisture had great influence on seed germination, the best humidity was 20%, the minimum humidity was 6%. Soil substrate had little effect on seed germination, and seed could germination in sand and turfy soil.

  18. In vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: MRSA strains Atividade anti-estafilocócica in vitro de Hyptis martiusii Benth contra linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina: MRSA

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    Henrique D. M. Coutinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report about the antibacterial activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth. In this study the ethanol extract of H. martiusii was tested for its antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The growth of all bacterial strains tested was inhibited by the extract. The diameter of inhibition zones varied from 13 to 20 mm for the extract. The MIC and MBC values ranged from 128 to > 1024mg/mL and 256 to > 1024 mg/mL, respectively. It is therefore suggested that extracts from H. martiusii could be used as an anti-Staphylococcus agent. Compared with methicillin and gentamicin, the extract was more effective, being a promising antibacterial agent.Este é o primeiro relato de atividade antibacteriana de Hyptis martiusii Benth. Neste estudo, o extrato etanólico de H. martiusii foi avaliado para atividade antimicrobiana contra linhagens de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus. O crescimento de todas as bactérias testadas foi inibido pelo extrato. O diâmetro das zonas de inibição variaram de 13 - 20 mm. Os valores da CIM e CBM variaram de 128 a > 1024 mg/mL e 256 a > 1024 mg/mL, respectivamente. Devido a isso, podemos indicar que o extrato etanólico de H. martiusii pode ser usado como um agente anti-Staphylococcus. Quando comparado com outros antibióticos como meticilina e gentamicina, o extrato foi mais efetivo, demonstrando ser um promissor agente antibacteriano.

  19. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

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    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  20. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

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    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  1. Análise morfológica e fitoquímica da fava d anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    O Brasil possui a flora arbórea mais diversificada do mundo, no entanto, a falta de diretrizes técnicas e de conscientização ecológica na sua exploração tem acarretado prejuízos ambientais irreparáveis. Com a expansão da fronteira agrícola nas regiões de Cerrado muitas espécies arbóreas encontram-se ameaçadas de extinção, entre elas, Dimorphandra mollis Benth., planta medicinal conhecida popularmente como fava d anta. Sua importância fármaco-agronômica é devido à presença nos frutos de flavon...

  2. Modulation of the Antibiotic Activity by Extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan

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    Fernando G. Figueredo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between ethanol extracts of Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, combined with six antimicrobial drugs against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from humans. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The microdilution assay was performed to verify the interactions between the natural products and the antibiotics using a subinhibitory concentration. The activity of amikacin associated with the extract of Anadenanthera macrocarpa against EC 27 was enhanced, demonstrating an MIC reduction from 128 to 4 μg/mL. Among the β-lactams, no potentiation on its activity was observed, with exception to the antagonism of the natural products with ampicillin against S. aureus 358.

  3. A jurema preta (Mimosa hostilis, Benth) como fonte energetica do semi-arido do nordeste - carvão

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Washington Luiz Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    A situação sócio-econômica da região semi-árida do nordeste e a restrita utilização do potencial da vegetação da caátinga, devido ao pequeno porte, associado as necessidades de se buscar fontes alternativas de energia, despertou a necessidade de conhecimentos sobre a espécie Jurema Preta (Mimosa hostilis, .Benth) na produção de carvão vegetal. A carbonização foi conduzida em retorta elétrica, escala de laboratório, variando-se as condições de carbonização. Foi utilizado as temperaturas de 400...

  4. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  5. [Use of chigo seed (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) in human nutrition. II. Process of non-industrial manufacture of chiga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, J A; Brito, O; Hevia, P; Pérez, C; Orozco, M

    1984-09-01

    A quantitative study of the traditional process for making "chiga" flour was performed. The "chiga" flour is obtained from the seed of the "chigo" (Campsiandra comosa, Benth) and is utilized as a human food in areas of Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, especially in the State of Apure and in the Territorio Federal Amazonas. The block diagram with the description of the traditional process is presented, together with labor and time requirement studies of the different stages of the process. The yields as well as the requirements for raw materials are also discussed. This research work was carried out to study and provide quantitative information that may allow the duplication of the process, in order to improve the efficiency and yield of the product.

  6. Composition chimique et activité antimicrobienne des huiles essentielles de Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. et Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. essential oils of Morocco. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut. and Thymus ciliatus (Desf. Benth. of Morocco against seven microorganisms. The essential oils of T. ciliatus are characterized by the presence of thymol (44.2%, β-E-ocimene (25.8% and α-terpinene (12.3% as principal chemical components. The essential oils of T. algeriensis are formed mainly by camphor (27.7% and α-pinene (20.5%. The oil of T. ciliatus showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against all tested bacteria and fungi. This bioactivity is due mainly to the richness of this essential oil in thymol known for its effectiveness against the microbial agents.

  7. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  8. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  9. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats Avaliação dos efetos imunotoxicológicos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, em ratos

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    Cássia A. O. Feres

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.A Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida como faveira ou fava-d'anta, é uma planta comum do cerrado central do Brasil, muito utilizada por suas propriedades antioxidante, antiplaquetária e, principalmente, como vasoprotetora. Seu principal marcador é a rutina. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a segurança da utilização do extrato seco de D. mollis em roedores. O extrato foi extraído, padronizado e quantificado apresentando teor de 76,0±3% de rutina. Nos parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos avaliados, não se observou alterações nos grupos de machos e fêmeas que receberam a dose de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis, mas observou-se um aumento de eosinófilos. Nos estudos histopatológicos detectou-se hiperreatividade da polpa branca esplênica, no grupo que recebeu a dose de 2000 mg/kg de D. mollis. Na avaliação da resposta

  10. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells through a salicylic acid (SA)-dependent and a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maojun; DONG Jufang; ZHU Muyuan

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis recently. In order to investigate the molecular basis of NO signaling in elicitor-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis of plant cells, we determined the contents of NO, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and puerarin in Pueraria thomsonii Benth. suspension cells treated with the elicitors prepared from cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. The results showed that the fungal elicitor induced NO burst, SA accumulation and puerarin production of P. thomsonii Benth. cells. The elicitor-induced SA accumulation and puerarin production was suppressed by nitric oxide specific scavenger cPITO, indicating that NO was essential for elicitor-induced SA and puerarin biosynthesis in P. thomsonii Benth. cells. In transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, the fungal elicitor also induced puerarin biosynthesis, NO burst, and JA accumulation, though the SA biosynthesis was impaired. The elicitor-induced JA accumulation in transgenic cells was blocked by cPITO, which suggested that JA acted downstream of NO and its biosynthesis was controlled by NO. External application of NO via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced puerarin biosynthesis in transgenic NahG P. thomsonii Benth. cells, and the NO-triggered puerarin biosynthesis was suppressed by JA inhibitors IBU and NDGA, which indicated that NO induced puerarin production through a JA-dependent signal pathway in the transgenic cells. Exogenous application of SA suppressed the elicitor-induced JA biosynthesis and reversed the inhibition of IBU and NDGA on elicitor-induced puerarin accumulation in transgenic cells, which indicated that SA inhibited JA biosynthesis in the cells and that SA might be used as a substitute for JA to mediate the elicitor- and NO-induced puerarin biosynthesis. It was, therefore, concluded that NO might mediate the elicitor-induced puerarin biosynthesis through SA- and JA-dependent signal

  11. Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy%Study on Characters of Hard Seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae)and Methods for Breaking Dormancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifeng ZHANG; Xingwen WU; Yuehui SHE

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to understand the characters of hard seeds of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Leguminosae) and explore the methods for break- ing dormancy. [Method] For both aerial and subterranean seeds of A. edgeworthii, the morphological characteristics were observed and the appropriate temperature for germination was explored. For aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii, the characters of hard seeds were studied, and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment, hot water soak treat- ment and mechanical damage treatment were compared to explore the methods for breaking seed dormancy. [Result] The aerial seeds were oblate and averaged 3.38 mm in length, 3.02 mm in width, 1.88 mm in thickness, 15.32 g in thousand grain weight, with a hard seed rate after of up to 98% natural maturation. The subter- ranean seeds were approximately oblate with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and a hundred grain weight of (50.08-58.26 g); among all the treatments for breaking hardseededness, cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods, whereas hot water soak treatment was the least effective method; constant temperature between 20 and 30 ℃ was optimum for the germination of aerial seeds, and alternative temperature of 30/20 ℃ was most appropriate for the germination of subterranean seeds. [Conclusion] Cutting seed coat treatment and concentrated sulfuric acid treatment for 20 minutes were the most effective methods to break the hardseededness of A. edgeworthii.

  12. Scopolin isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems suppresses adjuvant-induced rat arthritis by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Dai, Yue; Gao, Xinghua; Xia, Yufeng

    2009-07-01

    Despite scopolin is a main coumarin constituent in the stems of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, a herb drug that has long been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, little information is available about the pharmacological activities of this compound. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-rheumatic effects of scopolin in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats, and explore the underlying mechanisms of action in views of anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties in the synovial tissues. Scopolin (50, 100 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally for 10 days from the onset of secondary response, significantly inhibited both inoculated and non-inoculated paw swelling as well as articular index scores in AIA. Meanwhile, the mean body weight of rats treated with scopolin was higher than that of model group. Rats treated with high dose of scopolin (100 mg/kg) preserved a nearly normal histological architecture of the joints and showed a significant reduction of the new blood vessels in the synovial tissues. Additionally, scopolin could reduce IL-6, VEGF and FGF-2 expressions in rat synovial tissues. In conclusion, scopolin can reduce the clinical symptoms of rat AIA by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis, and this compound may be a potent agent for angiogenesis related diseases and can serve as a structural base for screening more potent synthetic analogs.

  13. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  14. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

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    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  15. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  16. KANDUNGAN KIMIA BERBAGAI EKSTRAK DAUN MIANA (COLEUS BLUMEI BENTH DAN EFEK ANTHELMINTIKNYA TERHADAP CACING PITA PADA AYAM

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    Yusuf Ridwan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the chemical compound of painted nettle (Coleus blumei Benth leave extract and its anthelmintic activity against chicken tapeworm were conducted. Leave of painted nettle were collected and extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the chemical compound of secondary metabolites. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated with an assay using chicken tapeworm in a serial microplate dilution method by determination of efective concentration 50 (EC50 using probit analysis. The result of phytochemistry analysis showed that Coleus leaves consisted of flavonoid, steroid, tannin and saponin. Three of four extracts displayed strong anthelmintic activity with the higest activity belong to chloroform extract with EC50 5 mg/ml followed by n-hexane 9 mg/ml and metanol extract 10,2 mg/ml, while water extract has a weak anthelmintic activity with 106,2 mg/ml. In general, chloroform extract proved to be a more efficient extractant of biologically active compounds than either hexane, ethanol or water extract. The promising activity displayed by a number of extracts has led to further investigation of the active compound. Unfortunately, the result of invivo assay showed that the chloroform extract treatment with dose level 25 mg/kg BW could not to reduce the number of tapeworm in chicken. It is interesting for further investigate the differences of respon between in vitro and in vivo to determine involved factors.

  17. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  18. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  19. EFFECT OF WATER STRESS SIMULATED WITH NaCl, MANNITOL AND PEG (6000 ON THE GERMINATION Erythrina falcata Benth SEEDS

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989295Erythrina falcata Benth. (Fabaceae species is used in agroforestry, restoration of riparian vegetation in flooded areas, and in the recovery of degraded ecosystems. This work aimed to evaluate the possible effects of water stresses on germination of Erythrina falcata seeds. The study was carried out in The Forestry Seeds Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, in Parana state, Brazil. The experimental units consisted in boxes gerbox (25 seeds on 2 filter papers with 10 ml of osmotic solution. Gerbox was sealed with PVC plastic film and led to germinate in Mangelsdorf type chamber (under light continues at 25±2ºC. Six osmotic potentials (0.0; -0.2; -0.4; -0.6; -0.8; and -1.0 MPa were induced with NaCl, manitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000.The lowest tolerance limit to water stress was observed in PEG solutions. The germination limit was -0.2 to -0.4 MPa of PEG, whereas the osmotic potentials tested with NaCl and mannitol did not affect the germination process.

  20. Crescimento e sobrevivência de Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae, em uma área de caatinga, Alagoinha, PE

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    Silva Lucia Maria Bezerra da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do crescimento e da sobrevivência de Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan foi realizado na Fazenda Geraldão (8°29'28" S e 36°47'00" W, Alagoinha, PE, no período de julho/1996 a junho/1997. selecionaram-se 10 indivíduos adultos de A. macrocarpa dividindo-se suas copas em quadrantes, e quantificaram-se todos os indivíduos jovens acompanhando crescimento e sobrevivência da estação chuvosa de 1996 até a estação chuvosa de 1997 . A estrutura e distribuição espacial de uma população foi estudada em 10 parcelas de 10m x 10m (1.000m² , subdividida em 250 parcelas de 2m x 2m. Os indivíduos estudados no período de um ano totalizaram 344, sendo 211 jovens e 133 juvenis. A estrutura da população consistiu de 192 indivíduos: 170 jovens (88,5%, oito juvenis (4,2% e 14 adultos (7,3%. A distribuição espacial foi do tipo agregado. A. macrocarpa apresentou-se resistente durante a estação seca, devido ao seu alto índice de sobrevivência (73,3% na área estudada.

  1. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae in Swiss Mice

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    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM. Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  2. INDUCTION OF HEPATIC GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY BY Orthosiphon stamineus, BENTH IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    J.H. CHIN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the acute (one-day treatment effect of a methanol extract of Orthosiphon stamineus, Benth on glutathione-S-transferase (GST activity in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic young male and female Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanol extract of O. stamineus was administered orally (5, 31.25, 125 and 500 mg/kg to diabetic rats, and the effect on GST activity was measured by the method of Habig et al. (1974. No lethality and no significant changes in body weight and water intake were observed in the treated group as compared to the control group. A significant increase in the activity of GST was observed in the liver S-9 cytosolic fraction of diabetic male SD rats treated with 125 mg/kg (P < 0.01 and 500 mg/kg (P < 0.01 of the methanol extract O. stamineus. Administration of 500 mg/kg (P < 0.01 of the methanol extract of O. stamineus to diabetic female SD rats increased GST activity when compared to the control group. This study indicates that the methanol extract of O. stamineus could affect the activity of GST in rat liver and the effect seen was dose-dependent

  3. Effect of different liming levels on the biomass production and essential oil extraction yield of Cunila galioides Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossi, A J; Pauletti, G F; Rota, L; Echeverrigaray, S; Barros, I B I; Oliveira, J V; Paroul, N; Cansian, R L

    2012-11-01

    Poejo is an aromatic and medicinal plant native to highland areas of south Brazil, in acid soils with high Al3+ concentration. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of liming on the extraction yield of essential oil of three chemotypes of poejo (Cunila galioides Benth). For this purpose, the experiments were performed in a greenhouse, using 8-litre pots. The treatments were four dosages of limestone (0, 3.15, 12.5, and 25 g.L(-1)) and a completely random experimental design was used, with four replications and three chemotypes, set up in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The parameters evaluated were dry weight of aerial parts, essential oil content and chemical composition of essential oil. Results showed that liming affects the biomass production, essential oil yield and chemical composition, with cross interaction verified between chemotype and limestone dosage. For the higher dosage lower biomass production, lower yield of essential oil as well as the lowest content of citral (citral chemotype) and limonene (menthene chemotype) was observed. In the ocimene chemotype, no liming influence was observed on the essential oil yield and on the content of major compounds. The dosage of 3.15 g.L(-1) can be considered the best limestone dosage for the production of poejo for the experimental conditions evaluated.

  4. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for "Ugba" Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokeleme, C O; Ugwuanyi, J Obeta

    2015-01-01

    Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  5. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth

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    Raghunath Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. (Labiateae is described in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea.Objective: Present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Neelkanthi (whole plant and to support its traditional use.Methods: Methanolic extract of plant Ajuga bracteosa (ABE was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, egg albumin induced inflammation in rats and the study was further supported with in vitro antiinflammatory study by using Human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Three doses of the extract (ABE- 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. were used in the study and diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg, i.p. was used as standard. Results: ABE (500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (P<0.05 reduced increased in paw volume induced by carrageenan and egg albumin. ABE also showed significant stabilization toward HRBC membrane. Conclusions: ABE at the dose of 500 and 750 mg/kg showed potent action on comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  6. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae from Kashmir Himalaya

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    Reyaz Ahmad Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n=2x=24 (diploid. Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n=4x=48 (tetraploid in addition to normal meiocytes (2n=24 during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1. Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species.

  7. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  8. Antifertility effects of methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.Gupta; J.B.S.Kachhawa; R.Chaudhary

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifertility activity of the methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth in male albino rats. Methods: The methanolic pod extract of Albizzia lebbeck was administrated orally for 60 days at 50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1·day-1 to male albino rats. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymides were assessed.Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in blood samples and reproductive organs. Results: A. lebbeck pod extract brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testis, seminal vesicles, epdidymis and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the numbers of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The Sertoli cell count as well as its cross sectional surface area were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol content of the testis, the fructose in the seminal vesicles and protein in the epididymis were significantly decreased. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin,haematocrit and blood sugar were within the normal range. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck pods causes spermatogenic arrest in male albino rats.

  9. 广藿香抗青枯病鉴定方法的研究%Study on Bacterial-wilt-resistance Identification Methods for Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红; 温雁鹰; 许仕仰; 梁志毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the optimal concentration and inoculation procedure of crude toxin from Ralstonia solanacearum, and to establish the identification method for bacterial wilt resistance of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. seedling, so as to lay the foundation for resistance breeding of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco)Benth.. Methods The growth curve of Ralstonia solanacearum was determined. And then we studied the effect of seedling age, crude toxin concentrations and inoculation ways for the crude toxin on the pathogenicity of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.. Results The growth of Ralstonia solanacearum presented as the S-shaped curve, the highest concentration being 12. 46 × l08 cfu/mL. The seedling of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. aged 100 days was optimal for the identification of bacterial wilt resistance. In the crude toxin concentration range of 0. 4 ×108 ~ 0. 6 × 108 cfu/mL, the inoculated plant showed a moderately advanced progress of bacterial wilt, which was suitable for the resistance identification. Having the advantage of shortening the experiment period, the rootsubmerging method was recommended for the resistance identification of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth..Conclusion The indoor identification method for Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. resistance to bacterial wilt has been established preliminarily.%[目的]对广藿香幼苗接种青枯茵粗毒素,观察其感病状况,建立广藿香苗期抗性鉴定方法,为广藿香抗病育种奠定基础.[方法]测定不同培养时间的青枯茵菌液浓度,绘制青枯菌的生长曲线;分别设置不同广藿香苗龄、不同浓度青枯菌制备粗毒素及不同接种方法等试验,探讨影响致病性的因素.[结果]青枯茵的生长曲线呈"S"型,青枯茵菌液浓度在稳定期最高可达12.46×108cfu/mL.对于广藿香抗青枯病的苗期鉴定,以100d左右苗龄的植株较适宜;在0.4×108~0.6×108cfu/mL浓度范围内,接种植株表现渐进的发病过

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ENDANGERED PLANTS (COSTUS SPECIOUS, GLORIOSSA SUPERBA LINN AND RAUVOLFIA SERPENTINE (LINN BENTH FROM KANKER DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH, INDIA

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    NITISH KUMAR SAHU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh, the herbal state houses with rich and unique biodiversity of medicinal plants which are widely usedby traditional healers of the state for treatment of various disease and extensively exploited for commercialpurpose which leads to serious threat. Several plants have been studied and listed as rare and endangered whichneed to be conserved. We selected three such plants viz. Costus specious, Gloriossa superba Linn and Rauvolfiaserpentine (Linn Benth., from Kanker district of Chhattisgarh for their phytochemical analysis by chemicalscreening and Thin layer chromatography. On primary analysis of the methanolic and ethanolic extract ofrhizome of C. specious and G. superba and root and leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth. we found the presenceof phytocompounds like saponin, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycosides in them. Thisphytocompounds were further separated by TLC using petroleum ether: methanol: benzene (8:1:1.5 as mobilephase in silica gel coated glass plates. Maximum 9 bands were observed in methanolic extract of rhizome of C.specious with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.97 and 6 bands in methanolic extract of rhizome of G. superba with Rfvalue between 0.02 – 0.94.Similarily in ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth.Maximum 13 bands were observed with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.96 and 0.04 – 0.98 respectively whereasethanolic extract of root showed maximum 11 bands with Rf value between 0.04 – 0.98 in comparison withchloroform and petroleum ether extracts. This result can further help in development of new drugs for diseaseslike cancer and hypertension based on their traditional uses.

  11. 分光光度法测定角花胡颓子中的总黄酮%Determination of total flavonoid in Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth by spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德锡; 陈文芝; 贾建静; 张丹

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a spectrophotometric method for determination of total flavonoids in Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth.METHODS Selecting rutin as control article, colorating with AlCl3, a spectrophotometric method was adopted to determine the contents of flavonoids.The total flavonoids in Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth were calculated.RESULTS The linear concentration range of total flavonoids was 4.4 - 35.2 μg· mL- 1 ( r = 0.9999) and the average recovery of total flavoniods was 96.21% with RSD of 1.39% (n =9).CONCLUSION This method is simple,quick,accurate and can be used for quality control of Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth.%目的:采用分光光度法测定角花胡颓子中总黄酮的含量.方法:以芦丁为对照品,三氯化铝显色,在417nm测定吸光度,计算角花胡颓子中总黄酮的含量.结果:芦丁4.4-35.2μg·mL-1与吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回归方程为:Y=0.043X+0.0008(r=0.9999),平均加样回收率为96.21%,RSD=1.39%(n=9).结论:所建方法简便、快速、准确,可用于角花胡颓子的质量控制.

  12. 5-H¡droxi-2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinona obtenida de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski(Euforbiaceae

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    Luis E. Cuca S.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto clorofórmico de la corteza del tronco de Pera nítida (Benth. Jablonski se aisló una sustancia amarilla que fue identificada como 5—hidro.x¡-2— metil —1,4—naftoquinona. Esta sustancia es conocida como plumbagina y ha mostrado una destacada acción biológica. La estructura fue deducida con base en los datos espectroscópicos y su presencia en esta especie tiene importancia quimiotaxonómica.

  13. Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Barhoumi, Lina M; Abaza, Ismail F; Afifi, Fatma U

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The essential oils of fresh and air-dried S. palaestina were mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.66% and 65.98%, respectively). The major component detected in the oils of fresh and dry S. palaestina was germacrene D (21.18% and 26.02%, respectively). Air drying resulted in a general increase of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and a great decrease in the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons.

  14. Simultaneous Quantification of Limonin, Two Indolequinazoline Alkaloids, and Four Quinolone Alkaloids in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by HPLC-DAD Method

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-ting Zhang; Bi-yan Pan; Qiong-feng Liao; Mei-cun Yao; Xin-jun Xu; Jin-zhi Wan; Dan Liu; Zhi-yong Xie

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC-DAD (225 nm) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of limonin and six key alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, evocarpine, 1-methy-2-[(6Z,9Z)]-6,9-pentadecadienyl-4-(1H)-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine) in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, which has been widely used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column, and gradient...

  15. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  16. Caracterização botânica e química de Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae Morphological and chemical diagnosis of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae

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    R.M.S. Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Congonha, congonha-de-bugre e bugre são nomes populares atribuídos a várias espécies medicinais, incluindo Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, cujas folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, antireumáticas e depurativas do sangue. Esta espécie vem sendo comercializada como porangaba e utilizada em regimes de emagrecimento, substituindo Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as características botânicas, fisico-químicas e químicas para R. viburnoides com o objetivo de auxiliar sua identificação taxonômica e o controle de qualidade de produtos preparados com esta planta. Uma amostra referência foi coletada e submetida à caracterização macroscópica, microscópica e organoléptica, determinação de cinzas totais e umidade, prospecção fitoquímica e determinação dos perfis cromatográficos em CCD. Amostras de R. viburnoides podem ser reconhecidas pela epiderme pilosa com marcantes estrias cuticulares, estômatos paracíticos, presença de idioblastos com ráfides no mesofilo e pela configuração em arco dos tecidos vasculares da nervura de primeira ordem, caracteres ausentes em C. ecalyculata. A presença de cistólitos e canais mucilaginosos na medula diferem prontamente C. ecalyculata de R. viburnoides. A análise por CCD evidenciou a presença de flavonóides e saponinas. Amostras adquiridas no comércio e submetidas aos mesmos ensaios permitiram validar os métodos propostos e confirmaram a ampla comercialização de R. viburnoides em Minas Gerais.Congonha, congonha-de-bugre and bugre are popular names for several medicinal plant species, including Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, whose leaves are widely used in popular medicine as diuretic, hypotensive, antirheumatic, and blood depurative. This species has been commercialized as porangaba, and used for diet purposes in substitution of Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. This study

  17. Crescimento de mudas de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan sob diferentes doses de macronutrientes Growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings under different macronutrient doses

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar, por meio de características morfológicas, o efeito de doses de macronutrientes no crescimento e desenvolvimento de mudas de angico- vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan produzidas em amostras de três classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. As mudas foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 2,1 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2005. Os tratamentos foram delimitados segundo uma matriz baconiana, em que se variaram os macronutrientes em três doses diferentes, mais dois tratamentos adicionais (zero e base, com quatro repetições. As fontes de N, K e S foram parceladas em quatro vezes (0-30-60-90 dias. Em termos gerais, o maior crescimento das plantas ocorreu no Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico. O nutriente que mais surtiu efeitos significativos foi o P, sendo recomendadas doses de 150 a 250 mg dm-3. Para a aplicação de N, recomendam-se doses mínimas de 50 mg/dm³. A aplicação de S deve ser de 20 a 80 mg dm-3. As respostas à aplicação dos demais nutrientes (Ca, Mg e K, em muitos casos, não ocorreu, evidenciando-se que a espécie tem baixo requerimento por eles. Entretanto, partindo desse estudo, sugerem-se novos estudos com os nutrientes K e Ca, para produção de mudas da referida espécie nesses solos.This work aimed to evaluate, by means of morphological characteristics, the effect of macronutrient doses on the growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings cultivated in three soils (Red Yellow Argisol, Red Yellow Dystrophic Latosol and Red Yellow alic Latosol. The seedling were sown in vases with capacity of 2.1 dm³ . The experiment was carried out from December 2004 to June 2005. The treatments were delimited according to a Baconian matrix, with macronutrients varying in three different doses, plus two additional treatments

  18. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae Pharmacognostic characterization of leaves and seeds of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., is popularly known in Brazil as "coração-de-negro". It is a species acclimatized in Brazil. The seeds of this species are used to treat diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhoids and the leaves are used for the treatment of ulcers and allergic conjunctivitis. The purpose of this work was to determine the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the leaves and seeds of this plant, since these are the parts used popularly. Some characters of diagnostical value are pointed out and illustrated by photomicrographs. Phytochemistry reactions and determination of water and ash were done on the powder of A. lebbeck. Saponins, alkaloids, coumarins were detected in the leaves and seeds; flavonoids were also detected

  19. Avaliação do efeito antinociceptivo e da toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth Evaluation of the analgesic effect and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Hyptis fruticosa (Salmz. ex Benth.

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    Aline B.L. Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o efeito antinociceptivo e a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa Salmz. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae. O extrato aquoso liofilizado, administrado por via oral, reduziu as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético (200, 400 e 500 mg/kg e o tempo de reação dos animais na primeira fase do teste da formalina (100 mg/kg e 400 mg/kg. No teste da placa quente, o extrato aquoso aumentou o tempo de latência ao calor (100 e 200 mg/kg tendo este efeito sido revertido pelo antagonista opióide naloxona (5 mg/kg; i.p.. No ensaio de toxicidade aguda, não foi detectada a morte de nenhum animal após tratamento com doses de até 5 g/kg (v.o. do extrato. Em conclusão, os resultados obtidos indicam que o extrato aquoso da Hyptis fruticosa apresenta efeito antinociceptivo em camundongos e não apresenta toxicidade aguda nas doses testadas.The antinociceptive effect and the acute toxicity of Hyptis fruticosa leaves were evaluated through the administration of its aqueous extract in mice. The extract, administered orally (200, 400, and 500 mg/kg, reduced the nociceptive response in the writhing test as well as in the early phase of the formalin test (100 and 400 mg/kg and it increased the latency time in the hot plate test (100 and 200 mg/kg. The antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.. Moreover, no animal deaths were observed in doses up to 5 g/kg. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Hyptis fruticosa showed no acute toxicity at the evaluated doses and revealed antinociceptive effect in mice. Such effects are possibly associated with the opioid system activation.

  20. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

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    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-05-27

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  3. Árvores de Baginha (Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. em Ecossistemas de Pastagens Cultivadas na Amazônia Ocidental

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    Andrade Carlos Mauricio Soares de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de árvores isoladas de baginha (Stryphnodendron guianense (Aubl. Benth. sobre alguns aspectos do ecossistema de pastagens cultivadas na Amazônia Ocidental. Avaliaram-se, sob a copa das árvores e na área adjacente a pleno sol, a fertilidade do solo, a serapilheira, o teor de água no solo, a transmissão de luz ao pasto, a disponibilidade de forragem e as composições química e morfológica das gramíneas (mistura de Brachiaria decumbens e B. brizantha cv. Marandu. As árvores de baginha tiveram efeito positivo sobre a fertilidade do solo, notadamente com relação ao conteúdo de matéria orgânica e de nitrogênio, sendo a deposição de grande quantidade de serapilheira, rica em nitrogênio, a principal contribuição. A forragem sombreada apresentou maiores teores de N e K e menores de Ca, na fração folha verde, do que em áreas a pleno sol. As árvores de baginha apresentaram copa pouco densa, permitindo a transmissão de 27% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa incidente ao meio-dia. A elevada cobertura do solo (superior a 85% e a boa disponibilidade de forragem sob a copa da baginha, juntamente com outros atributos, confirmam o potencial desta leguminosa para arborização de pastagens e como componente de outras modalidades de sistemas silvipastoris no trópico úmido.

  4. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  5. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

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    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  6. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Tibetan herbal medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjiang; Li, Hongyu; Yun, Tian; Fu, Yonghong; Liu, Chunmei; Gong, Bu; Neng, Benjia

    2008-01-10

    The essential oil of Tibetan medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 0.7% (v/w) yield. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectral (GC-MS). Eighty-three compounds, constituting about 89.83% of the total oil, were identified. The main compound in the oil were Cineole (14.89%), trans-nerolido (7.10%), 1-m-ethyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene (4.42%), Germacrene-D (4.84%), Decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-4aH-cycloprop[e]azulen-4a-ol (4.94%), p-menth-1-en-4-ol,acetate (4.34%), 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (4.10%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against nine bacterial, one yeast, and three fungi. The antimicrobial test result showed that the essential oil strongly inhibited the growth of test microorganisms studied. The maximal inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial, yeast and fungi strain were in the range of 18-25 mm and 0.039-0.156 mg mL(-1); *20 mm, and 0.156 mg mL(-1); 8-24 mm and 0.313-2.5 mg mL(-1); respectively. The antioxidant activity of the oil was determined by the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) test, measuring the MDA concentration in mouse liver cell microsomal after induced lipid peroxidation using FeSO(4) and ascorbic acid, The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was 59.3% with a concentration of 0.5 mg mL(-1). Result presented here may suggest that the essential oil of D. heterophyllum posses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be one of new medicinal resources for antimicrobial agent and/or used as a natural preservative ingredient in food and cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industry.

  7. Simultaneous Quantification of Limonin, Two Indolequinazoline Alkaloids, and Four Quinolone Alkaloids in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth by HPLC-DAD Method

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    Pei-ting Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient HPLC-DAD (225 nm method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of limonin and six key alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H-quinolone, evocarpine, 1-methy-2-[(6Z,9Z]-6,9-pentadecadienyl-4-(1H-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth, which has been widely used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column, and gradient elution was employed with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water. Contents of the analytes in 18 batches of samples were analyzed by ultrasonic extraction with ethanol and water mixture (80 : 20, v/v followed by HPLC analysis. Separation of the seven analytes was achieved within 60 min with good linearity (. The RSD of both the intraday and interday precision was below 1.85%. The accuracy at different concentrations was within the range of 97.91 to 100.49%. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the seven constituents. This study indicated that the quality control of E. rutaecarpa could be simplified to the measurement of four constituents, and that limonin, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine should also be served as the chemical markers together with evodiamine for the quality control of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth.

  8. In-vitro cytotoxicity study of methanolic fraction from Ajuga Bracteosa wall ex. benth on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and hep-2 larynx carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Akiriti; Toppo, Fedelic Aahish; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Singour, Pradeep K; Pawar, Rajesh S

    2014-01-01

    Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth (Labiatae) is popularly known in India as Neelkanthi. A decoction of the leaves, flowers, and barks is used in India for the treatment of cancer including diabetes, malaria, and inflammation etc. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of Ajuga bracteosa. Successive solvent extraction of Ajuga bracteosa in petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts was done. These extracts were tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The methanolic fraction of Ajuga bracteosa had shown the significant results against MCF-7 and Hep-2 tumor cell lines. The methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract from Ajuga bracteosa, presented an IC50 value at 24 h of 10, 65, 70 μg/ml and 5, 30, 15 μg/ml on MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. Steroids compounds namely β-sitosterol and unknown constituents were identified in the most active methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. These known and unknown compounds exhibited cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 and Hep-2 cancer cells. Among all the tested extracts, methanolic extract can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations.

  9. Parâmetros bioquímicos foliares das espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth. e Bauhinia forficata (Link. para avaliação da qualidade do ar Foliar analyses of biochemical parameters of Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forficata (Link. species for air quality assessment

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    Otávio Luiz Gusso Maioli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar analysis of biochemical parameters were carried out in order to investigate the influence of air pollutants on two tropical tree species (Licania tomentosa (Benth. and Bauhinia forfícata (Link.. Special attention was given to tropospheric ozone due to the fact that concentration levels in the region were found to be up to 140 µg m-3 for a 4 h average time, which is well above the value that can cause injuries to orchides and tobacco (59 µg m-3. Other pollutants such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides were measured and their ambient concentrations were also associated to biochemical alterations in the investigated species.

  10. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Peter Gasson; David Cutler

    2011-01-01

    Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira), às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (jurema-preta) ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da ...

  11. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

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    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  12. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

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    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  13. Actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos etanólicos de Erythrina crista-galii L., Erythrina falcata Benth y Erythrina dominguezii Hassl

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    Gloria Yaluff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La tripanosomiasis americana y la leishmaniosis son problemas de salud pública relevantes en Iberoamérica. Se evaluó la actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos de cortezas y hojas de Erythrina crista-galli L., E. dominguezii Hassl y E. falcata Benth sobre formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi y promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum L. braziliensis. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 11,7 μg/ml y 14,9 μg/ml con dos cepas de T. cruzi, Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de hoja presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml. La corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 11,29 μg/ml y 7,37 μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener y el extracto de hojas CI50 de 37,2 μg/ml y 25,68 μg/ml. El extracto de hojas de E. crista-galli L. presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml, y el de corteza CI50 11,2μg/ml y 7,1μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 3,22 μg/ml, 6,94 μg/ml y 1,9 μg/ml para L. amazonensis, L. infantum y L. braziliensis y en hojas la CI50 fue mayor a 100 μg/ml. La corteza de E. crista-galli L. tuvo CI50 de 2,1 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,6 μg/ml para las tres especies. El extracto de hoja tuvo una CI50 mayor a 100 μg/ml. El extracto de corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 2,17 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,52 μg/ml con las tres especies de Leishmania y el de hoja CI50 de 14,9 μg/ml, 10,4 μg/ml y 11,6 μg/ml. Los extractos de corteza podrían ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades parasitarias, previa confirmación con estudios in vivo y de toxicidad.

  14. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  15. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

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    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  17. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Study of evolution and developmental mechanism of stamen in Salvia hypoleuca Benth. (Lamiaceae and related taxa using Electron Microscopy and molecular phylogenetic tools

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    Maryam-Sadat Asadollahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salvia L. includes a group of plants having two stamens with a special morphology. Natural groups within this genus consist of species with special type of stamen morphology. In this paper, phylogenetic placement and developmental stages of stamen of S. hypoleuca Benth. were studied. Examination of this and related species showed that each flower had two stamens with posterior thecae not expressed and the distal posterior ends of the adjacent connectives were fused into a complex structure blocking access to nectar. All species with such type of stamens grouped into a monophyletic clade with robust support. Study of stamen development in S. hypoleuca showed that normal, anterior thecae were evolved before the other organs and that the stamen found its final matured form before flower opened. In an opened flower, stamen and reproductive organs could be found in their final maturestage. In addition, it seemed that stamen development in related species should be similar.

  19. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  20. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOANATOMIA E HISTOQUÍMICA DE Hyptis rubicunda POHL ex BENTH. (LAMIACEAE), OCORRENTE NA SERRA DOURADA, GOIÁS, BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Silva de Castro, Aline; Dias Ferreira, Heleno; Rezende, Maria Helena; Faria, Maria Tereza

    2015-01-01

    As Lamiaceae são reconhecidas por sua importância econômica e etnofarmacológica. O gênero Hyptis pertence às Lamiaceae com cerca de 400 espécies, no Brasil são encontradas 202 espécies, sendo 146 endêmicas. O objetivo desse estudo foi caracterizar morfologicamente e anatomicamente o caule e a folha da espécie Hyptis rubicunda Pohl ex Benth., visando auxiliar na caracterização desta espécie e contribuir com novos dados para o grupo. A espécie foi coletada na Serra Dourada, Mossâmedes, Goiás. P...

  1. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  2. Strong Polarity Components of Pogostemon cablin(Blance)Benth.%广藿香大极性化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文兵; 刘梅芳; 魏孝义; 林立东

    2009-01-01

    从广藿香(Pogostemon cablin (Blance)Benth.)地上部分乙醇提取物的正丁醇萃取部位分离得到13个化合物.通过光谱和波谱分析,分别鉴定为:芹菜素(1)、3,5,4'-三羟基-7-甲氧基黄酮(2)、3,5-二羟基_4',7-二甲氧基黄酮(3)、Apigenin 7-galacturonide(4)、Apigenin 7-(O-methylghacuronide)(5),Luteolin 7-O-(6-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside)(6),4',5-二羟基-3',7-二甲氧基二氢黄酮(7)、Quercetha-7-β-D-ghcoside(8),3,23-Dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid(9)、Syringaresinol-β-D-glucoside(10),毛蕊花糖苷(11)、列当苷(12)、紫葳新苷(13),化合物2~13均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Thirteen compounds were isolated from n-butanol extraction of ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Pogostemon cablin (Blance) Benth. On the basis of spectral data,they were identified as apigenin (1),3,5,4'-Trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (2),3,5-Dihydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (3),apigenin 7-galacturonide(4),apigenin 7-(O-methylghcuronide)(5),luteolin 7-O-(6-O-methyl-β-D-glucuronopyranoside)(6),4',5-Dihydroxy-3',7-dimethoxyflavanone (7),quercetin-7-β-D-glucoside (8),3,23-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (9),syringaresinolβ-D-glucoside(10),verbascoside(11),orobanchoside(12),campneoside Ⅰ(13).Compounds 2~13 were isolated from the plant for the first time.

  3. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  4. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery Efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, em artéria mesentérica de ratos

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    Ítalo J. A. Moreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6 of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively. Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7 after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7. In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which appears to be due in major part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels.O efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae (HFDE, em anéis isolados de artéria mesentérica de ratos foi avaliado nesse estudo. Em anéis intactos, pré-contraídos com fenilefrina (10 µM, HFDE (0,1-3000 µg/mL induziu vasorelaxamento de maneira dependente de concentração (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6, o qual não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6, após KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6 ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6. Em anéis sem endotélio, HFDE (300 ou 1000 µg/mL inibiu as contrações induzidas por CaCl2 (inibição máxima = 25±7% e 95±1%, respectivamente. Além disso, HFDE promoveu um vasorelaxamento adicional (15±3%; n = 7 sobre o relaxamento máximo de 10 µM de nifedipina (78±3%, n = 7. Em conclusão, HFDE induz efeito vasorelaxante através de uma via independente de endotélio, possivelmente devido à inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através de canais de Ca2+ operados por voltagem.

  5. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  6. 湖北野生香茶菜花期挥发油GC—MS分析%Analysis of Volatile Oil of Hubei Wild Rabdosia Amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara in the Flower Period by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利香; 陈琼; 陈利军

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究香茶菜花期挥发油的化学成分.方法:采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取香茶菜花期的挥发油,以气相色谱—质谱联用(GC-MS)仪测定挥发油化学组分.结果:主要成分为2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚(33.076%),1,2,3,4-四甲基-5-亚甲基-1,3-环戊二烯(13.826%),2,3,4,6-四甲基苯酚(11.426%).结论:香茶菜含大量常用食品添加剂2-甲氧基-4-乙烯基苯酚,可以综合开发利用.%Objective:Studies on the chemical constituents of flower volatile oil from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H. Hara. Method:The essential oil was extracted from Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.)H.Hara.by steam distillation. Compon-ents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Result:The main chemical components are 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol (33.076%), 1,3-Cyclopentadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetramethyl-5-methylene-(13.826%), Phenol, 2,3,4,6-tetramethyl-(11.426%). Con-clusion:Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.contains a lot of 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, which is a common food ad-ditives. Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth.) H. Hara.can be comprehensive utilization.

  7. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  8. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke =Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke

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    Denise Aline Casimiro Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (juremabranca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increasedthe search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  9. (Blanco) Benth (Lamiaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analytical gas chromatography (GC) and confirmation of chemical structure ... The effect of PA from Pogostemon cablin on immunological function was studied by ... (DTH) in mice that were administered orally doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. ... These results suggest that PA has significant immunomodulatory properties which.

  10. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... inhibition for aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of patchouli with 20 to 80 µl concentration and no ... The combination of these antimicrobial plant extracts can be used ..... graveolens) with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  11. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

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    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  12. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  13. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

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    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  14. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  15. Study on chemical constituents from bark of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth%榥榥木树皮化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 唐万侠

    2013-01-01

      利用硅胶柱色谱和HPLC对榥榥木树皮化学成分进行分离,得到3个倍半萜类化合物.经1H NMR,13C NMR等鉴定它们的结构分别为(8,9,10)-8,9-epoxycalamenen-10-ol(1), Eudesm-4(15)-ene-1,6-diol(2),(4S,4aS,6S,8aS)-4a,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-4-hydroxy-4,8a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)naphthalen-1(4H)-one(3).3个化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Study the chemical constituents from the bark of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth by column chromatography and HPLC.Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as(8,9,10)-8, 9-epoxycalamenen-10-ol(1),Eudesm-4(15)-ene-1,6-diol(2),(4S,4aS,6S,8aS)-4a,5,6,7, 8,8a-Hexahydro-4-hydroxy-4,8a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)naphthalen-1(4H)-one(3).The compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  16. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-07-05

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  17. CONTENIDO DE TANINOS EN LA CORTEZA DE DOS ESPECIES DE PARÁCATA (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby

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    Serafín Colín-Urieta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron taninos de la corteza de Parácata (Erythroxylon compactum Rose y Senna skinneri Benth. Irwin & Barneby mediante extracción acuosa aplicando un diseño experimental 2k, con k = 4 y n = 2. Los factores y niveles fueron: Factor A = tamaño de partícula (0.417, 6.68 mm, Factor B = tiempo de extracción (120, 180 min, Factor C = temperatura de extracción (80, 87 °C, Factor D = relación sólido-líquido (1:15, 1:12. Se evaluó la calidad curtiente de los taninos. Se curtió una piel de venado con taninos de S. skinneri y se determinó la resistencia al desagarre y la resistencia a la tensión. Los resultados de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la piel curtida fueron superiores a los valores mínimos recomendados por las normas mexicanas. Con base en lo anterior, se estima que la corteza de S. skinneri pudiera ser susceptible de aprovechamiento para la extracción de taninos y así usarlos en el curtido de pieles.

  18. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  19. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  20. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

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    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of the Hexane Fraction of the Ethanolic Extract of the Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth in Acute and Chronic Inflammation

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    Jaqueline Hoscheid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Pterodon pubescens Benth have been used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism, sore throat, and respiratory disorders, and also as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, depurative, tonic, and hypoglycemic agent. The study was aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane fraction of an ethanolic extract of P. pubescens fruits. The oil from P. pubescens fruits was extracted with ethanol and partitioned with hexane. The anti-inflammatory activity was measured with increasing doses of the hexane fraction (FHPp by using a carrageenan-induced rat model of pleurisy and a rat model of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis by using an FHPp dose of 250 mg/kg for 21 days. Treatment with an FHPp resulted in anti-inflammatory activity in both models. The results of biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses indicated a significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (18.32%, 34.20%, and 41.70%, resp. and reduction in the numbers of total leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The FHPp dose of 1000 mg/kg induced no changes in behavioral parameters, and no animal died. The results of this study extend the findings of previous reports that have shown that administration of extracts and fractions obtained from species of the genus Pterodon exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and lacks toxicity.

  2. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  3. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p fertilizer treatment significantly, (p fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  4. Caracterización de la resistencia a la antracnosis causada por Glomerella cingulata y productividad de cinco genotipos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.

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    Juan Manuel López-Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la vereda Betania, municipio de Guática, Risaralda (Colombia a 2160 m.s.n.m., se evaluaron cinco materiales promisorios de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth. por su resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y por su alta productividad, los cuales fueron previamente seleccionados por el grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Diez meses después del establecimiento las plantas fueron inoculadas con diferentes cepas del hongo a una concentración de 1.2 x 10(6 conidios/ml de agua. Las variables evaluadas fueron incidencia (presencia o ausencia de lesiones en tallo, severidad (según escala de 1 a 9 y rendimiento (kg/planta. Los genotipos se clasificaron en tres grupos según su resistencia al patógeno y por su rendimiento: el primero, lo conformaron UTP-8 y UTP-7, los cuales produjeron 21 y 17.6 t/ha, respectivamente; el segundo grupo estuvo formado por el genotipo UTP-1 el cual produjo 14.3 t/ha, y el tercero por UTP-2 y UTP-4 con 9.8 y 7.9 t/ha, respectivamente.

  5. Investigação dos efeitos citotóxico, genotóxico e antibacteriano dos taninos isolados de Anacardium Occidentale Linn e Anadenanthera Macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan em linhagens de Streptococcus associados ao biofilme dental

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves de

    2013-01-01

    As plantas são uma rica fonte de novas moléculas biologicamente ativas com reconhecido potencial no desenvolvimento de medicamentos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn é popularmente conhecida como 'cajueiro', é uma planta da família das Anacardiaceae, originária do Nordeste do Brasil e popularmente conhecida por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias e cicatrizantes. O Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan ou o "angico" é pertencente a família das Mimosaceae, distribuída pelas r...

  6. Conservación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) mediante la aplicación de un recubrimiento comestible de gel de mucílago de penca de sábila (aloe barbadensis miller)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Quirama, Jhon David

    2012-01-01

    La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth) es una fruta comercialmente importante, en la venta al detalle y en la industrial, pese a que es un producto altamente perecedero. Los recubrimientos comestibles (RC) han tenido mucho auge como método de conservación sobre las frutas a nivel mundial debido a su fácil implementación y costo relativamente bajo. El aloe vera es una alternativa bastante importante en los RC, debido a sus características mucílaginosas y a su poder antimicrobiano, a demás q...

  7. Drift of sub-doses of glyphosate in young plants of Varjão (Parkia multijuga, Benth. Deriva de sub-dosis de glyphosate en plantas jóvenes de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth. Deriva de sub-doses de glyphosate em plantas jovens de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth.

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    Oscar Mitsuo Yamashita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la respuesta a la toxicidad de diferentes sub-dosis de glyphosate en las plantas jóvenes de Varjão (Parkia multijuga Benth.. El experimento se ha instalado en área experimental de la UNEMAT - Universidad de lo Estado de Mato Grosso, en el Campus de Alta Floresta, Alta Floresta-MT. Los tratamientos fueron tres sub-dosis de glifosato (T1-6%, T2-12%, T3-24% de la dosis recomendada de 3,0 L ha-1 y T4 - control (sin aplicación. Después de 7, 14, 21, y 28 días y de 6 meses de aplicación del herbicida, se hicieron mediciones de la altura y de lo diámetro de las plantas con la atribución de las notas de fitotoxicidad. Después de 6 meses de aplicación del herbicida, se encontró que dosis crecientes de glyphosate provocan lesiones en las hojas y reducción del crecimiento en altura de las plantas de Parkia multijuga, hubo uno pequeño índice de mortalidad, sin embargo, se observó una mejoría significativa en todos los tratamientos probados.

    This work aimed to evaluate the response to toxicity of different sub-doses of glyphosate in young plants of varjão (Parkia multijuga, Benth.. The experiment was installed in the experimental area of UNEMAT – State University of Mato Grosso, in Alta Floresta – Mato Grosso state. The treatments tested were three sublethal rates of glyphosate (T1-6%, T2-12%, T3-24% of the recommended dose of 3.0 L ha-1 and T4-control (without application. After 7, 14, 21, 28 days and 6 months of the application of the herbicide, it was performed measurements of the height and diameter of the cervix of plants and given the notes of phytotoxicity. After 6 months of the application of the herbicide, it was found that the increasing doses of glyphosate caused injuries in the leaves and reduction of growth in height in plants of Parkia multijuga, there was low index of mortality

  8. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  9. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase activity and accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Many plants accumulate hydroxycinnamoyl esters to protect against abiotic and biotic stresses. Caffeoyl esters in particular can be substrates for endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Recently, we showed that perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) leaves contain PPO and identified one PPO substrate, caftaric acid (trans-caffeoyl-tartaric acid). Additional compounds were believed to be cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl tartaric acid and cis- and trans-feruloyl-tartaric acid, but lack of standards prevented definitive identifications. Here we characterize enzymatic activities in peanut leaves to understand how caftaric acid and related hydroxycinnamoyl esters are made in this species. We show that peanut leaves contain a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tartaric acid hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HTT) activity capable of transferring p-coumaroyl, caffeoyl, and feruloyl moieties from CoA to tartaric acid (specific activities of 11 ± 2.8, 8 ± 1.8, 4 ± 0.8 pkat mg(-1) crude protein, respectively). The HTT activity was used to make cis- and trans-p-coumaroyl- and -feruloyl-tartaric acid in vitro. These products allowed definitive identification of the corresponding cis- and trans-hydroxycinnamoyl esters extracted from leaves. We tentatively identified sinapoyl-tartaric acid as another major phenolic compound in peanut leaves that likely participates in secondary reactions with PPO-generated quinones. These results suggest hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters are made by an acyltransferase, possibly a BAHD family member, in perennial peanut. Identification of a gene encoding HTT and further characterization of the enzyme will aid in identifying determinants of donor and acceptor substrate specificity for this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. An HTT gene could also provide a means by genetic engineering for producing caffeoyl- and other hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acid esters in forage crops that lack them.

  10. Micorrizas arbusculares asociadas al pasto angleton (Dichathium aristatum Benth en fincas ganaderas del municipio de Tolú, Sucre-Colombia

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    Alexander Pérez C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El presente estudio consistió en caracterizar el porcentaje de colonización de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HMA; asociados a la rizósfera del pasto Angleton (Dichanthium aristatum Benth de fincas ganaderas del municipio de Tolú, departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se muestrearon en total 35 fincas ganaderas, de las cuales se tomaron 10 muestras de suelo con raíces por finca a una profundidad de 20 cm. De cada muestra se aislaron esporas de HMA, se hizo separación de morfotipos y su respectiva identificación a través de claves taxonómicas. De las raíces colectadas se determinó el porcentaje de colonización utilizando métodos de coloración. Resultados. Los ANAVA multifactorial entre las variables densidad de esporas/100 g de suelo y porcentaje de colonización en función a zonas y corregimiento mostraron diferencias altamente significativas. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el 92% de las especies encontradas corresponden a características de hongos HMA similares al género Glomus, el 4% al género Gigaspora y el 4% restante a Paraglomus. Conclusiones. Este estudio preliminar realizado en el Caribe colombiano muestra la diversidad, densidad poblacional y el porcentaje de colonización de HMA asociadas al pasto Angleton en condiciones de siete corregimientos pertenecientes a dos zonas agrológicas del municipio de Tolú, departamento de Sucre.

  11. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone.

  12. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  13. Controles físico, físico-químico, químico e microbiológico dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae Physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological control of fruits of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae

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    Silviane Z. Hubinger

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas de desenvolvimento e produção, desde a coleta do vegetal até o produto final. O controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e seus extratos é essencial quando utilizados como matéria-prima para o desenvolvimento de fitoterápicos. Neste trabalho foram utilizadas diversas técnicas (farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas visando estabelecer parâmetros de qualidade dos frutos de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae, popularmente conhecida como faveiro. Os resultados obtidos determinaram as características físico-químicas da droga vegetal e mostraram que o pó dos frutos e o extrato etanólico 70% de D. mollis apresentam um teor de flavonóides de 10,25% e 17,21%, respectivamente. A análise fitoquímica preliminar dos frutos caracterizou a presença de taninos, saponinas e flavonóides. Na análise microbiológica do extrato não houve crescimento de patógenos entre os testes realizados.Considering the quality of phytotherapic agents, it is important to point out that the concern with this subject includes rigorous attendance the different steps of development and production of these products, from the collection of the vegetable to the availability of the final product. The quality control for the plants and their extracts is essential when they are used in the development of phytotherapics. In this work, methodologies (pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic were employed to establish norms for the quality control of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae fruit, popularly known as faveira. Pharmacopoeic and no pharmacopoeic methodologies were employed to physic, physic-chemical, chemical and microbiological quality control. The results obtained established the physic-chemical characters of the drug and showed that the fruits and the ethanol 70% extract present a content of flavonoids

  14. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  15. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts Validação de método de cromatografia líquida de alta performance para padronização de extratos comerciais de Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularmente conhecida como marapuama, muirapuama ou miriantã, é uma espécie nativa da região da Amazônia do Brasil. Extratos das cascas da planta são tradicionalmente usados por suas propriedades estimulantes e afrodisíacas, e frequentemente comercializados como constituinte de uma grande variedade de formulações fitoterápicas. O fracionamento por coluna cromatográfica aberta seguida por CLAE-UV/PAD das cascas do caule de três extratos comerciais de P. olacoides permitiram o isolamento de três substâncias comuns em todos os extratos analisados. Os compostos foram identificados por RMN como ácido vanílico, ácido protocatecuíco e teobromina. O ácido vanílico foi utilizado como marcador fitoquímico para P. olacoides e empregado como padr

  16. Revisión del género Salvia L. sect. Aethiopis Benth. (Lamiaceae en el Mediterráneo Occidental

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    Rosúa, J. L.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of Salvia L. sect. Aethiopis Benth. in Western Mediterranean is presented. 4 species and 3 subspecies are recognized. A key to the species is given, together with the correct name, synonymy, description, type, chromosome number, distribution, ecology, phytosociology and a list of localities for each taxon. The new combination Salvia phlomoides Asso subsp. boissieri (Noë Rosúa & Blanca is proposed. The general distribution and the possible origin of the studied taxa is shortly discussed.

    Se revisa taxonómicamente la sect. Aethiopis Benth. del género Salvia L. en el Mediterráneo Occidental. Se reconocen 4 especies y 3 subespecies. Para cada taxon se indica el nombre correcto, sinonimia, descripción, tipo, número cromosómico, distribución, ecología, fitosociología y localidades estudiadas. Se propone la nueva combinación Salvia phlomoides Asso subsp. boissieri (Noë Rosúa & Blanca. Se establece la distribución actual de los táxones estudiados y se analiza su posible origen.

  17. Optimization of extracting technology for cytisine in Thermopsis chinensis Benth seeds%小叶野决明种子中金雀花碱提取工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国宇; 周军辉; 谢斌; 王庆; 孙颖; 崔新爱

    2016-01-01

    采用正交实验设计优化了小叶野决明种子中金雀花碱的热回流法提取工艺。采用高效液相色谱法测定了提取样品中金雀花碱的含量。热回流法的最佳提取工艺为:药材粉末加10倍量的80%乙醇,回流提取1.5 h,提取3次。在此条件下,提取率可达1.68%。经验证,优化的提取工艺稳定可行,可作为小叶野决明种子中金雀花碱提取的新工艺。%The orthogonal test was used for optimizing the refluxing extraction technology for cytisine in Thermopsis chinensis Benth seeds.We detected the content of cytisine by high-performance liquid chroma-tography.Cytisine was extracted with 10 times 80% ethanol,refluxed for 1.5 h,and with 3 repolications under these condition,the yield up to 1.68%.The optimized technique is stable and can be used for ex-tracting cytisine from in Thermopsis chinensis Benth seeds.

  18. 鸡血藤红色素的提取与基本性质分析%Red Pigment Extraction from Millettia reticulata Benth and Physical and Chemical Properties of Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许润; 刘建华; 杨广成; 李计龙; 杨迺嘉

    2012-01-01

    探讨鸡血藤红色素的最佳提取溶液,定性定量光、温度、pH值、氧化还原介质对红色素稳定性的影响。结果表明,鸡血藤红色素最佳提取溶剂为65%酸性乙醇(pH1.8),且色素为非花色苷类色素。室内自然光对色素影响不大,该红色素在20~60℃具有较好的稳定性,对氧化剂、还原剂反应敏感。%The red pigment was extracted from Millettia reticulata Benth and the physical and chemical properties of red pigment from Millettia reticulata Benth were investigated, the effects of light, temperature, pH value, oxide-reducing medium on pigment stability were studied. The results showed that the procedure of acid-alcohol extraction gave rather satisfactory results. The pigment does not belong to anthocyanins, and is stable below 20 -- 60 ~C, but its resistance to oxide and reductant is not good.

  19. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil from Clausena anisata (Willd.)Hook. f. exBenth (Rutaceae) against three mosquito species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marimuthu Govindarajan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their chemical constituents fromClausena anisata(C. anisata) (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth. against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti andAnopheles Stephensi.Methods:Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and the chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty late III instar larvae of three mosquito species were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range tests, essential oil was tested at50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm and each compound was tested at various concentration (5-75 ppm) and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005; the 24 hLC50 values of theC. anisata leaf essential oil and their major compounds were determined following Probit analysis.Results:The oil contained were mainly β-pinene (32.8%), sabinene(28.3%), germacrene-D (12.7%), estragole (6.4%) and linalool(5.9%). The essential oil from the leaves ofC. anisataexhibited significant larvicidal activity, with24 hLC50 values of140.96, 130.19 and119.59ppm, respectively. The five pure constituents extracted from theC. anisata leaf essential oil were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC50values of β-pinene, sabinene, germacrene-D, estragole and linalool appeared to be most effective againstAnopheles stephensi(LC50-23.17, 19.67, 16.95, 11.01, 35.17ppm) followed byAedes aegypti (LC50-27.69, 21.20,18.76, 12.70, 38.64 ppm) and Culex quinquefasciatus(LC50-32.23, 25.01, 21.28, 14.01, 42.28).Conclusions:The essential oil of C. anisata contains five major compounds and has remarkable larvicidal properties, which may be considered as a potent source for the production of natural larvicides.

  20. Sobre a botânica, a etnofarmacologia e a química de Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O fato de possuir espécies com potencial econômico ilimitado, faz com que o ambiente amazônico se torne alvo constante da biopirataria e da extração predatória dos recursos. Muitas espécies deste ambiente sequer possuem catalogação e, mesmo assim, encontram risco eminente de desaparecimento. Neste âmbito, trabalhos que reúnam dados sobre estas espécies possuem grande valor científico, cultural e econômico, sendo este o estímulo que desencadeou a produção desta revisão. Aqui a espécie Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. Hook. f. ex K. Schum., uma Rubiaceae amazônica, é contemplada por meio de características botânicas, indicações etnofarmacológicas e propriedades químicas. Popularmente conhecida como mulateiro, a espécie é frequentemente receitada na etnomedicina como cicatrizante e rejuvenescedor, além de ser usada no controle de manchas de pele. Como peculiaridade botânica, mulateiro apresenta tronco retilíneo com epiderme fina esverdeada que evolui para uma periderme castanho-escuro, que é anualmente renovada. Em termos químicos, há destaque para a presença de alcalóides, taninos e, sobretudo, secoiridóides (7-metoxididerrosideo, 6´-acetil-β-D-glucopiranosildiderrosideo e 8-0-tigloildiderrosideo são peculiares à espécie. Mesmo com propriedades fotoprotetoras comprovadas, C. spruceanum ainda carece de pesquisas, sobretudo àquelas voltadas para a produção ex situ da planta e àquelas que demonstrem a relação entre a ecologia da planta e a produção de metabólitos funcionais para a indústria.

  1. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  2. 吴茱萸不同炮制方法对抗炎镇痛作用的影响研究%Study on Analgesic and Anti - Inflammatory Effects of Different Kinds of Evodia Rutaecarpa (Juss.)Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 黄开颜; 陈兴; 杨晖; 李康; 张志国

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察吴茱萸不同炮制品的抗炎镇痛作用.方法 采用小鼠热板法和扭体法,观察吴茱萸不同炮制品的镇痛作用;采用耳肿法观察吴茱萸不同炮制品的抗炎作用.结果 吴茱萸不同炮制品能明显提高热板和扭体试验小鼠的痛阈值,其中以砂烫盐炙组作用较强;对二甲苯所致的小鼠耳廓肿胀有明显的抑制作用,其中以砂烫组作用较强.结论 吴茱萸不同炮制品均有显著的抗炎、镇痛作用,其中以砂烫组和砂烫盐炙组作用较强.%Objective To study analgesic and anti - inflammatory effects of different processed products of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. ) Benth. Methods The analgesic effect was tested by hot plate method and writhing body method in mice. The anti - inflammatory effect was tested by ear swollen method in mice. Results For the pain caused by hot plate method and writhing body method, the different processed products of Evodia rutaecarpa{Juss. ) Benth. have obviously increased threshold of pain in mice. Among these products, the group of stir - baked in sand with processed salty water shows more intensive effect,which has substantially inhibiting effects on mice s ear swelling caused by dimethylbenzene. The stir - baked in sand is more intensive. Conclusion Different processed products of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. ) Benth. have marked analgesic and anti - inflammatory effects, of which the stir - baked in sand one and stir - baked in sand wTith processed salty water one are more intensive.

  3. Morphogenesis and Developmental Law of Glandular Hairs of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth%木香薷腺毛形态结构发生发育规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广龙; 赵挺; 康冬冬; 魏学智

    2011-01-01

    采用常规石蜡切片法及扫描电镜技术对木香薷(Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth)腺毛发生发育及其规律进行了研究.结果表明:木香薷表皮上主要有两种表皮毛:无分泌细胞的表皮毛与有分泌细胞的腺毛.前者包括单细胞乳头状毛、2~3细胞管状毛、分枝状毛及多细胞管状毛;后者包括头状腺毛与盾状腺毛.成熟头状腺毛头部由1、2或4个分泌细胞构成,头部呈圆球形或半圆球形;成熟盾状腺毛头部由8~12个分泌细胞构成,分泌细胞横向扩展形成盾状头部.木香薷腺毛主要在茎端幼叶处大量发生,从茎端第一对幼叶处开始产生;从幼叶期到成熟期均有腺毛发生,大部分腺毛在幼叶期发生发育,只有极少部分在叶的成熟期进行发生发育.%The paraffin sectionning and scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) were used to study the morphogenesis and law of development of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth. The results showed that glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth has two main types of trichomes: trichomes without secreting cells and trichomes with secreting cells. The former include: single-cell mastoid trichomes ,2-3 cells tubular trichomes ,2-3 cells ramose trichomes and multicellular tubular trichomes. The latter include peltate and capitate hairs. The mature capitate glandular hairs comprise one, two or four secretory cells and its head is spherical or half spherical. The head of mature peltate glandular hairs comprises eight to twelve secretory cells and the secretory cells expand to a shield-shaped head. The glandular hairs of E. Stauntoni Benth mainly occur gready on younger leaves and start to generate from the first pair of younger leaves of stem apex. The morphogenesis of new glandular hairs can be observed to occur from young leaves stage to mature stage, however, only a relatively small amount occurs in maturation stage.

  4. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366 Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5366

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onaldo Guedes Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (jurema-branca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increased the search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  5. Comparison of the susceptibility of two hardwood species, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Eucalyptus viminalis labill, to steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion of two hardwood species was carried out with and without addition of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 0.5%, p/v as a pretreatment catalyst. In general, wood chips of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill were shown to be more amenable to pretreatment than chips derived from bolds of Mimosa scabrella Benth (bracatinga. This was apparent from all pretreatment parameters tested including the overall recovery yields of pretreated fractions, carbohydrates (pentoses and hexoses recovered as water-solubles, yield of dehydration by-products and lignin susceptibility to acid hydrolysis. There was no evidence for complete deacetylation of both wood species during pretreatment and lignin appeared to undergo extensive acid hydrolysis at higher pretreatment severities. Steam treatment at 205ºC for 5 min without addition of an acid catalyst was shown to be uncapable of removing the hemicellulose component from bracatinga chips, as determined by chemical analysis of the steam-treated water-insoluble fractions. Nearly 30% of the hemicellulose (xylan found in bracatinga remained unhydrolysed after pretreatment, whereas more than 90% of this component could be removed from eucalypt chips under the same pretreatment conditions. Likewise, pretreatment of eucalypt chips resulted in a more extensive solubilization of glucans (cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Addition of dilute H2SO4 as a pretreatment catalyst generally increased the recovery yield of fermentable sugars in the water-soluble fractions and this effect was more pronounced for the pretreatment of bracatinga chips. Steam-treated substrates produced from bracatinga were also less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis than those produced from eucalypt chips, regardless of the use of an acid catalyst.Duas espécies de angiospermas foram comparadas em relação à suas susceptibilidades ao pré-tratamento por explosão a vapor. De um modo geral, cavacos industriais de Eucalyptus viminalis Labill apresentaram-se mais

  6. Estudo fitoquímico e análise mutagênica das folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth. através do teste de micronúcleo em roedores Phytochemical and mutagenic analysis of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu (Mart. Ex Benth through micronucleus test in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P De Bona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a composição química, estabelecer a dose letal média (DL50 e avaliar os potenciais efeitos mutagênicos do extrato hidroalcoólico de folhas e inflorescências de Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth por meio do teste de micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. Os ensaios fitoquímicos foram realizados através de reações preliminares com mudança de coloração e/ou formação de precipitado; a DL50, por meio da administração intraperitoneal de três concentrações dos extratos, avaliando-se o número de óbitos após 48 horas e o teste de micronúcleo foi feito por meio do método do esfregaço, após exposição dos animais a cinco dias de tratamento. Os resultados fitoquímicos demonstraram presença de açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, proteínas e aminoácidos, flavonóides, alcalóides, depsídeos e depsidonas e derivados de cumarina em ambos os órgãos; saponinas espumídicas e esteróides e triterpenóides nas folhas e glicosídeos cardiotônicos e antraquinônicos e alcalóides nas inflorescências. Para a DL50 a folha demonstrou-se atóxica e a inflorescência moderadamente tóxica. Para o teste de micronúcleo, os resultados indicaram ausência de citotoxicidade e genotoxicidade dose-dependente para as folhas e independente da dose para as inflorescências. Assim, esses resultados sugerem que a planta, nas condições analisadas, possui potencial para induzir danos ao DNA.This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, to establish the mean lethal dose (LD50 and to assess the potential mutagenic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and inflorescences of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth by using micronucleus test in bone marrow of mice. Phytochemical assays were carried out through preliminary reactions with color change and/or precipitate formation; the LD50 was obtained by intraperitoneal administration of three concentrations of the extracts, assessing

  7. Efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos dos óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e Pogostemon heyneanus Benth sobre plantas daninhas Potentially allelopathic effects of the essential oils of Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and Pogostemon heyneanus (Benth on weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pedro da Silva Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática de óleos essenciais de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. e oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth e analisar, comparativamente, seus efeitos alelopáticos. Óleos essenciais obtidos foram preparados em concentrações de 0,25, 0,5 e 1,0%, tendo como eluente o éter metílico, e testados sobre a germinação de sementes, desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas de área de pastagens cultivadas, malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os óleos das duas espécies evidenciaram atividade alelopática em intensidades que variaram em função da concentração do óleo, da espécie doadora, da planta receptora e do fator da planta analisado. A germinação das sementes foi o fator mais intensamente inibido pelos óleos. As intensidades das inibições estiveram positivamente associadas à concentração, com inibições máximas verificadas a 1,0%. Malícia foi à espécie receptora mais sensível aos efeitos do óleo. Comparativamente, o óleo essencial da pimenta longa revelou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento das duas plantas receptoras, notadamente em relação à germinação de sementes, quando as diferenças foram mais marcantes. Os resultados foram atribuídos à composição química dos óleos, especialmente em relação à presença de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados e sesquiterpenos.This study aimed to characterize the potential allelopathic activity of essential oils of pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervium C. DC. and oriza (Pogostemon heyneanus Benth, and to examine, comparatively, their allelopathic effects. Essential oils obtained were prepared at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%, with ether methanol as eluent, and tested upon the germination of seeds and the development of the radicle and the hypocotyl of the weeds of cultivated grassland areas, malícia (Mimosa

  8. Influência da escarificação e da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (sete cascas Influence of scarification and temperature on seed germination of Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W. Grimes (seven shells

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    Roseli Muniz Giachini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & J.W Grimes (sete cascas é uma planta arbórea nativa do Pantanal Matogrossense, cujas sementes possuem dormência provavelmente causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento à água. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência da escarificação mecânica e química para superar a dormência tegumentar e o efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de sementes de sete cascas. Foram empregados quatro diferentes procedimentos de escarificação: testemunha (sem escarificação; a escarificação mecânica; a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante cinco minutos e a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico durante dez minutos. Os níveis de temperatura empregados foram de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A semeadura foi realizada em papel toalha germitest, na forma de rolo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 4x4. Para cada tratamento, foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foi avaliada a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, utilizado como critério emissão da raiz primária com 2 mm de comprimento. Foi observado que a espécie S. tubulosa possui dormência tegumentar causada pela impermeabilidade do tegumento a água. As escarificações química com ácido sulfúrico por cinco e dez minutos foram eficientes para superação da dormência e as combinações de escarificação com temperatura que promoveram maiores porcentagens de germinação para a espécie foram a escarificação com imersão em ácido sulfúrico durante cinco e dez minutos e as temperaturas de 25, 30 e 35ºC.Samanea tubulosa (Benth. Barneby & JW Grimes (seven shells is a tree plant native to the Mato Grosso Pantanal, whose seeds have dormancy probably caused by impregnability of its integument to water. This work was carried out to compare the efficiency of mechanical and chemical scarification for overcoming integumentary dormancy

  9. Deposição e acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes em serapilheira em um bosque de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Litter dry mass and nutrient deposition and accumulation in a sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. woodlot

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    Rinaldo Luiz Caraciolo Ferreira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação da deposição de serapilheira e o acúmulo de manta orgânica são etapas importantes dos estudos de ciclagem de nutrientes. Com esse fim, objetivou-se quantificar a deposição de serapilheira e o acúmulo de manta orgânica em um povoamento de Sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., no campo experimental pertencente à Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Itambé, PE. Para quantificação da serapilheira foram utilizados 20 coletores de madeira de 0,50 x 0,50 x 15 cm, à distância do solo de 30 cm, distribuídos sistematicamente na área. O material depositado foi coletado mensalmente no período de outubro/2000 a setembro/2001. O material colhido em cada coletor foi separado em folhas, galhos, flores, frutos e miscelânea. A manta orgânica não decomposta sobre o solo foi amostrada, ao acaso, nas proximidades da caixa coletora, obtendo-se 20 amostras mensais. De cada amostra foi retirado o material contido numa área de 30 x 30 cm. O material colhido foi separado em folhas, flores, frutos, miscelânea e galhos. As amostras foram levadas à estufa a 60 º C no período de 48 horas até peso constante. A deposição mensal de serapilheira e frações folha e legume ocorreu em outubro, provavelmente devido ao início do período seco. A deposição e o estoque de serapilheira foram estimados em 7830,44 kg.ha-1.ano-1 e 8906.9, kg.ha-1, respectivamente, com a fração folha dominando. A fração folha apresentou os maiores teores de nutrientes.Quantification of litter deposition and organic mantle accumulation are important steps on nutrient cycling studies. This study aimed to quantify litter deposition and organic mantle in a sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth woodlot in an experimental farm in the Brazilian northeast region. Twenty 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.15 m wood collectors, to quantify litter deposition, were systematically distributed over the area elevated 30 cm above the soil. Deposited material was

  10. Composição química de forrageiras e seletividade de bovinos em bosque-de-sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. nos períodos chuvoso e seco Chemical composition of forage and selectivity by bovines of "sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in the rainy and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia de Lucena Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de junho de 1999 a março de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, a composição química de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., com acúleo e sem acúleo, na dieta de bovinos em condições de pastejo e a composição botânica do bosque de sabiá e da dieta selecionada. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto à composição química entre os sabiás com e sem acúleo, obtendo-se valores médios, no período chuvoso, de 26,45% de matéria seca (MS, 27,63% de proteína bruta (PB, 44,39% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, 25,80% de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, 1,24% de cálcio (Ca, 0,22% de fósforo (P, 1,63% de potássio (K e 1,12% de sódio (Na. No período seco, os valores médios observados foram de 42,39% de MS; 19,30% de PB; 39,05% de FDN; 21,83% de FDA; 1,25% de Ca; 0,15% de P; 1,63% de K e 0,27% de Na. Para a composição botânica da dieta, observou-se que, durante o período chuvoso, as amostras de extrusa apresentaram maior participação de sabiá (83,1% que no período seco ( 12,3%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, durante o período chuvoso, os animais selecionaram sabiá em maior quantidade para sua dieta e que a coleta manual, como realizada, superestimou a fração fibrosa da dieta calculada a partir da composição química da extrusa.This trial was carried out from June 1999 to March 2000 to evaluate the chemical composition of samples of sabiá legume (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., with and without thorns, collected in the rainy and dry seasons and to compare the botanical composition of sabiá pasture with that of the diet selected by the grazing animals. No significant difference was observed in chemical composition between samples of sabiá with and without thorns. The mean values obtained in the rainy samples were: 26.45% drymatter (DM, 27.63% crude protein (CP, 44.39% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 25.80% acid detergent fiber

  11. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  12. 中国球兰属新记录植物——长瓣球兰(Hoya acuminata)%Hoya acuminata (Wight) Benth.ex Hook.f.(Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae),A Newly Recorded Species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂凌健; 彭玉德; 黄宝优; 兰小中; 余丽莹

    2017-01-01

    报道了夹竹桃科萝藦亚科长瓣球兰[Hoya acuminata (Wight) Benth.ex Hook.f.]在中国的新分布记录.长瓣球兰过去记录在不丹、印度东北部(Sikkim, Khasia)和缅甸,2015年在中国西南部的西藏墨脱县内、海拔1 577 m的山林树上发现长瓣球兰.该物种与景洪球兰相近,但前者枝条光滑无毛,每个花序着花3~5朵,花冠直径达5 cm,花冠裂片长2 cm.凭证标本存放于广西药用植物园标本馆(GXMG).%Hoya acuminata (Wight) Benth.ex Hook.f.is reported as a new record species of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae from China.H.acuminata has been recorded in Bhutan, Sikkim, Khasia and Myanmar and it was found on a tree of dense moist forest in Medog County, China at the altitude of 1 577 m in 2015.It is related to H.chinghungensis, but differs in its branches quite glabrous, umbels 3-5 flowered, with corollas up to 5 cm in diameter and lobes 2 cm.The voucher specimens are preserved in the herbarium of Guangxi Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants (GXMG).

  13. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758): registro de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Cupul Magaña, Fabio Germán; García de Quevedo-Machain, Rafael; Tovar-Ramos, Jorge Alfredo; Curiel-Beltrán, Jesús Aarón

    2014-01-01

    Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae) o iguana verde de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012), con talla (punta del hocico a punta de la cola) de 43 cm y peso de 60 g. El ejemplar fue capturado por el tercer autor durante la última semana de septiembre del 2012 sobre la rama de un árbol de guamuchilillo, Pithecellobium lanceolatum (Willd.) Benth., en las inmediaciones de la zona centro de la mancha urbana de Puerto Va...

  14. Efeito da temperatura e do teor de umidade na iniciação e desenvolvimento do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae Effect of temperature and the water content in the initiation and developmental of the rhizome of Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Andrea Silva de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst. pertence à família Gesneriaceae e possui órgão subterrâneo, que está associado à reprodução vegetativa. Este órgão apresenta gemas envoltas por folhas modificadas, as quais armazenam amido. Em seções do rizoma (1,5 a 2,0cm compr. contendo seis gemas, só uma gema geralmente brota. Esta pode diferenciar-se em dois padrões morfológicos: parte aérea ou rizoma. Em seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água ou em sua ausência, houve brotação do padrão rizoma, em seções em substrato com elevado teor de umidade (12mL de água, brotação do padrão parte aérea. A temperatura de 20ºC também favoreceu a brotação do padrão rizoma, independente do volume de água do substrato. Seções também desenvolveram o padrão rizoma em substrato com adição de solução de polietilenoglicol 6000 (PEG, nas concentrações de 161,2; 235,2 e 340,0g/L, que geraram os potenciais de -3, -6 e -12 MPa, respectivamente. Seções mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade (1mL de água apresentaram redução de massa seca e elevada concentração osmótica em relação àquelas em substrato com elevado teor de umidade. Verificou-se que a formação do padrão rizoma foi influenciada pelos fatores teor de umidade e temperatura. Sugere-se que a brotação do padrão rizoma foi induzida pelo baixo potencial hídrico nas seções, quando mantidas em substrato com baixo teor de umidade. Além disto, evidenciou-se que as gemas do rizoma de Kohleria eriantha apresentam elevado grau de plasticidade.Kohleria eriantha (Benth. Hanst is a plant belonging to the family Gesneriaceae, with an underground organ, which is associated with vegetative reproduction. This organ is a rhizome, whose stem bears buds covered with modified leaves that store up starch. In small sections of this rhizome, containing six buds (1.5 to 2.0cm long, only one bud sprouted. The sprouted bud could be differentiated

  15. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir par

  16. Características físico-químicas y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite crudo extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Álvarez, Mario José

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of oil extracted from blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth residue were determined. Mature fruits from ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, Aragua state, Venezuela harvested on April 2001, were processed to obtain seeds and residues of pulp. This residue was extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method. The crude oil was assayed by means of COVENIN and AOCS methods. The results showed: Iodine index 160.16 cg I2/g, refraction index to 25ºC 1.4780 , saponification value 193.76 mg K0H/g, peroxide value 30.40 meq 02/kg, free fatty acidity 2.83% (oleic acid, insaponifiable value 2.77%, phosphorus content 0.22% and stability 3.09 h (AOM. The major fatty acids found were oleic acid (55.39% and linoleic acid (29.51%.El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar físico-químicamente el aceite extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y determinar su composición de ácidos grasos. Frutos maduros procedentes de ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, estado Aragua, Venezuela perteneciente a la cosecha Abril 2001, fueron procesados para obtener residuos constituidos por semillas y restos de pulpa. Los residuos fueron sometidos a un proceso de extracción mediante equipo Soxhlet utilizando como solvente n-hexano. El aceite crudo extraído fue caracterizado mediante normas COVENIN y AOCS. Se determinaron valores de índice de Iodo 160,16 cg I2/g; índice de refracción 1,4780 a 25ºC; índice de saponificación 193,76 mg KOH/g; índice de peróxidos 30,40 meq O2/kg; acidez libre oleica 2,83 %; materia insaponificable 2,77 %; fósforo 0,22 % y estabilidad AOM de 3,09 horas. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios encontrados fueron el ácido oleico (55,39% y el ácido linoleico (29,51%.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Total Sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.Against SGC-7901 Cells%石见穿总甾醇对 SGC -7901细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏清; 王燕燕; 周政涛; 柳蔚

    2015-01-01

    s:Objective To observe the effect total sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.on growth of human gastric carcinoma line SGC-7901, and explore its possible mechanism.Methods To observe the effect of total sterol of Salvia Chinensis Benth.on proliferation of SGC-7901 cells by MTT method, and detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle.Results The total sterol can inhibit the pro-liferation of SGC-7901 cells significantly in a dose and time dependent manner, and it has no notable effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential of SGC-7901 cells, and the results of flow cytometry showed the total sterol induce the SGC-7901 cells to necrosis.Conclusions The total sterol inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 proliferation by induction of cell necrosis.%目的:观察石见穿总甾醇对人胃癌细胞SGC-7901生长的影响,并探讨其可能的作用机制。方法用MTT法观察石见穿总甾醇对SGC-7901细胞增殖的影响,用荧光酶标仪检测对线粒体膜电位的影响,用流式细胞术检测细胞周期的影响。结果石见穿总甾醇能显著抑制SGC-7901细胞的增殖,具有剂量依赖性和时间依赖性,对SGC-7901细胞的线粒体膜电位没有显著影响,流式细胞术结果表明石见穿总甾醇处理后SGC-7901细胞以坏死为主。结论石见穿总甾醇对人胃癌细胞SGC-7901的增殖具有显著抑制作用,其作用机制可能是诱导细胞坏死有关。

  18. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  19. 胡蔓藤中非生物碱类成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅲ)%Isolation and identification of the non-alkaloid constituents from whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆春; 华威; 付艳辉; 杜占权; 郭涛; 吴立军

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究胡蔓藤(Gelsemium elegans Benth.)中的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱和ODS柱色谱进行分离,Sephadex LH-20及制备液相进行纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了8个化合物,分别为(+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol(1)、cleomiscosin C(2)、cleomiscosin A(3)、3,4-二羟基苯甲醛(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl aldehyde,4)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,5)、1-D-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid,6)、4-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸(4-O-caffeoylquinic acid,7)、1-O-咖啡酰基奎宁酸甲酯(1-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester,8).结论 化合物1-8为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  20. Chemical composition of total flavonoids from Salvia chinensia Benth and their pro-apoptotic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: potential roles of suppressing cellular NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Hu, Yajing; Hu, Yun; Yang, Tianming; Shu, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Salvia chinensia Benth (S. chinensia) is a medical plant that has been traditionally applied for centuries in the treatment of malignant diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity has not been fully established. In this study, the chemical profiles of total flavonoids from S. chinensia (TFSC) were explored. Thirteen compounds which constituted the major components of TFSC were separated and identified. Flow cytometry analysis and caspase activity assays showed that TFSC dose-dependently induced HepG2 and Huh-7 HCC cell apoptosis. TFSC was also shown to substantially suppress NF-κB activity in HCC cells. Moreover, TFSC significantly repressed transplanted murine H22 ascitic hepatic cancer cell growth in vivo. Further studies revealed that TFSC induced HCC cell apoptosis and inhibited expressional levels of NF-κB responsive genes in transplanted tumor tissues. In addition, the toxic impact of TFSC on tumor-bearing mice was undetectable. These results indicate that TFSC induces HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The suppression of cellular NF-κB activity is implicated in the TFSC-mediated HCC cell apoptosis.

  1. 密花香薷挥发油化学成分及其抗菌、抗病毒活性的研究%Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities of the Essential Oil of Elsholtzia densa Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艺; 斯建勇; 曹丽; 贾晓光; 李晓瑾

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil of Elsholtzia densa Benth has been obtained by using water distillation and analyzed by GCMS.The content of the essential oil of E.densa was 0.12%.Retention indices and mass spectral data were used to identify 26 oil components,represented 76.04% of the total essential oil.In the antimicrobial and antiviral activities assay,the essential oil exhibited antimicrobial and antiviral activities.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取密花香薷挥发油,测得密花香薷挥发油的得率为0.12%.利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用技术对密花香薷挥发油的化学成分进行了分析研究,鉴定了26种化合物,占挥发油总量的76.04%.体外抗菌试验和抗病毒试验的结果表明:密花香薷挥发油具有抗菌和抗病毒作用.

  2. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from whole plant of Siphonostegia chinensis Benth%中药北刘寄奴中化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 吴春华; 王涛; 刘二伟; 陈秋; 张祎

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the whole plant of Siphonostegia chinensis Benth.. Methods The compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods such as silica gel, ODS, Sepha-dex LH-20 and HPLC.and identified by the chemical and physical methods,especially spectral analysis. Results Ten compounds were isolated and identified as (E)-p-hydroxycinnamic acid(l) ,caffeic acid(2) ,sy-ringin(3), (75,8R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9'-β-glucopyranoside(4) ,vanillyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (5), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol 1 -O-glucopyranoside (6), 3,5 -dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), rubinaphthin A (8), rel-5- (3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R, 5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid(9) and (6S,9R) -roseoside(10). Conclusions Compounds 2-10 are isolated from Siphonostergia genus for the first time.%目的 研究中药北刘寄奴(Siphonostegia chinensis Benth.)的化学成分.方法 采用正相硅胶、反相ODS、Sephadex LH-20等柱色谱及高效液相色谱等手段进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质与光谱分析方法鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从北刘寄奴体积分数95%乙醇提取物中分离鉴定10个单体化合物,分别为反式对羟基肉桂酸( (E) -p-hydroxycinnamic acid,1)、咖啡酸(caffeic acid,2)、syringin(3)、(7S,8R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9’-β-glucopyranoside(4)、vanillyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-gl ucopyranoside(5)、2,6-二甲氧基-4-羟基苯酚-1-O-葡萄糖苷(2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol1-O-glucopyranoside,6)、3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(7)、rubinaphthin A(8)、rel-5-( 3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R,5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]-oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid (9)、(6S,9R)-roseoside (10).结论 化合物2~10为首次从阴行草属植物中分离得到.

  3. Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sabiá na germinação de sementes de fava Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in seed germination of Phaseolus lunatus

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    Elane Grazielle Borba de Sousa Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. é uma planta medicinal que pode ser utilizada em sistemas agroflorestais. É empregada na composição de pastagens arbóreas, em faixas entre plantações, para enriquecer capoeiras e ainda pode ser empregada como cerca viva. A fava (Phaseolus lunatus L. é uma das quatro espécies do gênero Phaseolus exploradas comercialmente, seu consumo é preferencialmente na forma de grãos verdes cozidos ou na forma de conserva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso do sabiá sobre a germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de fava. As sementes de fava foram postas para germinar em caixas plásticas, onde foram semeadas entre o substrato vermiculita, e em seguida colocados em germinador a 25 ºC e sob luz contínua. O substrato foi umedecido, com o extrato aquoso de folhas jovens de sabiá, nas concentrações de 25; 50; 75 e 100%, além da testemunha umedecida apenas com água destilada. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação além do comprimento da raiz primária. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. No estudo da regressão polinomial foi empregada a equação que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Os valores em porcentagem foram transformados em arc sen (n/1000,5. Conclui-se que as diferentes concentrações do extrato de folhas jovens de sabiá utilizadas não prejudicaram a germinação das sementes de fava.The Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. is a medicinal plant that can be used in agroforestry systems, is also employed in the composition of pasture trees in strips between fields, to enrich brush fields and as a hedge. The Phaseolus lunatus L. is one of four species of the genus Phaseolus exploited commercially; its

  4. Aporte e decomposição de serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ.

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    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o aporte e a decomposição da serapilheira em áreas de floresta secundária espontânea, plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e plantio de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.. Para avaliação do aporte de serapilheira, foram instalados dez coletores cônicos sendo o aporte avaliado durante o período de outubro de 2003 a setembro de 2004. Posteirormente, foi feita a quantificação dos macronutrientes (N, P e K. A avaliação da taxa de decomposição foi realizada utilizando-se o método dos litter bags. A área de plantio de andiroba aportou a maior quantidade de serrapilheira 9,20 Mg ha-1, sendo seguida pelo plantio de sabiá com 9,06 Mg ha-1 e pela floresta secundária espontânea 7,63 Mg ha-1 por ano. A serapilheira das áreas de plantio de sabiá e do plantio de andiroba apresentou maiores valores de nitrogênio e fósforo que a área de floresta secundária. A velocidade de decomposição da serapilheira foi maior nas áreas de plantio de sabiá e andiroba, podendo tal comportamento ter sido influenciado pelo maior conteúdo de nitrogênio na serapilheira. O fósforo foi o nutriente que apresentou maior velocidade de liberação.

  5. Alterações na arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, Paraná

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810540A estrutura e os equipamentos urbanos podem restringir o correto desenvolvimento das árvores e de sua arquitetura típica. A Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (tipuana tem sido podada de forma contínua por ser uma espécie de grande porte e por estar entre as mais plantadas na cidade de Curitiba. Por conta disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a alteração da arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo uma parcela testemunha composta por 6 árvores, um tratamento com 6 árvores sob fiação e outro com 6 árvores em ruas livres de fiação. A partir de fotografias horizontais das árvores foram obtidas variáveis dendrométricas, tendo por base uma escala métrica acoplada à altura do DAP. Assim, foram calculados índices morfométricos para descrever relações interdimensionais para a espécie, em árvores sem poda (testemunha e em árvores podadas (tratamentos. Os resultados demonstraram que as podas de elevação alteram a arquitetura típica da tipuana modificando seu contorno e sua forma, além de prejudicar seu efeito estético. Os índices que podem expressar as alterações, de forma significativa (p<0,05, foram: índice de abrangência, índice de saliência, ângulo de copa, proporção de copa e relação HR/HP.

  6. Protective effect of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara extract on acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A in mice through inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway

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    Ke-Feng Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara (ERA, a traditional Chinese medicine has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the hepatoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of ERA on acute liver injury have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and liver protection of ERA against the acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A (Con A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice received ERA (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight by gavage before Con A intravenous administration. We found that ERA pretreatment was able to significantly reduce the elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. In addition, ERA treatment significantly decreased the myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde levels and augmented superoxide dismutase level in the liver tissue, and also suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum, compared with Con A group by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we observed that ERA pretreatment can significantly decrease the expression level of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA or protein in liver tissues. Further results showed that ERA pretreatment was capable of attenuating the activation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting IκBα kinase and p65 phosphorylation in Con A-induced liver injury. Our results demonstrate that ERA pretreatment has hepatoprotective property against Con A-induced liver injury through inhibition of inflammatory mediators in mice. The beneficial effect of ERA may be mediated by the downregulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  7. Biometria, caracterização física e rendimento lipídico do fruto de Licania rigida Benth adquiridos no município de Pombal-PB

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    T. S. S. Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Licânia rigida Benth, popularmente oiticica, é uma vegetação típica no sertão nordestino. Destaca-se pelo alto teor de óleos em seus frutos e boa produtividade mesmo em épocas de seca, sendo capaz de promover desenvolvimento social e econômico para a região, pela utilização industrial de tintas, vernizes, sabão, lonas e esmaltes finos. Portanto, objetiva-se no presente estudo determinar a biometria, parâmetros físicos e rendimento lipídico do fruto da oiticica. Os frutos foram colhidos, selecionados, sanitizados. Em seguida, utilizou-se um paquímetro para a realização da biometria dos frutos e então sofreram separação em exocarpo-mesocarpo, endocarpo e amêndoas. As amostras foram trituradas e armazenadas ate procedidas as análises. Para a determinação do pH e condutividade, utilizou-se cerca de 5g de cada amostra, acrescidos de 50mL de água destilada e homogeneização, por conseguintemente foi utilizado o peagâmetro digital e condutivímetro, respectivamente. Para a acidez total titulável (ATT, utilizou-se as amostras anteriores e titulou-se com NaOH 0,1N, usando fenolftaleína como indicador, até as amostras alcançarem pH de 8,1. Procedeu-se a determinação do teor lipídico pelo método de Sohlext, com 2 a 5 g das amostras e hexano como solvente. Os frutos apresentaram peso médio de 9g. A variação do pH para as diferentes amostra foi irrelevante, enquanto o exocarpo-mesocarpo apresentou maior condutividade, com 308,6 mScm-1, e o endocarpo foi evidenciado por apresentar maior ATT, com 16,8%. Obteve-se na amêndoa maior percentual lipídico, com rendimento médio de 43,0%. Diante da importância e alta rentabilidade lipídica do fruto, faz-se necessário desenvolvimento de metodologias para utilização dessa matéria-prima.Biometrics, physical characteristics and yield fruit of lipid Licania rigid Benth purchased in the municipality of Pombal-PBAbstract: Licania rigid Benth, popularly oiticica, is

  8. Avaliação “in vitro” do efeito da infusão de Cunila microcephala Benth sobre a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase e biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de agricultores

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    R.C. HORN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Tivemos como objetivo avaliar o efeito da infusão de Cunila microcephala Benth sobre a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE e marcadores de estresse oxidativo em eritrócitos de agricultores. Foram utilizadas amostras provenientes de 16 trabalhadores rurais expostos a pesticidas agrícolas pelo período mínimo de 5 anos e um grupo controle constituído de 16 indivíduos não expostos a agrotóxicos. As hemácias dos agricultores e o grupo A foram expostos “in vitro” à solução salina (NaCl 0,9%. Os demais grupos foram expostos à infusão de poejo nas concentrações de 0; 5; 10; 25 e 50 g/L (Grupos B; C; D e E, respectivamente. Em seguida, foram realizadas as determinações da atividade da AChE e dos níveis de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, proteínas carboniladas (PCs e glutationa reduzida (GSH. Os resultados mostram que a infusão de poejo 50g/L, aumenta a atividade da enzima AChE e os níveis de GSH. Contudo, os níveis de TBARS e PCs diminuíram após o tratamento com a infusão de poejo 25 e 50 g/L. A infusão de poejo, na concentração de 50 g/L, é capaz de reverter, “in vitro” a inibição da atividade da AChE que ocorre pela exposição a pesticidas, e ainda demonstra um importante potencial antioxidante, tendo em vista que diminuiu danos lipídicos e proteicos e ainda, estimulou a produção do principal antioxidante não enzimático endógeno.

  9. Determination of Metal Elements in Seed and Testa of Leucaena Glauca (L.) Benth.by ICP-MS%ICP-MS法测定银合欢种和种皮中27种金属元素含量

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    张臻; 周媛; 王桂萍; 邹坤

    2012-01-01

    采用电感耦合等离子体质谱(ICP-MS)法测定了云南省建水县产银合欢种和种皮中27种金属元素的含量.其中13中金属元素V、Cr、Mn、Fe、Cu、Zn、As、Se、Mo、Ag、Cd、Tl、Pb等采用普通模式检测,14种金属元素Li、Be、B、Mg、Al、Co、Ni、Ga、Rb、Sr、Te、Ba、Bi、U等采用碰撞/反应池技术(CCT)模式测定,以消除样品溶液中潜在的干扰.实验条件下,Co、Ni、Cr、Zn、Se、Mo、Ag、Pb等8种金属元素未检出.方法检出限Fe为9.789 ng/mL、Cr为2.691 ng/mL,Zn为1.803 ng/mL,B为2.076 ng/mL,Mg为1.977 ng/mL,Al为3.024 ng/mL,Ni为1.824 ng/mL,其它元素为0,003~0.921 ng/mL,银合欢种精密度的RSD为0.141%~11.86%,银合欢种皮精密度的RSD为0.044%~31.14%,加标回收介干90.8%~107.1%之间.%The twenty seven metal elements in seed and testa of Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. from Jianshui county in Yunnan province were determined by ICP-MS. There were fourteen such as Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, Co, Ni, Ga, Rb, Sr, Te, Ba, Bi and U were determined with the collision /reaction cell technology for the elimination of potential interference. Detection limits for most elements were between 0. 003 and 0. 921 ng / mL,and the precision ( RSD) of seed and testa was among 0.141% -11, 86% and 0. 044% -31. 14% with good recovery (90. 8% -107.1 %) respectively.

  10. Dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica de bracatingais na região metropolitana de Curitiba Dinamic of the diameter distribuition of Mimosa Scabrella Benth stands in the metropolitam region of Curitiba

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a dinâmica da distribuição diamétrica com relação à idade, em povoamentos nativos de bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth. localizados nos municípios da região metropolitana de Curitiba. Os dados utilizados provieram de um experimento de densidades iniciais, delineado em blocos ao acaso, constituído de cinco blocos e quatro tratamentos, perfazendo um total de 20 parcelas de 325 m², as quais foram remedidas às idades aproximadas de 4, 5, 6 e 7,5 anos. A densidade inicial sofreu redução para 2.000, 4.000 e 8.000 árvores por hectare quando o povoamento tinha 1 ano de idade. Deixou-se também uma parcela-testemunha em cada bloco, as quais não sofreram nenhum raleamento e tinham em média 25.000 árvores por hectare. Desses cinco blocos, um estava localizado na classe de sítio I, 2 na classe de sítio II e 2 blocos na classe de sítio III. Paralelamente, foram medidos os diâmetros e as alturas de todas as árvores em 124 parcelas temporárias distribuídas nos vários municípios da região metropolitana de Curitiba, representativos de povoamentos de bracatinga sob regime tradicional de cultivo e manejo, cobrindo idades de 3 a 18 anos, e as três classes de sítio. Dentre as funções de densidade de probabilidade testadas por Bartoszeck (2000, a S B de Johnson foi a de melhor desempenho, sendo, portanto, utilizada para a estimativa do número de árvores por classe diamétrica e por hectare e conseqüente construção das curvas de distribuição diamétrica para as inúmeras combinações de idade, sítio e densidades disponíveis. Através da observação visual das curvas sobrepostas, evidenciou-se que essas apresentaram assimetria para a direita e achatamento (curtose, com o aumento da idade. As curvas foram, então, comparadas analiticamente entre si, pelo teste qui-quadrado, o qual revelou a existência de diferenças significativas entre as curvas de distribuição diamétrica em

  11. 青枯菌侵染广藿香的组织病理学研究%Histopathological Study of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.Infected with Ralstonia solanacearum

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    徐燃; 贺红; 邓素坚; 李润美; 杨玉秀; 邓志成; 金华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨青枯菌对广藿香的入侵过程及侵染后寄主植物的组织病理学特征.[方法]以青枯菌HX6为供试菌株,分别对伤根及不伤根的广藿香试管苗进行侵染试验.通过扫描电镜观察青枯菌从广藿香根部入侵的过程,并采用光学显微镜观察青枯菌侵染后广藿香的组织病理学变化.[结果]青枯菌侵染前期,伤根的植株比不伤根的植株发病更严重;侵染后期,两者的病情指数均为100.电镜观察发现侵染24 h后,青枯菌及其胞外分泌物在广藿香根部出现;48 h时后,在茎部导管出现.青枯菌入侵造成植株茎部导管离析、扭曲及破裂,随之,叶表皮组织也逐渐破坏,植株死亡.[结论]青枯菌对广藿香具有强的亲和性,侵染速度快,青枯菌及其胞外致毒素能直接破坏寄主维管组织,使得水分运输受阻,造成植株枯萎死亡.%Objective To investigate Ralstonia solanacearum infection process in Pogostemon cablin ( Blanco) Benth. and to observe the histopathological changes of the infected plants. Methods The test-tube plantlets of Pogostemon cablin were used as host plants, and Ralstonia solanacearum HX6 was used as infecting strain. Invasion and colonization of R. solanacearum from the root of host plants were observed under scanning electronic microscope ( SEM) , and changes of the stem vessel and leaf abaxial epidermis of infected plants were observed via optical microscopy. Results At the prophase of infection, the disease developed faster in the plants with wound root than in the plants without wound root. With the prolongation of infection time, all the plants with or without wound root showed wilting, the disease index being 100. Under SEM, the bacteria and their extracellular secretion occurred in root section at hour 24 after inoculation, and in the vessel of stems at hour 48 after inoculation. Observation of infected tissues by optical microscopy indicated that the stem vessels seperated

  12. 广藿香辐射诱变筛选抗病突变体的研究%Selection of Bacterial-wilt-resistance Mutants of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.by Radiation Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红; 许仕仰; 吴立蓉; 张燕玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To select the bacterial-wilt-resistance mutants of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. By 60Co γ ray radiation mutation, so as to lay a foundation for disease-resistance breeding. Methods The effects of 60Co γ ray radiation on plant regeneration from the explants of Pogostemon cablin were studied. The explants from regenerated plants after radiation mutation were cultured in the media supplemented with crude toxin extracted from Ralstonia solanacearum, and then the mutants resistant to bacterial wilt in Pogostemon cablin were selected. Results The crude toxins extracted from 1.34×108 cfu/mL and 2.48×108 cfu/mL R. Solanacearum were suitable for screening resistant shoots and resistant plant respectively. Survival rate and regenerated ability of the explants irradiated by 60Co γ ray were decreased with the increase of radiation dose. The radiation dose of 40 Gy and 60 Gy was suitable for mutation breeding. After 60Co γ ray radiation mutation combined with in vitro selection, 24 resistant plants were obtained. Conclusion A proper method for selection of the bacterial-wilt-resistance mutants of Pogostemon cablin has been established, which will supply valuable germplasm for disease-resistance breeding of Pogostemon cablin.%[目的]将辐射诱变与离体选择相结合,筛选广藿香抗青枯病突变体,为广藿香抗病育种奠定基础.[方法]观察60Coγ射线辐射对广藿香离体再生的影响;以辐射诱变的广藿香为材料,以青枯菌粗毒素为选择压力,筛选抗青枯病植株.[结果]在进行抗性芽及抗性植株筛选中,分别以1.34×108 cfu(菌落形成单位)/mL及2.48×108 cfu/mL青枯菌制备的粗毒素作为选择压力,可能筛选到抗性的材料.60Co γ射线辐射对广藿香离体再生有明显的影响,随着辐射剂量的增加,外植体存活率及再生芽的能力显著下降.最终选取剂量为40 Gy和60 Gy进行辐射诱变,结合离体培养筛选抗病突变体,获得了24株抗性植株.[

  13. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties and Aromatic Profile During Maturation of The Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and The Bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Evaluación las Propiedades Antioxidantes y el Perfil Aromático Durante la Maduración

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    Luisa Juana Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and thebilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz are natural sourcesof antioxidants; they are known for their preventive role against degenerative diseases. In this study, the aromatic profile was evaluated using an electronic nose, including the antioxidant properties and the vitamin C, phenolic and anthocyanin contents during three stages of blackberry and bilberry ripening. A completely random statistical design was followed and the results presented differences in the aromatic profile: a higher anthocyanin content (1.59 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the bilberry and 0.26 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the blackberry and total phenols (5.57 mg of caffeic acid g-1 bilberry and 2.68 mg caffeic acid g-1 blackberry. The behavior of the evaluated properties was independent in each of the fruits. / Los frutos como la mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y el agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz son fuentes naturales de sustancias antioxidantes reconocidas por su papel preventivo en el desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas. En este estudio se evaluó el perfil aromático por medio de nariz electrónica, las propiedades antioxidantes y el contenido de vitamina C, fenoles y antocianinas totales, durante tres estados de maduración de mora y agraz. El diseño estadístico que se siguió fue completamente aleatorio y los resultados muestran que las frutas en el último estado de madurez evaluado se diferencian por su perfil aromático, un contenido mayor de antocianinas (1,59 y 0,26 mg cyn-3-glu g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente y fenoles totales (5,57 y 2,68 mg ácido caféico g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente. El comportamiento de las propiedades evaluadas es independiente en cada una de las frutas.

  15. Seleção e melhoramento do timbó: II - Estudo de uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins de seleção foi estudada, no Instituto Agronômico do Norte, uma população de 153 plantas de timbó macaquinho - Derris nicou (Benth.. Depois de colhidas as raízes e postas a secar ao ar, foram analisadas para determinação de umidade, cinzas, extratos totais (etéreo e por gravimetria, rotenona + deguelina (por colorimetria e rotenona (por gravimetria. Pelo estudo dos dados pôde-se verificar que havia dois grupos distintos de plantas: um constituído por 82 plantas (POPULAÇÃO A contendo menos de 5% de rotenona nas raízes e outro, com 71 plantas (POPULAÇÃO B, com 9% ou mais de rotenona em suas raízes. Essas populações foram estudadas separadamente. Para um estudo mais detalhado dêsses grupos de plantas também foram calculados o peso líquido das raízes, bem como o rendimento líquido, por planta e em média, em extratos totais, rotenona + deguelina e rotenona. Foram também calculados os teores em deguelina e rotenona contidos nos extratos totais e outros extratos (que não rotenona e deguelina contidos nos extratos totais e, finalmente, a rotenona contida no conjunto rotenona + deguelina. São apresentados os resultados referentes às melhores plantas selecionadas dessa população. Vários fatôres foram levados em consideração para a separação dessas plantas, tidas como os melhores. Os resultados mostram que mediante adequada multiplicação do material selecionado será possível a instalação de culturas de timbó com elevado rendimento em rotenona.A population composed of 153 plants of "timbó macaquinho" (Derris nicou was studied for selection and establishment of high yielding rotenone clones. The roots were air dried and the humidity content determined. Ashes, total extracts, rotenone + degueline and rotenone were determined by chemical analyses. Individual results of the analyses are presented. From the data were calculated the net weight per plant of: a air dried roots; b total extracts; c rotenone

  16. Isolation of a germination stimulant for Striga hermonthica (Del) Benth from root culture of Menispermum dauricum DC%从山豆根组培根中提取、分离独脚金属杂草发芽刺激物质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永清; 稻永忍; 杉本幸裕; Babiker A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    试验研究了从山豆根(Menispermum dauricum DC.)组培根中提取、分离独脚金属杂草[Striga hermonthica(Del)Benth]发芽刺激物质,其提纯、分离过程是首先将发芽刺激物质吸附在XAD-4树脂表面后采用甲醇脱洗,通过乙酸乙脂:水分配提取,活性物质在Sephadex LH20开口型人工填充柱上进行柱层析,活性组分合并后进一步采用商业提供的C18 Sep-Pak(10g)柱进行柱层析,之后采用分取和分析高效液相色谱提纯、分离,每一步提纯过程中均采用Striga种子发芽实验鉴定活性物质的存在.高效液相色谱分析表明有3种活性物质,其中主要活性物质与Strigol有十分相似的色谱特性,最后经质谱鉴定为Strigol或Strigol类似物质,并首次报道Strigol是植物的代谢产物.

  17. In vitro activity of Pithecellobium dulce and Lysiloma acapulcensis on exogenous development stages of sheep gastrointestinal strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Olmedo-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two lyophilised aqueous extracts of Lysiloma acapulcensis (LAE and Phitecellobium dulce (PDE tree leaves on in vitro assessment of hatching of eggs, larval development and migration of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using a general linear model. Treatments contained extracts from both species at concentrations of 0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL. Both albendazole and levamisole were used at a level of 1% as positive control. The extract of LAE, compared to PDE, showed better inhibition (P<0.05 of egg hatching. Different doses of both the LAE and PDE extracts showed a larvicidal effect (P<0.05 on all larvae exposed to different doses of the extracts. In the larval migration assay, a similar effect with levamisole at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL occurred with the LAE extract. The extract of P. dulce had a lower larvicidal effect (P<0.05 than levamisole and L. acapulcensis extracts. Using aqueous extracts of both species of L. acapulcensis and P. dulce could be a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics as treatments of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in organic and conventional production systems under subtropical conditions.

  18. Influência da adubação verde e diferentes adubos orgânicos na produção de fitomassa aérea de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. Influence of green manure and different organic manure on production of aereal phytomass of Ocimum selloi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes adubos orgânicos em associação ou não com adubo verde na produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi Benth., planta nativa do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente (CNPMA, localizado no município de Jaguariúna, em duas áreas distintas, sendo uma delas submetidas anteriormente ao plantio e incorporação de adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea. Os tratamentos utilizados foram T1 - testemunha (solo sem adubação, T2 - cama de aviário (5 kg m-2, T3 - hidrolisado de peixe (produto comercial Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 e T4 - composto orgânico (4 kg m-2. A colheita foi realizada 180 dias após o plantio, em janeiro de 2011, sendo colhidas as plantas úteis (quatro plantas por parcela. Avaliou-se o rendimento de fitomassa fresca e seca. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o esquema fatorial 2x4, com quatro repetições (blocos. As médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de variância seguida de teste de médias (Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a cama de aviário apresentou resultados mais satisfatórios quanto à produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi quando comparados aos demais tratamentos orgânicos, não se observando incremento nos resultados pela associação com o adubo verde Crotalaria juncea.The aim of this work was to avail the effect of different manures in association or nor with green manure on yield of leaves of Ocimum selloi Benth. The assay was accomplished on experimental area of Embrapa Environmental (Jaguariúna district, at two different spaces (with or without green manure Crotalaria juncea. The treatments used were T1 - witness (no manure, T2 - chicken manure (5 kg m-2, T3 - commercial product Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 and T4 - composting (4 kg m-2. The cut was realized on 180 days after the planting (january - 2011, and were collected four plants/ plot. The yield of dried and fresh Ocimum

  19. Desenvolvimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth. após a aplicação de ácido giberélico e extrato de alga marinha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Storck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth., comumente conhecido como patchouli, é uma espécie aromática utilizada pela indústria de perfumes devido a fragrância amadeirada e propriedade fixadora do óleo essencial. Fatores que afetam o teor dos constituintes do óleo essencial devem ser avaliados visando obter matéria prima de melhor qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2x3 e 4 repetições, sendo dois níveis de giberelina (0 e 200 mg L-1 e três níveis de extrato de alga marinha (0, 15 e 30 mg L-1. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio das mudas, e a avaliação do experimento deu-se 45 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Não houve diferença significativa para a altura das plantas, a concentração de extrato de alga marinha de 15 mg L-1 promoveu aumento no número de folhas em relação à testemunha e a concentração de 30 mg L-1 promoveu decréscimo. Em relação à área foliar e ao número de folhas houve relação inversa para os níveis de extrato de alga marinha, onde o tratamento com maior concentração do regulador resultou em aumento da área foliar e redução do número de folhas. O teor de óleo essencial foi superior após a aplicação de 15 mg L-1 de extrato alga marinha isoladamente ou combinado com GA3. A produtividade do óleo essencial também aumentou com a aplicação 15 mg L-1 de extrato de alga marinha e quando utilizado somente GA3. A utilização de extrato de alga marinha aumentou a concentração de patchoulol no óleo essencial.

  20. 吴茱萸炮制前后挥发油成分及毒性的比较研究%A Study on the Composition and Toxicity Changes of Essential Oil of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. Before and After Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓凤; 高南南; 刘红玉; 杜红; 杨蕾; 李飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析吴茱萸炮制前后挥发油含量、组分及毒性的变化,为阐明吴茱萸炮制减毒机理提供科学依据.方法 采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取吴茱萸生品和制品挥发油,用GC-MS法鉴定化学成分.采用经典小鼠急性毒性试验,对吴茱萸生、制品挥发油毒性进行比较,并用Bliss法计算LD50值.结果 吴茱萸生、制品挥发油收率分别为0.75%和0.65%;两者用GC-MS均检出57个峰,其主要成分是月桂烯、β-水芹烯、罗勒烯、β-榄香烯、β-石竹烯;炮制后减少3个组分,新增3个组分;生、制品挥发油中的主要成分相对含量有变化.吴茱萸生品挥发油LD50为2.82 ml/kg,95%可信限2.48~3.21 ml/kg;制品挥发油LD50为2.91 ml/kg,95%可信限2.49~3.41 ml/kg.结论 吴茱萸炮制后挥发油含量降低了 13.33%,LD50值升高了19.15%,毒性的降低与挥发油组分及含量的变化具有一定的关系.%Objective To analyze the composition and toxicity changes of the essential oil of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. to help improve the principle of the processing method. Methods The essential oil was extracted by water-steam distillation and identified by GC-MS. The acute toxicity of essential oil of crude and processed Evodia was compared on mice in accordance with classical test methods for acute toxicity, and experimental data were calculated with Bliss method. Results The content of oil in crude and processed Evodia was 0. 75% and 0. 65% ,respectively. 57 peaks were detected in both samples. The main components were myrcene, β-phellandrene, ocimene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, The relative content of three major components disappeared while another three components emerged after processing. The LD50 of essential oil in crude Evodia was 2.82 ml/kg. The 95% confidence interval was 2. 48-3.21 ml/kg. The LD50 of essential oil in processed products was 2. 91 ml/kg and 95% confidence interval was 2.49-3.41 ml/kg. Conclusion The content of

  1. Geographical Distribution of Phacellaria Benth.(Santalaceae)and its Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Dognxue; Ding Yulong

    2006-01-01

    Based on the geographical distribution of the species of Phacellaria and its host plants in the world,we speculated on the possible time,sites,and migration of the origin of Phacellaria.The host plants of Phacellaria mainly belong to Loranthaceae.Plants of Phacellaria and their hosts are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas.The plants of Phacellaria might have originated from a tropical area in the south of China before the Tertiary.Their ancestors were parasitic on the ancestors of some plants of Loranthaceae by chance during the Tertiary.It possibly took them millions of years to form a sturdy relationship with their hosts.

  2. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanuz Dechayont

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin (Lamiaceae has been widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaves from P. cablin extracts were investigated. The water extracts had the highest total phenolic content 116.88±0.48 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry plant extract. Nevertheless, high levels of total flavonoid content were found in ethanolic extracts 280.12±2.04 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry plant extract. The highest antioxidant activities were found for the ethanolic extract (IC50=18±0.90, 20±0.24 μg/mL by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays, respectively. Both extracts showed moderate inhibition of superoxide inhibition (O2∙- and nitric oxide (NO production in concentration-dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was calculated by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC. The ethanolic extract had the greatest activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes with zone diameters of 11.67±1.53, 10.33±2.52, and 10.33±1.15 mm, respectively. The corresponding MIC and MBCs were 5, 0.625, and 0.039 mg/mL. P. cablin extracts contain antioxidant and antibacterial properties that should be exploited for possible clinical application.

  3. Botanical and Cytological Studies of Monodora tenuifolia Benth.

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    S.O. AZEEZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated branching pattern, ecology of occurrence, palynology, cytology and phenology of Monodora tenuifolia using standard techniques. The branching pattern determines the shape of the canopy, which may be irregular when growing in the shade, or round when growing in the open. The pollens are tetrads, 10.15 µm in diameter, with pollen fertility of 92.24% (determined by using Cotton Blue in Lactophenol and pollen tube germinability of 65.83%. Two simultaneous cytokineses were studied and the events of meiotic cell division were observed to synchronize. The chromosomes were well paired at pachynema as associations of regular bivalents, paired of ring 11 or rod 11, though univalents were occasionally observed. Monodora tenuifolia has the chromosome number equal to 2n = 16, showing a karyotypic formular of 1 acro (large + 2 submet (medium + 2 met (medium + 2 acro (medium + 1 met (small chromosome in the 2B Stebbins category. The results indicate that the tetrad pollen grain of Monodora tenuifolia is an advantage, since up to four pollen tubes could be seen developing from the some pollen grains, while the karyotype is asymmetrical.

  4. Alkaloid and other chemical constituents from Psychotria stachyoides Benth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Antonia T.A.; Uchoa, Daniel E.A.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Lima, Mary Anne S. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo, E-mail: mary@dqoi.ufc.br [Centro de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense and Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    The organic extracts of leaves and roots of Psychotria stachyoides provided the new glucoside monoterpenoid indole alkaloid N-demethylcorreantoside, besides bizantionoside B, a-amyrin, alizarine methyl-ether, rubiadine, scopoletin, barbinevic acid and a mixture of b-sitosterol and stigmasterol glucosides. The structural characterization of the isolates was established based on infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) and, particularly, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  5. Central nervous system activity of Leucas inflata Benth. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousuf, M H; Ali, B H; Bashir, A K; Tanira, M O M; Blunden, G

    2002-09-01

    The analgesic activity of the methanol and acetone extracts of Leucas inflata L. (family Labiatae) was evaluated in mice using different experimental models. The effect of the two extracts on pentobarbitone-sleeping time, motor activity, sensorimotor coordination, carrageen induced inflammation, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia has also been investigated. The two crude extracts have been phytochemically analyzed and some constituents isolated and characterized. These included stigmasterols, a chromone and coumarins. Extracts of L. inflata L., given at single oral doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg, significantly and dose-dependently, reduced formalin-induced pain, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions and increased the reaction time in the hot-plate test. Both extracts caused significant and dose-related impairment in the sensorimotor control and ambulatory and total motor activity of treated mice. Both extracts exhibited anti-inflammatory action by reducing paw edema of treated mice. The extracts did not significantly affect the rectal temperature of normothermic mice. However, they were effective in preventing Brewers yeast induced pyrexia. It is concluded that the crude methanol and acetone extract of L. inflata has CNS depressant properties, manifested as antinociception and sedation. Both extracts have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions.

  6. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Licania tomentosa (Benth. fritsch (crhysobalanaceae

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    Silva J.B.N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition, and evaluates the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of the Licania tomentosa. Gram positive and negative bacterial strains were used in this work. Examination of the phytochemical composition of L. tomentosa revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as tannins, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, steroids and triterpenoids. An antibacterial assay pointed out that the extract had a lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC - 32 μg/mL towards Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC12692. The extract also presented antibacterial activity against other assayed bacteria, with the MIC varying between 64 and 512 μg/ mL. Our findings reveal that the extract presented an antioxidative capacity lower than that of BHT at the same concentration, used as positive control. Our results suggest that the levels and combinations between the secondary metabolites of this plant should be investigated to explain the demonstrated antibacterial activity.

  7. Two New Phenolic Compounds from Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Benth. Briq

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    Xu-Hua Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic compounds, Schitenoside A (1 and Schitenoside B (2, have been isolated together with six known compounds: 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl ethanol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, benzyl 7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6, m-hydroxybenzoic acid (7 and trans-caffeic acid (8, from the Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds (3-7 were isolated from Schizonepeta genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a week antibacterial activity against four test strains, involving both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria .

  8. STUDIES ON THE EFFICACY OF BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA BENTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research into it's efficacy in waste water treatment is desirable so that it may ... Two hundred grams of the powdered bark were dissolved in solvent .... By their nature, the wastes arising from food, beverages and soft drinks processing.

  9. Germinação de sementes de Enterolobium schomburgkii (Benth. Benth. submetidas a estresse salino e aplicação de poliamina Enterolobium schomburgkii (Benth. Benth. seed germination under saline stress and polyamine application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Braga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do estresse salino com NaCl e CaCl2 nos potenciais osmóticos 0 (controle; -0,2; -0,3 e -0,4 MPa com e sem aplicação da poliamina putrescina nas concentrações de 5 mM e 10 mM. As sementes de E. schomburgkii foram previamente escarificadas com lixa, no lado oposto à radícula, tratadas com fungicidas e colocadas para germinar nos diferentes tratamentos, à temperatura de 30ºC, sendo utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (agentes salinos x potenciais. No segundo experimento realizado após 11 meses, foram adicionadas as concentrações de 5 e 10 mM de putrescina. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 2 (agentes salinos x potenciais osmóticos x concentrações de putrescina. As sementes foram avaliadas quanto a porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Menor porcentagem de germinação e IVG foram observadas à medida que os potenciais se tornam mais negativos quando as sementes foram submetidas ao estresse salino com CaCl2. A aplicação de putrescina promoveu aumento na porcentagem de germinação e IVG sob os potenciais mais negativos, com maiores valores na concentração de 5 mM.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of salt stress by using NaCl and CaCl2 at the following osmotic potentials: 0 (control, -0.2, -0.3, and -0.4 MPa with and without putrescine application at 5 mM and 10 mM. E. Schomburgkii seeds were previously scarified with sandpaper in the region opposite to the radicle, treated with fungicides and allowed to germinate in the different treatments at 30ºC. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2x4 (osmotic potentials x saline agents factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 25 seeds each. After 11 months, a second experiment was carried out, in which putrescine concentrations of 5 and 10 mM were added and the experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2x4x2 (osmotic potentials x saline agents x putrescine concentrations factorial arrangement. Germination percentage and velocity index (GVI were evaluated. Germination percentage and GVI increased with lower potentials in seeds subjected to salt stress with CaCl2. Putrescine application (5mM increased germination percentage and GVI at the most negative potentials.

  10. Bioassay-guided investigation of Lonchocarpus cyanescens benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Bioactivity guided fractionation identified fraction F5 as the most active. .... added to 4 ml of methanol solution of DPPH (1 mM, 1 ml). The ..... Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide anion radical and on ... Mubo AS, Solomon U, Esther TS (2012). Antipsychotic property of aqueous and.

  11. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LEUCAS URTICIFOLIA (VAHL BENTH

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    KALSOOM AKHTAR, SHER BAHADAR KHAN ABDUL MALIK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Many medicinal plants are used as traditional medicine in various countries for long time. A large number of secondary metabolites with various biological activities have been discovered from various medicinal plants and some bioactive substances derived from plants have diverse functional roles as secondary metabolites and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals. Leucas Urticifolia (family- Lamiaceae is an annual herbaceous plant and has various activities. Chemical studies have underlined the presence of various classes of compounds, the main being triterpenes, diterpene, flavonoids and fatty acids. The extract of this plant as well as pure compounds isolated from this plant, have been demonstrated to posses multiple pharmacological activities. In this review, we have explored the phytochemistry and pharmacological activites of Leucas Urticifolia in order to collate existing information on this plant as well as highlight its multi-activity properties as a medicinal agent.

  12. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on Leucas vestita Wall ex Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salem Varadharajan Rajesh; Thiruppathi Senthil Kumar; Mandali Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In search of alternative herbal medicine for pathogenic microorganism variety of plant species have been identified. However, search of new species are still in progress to reduce the pressure on biological diversity and increase availability of organic compound. In the light of this the present work identified phytochemical property and antibacterial activity of Leucas vestita.Methods:The ethanol extract of L. vestita was used for this study. The phytochemicals present in the extract was identified and the antibacterial activity was tested through disc diffusion method. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of primary and secondary metabolites which ensuring their herbal properties. Antimicrobial activity showed increasing zone of inhibition with increasing concentration of the extract with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis among the other microorganism. Larger zone of inhibition of 14mm was recorded for K. pneumoniae. Conclusions:The study suggests that this extract can be used as a medicine to control some of these pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Contents of Aerial Parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseinpoor Mohsen Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have reported the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia extracts and fractions. Methanolic, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were screened to analysis their antioxidant activities by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity (RSA, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and ferrous ion cheating (FIC. In most cases the leaf extracts and ethyl acetate fraction had more activity. The methanolic extracts of leaf and flower showed considerable antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The extracts showed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia.

  14. 234 Fruiting Efficiency of Pentaclethra Macraphylla Benth: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    One of the major problems of P. macrophylla is the threat of extinction mainly due to ... Several authors have reported on the fruiting efficiency of tropical plants ... However there may be danger in overgeneralization across locations, since.

  15. Citogenética do gênero Leucaena Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schifino-Wittmann Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são revistos e discutidos os resultados mais relevantes dos estudos citogenéticos em Leucaena realizados pelo grupo do Departamento de Plantas Forrageiras e Agrometeorologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, que envolvem híbridos selecionados dentro de programas de melhoramento, e as espécies selvagens e cultivadas do gênero. Estes resultados revelaram variabilidade intra e interespecífica para o número cromossômico, mostrando a ocorrência de multivalentes mesmo nas espécies consideradas diplóides (o que apóia a origem paleopoliplóide de muitas espécies e constituem uma importante contribuição para a citogenética das espécies de Leucaena, com repercussões na taxonomia e no melhor entendimento da complexa evolução do gênero. Os resultados indicam que deve haver um acompanhamento citogenético em programas de melhoramento genético destas espécies.

  16. HARVEST SEASON AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ENTEROLOBIUM SCHOMBURGKII SEEDS. BENTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Mojena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds Enterolobium shomburgkii collected in different months of the year 2014. There were made fruit harvests from trees located in the urban area of Sinop-MT, in the months of June, July, August and September. In each crop was rated the number of seeds per fruit, weight of 1,000 seeds, water content of the seeds, dry weight, germination percentage, germination speed index and it was also applied the electrical conductivity test. The results show that the harvest of Enterolobium schomburgkii seeds should be held in August and September

  17. Effects of extract of Isodon Lophanthoides var.gerardianus (Benth.) Hara on the production of TNF-α and the change of ultrastructure of liver cell in mice induced by concanavalin A%狭基线纹香茶菜对肝损伤小鼠TNF-α肝组织超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小翚; 祝晨蔯; 李常青; 林朝展; 苏俊芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察狭基线纹香茶菜提取物对免疫性肝损伤小鼠TNF-α释放及肝组织超微结构的影响.方法 50只雄性NIH小鼠,随机分为5组,分别为正常对照组,模型组,狭基线纹香茶菜提取物高、低剂量组(剂量分别为18.2g/kg、4.55g/kg),与环磷酰胺(43mg/kg)对照组.除正常对照组外,其余小鼠于实验首日上午尾静脉注射刀豆蛋白A(Con A)20mg/Kg,并于首日、次日和第3d、第4d下午各给药1次,第5d给药后2h,模型组和各给药组小鼠再次尾静脉注射ConA 20mg/kg,4h后,每组取相同序号小鼠8只,取血检测血清TNF-α活生,每组所剩2只小鼠,8h后处死取肝组织,3%戊二醛固定,切片,染色后,透射电镜观察肝组织超微结构.结果 显示模型组TNF-α活性较正常组明显升高,肝组织超微结构发生了显著改变,肝细胞严重肿胀、线粒体破坏、毛细胆管和肝窦腔结构明显变形、中性粒细胞滞留,细胞及细胞器的完整性遭到破坏.狭基线纹香茶菜提取物高、低剂量组TNF-α活性较模型组明显降低(P<0.01、0.05)、肝组织超微结构虽有一定程度改变,但细胞及细胞器的形态及完整性得到保护.结论 狭基线纹香茶菜具有较好的保肝作用,其作用机理与抑制TNF-α的产生密切相关.%Objective To investigate effects of extract of Isodon Lophanthoides var. gerardianus (Benth.)Hara(LJVG) on the production of TNF-α and the change of ultrastructure of liver cell in mice induced by concanavalin A. Methods Fifty NIH mice were randomly divided into normal control group,model group,extract groups of LJVG (high- and lowdosage),and cyclophosphamidum group (43mg/kg). In the experimental groups,mice received the extract of ILVC (18.20,4.55g/kg,respectively) by gastric perfusion or injected with cyclophosphamidum into its abdominal cavity daily at the first,the second,the third and fourth day afternoon. Excepts those in normal control group .mice in other groups were

  18. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-02-02

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  19. Caracterizacion quimico-nutricional de forrajes leguminosos y de otras familias botanicas empleando analisis descriptivo y multivariado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, D.E; Medina, M.G; Moratinos, P; Cova, L.J; Torres, A; Santos, O; Perdomo, D

    2009-01-01

    ...), se tuvo por objetivo caracterizar la composicion nutricional del follaje de especies leguminosas de los generos Pithecellobium, Gliricidia, Leucaena, Samanea, Acacia, Bauhinia, Cassia y Pentaclethra...

  20. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  1. Efeito do BAP no cultivo in vitro de Ocimum selloi Benth Effect of BAP on in vitro culture of Ocimum selloi Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.F. Monfort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando promover a proliferação de brotações em segmentos apicais e nodais de Ocimum selloi em diferentes concentrações de BAP, plantas jovens de 60 dias serviram de doadoras de segmentos apicais e nodais. Os segmentos foram inoculados em meio MS preparado com a metade da concentração dos sais, e acrescido de 1,5% de sacarose e diferentes concentrações de BAP. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento fatorial, 3 x 4, sendo 3 as posições dos segmentos de O. selloi (segmento apical, primeiro e segundo segmentos nodais e 4 concentrações de BAP (0 - controle; 2; 4 e 6 mg L-1. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliados o número, comprimento e biomassa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Os primeiros e segundos segmentos apresentaram melhores resultados na indução de brotos de O. selloi, 7 e 8 brotos/explante, nas diferentes concentrações de BAP; porém, não houve formação de raízes na presença da citocinina. Nas condições testadas, recomenda-se o uso do primeiro e segundo segmento nodal suplementando o meio de cultivo com BAP para a proliferação in vitro de brotações de O. selloi.The present study was undertaken to develop the proliferation of sprouts in apical and nodal segments of Ocimum selloi with different BAP levels. Young plants aged 60 days were used as donors of nodal and apical segments. The segments were inoculated in MS medium at half the concentration of salts supplemented with 1.5% of sucrose and different BAP levels. The experiment was in 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, 3 positions of O. selloi segments (apical segment; first and second nodal segment and 3 BAP levels (0 - control; 2; 4 and 6 mg L-1. After 30 days, the number, the length, and the fresh and dry biomass of sprouts and roots were evaluated. The first and the second segments showed better results in inducing O. selloi sprouts, 7 and 8 sprouts/explant, at the different BAP levels, but there was not root formation in the presence of the cytokinin. Under the tested conditions, use of the first and the second nodal segments is recommended in addition to supplementing the culture medium with BAP for in vitro proliferation of O. selloi sprouts.

  2. OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON TRES AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMODEHYDRATION OF BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH THREE SWEETENING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Giraldo Bedoya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js, sacarosa invertida (jsi y miel de caña (jmc, en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2% que los jarabes de sacarosa invertida (54,5% y sacarosa (50%, medido a partir del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de la mora. Con el proceso de estabilización del producto secado por convección forzada con aire caliente a 1,5 ms-1 de velocidad y 55°C de temperatura, durante 24 horas, logrando disminuir la humedad de los tres productos hasta 27,3%hbh, 30,8%hbh y 25,9%hbh para los jarabes de sacarosa, sacarosa invertida y miel de caña, respectivamente y mejorar las condiciones de empaque y almacenamiento, haciendo más estable el producto al ataque microbiano. Las pruebas preliminares de conservación se efectuaron en envases de vidrio de 250g durante 15 días. Se realizó además una prueba sensorial de ordenación con 10 jueces entrenados para la evaluación de las moras deshidratadas osmóticamente antes y después de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento y como resultado se obtuvo que antes de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento, el producto de mayor aceptación fue el correspondiente a las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa invertida y luego del empaque, la mayor aceptación fue para las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa.Studies of osmotic dehydration of blackberry with three different syrups, sucrose (ss, reverse sucrose (rss, and cane syrup (cs with identical initial concentration conditions, 70°Brix, mean temperature of 20°C, and relative humidity of 65% were undertaken in the Fruit and Vegetable Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, showing that the cane syrup presented greater osmotic potential (69,2% compared to the reverse sucrose (54,5% and sucrose (50%, measured as the percentage weight loss of the blackberry samples. With the product dehydration process of drying with forced convection hot air at 1,5 ms-1 velocity and 55°C during 24 hours, it was possible to reduce the humidity of the three products to 27,3% hbh, 30,8% hbh and 25,9 % hbh for syrups of sucrose, reverse sucrose and cane syrup, respectively and improve the packaging and storage conditions, making the product more stable against microbial attacks. An ordenation sensorial test also was conducted with 10 judges trained for evaluation of osmotically dehydrated blackberries before and after the packing and storage process, the most accepted product was the one corresponding to the blackberries osmodehydrated in inverted sucrose syrup and after packaging the most accepted was blackberries osmodehydrated in sucrose syrup.

  3. Chemical constituents of Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth.) R. Harley (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Geralda de Fatima; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: geralda@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lopes, Marcia Nasser [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Chemical investigation of Hyptidendron canum stems resulted in the isolation of betulinic, ursolic and euscaphic acids. From the leaves were isolated 3{beta}-O-{beta}-galactopiranosilsitosterol, ursolic aldehyde, and mixtures of maslinic acid and 2{alpha}-hydroxy ursolic acid, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin, uvaol and erythrodiol, sitosterol and stigmasterol, spathulenol and globulol. Hexane and chloroform leave fractions as well as ursolic and betulinic acids showed antifungal activities against the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. (author)

  4. Caracterização anatômica das folhas de Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae Anatomic characterization of Cunila microcephala Benth. (Lamiaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira de Toledo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho fez-se a análise da organização estrutural das folhas de Cunila microcephala em microscopia fotônica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Seguiram-se as técnicas convencionais no preparo do material para obtenção das lâminas semipermanentes. Para a preparação de lâminas permanentes utilizou-se a técnica de inclusão em glicol metacrilato (GMA. A organização estrutural das folhas desta espécie revela: estômatos em ambas as faces com predominância na face abaxial (folha anfi-hipoestomática. Os estômatos da face adaxial são do tipo diacítico. As paredes anticlinais das células epidérmicas da face adaxial são sinuosas e apresentam espessamentos irregulares. As epidermes de ambas as faces são uniestratificadas. Tricomas tectores unisseriados e tricomas glandulares do tipo capitado unicelular e pluricelular se fazem presentes em ambas as faces. O mesofilo é heterogêneo dorsiventral. Idioblastos contendo cristais de inulina se fazem presentes em toda a extensão do limbo. A nervura principal em secção transversal, na porção mediana da lâmina foliar revela uma organização bastante simples, pouco saliente, na qual o parênquina clorofiliano paliçádico apresenta solução de continuidade. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais.This work has focused on the structural organization analysis of Cunila microcephala leaves in photonic microscopic and electronic scanning. Conventional techniques have been used to prepare the material for obtaining semi-permanent plates. For the preparation of permanent plates, the immersion into glycol methacrylate (GMA has been performed. The structural organization of leaves belonging to this species reveals stomata in both faces with predominance in the abaxial face (amphihypostomatic leaf. The adaxial face stomata belongs to the diacytic type. The anticlinal walls of the epidermis cells of the adaxial face are sinuous and present irregular thickening. The epidermis of both faces is single layered. Uniserial tectorial trichomes and single celled and multicelled capitate glandular trichomes are present in both faces. The mesophyll is heterogeneous dorsi-ventral. Idioblasts containing inulin crystals are present throughout the foliar plate. The central veins in cross-section, in the medium portion of the foliar plate, have shown a very simple organization, not an outstanding one, where the chlorophyllian palisade parenchyma presents a solution of continuity. The vascular fagots are collateral.

  5. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD with five repetitions per treatment, each constituted by 20 seeds. At 40 days, germination percentage and dry mass of the roots and the aerial parts were evaluated. A significant increase was observed in dry matter of the root and aerial part for all the rhizobacteria isolates tested, compared to the control. All the isolates provided significant germination increase, except 3918 and CIIB, which did not differ from the control. Among the tested isolates, four were the most promising (FL2, MF4, MF2 and CIIB. The results obtained show significant gains in seedling production, without any adjustment in nursery management or structure. In addition to this direct gain, it is possible to make a better use of the physical structure of the nurseries by reducing the time needed for seedling formation, reducing the production costs.

  6. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  7. Preliminary Study on Seedling-raising Techniques for Prosopis chilensis L. and Pithecellobium dulce%智利牧豆·牛蹄豆育苗技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭尚磊; 陈文德; 彭培好; 史作民

    2008-01-01

    [目的]为智利牧豆和牛蹄豆的引种栽培提供理论依据.[方法]以智利牧豆和牛蹄豆为材料,通过引种栽培试验研究2个物种的苗木生长状况和育苗、移苗技术.[结果]温水浸泡处理可提高牛蹄豆的种子发芽率;智利牧豆较牛蹄豆出苗快,从播种到真叶出现仅需6~10 d,而牛蹄豆需9~12 d;播种3个月后,智利牧豆和牛蹄豆平均苗高生长量分别为 2.56、5.91 cm,平均基径生长量分别为0.030、0.060 cm.智利牧豆和牛蹄豆的生长旺盛期分别在7~8月和8~9月;切根并喷洒生根剂处理的智利牧豆成活率最高,为96.7%.[结论]该试验为智利牧豆和牛蹄豆的引种栽培及大田推广提供了参考.

  8. DETEKSI BAKTERI PATOGEN TERBAWA BENIH AKOR (ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS A. CUNN. EX BENTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Suharti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex  enth.. Intensive research of seed-borne pathogen of A. mangium and A. crassicarpa which have been established in industrial timber estate (HTI was undertaken in Indonesia, while plantings development of northern black wattle have recently been established in the 1990s. Very limited information available on northern black wattle diseases especially seed-borne diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle and the effects on seed germination. Methods for the isolation of bacteria were by seed soaking, seed griding, blotter test, growing-on test on paper and soil. Identification of bacteria by PCR used 63F/1387R primer. The results showed that seed-borne bacteria of northern black wattle were Paenochrobactrum sp., Ralstonia sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter sp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Salmonella bongori, Escherichia hermannii while pathogenic bacteria cause seedling leafspot were Micrococcus luteus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Burkholderia cepacia complex, A. faecalis, Acinetobater sp., P. stutzeri, S. bongori and Ralstonia sp. reduced seed germination and increased rotten seed, suggested that they were the pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle seed. Ralstonia sp. significantly increased the percentage of rotten seed and decreased shoot length and root length. P. stutzeri and S. bongori significantly inhibited the root growth. Paenochrobactrum sp. and E. hermannii were assumed as pathogen with weak virulence due to seed germination, the percentage of rotten seed and vigour index were relatively similar to untreated seed.

  9. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  10. Toxicity, antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Ateh, Eugene N; Keiser, Jennifer; Vargas, Mireille; Bach, Horacio; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Davis, Harry; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2012-12-18

    This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties of extracts obtained from the plant Vernonia guineensis, a plant commonly used in traditional Cameroonian medicine. For in vitro studies, 10 g of leaf and tuber powder from V. guineensis was extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used for antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity studies. In the antimicrobial assay, extracts were tested against bacterial and fungal organisms including; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the anthelmintic assay, larval and adult stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum and the mouse nematode Trichuris muris were used. For the acute toxicity test, male and female rats of 150-200 g body weight were used in the experiment. The aqueous extract of V. guineensis tubers was administered in 4 doses of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg per group (n=6), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. The crude extracts exhibited weak antibacterial and antifungal activity except for the dichloromethane extract, which showed moderate activity against A. fumigatus (MIC=200 μg/ml). In the anthelmintic assay, the organic extracts of the tubers had 100% killing efficacy against T. muris at 2mg/ml in 48 h, while the aqueous extract showed no activity. The organic leaf extracts demonstrated potent activity killing 100% of the adult worms 1mg/ml in 24h. The aqueous leaf extract was active at 2mg/ml in 72 h, killing 100% of the adult worms. In the acute toxicity test, V. guineensis did not produce any toxic signs or death at the maximum concentration of 4000 mg/kg. Crude extracts from V. guineensis possess anthelmintic activity against T. muris with only weak antibiotic activity. Acute administration of aqueous extract from V. guineensis tubers did not produce toxic effects in rats. The absence of acute toxicity at the highest concentration tested indicates that the tea decoction from V. guineensis extract is safe at concentrations ≤ 4000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled release fertilizer and container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan seedlings

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    Ezequiel Gasparin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for native tree seedlings will require improvements in quality standards of production processes through the use of more efficient cultivation techniques. This study evaluated the effects of different doses of controlled release fertilizer (CRF and different container volumes in the production of Parapiptadenia rigida seedlings. We examined the effects of five different concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g L-1 substrate of CRF (18-5-9 NPK and three different container volumes (50, 110 and 180 cm3 on seedling height (H and collar diameter (CD measured monthly for seven months and then calculated H/CD ratios. After 210 days of growth, the dry masses of the aerial portions, root systems, and total masses were determined, as well as the concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in the aerial portions of the seedlings. In general, the dose 9 g L-1 substrate combined with the 180 cm3 cultivation tubes demonstrated the best results in terms of the morphological variables analyzed, resulting in consistent quality seedlings for field planting.

  12. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

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    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

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    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e linalol foram identificadas como os seus principais componentes. Todos os óleos extraídos das partes aéreas apresentaram atividade biológica contra cocos gram-positivo - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - mas apenas aquele de O. canum apresentou atividade contra bacilo gram-negativo - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  14. 钩吻的研究概况%Review of studying of Gelsemiu Elegans Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓乐; 甄汉深; 秦海龙; 李生茂; 葛静

    2007-01-01

    中国钩吻已分离出17种单体,其中以钩吻素予含量最高,钩吻素己毒性最强.毒理作用主要押制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经.其临床作用已从过去的仅供外用发展为用于抑制肿瘤细胞生长、治疗神经痛、扩瞳、免疫调节等方面.

  15. Research and development on Gelsemium elegans Benth.%钩吻研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志航; 邬静; 孙志良

    2015-01-01

    近年来对钩吻的研究主要集中在钩吻生物碱的提取、分离、纯化及结构分析,其毒理作用主要表现为抑制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经.也有学者对钩吻生物碱的促生长作用进行了初步探讨,但钩吻生物碱促生长作用机理在国内外尚未见报道.笔者等结合国内外研究现状,系统归纳总结了近年钩吻的研究应用情况,并对钩吻生物碱促生长作用发展前景进行了探讨.

  16. Technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in Pogostemon cablin (patchouli) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakshapal; Divya, S; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. The rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. The rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Treatment with bioinoculants (except Trichoderma harzianum) substantially improved the root and shoot biomass of nursery raised rooted cuttings particularly in treatments containing Azotobacter chroococcum (150 and 91.67%, respectively), Glomus intraradices (117 and 91.67%, respectively) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (117 and 83%, respectively). The transplanted rooted plants in pots, over two harvests, yielded higher shoot biomass when rooting medium contained A. chroococcum (147%), G. intraradices (139%) and P. fluorescencs (139%). Although the treatments did not affect the content of essential oil, the quality of essential oil as measured by the content of patchouli alcohol improved with Glomus aggregatum (18%). Similar trends were observed in field trials with significantly higher biomass yield achieved with A. chroococcum (51%), G. intraradices (46%) and P. fluorescencs (17%) compared to control (un-inoculated) plots. Increased in herb yield was found to be related with increased nutrient uptake. The population of bioinoculants in the rhizosphere was observed to be considerably higher in plots receiving vermicompost enriched with bioinoculants. This technology can be a successful way of delivering sufficient propagules of bioinoculants along with vermicompost especially in organic fields.

  17. Botanical and Cytological Studies of Monodora tenuifolia Benth.

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    S.O. AZEEZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated branching pattern, ecology of occurrence, palynology, cytology and phenology of Monodora tenuifolia using standard techniques. The branching pattern determines the shape of the canopy, which may be irregular when growing in the shade, or round when growing in the open. The pollens are tetrads, 10.15 µm in diameter, with pollen fertility of 92.24% (determined by using Cotton Blue in Lactophenol and pollen tube germinability of 65.83%. Two simultaneous cytokineses were studied and the events of meiotic cell division were observed to synchronize. The chromosomes were well paired at pachynema as associations of regular bivalents, paired of ring 11 or rod 11, though univalents were occasionally observed. Monodora tenuifolia has the chromosome number equal to 2n = 16, showing a karyotypic formular of 1 acro (large + 2 submet (medium + 2 met (medium + 2 acro (medium + 1 met (small chromosome in the 2B Stebbins category. The results indicate that the tetrad pollen grain of Monodora tenuifolia is an advantage, since up to four pollen tubes could be seen developing from the some pollen grains, while the karyotype is asymmetrical.

  18. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth. Pax. & Hoffman

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    David A. Akinpelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract.

  19. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

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    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  20. [Antihypertensive action of Parkia biglobosa+ (Jacq) Benth seeds in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assane, M; Baba Moussa, R; Bassene, E; Sere, A

    1993-01-01

    Hundred white Wistar rats have been used to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of entire seeds and decorticated, fermented seeds of a soudanian plant, Parkia biglobosa. The arterial blood pressure was measured by using bloody method in anesthizied animals. The Pham Huu Chanh method was used to determine type plant's antihypertensive activity. According to the results obtained, in both preparations, adequate doses decrease arterial blood pressure, diastolic more than systolic, but the effect of fermented seeds was more important than the entire seeds. In the two cases, the decrease in blood pressure is greated in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects, and the hypotension induced was well correlated with a bradycardia.

  1. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  2. A pharmacognostic study of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) : bioactivity, safety, and phytochemical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toyang, Ngeh Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The world continues to be plagued by numerous diseases and health complications. Unfortunately, current drug discovery efforts are lagging behind compared to the pace of emergence of new diseases or the development of resistance to current therapies. Medicinal plants especially for people in develop

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids Isolated From the Fruits of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich. Benth

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    AT Tchinda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the antioxidant activity of the different flavonoids of the fruits of Xylopia parviflora used in Cameroon as spice in common traditional dishes. The fruits were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. The isolation of flavonoids was guided by the DPPH-TLC technique. The methanol crude extract and isolated compounds were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using DPPH radical-scavenging, β-carotene/linoleic acid and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The total phenolic content of the methanol crude extract was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The DPPH-TLC technique led to the isolation of (+-catechin (1, kaempferol 3-O-arabinofuranoside (2 and quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 identified by NMR and mass spectra analysis. In the colorimetric DPPH test, compound 1 had the same activity (EC50 8.1µg/ml as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT used as standard while compound 3 and the methanol crude extract were less active (EC50 17.2µg/ml. Compound 2 was completely inactive. The total phenolic content of the fruit extracts was 113.03 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of extract. In the carotene bleaching test at the highest concentration of 100µg/mL, the order of inhibition of β-carotene discoloration was BHT > crude extract > quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside (3 > catechin (1 > kaempferol 3-O- arabinofuranoside (2. In the reducing power assay, compound 3 was more active at concentrations 40-100µg/mL. The HPLC analysis of the methanol crude extract revealed the presence of compounds 1-3 and unidentified phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract is probably due to the presence of compounds 1 and 3.

  4. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

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    Celuta S. Alviano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%. The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  5. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

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    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  6. Forensic identification of Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) using DNA barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, M.C.M.; Lens, F.; Pakusza, C.; Peelen, T.; Wieringa, J.J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We theref

  7. Forensic Identifiation of Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz) Using DNA Barcoding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurlings, M.C.M.; Lens, F.; Pakusza, C.; Peelen, T.; Wieringa, J.J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) is a valuable forest product, root extracts of which are used as an antihypertensive drug. Increasing demand led to overharvesting in the wild. Control of international trade is hampered by the inability to identify root samples to the species level. We theref

  8. Kinetic analysis of the thermostability of peroxidase from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinus Oscar Onyebuchi EZE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A major problem in the storage and marketing of processed African oil bean seeds is its high deterioration rates due to the undesirable activity of peroxidases. The effect of heat treatment on the activity of peroxidase (POD from African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds was studied over a range of 30°C to 80°C. A simple first-order reaction which assumes a biphasic thermoinactivation curves was used to study the denaturation of this enzyme. Results suggested that peroxidase is a stable enzyme with a Z-value as low as 0.0147. This indicates that it is more sensitive to increase in temperature than to the duration of the heat treatment making high temperature short time treatment a technique to be used for its inactivation. The results of the thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions were: (a not spontaneous (ΔG > 0 for peroxidase at 323oK, and at all the temperatures (2 slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0 at 323 K and (3 reversible (ΔS < 0 at all the temperatures under study.

  9. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. Benth with Macroporous Resins

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    Zhi-feng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2>0.95. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34 % in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Guo, Sen; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Yang, Meiqi; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Li; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2017-07-27

    Ptychopetalum olacoides is a folk medicinal plant for health care in market, especially in Brazil. Fourteen known compounds were isolated from P. olacoides and their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data, including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, UV, IR and HR-ESI-MS. The 14 known compounds were identified as N-trans-feruloyl-3,5-dihydroxyindolin-2-one (1), magnoflorine (2), menisperine (3), 4-coumaroylserotonin (4), moschamine (5), luteolin (6), 4'-methoxyluteolin (7), 3-methoxyluteolin (8), 3, 7-dimethoxyluteolin (9), caffeic acid (10), ferulic acid (11), vanillic acid (12), syringic acid (13) and ginsenoside Re (14). To our knowledge, compounds (1-6, 13-14) were isolated from the plant for the first time. Additionally, quantitative analysis results indicated that calibration equations of compounds (1-3, 6, 9, 11-13) exhibited good linear regressions within the test ranges (R(2) ≥ 0.9990) and magnoflorine and menisperine were the major constituents in the barks of P. olacoides. The contents of magnoflorine and menisperine accounted for 75.96% of all analytes. However, the content of phenolic components was smaller and the highest content was no more than 1.04 mg/g. Collectively, these results suggested that alkaloids are the dominant substances in P. olacoides, which can make a difference for the quality control and further use of P. olacoides.

  11. Picrorhiza kurroa (Kutaki Royle ex Benth as a hepatoprotective agent--experimental & clinical studies.

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    Vaidya A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Picrorhiza kurroa (Pk, a known hepatoprotective plant, was studied in experimental and clinical situtations. The standardization of active principles--Picroside 1 and 2 was done with High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Picroside 1 ranged from 2.72 to 2.88 mg/capsule and picroside 2 from 5.50 to 6.00 mg/capsule. In the galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats, Pk at a dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in liver lipid content, GOT and GPT. In a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial in patients diagnosed to have acute viral hepatitis (HBsAg negative, Pk root powder 375 mg three times a day was given for 2 weeks (n = 15 or a matching placebo (n = 18 was given. Difference in values of bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT was significant between placebo and Pk groups. The time in days required for total serum bilirubin to drop to average value of 2.5 mg% was 75.9 days in placebo as against 27.44 days in Pk group. The present study has shown a biological plausability of efficacy of Pk as supported by clinical trial in viral hepatitis, hepatoprotection in animal model and an approach for standardizing extracts based on picroside content.

  12. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  13. Antifungal activities and active ingredients of Melodinus suaveolens Champ. ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanan; Ling, Siquan; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tang, Wenwei

    2017-07-16

    Four Melodinus species with antifungal activity were found in survey of the floral resources, in Shiwan Mountain Natural Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. Crude methanolic extracts of the twigs and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens exhibited potent antifungal activities against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria musae, and the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited these pathogens at rates of 85.37, 91.47, 72.77 and 89.87%, respectively (5 mg/mL). A new compound, (2R, 3S, 5S, 6R)-1-O-methyl- chiro-inositol was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction, along with 15 known compounds. The antifungal activities of compounds (1-16) were evaluated for the first time. Compound (4) had potent antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, C. graminicola and A. musae.

  14. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.

  15. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUÍMICA DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth. EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ

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    LEIDY CAROLINA AYALA S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El interés de productores, comercializadores y consumidores de la región por la mora de Castilla producida en el municipio de Ibagué y la poca información sobre sus cualidades dieron origen a la presente caracterización del fruto en seis estados de madurez. Los resultados morfológicos y fisicoquímicos indican que el grado óptimo de recolección es 5 atendiendo al buen índice de cosecha, firmeza, peso, sólidos solubles totales (SST, rendimiento y material insoluble en alcohol (MIA, en esta fase de maduración la acidez limita el crecimiento bacteriano no obstante persistan problemas fúngicos como Botritys Cinérea. Así mismo, la cosecha en grados de madurez 4 y 6 no son viables, debido a bajo peso y volumen; y fragilidad estructural que con frecuencia incide en la lixiviación, fermentación y magullado de la fruta respectivamente. En general el análisis estadístico pone de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre grados de madurez respecto a peso, diámetro mayor, volumen, acidez, SST, minerales y MIA, ratificando la importante relación entre el momento de cosecha y estado de desarrollo del fruto debido a su incidencia directa en la calidad del producto y competitividad comercial.

  16. Notas sobre el género Anetanthus hieron. ex Benth. (Gesneriaceae en Colombia

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution in Colombia of Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae at one species with two subspecies in its territory is presented. One of this, new subspecies, is described and illustrated in this note.Se presenta la distribución en Colombia del género Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae, representado en el territorio por una especie con dos subespecies. Una de ellas, subespecie nueva, se describe e ilustra en esta nota.

  17. Notas sobre el género Anetanthus Hieron ex Benth .(Gesneriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    Se presenta la distribución en Colombia del genero Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae), representado en el territorio por una especie con dos subespecies. Una de ellas, subespecie nueva, se describe e ilustra en esta nota.

  18. Osmodeshidratación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) con tres agentes edulcorantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Bedoya, Diana Patricia; Arango Vélez, Lina María; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2011-01-01

    La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js), sacarosa invertida (jsi) y miel de caña (jmc), en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2%) que los jarabes ...

  19. A PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION ON MOORVA BHEDA (DREGEA VOLUBILIS (L.F. BENTH. EX HOOK.F.

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    Karthika K S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are traditionally used for treatment of various illnesses. Hence, medicinal plants have been receiving great attention worldwide by the researchers because of their safe utility. The plant Dregea volubilis (syn. Wattakaka volubilis, Marsdenia volubilis is considered as a source plant of the Ayurvedic drug Moorva, is a climbing shrub of the family Apocynaceae. Traditionally, the plant is useful in different conditions such as pain, cold, boils, abscesses etc. In different states of India it is used by folks as a successful remedy in eye diseases. The study comprises includes macroscopy and microscopic of leaf, petiole, stem and root of D. volubilis and powder microscopy of leaf powder. This helps in correct botanical identification and characterization of the drug Dregea volubilis. Study reveals, in leaf numerous prismatic, rosettes and cluster crystals, lower epidermis had two types of stomata (paracytic and anomocytic, but stomata was absent in upper epidermis. Stem contain patches of non lignified fibers in cortex and presence of rosettes and cluster crystals, where as root had bands of stones cells in the cortex.

  20. Antimicrobial activities of constituents from isolona cauliflora verdc and cleistochlamys krikii benth, oliv.: Annonaceae

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    Odebode A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of crude extract, Caulindole D, a mixture of Caulindole E and F, Pinocembrin and an Oxyheptanoid (Clestochlamic acid from stem bark of Isolona cauliflora and Cleistochlamys krikii on Pseudomonas phaseolicola, Fusarium solani, Botryodiploida theobromae Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus have been investigated. An in vitro bioassay test showed that the crude dichloro-methane extract from C. krikii and a very strong antimicrobial property. The pure compound had strong to moderate inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The pure compounds from Cleistochlamus krikii had more pronounced inhibitory activities than the pure compounds from Isola cauliflora. At lower concentration of 100-200 ppm, the crude extract of Caulindole, mixture of Caulindole E and F, Pinocembrion and Oxyheptanoid had effect on most of the investigated plant pathogens. Higher concentration of 500-1000 ppm had moderate to weak effect on the Aspergillus spp.

  1. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  2. ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthacées is a plant used in the West-Cameroon traditional pharmacopeia. This species have been used to facilitate deliverance and delivery and to treat stomach ailment. The aqueous extract of leaves was studied by conventional pharmacological methods.Twelve female rats were randomly assigned in two groups of 6 animals each designated as control and treated groups. After a sighting study, one group of the fasted animals for 12h received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous solution of Brillantaisia vogeliana while control group received distilled water.Oral consumption of 2 g/kg of Brillantaisia vogeliana produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and relative organs weights except relative liver weight between control and treated animals. Moreover, no abnormality and no histopathological changes were detectable between both control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no difference in any of the parameters tested (WBC count, platelet, total leukocytes, RBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin estimation in either control or treated groups. No significant change occurred in the blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, calcium and phosphorus. However, α-amylase and total protein showed a significant difference between control and treated groups. The results showed the innocuity of the aqueous extract of B. vogeliana and thus validated its utilization in Cameroonian traditional pharmacopoeia. The LD50 was higher than 2g/kg of body weight and according to Globally Harmonized Hazard Classification and Labelling Scheme (GHS, aqueous extract of B. vogeliana was classified in group 5.

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthaceae is used in folk medicine in the West region of Cameroon to manage obesity. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of the aqueous extract of B.v. in rats. Three doses of aqueous extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg were administrated orally once per 2 days during a period of 28 days and different hematology, biochemistry and histopatology parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no mortality, no significant differences in the body and relative organ weight between control and treated animals, except for the kidney. Hematological analysis showed no significant difference in any of the parameters examined (WBC count, platelet, RBC count, hematocrit, total leucocyte count and hemoglobin estimation between control and treated groups. There were also no significant change in blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, calcium, alpha amylase, total protein and phosphorus, except alanine aminotransferase (ALAT between control and treated groups. Histopathological abnormalities changes were detected in organs of animals treated with various doses of product.

  4. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Orthosiphon Stamineus Benth Leaves Extract and Its Bioassay-Guided Fractions

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    Elsnoussi Ali Hussin Mohamed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary investigations were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the leaves of O. stamineus extracted serially with solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water; bioassay-guided purification of plant extracts using the subcutaneous glucose tolerance test (SbGTT was also carried out. Only the chloroform extract, given at 1 g/kg body weight (b.w., significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the blood glucose level of rats loaded subcutaneously with 150 mg/kg (b.w. glucose. The active chloroform extract of O. stamineus was separated into five fractions using a dry flash column chromatography method. Out of the five fractions tested, only chloroform fraction 2 (Cƒ2, at the dose of 1 g/kg (b.w. significantly inhibited (P < 0.05 blood glucose levels in SbGTT. Active Cƒ2 was split into two sub-fractions Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B, using a dry flash column chromatography method. The activities Cƒ2-A and Cƒ2-B were investigated using SbGTT, and the active sub-fraction was then further studied for anti-diabetic effects in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The results clearly indicate that Cƒ2-B fraction exhibited a blood glucose lowering effect in fasted treated normal rats after glucose-loading of 150 mg/kg (b.w.. In the acute streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, Cƒ2-B did not exhibit a hypoglycemic effect on blood glucose levels up to 7 hours after treatment. Thus, it appears that Cƒ2-B functions similarly to metformin, which has no hypoglycemic effect but demonstrates an antihyperglycemic effect only in normogycemic models. The effect of Cƒ2-B may have no direct stimulatory effects on insulin secretion or on blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. Verification of the active compound(s within the active fraction (Cƒ2-B indicated the presence of terpenoids and, flavonoids, including sinensitin.

  5. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

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    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  6. Effect of Salvia leriifolia Benth. root extracts on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle

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    Nassiri-Asl Marjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salvia leriifolia have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in brain tissues. In this study, the effects of S. leriifolia aqueous and ethanolic extracts were evaluated on an animal model of I/R injury in the rat hind limb. Methods Ischemia was induced using free-flap surgery in skeletal muscle. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of S. leriifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg root and normal saline (10 ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally 1 h prior reperfusion. During preischemia, ischemia and reperfusion conditions the electromyographic (EMG potentials in the muscles were recorded. The markers of oxidative stress including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total sulfhydryl (SH groups and antioxidant capacity of muscle (using FRAP assay were measured. Results In peripheral ischemia, the average peak-to-peak amplitude during ischemic-reperfusion was found to be significantly larger in extracts groups in comparison with control group. Following extracts administration, the total SH contents and antioxidant capacity were elevated in muscle flap. The MDA level was also declined significantly in test groups. Conclusion It is concluded that S. leriifolia root extracts have some protective effects on different markers of oxidative damage in muscle tissue injury caused by lower limb ischemia-reperfusion.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, Salvia repens is used traditionally to treat sores, stomach ache and diarrhoea. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based activity profiling of S. repens whole plant extract showed an active abietane diterpene...

  8. Índice de diversidade para entomofauna da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth..

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    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No período de abril de 1983 a setembro de 1984, efetuou-se o levantamento da entomofauna da bracatinga, em Almirante Tamandaré, PR. Os levantamentos foram efetuados quinzenalmente em copas de talhões com 8, 42 e 60 meses de idade, através da rede de copa e, de seus respectivos sub-bosques com rede de varredura. Para o cálculo do índice de diversidade utilizou-se a fórmula  alfa = (S-1/log N. Para a tabulação dos dados, optou-se pelas ordens Homoptera, Hemíptera e Coleóptera que apresentaram maior consistência quali-quantitativa. De acordo com os resultados obtidos ficou evidenciado que com o aumento da idade da planta e de seu respectivo sub-bosque ocorre um aumento concomitante e gradativo da diversidade das espécies. Com relação aos dois ecossistemas estudados o sub-bosque apresentou um valor  maior  para  o  índice de diversidade e no que se refere a diversidade das espécies entre famílias, separadamente, Chrysomelidae destacou-se com o mais alto  índice para o ecossistema formado pelas copas e, entre os diferentes sub-bosques destacou-se a família Curculionidae.

  9. New Betaproteobacterial Rhizobium Strains Able To Efficiently Nodulate Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulé, Cecilia; Zabaleta, María; Mareque, Cintia; Platero, Raúl; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Sicardi, Margarita; Frioni, Lillian; Battistoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Among the leguminous trees native to Uruguay, Parapiptadenia rigida (Angico), a Mimosoideae legume, is one of the most promising species for agroforestry. Like many other legumes, it is able to establish symbiotic associations with rhizobia and belongs to the group known as nitrogen-fixing trees, which are major components of agroforestry systems. Information about rhizobial symbionts for this genus is scarce, and thus, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize rhizobia associated with P. rigida. A collection of Angico-nodulating isolates was obtained, and 47 isolates were selected for genetic studies. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their nifH and 16S rRNA genes, the isolates could be grouped into seven genotypes, including the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium, among which the Burkholderia genotypes were the predominant group. Phylogenetic studies of nifH, nodA, and nodC sequences from the Burkholderia and the Cupriavidus isolates indicated a close relationship of these genes with those from betaproteobacterial rhizobia (beta-rhizobia) rather than from alphaproteobacterial rhizobia (alpha-rhizobia). In addition, nodulation assays with representative isolates showed that while the Cupriavidus isolates were able to effectively nodulate Mimosa pudica, the Burkholderia isolates produced white and ineffective nodules on this host. PMID:22226956

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

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    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  11. 21 CFR 582.10 - Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Marigold, pot Calendula officinalis L. Marjoram, pot Majorana onites (L.) Benth. Marjoram, sweet Majorana... L. Pot marigold Calendula officinalis L. Pot marjoram Majorana onites (L.) Benth. Rosemary...

  12. Anatomia comparada do pulvino, pecíolo e raque de Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae Comparative anatomy of pulvinus, petiole and rachis of Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae - Faboideae

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    Tatiane Maria Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Em Pterodon pubescens, os pulvinos primário e secundário, órgãos responsáveis pelos movimentos foliares, apresentam peculiaridades estruturais em relação ao pecíolo e raque. Estas peculiaridades incluem cutícula mais espessa, córtex mais desenvolvido formado por células parenquimáticas de formas variáveis, sistema vascular em posição central, floema circundado por fibras septadas não lignificadas e medula parenquimática reduzida ou ausente. Pecíolo e raque apresentam córtex reduzido constituído por células parenquimáticas isodiamétricas, sistema vascular periférico, floema envolvido por calota de fibras gelatinosas e medula ampla. Compostos fenólicos foram detectados no vacúolo das células corticais dos pulvinos, enquanto que no córtex e medula do pecíolo e da raque foram observados amiloplastos em abundância e ausência de compostos fenólicos. Em geral, as características estruturais do pulvino de P. pubescens são comuns aos pulvinos das demais espécies de Fabaceae e têm sido relacionadas com a intensificação de trocas laterais de íons e água entre células do córtex e sistema vascular, além de proporcionar maior flexibilidade e capacidade de movimento desta região. Já as características do pecíolo e da raque conferem maior rigidez a estas estruturas foliares.In Pterodon pubescens the primary and secondary pulvini show structural peculiarities in relations of petiole and rachis. These peculiarities include thicker cuticule, more developed cortex with only parenchyma cells with irregular shape, central vascular tissues, presence of septate fibers around the phloem, and absent or reduced pith. Petiole and rachis show reduced cortex constituted by parenchyma isodiameters cells, peripheric vascular tissues surrounded by gelatinous fibers and pith. Phenolic compounds were detected inside vacuole of parenchyma cells of the pulvinus. Starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of petiole and rachis. The features of P. pubescens pulvinus are common to pulvini of others species of Fabaceae, and have been associated to the intensification of lateral changes of ion and water between cortical cells and vascular tissues, besides to provide more flexibility and movement capacity of this organ. On the other hand, the features of petiole and rachis give more rigidity to these leaves structures.

  13. Efeitos da luz, temperatura e estresse de água na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Caesalpinoideae Effects of light, temperature and water stress on seed germination in Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. Caesalpinoideae

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    Fernanda Gollo A. Ferraz-Grande

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorvem água rapidamente e após 9 horas acumulam o conteúdo de 56% de água e perdem mais lentamente, necessitando de cerca de 20 horas para perder completamente a água absorvida. As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinam na faixa de temperaturas de 15 a 25 °C, e não possuem fotossensibilidade independentemente dos tratamentos luminosos e das temperaturas testadas. Verificou-se que com a diminuição do potencial de água, ocorre nas sementes uma redução na germinabilidade e na velocidade de germinação sob luz branca. Sob condições de estresse de água, observa-se fotossensibilidade, em sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides, sendo a germinação inibida pela luz branca mediada pelo pigmento fitocromo.Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorb water and reach rapidly 56% of their water content after 9 hours. They lose water slowly, requiring 20 hours to completely lose imbibed water. Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinated in the temperature range 15 to 25ºC. They did not show light sensitivity under different light types. We observed that low water potential reduced the germinability and germination rate. Under water stress those seeds were inhibited by white light mediated by phytochrome.

  14. Efecto de la escarificación húmeda y seca en la emergencia de plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth Effect of moist and dry scarification on the emergence of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Navarro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la aplicación de diferentes métodos de escarificación para favorecer la emergencia de plántulas a partir de semillas de A. lebbeck almacenadas al ambiente, para lo cual se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado con arreglo factorial 4 x 13 y 3 x 13 para la escarificación húmeda y la seca, respectivamente. Se encontró interacción significativa entre los factores para la escarificación húmeda (PThe application of different scarification methods to favour seedling emergence from A. lebbeck seeds stored under ambient conditions was evaluated, for which a completely randomized design was used with 4 x 13 and 3 x 13 factorial arrangement for moist and dry scarification, respectively. Significant interaction was found among the factors for moist scarification (P<0,001. The best values for the acid, hot water and soaking were found at 4 mos; they were lower than the control and among them only water and soaking and water and control were statistically different. The contrast between the values at 6 mos for the acid (6,3% and the control (40,1% stands out; in this last evaluation the highest emergence for moist scarification was achieved. In dry scarification, the highest percentage was obtained in the treatment based on the coat cut and 3 mos (71,0%, and differed statistically from the rest. In the cutting method all the emergence records were higher than the control. For the cut and puncture, statistical differences were detected only between 2 and 3 mos; in both the prevailing value was that of the cutting method. The emergence results allow to evaluate the coat cut as an appropriate method for A. lebbeck seeds, without obviating that soaking also constitutes an alternative for scarification.

  15. Sustratos orgánicos en la producción de plantas de Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.

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    Carlos Abanto-Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E ste trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia del compuesto orgánico en la producción de plantas de capirona. El experimento fue realizado en el Centro de Investigaciones Dale E. Bandy del IIAP Ucayali. Los tratamientos fueron distribuidos mediante un Diseño Completos al Azar (DCA, con 5 tratamientos 3 repeticiones y 10 plantas por unidad experimental, los tratam ientos fueron: T1 [Tierra aluvial]; T2 [tierra agrícola]; T3 [Tierra aluvial + tierra agrícola (1:1]; T4 [Tierra aluvial + cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza (1:1:1] y T5 [Tierra Agrícola+ cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza (1:1:1]. Las variables evaluadas al final del experimento fueron altura de planta (H (cm; diámetro basal (DB (mm; número de hojas; relación altura y diámetro basal (H∕DB; masa seca de la parte aérea (MSPA (g; masa seca de la raíz (MSR (g e índice de calidad de Dickson (IQD. Los res ultados muestran que los tratamientos T4 y T5 presentaron diferencias significativas superiores en todas las variables evaluadas en relación a los otros tratamientos. En ese sentido se concluye que los sustratos [Tierra aluvial + cascarilla de arroz + gall inaza] y [Tierra Agrícola+ cascarilla de arroz + gallinaza], provenientes de residuos de origen animal y vegetal proporcionaron mayor eficiencia en el crecimiento y mejor calidad de plantas de capirona aptas para campo definitivo .

  16. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

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    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  17. Growth of Jacaranda-da-Bahia (Dalbergia nigra((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth under different levels of NPK

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of well-nourished and quality seedlings is one of the factors that contribute to the successful implementation of forest plantations. The present study aimed to verify, by means of morphological characteristics, the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings (Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. in order to establish the optimal dose of each nutrient to be added in different substrates thus aiming to ensure the production of seedlings with better quality. The seedlings were produced in three types of soils: mesotrophic Ultisol (PVAm, Alic Oxisol (LVAa and distrofic Oxisol (LVAd. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions from February to June of 2006. 11 treatments were defined according baconian matrix, in which the nutrients (N, P and K ranged in three different doses and two additional treatments (Zero and Reference. A completely randomized design with four replications was adopted. The seedlings were planted in pots with a capacity of 2.1 dm3 and 120 days after sowing the data was collected. After analyzing the data, it was concluded that for the production of jacarandá-da-bahia seedlings it is recommended an addition of dosages greater than or equal to 600 mg.dm-3 of P and 200 mg.dm-3 of N when using underground earth in the production of seedlings, from distrofic Oxisol and 300 mg.dm-3 of P and 90 mg.dm-3 of N when using mesotrophic Ultisol. As for the addition of K, since the seedlings were undemanding or the available contents in the soil were sufficient to supply their needs, it is recommended the application of the minimum tested dose of 50 mg.dm-3 of soil until further studies with lower doses is tested.

  18. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

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    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  19. Research and Development on Enterotoxin of Gelsemium Elegans benth%钩吻毒素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易金娥; 袁慧

    2003-01-01

    近些年来对钩吻毒素的研究愈加全面,主要表现在:中国钩吻已分离出17种单体,其中以钩吻素子含量最高,钩吻素已毒性最强.毒理作用主要抑制呼吸中枢,作用于迷走神经,还能直接作用于心肌和血管平滑肌,在临床上的应用也愈加广泛.主要用于抗肿瘤、镇痛以及促生长等方面.

  20. 胡蔓藤化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华威; 郭涛; 张琳; 吴立军; 赵庆春

    2007-01-01

    目的 对胡蔓藤中的化学成分进行研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20及制备液相色谱进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和光谱分析进行结构鉴定.结果 分离鉴定了5个化合物,分别为滨蒿内酯(1)、二(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯(2)、3β-羟基-27-(Z)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(3)、3β-羟基-27-(E)-桂皮酰基-12-烯-28-羧基乌苏酸(4)、钩藤酸E(5).结论 化合物1~5为首次从该属植物中分离得到.

  1. Contribución al conocimiento de Salvia sordida. Benth. Historia natural y conservación

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvia sordida es una especie de labiada endémica de Colombia, que está constituida por arbustos que pueden llegar hasta los 4 m de altura, con indumentos densos en el envés de las hojas, en los ejes de la inflorescencia y en los cálices, con corolas moradas de 15 mm en promedio; presenta una variabilidad morfológica que se manifiesta en su hábito, en la forma, coloración e indumento de sus hojas y en la densidad de su inflorescencia, producida posiblemente como adaptación a diferentes condiciones de luz. Existen tres poblaciones de esta especie que indican que S. sordida se distribuye en el altiplano cundiboyacense en un rango altitudinal entre los 2.600 y los 2.800 msnm. De acuerdo con observaciones hechas en la población tipo, ubicada en la vereda Torca en jurisdicción de Bogotá, el hábitat de la salvia se caracteriza por presentar
    un clima con una temperatura promedio de 13º C, una humedad relativa media de 74% y una precipitación de 1.200 mm anuales; en áreas de piedemonte, con suelos originados de cenizas volcánicas poco evolucionados, con textura franco-arenosa en la superficie, muy fuertemente ácidos y con una baja fertilidad; el hábitat de S. sordida hace parte del bosque de Cordia-Oreopanax, se caracteriza por un estrato arbustivo predominante y un estrato herbáceo bien representado, compuesto por 101 especies tanto del bosque climácico como de ambientes alterados o cultivadas, lo que indicaría que la comunidad de S. sordida hace parte de las etapas de sucesión secundaria del bosque; por lo tanto el hábitat se caracteriza por ser inestable y está delimitado por las condiciones de alteración de la vegetación y la variación de los factores de humedad y luz en un rango altitudinal estrecho. Salvia sordida presenta una floración y fructificación constantes y en ella se han reconocido 14 visitantes florales tanto en campo como en cultivo, que incluyen especies de Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera y Aves. De acuerdo con su morfología se plantea que Salvia sordida es una planta melitofila que permite la psicofilia y la ornitofilia. Las núculas de S. sordida presentan una viabilidad máxima del 90% y esta puede llegar
    hasta los 58 meses; una germinación máxima de un 90% que llega hasta los 25 meses; presentan un mucílago lechoso que puede llegar a un espesor de 1 mm y aumentar su peso 13 veces. La etapa de plántula en la especie se puede considerar hasta los seis meses y su desarrollo
    depende de las condiciones de humedad. De acuerdo con su morfología la dispersión de la salvia es dada por barocoria y por boleocoria, las cuales se consideran estrategias poco eficientes por las condiciones del ambiente y las características del fruto. El grado de rareza de S. sordida corresponde a la categoría de persistencia larga y distribución estrecha y su vulnerabilidad está dada por su rango geográfico pequeño, las pocas poblaciones representadas en relictos, el tamaño pequeño de las poblaciones, la poca capacidad de dispersión, el efecto de especies
    exóticas, el uso del suelo y la deforestación. De acuerdo con los criterios de la UICN (2001 se propone que S. sordida se incluya dentro de la categoría CR (en peligro crítico.

  2. Efeito de 6-benzilaminopurina sobre a propagação in vitro de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Rafaela Maria de França Bezerra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, popularmente conhecida como sabiá, é uma espécie nativa da Caatinga que, em razão de suas inúmeras potencialidades, tem enfrentado um processo de exaustiva exploração, tornando iminente a necessidade de se utilizar alternativas sustentáveis que permitam a sua reposição em ambiente natural e a conservação de seu genótipo. A micropropagação tem sido considerada técnica promissora nesse sentido, pois viabiliza a produção de mudas em larga escala e com elevada sanidade. Citocininas como a 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP são importantes nesse processo, pois influenciam consideravelmente o crescimento e a morfogênese in vitro e permitem a formação de bancos de germoplasma in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de concentrações de BAP sobre a indução de brotações in vitro em M. caesalpiniifolia. Segmentos cotiledonares obtidos de plântulas germinadas in vitro foram inoculados em meio de cultura WPM suplementados com seis concentrações de BAP: 0,0; 4,44; 8,88; 17,76; 26,64; e 35,52 µmol/L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, três repetições e cada repetição composta por 10 unidades experimentais. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliados o número de explantes responsivos, o número de brotos por explante e a presença de calos, oxidação e contaminação. Os dados foram avaliados estatisticamente através da Análise de Correspondência e mediante o ajuste de Equações de Regressão. Verificou-se que a concentração de 17,76 µmol/L apresentou-se mais responsiva em relação à taxa de multiplicação e ao número de brotações, sendo, portanto, a concentração mais indicada para a propagação in vitro de M. caesalpiniifolia.

  3. Microscopic analysis and histochemical observations of the medicinal root of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth. ex Hemsl. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Sandoval; Robert A. Bye; Griselda Ríos; María Isabel Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The roots of Iostephane heterophylla are popular in Mexican traditional medicine and as such are a good candidate to develop herbal drug preparations to be used as phytomedicine. International criteria for validation and standardization of a herbal product as phytomedicine include, among others, the integration of microscopic and histochemical characteristics of the raw material, as in this case the herbal drug, to guarantee its authenticity. As an original contribution to the knowledge of th...

  4. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  5. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Roots of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth Kurz

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    Aniel K. OWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens develop resistance to antibiotics after repeated administration during the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative antimicrobial drugs and the present trend is focused on medicinal plants. The hereby research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of solvents as well as aqueous extracts of Rauwolfia serpentina roots. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that methanol extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistance S. aureus at 100 mg/ml concentration, while S. aureus was the most susceptible bacterium to all extracts. However, E. faecalis, M. luteus and S. pneumoniae were also susceptible to the experimented solvents and extracts. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae was resistant against the solvent and aqueous extracts. The present study suggested that methanol extracts of R.  serpentina roots would be helpful in treating diseases caused by human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. In particular, based on the results obtained in the current experiment, it can be recommended for the control of infectious Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. Almacenamiento refrigerado de frutos de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth.) en empaques con atmósfera modificada

    OpenAIRE

    Sora, Ángel Dayron; Fischer, Gerhard; Flórez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de aumentar la vida útil de la mora de Castilla en poscosecha, se colocaron frutos en el grado de madurez (GM) 3 y 5, según Icontec (Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación), en atmósferas modificadas activas con concentraciones de gases de 25% CO2, 5% O2, 70% N2 y 20% CO2, 10% O2, 70% N2, empleando empaques de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD) y polipropileno (PP), calibre   (0,035 mm). La temperatura de almacenamiento fue 4 ºC, la humedad relativa varió entre...

  7. Antidepressive and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract and fruticuline A from Salvia lachnostachys Benth leaves on rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Formagio, Maira Dante; Oliveira, Cristhian Santos; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Alves Stefanello, Maria Élida; Lanza Junior, Ubirajara; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Sugizaki, Mário Mateus; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract (SLEE) and pure fruticuline A obtained from Salvia lachnostachys leaves on rats and mice. Methods In this study, SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o. route) was evaluated for its effects on spared nerve injury (SNI) in rats. The animals were submitted to mechanical sensitivity, forced swim (FST) and cold sensitivity tests 10 and 15 days after surgery. SLEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and fruticuline A (3 mg/kg, p.o.) were also evaluated with respect to nociceptive behavior induced by formalin. In addition, clonidine-induced depressive-like behavior was also analyzed. Results The oral administration of SLEE for up to 15 days and the subcutaneous injection of 10 mg/kg of ketamine (positive control) significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased immobility in the FST. On the 15th day of oral treatment, SLEE prevented the SNI-induced increase in cold sensitivity. In the formalin test, SLEE and fruticuline A significantly reduced the frequency of paw licking during the first and second phases and decreased the formation of edema. In locomotor analysis (open field test without clonidine treatment), SLEE and fruticuline A did not alter the response. SLEE and fruticuline A significantly attenuated clonidine-induced suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity (squares invaded and licking) and emotionality (grooming and freezing) compared with controls, similar to the naive group. Conclusion SLEE exhibits antihyperalgesic, antidepressant, and antinociceptive effects, and fruticuline A appears to be at least partly responsible for the effects of SLEE. Together, these results demonstrate the antidepressive effects of SLEE and fruticuline A and indicate that both derivatives obtained from S. lachnostachys act against spontaneous neuropathic pain. PMID:28222143

  8. Armazenamento e germinação de sementes de Tabebuia aurea (manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex. S. Moore

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    Cabral Edna Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel, de algodão e plástico de natureza permeável, em ambiente frio e seco (15ºC e 40% de UR por quatro meses. Inicialmente, testou-se a influência da presença e ausência contínua de luz branca e fotoperíodo de 12 h, a fim de determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes, na temperatura de 25ºC. Verificou-se a influência das temperaturas constantes de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40ºC na germinação e determinou-se as temperaturas cardeais (mínima, ótima e máxima. Testou-se a viabilidade das sementes aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento, empregando-se teste de germinação, e a velocidade de embebição aos 30, 60 e 90 dias, utilizando-se amostras provenientes de cada tipo de embalagem. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento não afetaram significativamente as variáveis estudadas. A espécie em estudo pode ser classificada como fotoblástica neutra à 25ºC, com percentagem média de germinação alta, variando de 88 a 98%. A temperatura ótima de germinação foi de 35ºC, a mínima de 20ºC e a máxima de 40ºC, na ausência de luz. As embalagens utilizadas no armazenamento mantiveram a viabilidade das sementes por até 120 dias, com altos percentuais de germinação, variando de 88 a 97%. As sementes apresentaram velocidade de embebição rápida atingindo 100% a partir das quatro horas de embebição.

  9. Enraizamiento de brotes de capirona Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex Schum., en la amazonía peruana.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejos-Torres, Geomar; Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana; Gonzales-Polar, Luis Enrique Toledo; Reforesta Perú S.A.C.; Arévalo-López, Luis Alberto; Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana

    2014-01-01

    En la ciencia del mejoramiento genético no existe una metodología para la propagación asexual por enraizamiento de estacas de Calycophyllum spruceanuma escala comercial. A continuación se presenta una metodología del proceso de enraizamiento para la producción de plantones clonales a escala comercialde C. spruceanum. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el enraizamiento de brotes, bajo el efecto del número de hojas (una y dos) y tres dosis de ácido indol-3-butírico (2000, 3000 y 4000 ppm) util...

  10. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  11. In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2006-05-01

    Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs.

  12. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  13. SEED GERMINATION AND INITIAL GROWTH OF Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso Benth. & Hook f. ex S. Moore SEEDLINGS

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia aurea is a native arboreal species that can be used in recomposition programs of degradated areas, as ornamental plant and for production of wood of quality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the temperature and substrate on seed germination and initial growth of T. aurea seedlings. The experiment was developed in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 5 x 5 with temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 20-30 and 20-35ºC; and substrates: paper towels, and into sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and Tropstrato®, with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were also analyzed: germination, first germination count, germination speed index, average time of germination, length and dry weight matter of the shoot and the root.  The temperatures and substrates influenced the analyzed parameters, except for the final percentage of germination, which varied from 84 to 94%. The optimal temperatures for germination were 30 and 35ºC. The substrates paper towels roll and sand can be recommended to evaluate the physiological quality of T.aurea seeds.

  14. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

    OpenAIRE

    Sanha Panichajakul; Sudarat Thanonkeo

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both is...

  15. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which li...

  16. Isolation, characterization and HPLC quantification of compounds from Aquilegia fragrans Benth: Their in vitro antibacterial activities against bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Saleem; Aga, Mushtaq A; Qazi, Parvaiz H; Ali, Md Niamat; Shah, Aabid Manzoor; Lone, Sajad Ahmad; Shah, Aiyatullah; Hussain, Aehtesham; Rasool, Faheem; Dar, Hafizullah; Shah, Zeeshan Hamid; Lone, Shabir H

    2016-02-03

    The underground parts of Aquilegia fragrans are traditionally used for the treatment of wounds and various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. However, there are no reports on the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial studies of A. fragrans. To isolate compounds from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans and determine their antibacterial activity against the pathogens of bovine mastitis. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of A. fragrans. Five compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the underground parts of A. fragrans using silica gel column chromatography. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was done using spectral data analysis and comparison with literature. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isolated compounds in the crude methanol extract. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against mastitis pathogens using broth micro-dilution technique. The five isolated compounds were identified as (1) 2, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid methyl ester (2) β-sitosterol (3) Aquilegiolide (4) Glochidionolactone-A and (5) Magnoflorine. A quick and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the first time for qualitative and quantitative determination of four isolated marker compounds from A. fragrans. The crude methanol extract and compound 5 exhibited weak antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (MIC=500-3000 µg/ml). The above results show that the crude methanol extract and isolated compounds from A. fragrans exhibit weak antibacterial activities. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies are required for proper scientific validation of the folk use of this plant species in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases like bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential in pregnancy-induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo I.A; Adewumi O.O; Odeigah P.G.C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby. Therefore, the use of herbal remedies such as Bridelia ferruginea with the potential ability to improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy will definitely improve pregnancy outcome in ges...

  18. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial, Free-Radical-Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Leucas inflata Benth

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    Ramzi A. Mothana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Leucas inflata Balf.f. (Lamiaceae, collected in Yemen, was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. Forty-three components were recognized, representing 89.2% of the total oil. The L. inflata volatile oil was found to contain a high percentage of aliphatic acids (51.1%. Hexadecanoic acid (32.8% and n-dodecanoic acid (7.8% were identified as the major compounds. Oxygenated monoterpenes were distinguished as the second significant group of constituents (16.0%. Camphor (6.1% and linalool (3.2% were found to be the main components among the oxygenated monoterpenes. In addition, the volatile oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity against four bacterial strains and one yeast species using broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured utilizing the anti-radical activity of the sable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-Carotene-linoleic acid assays. The oil of L. inflata showed an excellent antibacterial activity against only the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC-value of 0.81 mg/mL. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, a weak to moderate antiradical and antioxidant activity of 38% and 32%, respectively.

  19. Erysothrine, an alkaloid extracted from flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth: evaluating its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Rosa, Daiane; Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; Anderson de Souza, Maicon; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Ferreira dos Santos, Wagner; Soares Pereira, Ana Maria; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we isolated the alkaloid erysothrine from the hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from E. mulungu and screened for its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic actions based on neuroethological and neurochemical experiments. Our results showed that the administration of erysothrine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, PTZ, NMDA and most remarkably, kainic acid. Also, erysothrine induced an increase in the number of entries but not in the time spent in the open arms of the EPM. However, we did not notice any alterations in the light-dark choice or in the open-field tests. In preliminary neurochemistry tests, we also showed that erysothrine (0.001-10 μg/mL) did not alter the GABA or glutamate synaptossomal uptake and binding. Altogether, our results describe an alkaloid with anticonvulsant activity and mild anxiolytic activity that might be considered well tolerated as it does not alter the general behavior of the animals in the used doses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

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    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  1. A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Sapna N Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major organ of intermediary metabolism, the liver is exposed to a variety of metabolic insults due to diseases and xenobiotics viz., insulin resistance (IR drugs, toxins, microbial products, etc. One of the consequences of these metabolic insults including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The recent alarming increase in the prevalence of NAFLD compels the need to develop an appropriate animal model of the disease so as to evolve effective interventions. In this study, we have developed, in the rat, a new model of NAFLD showing several key features akin to the disease in humans. Male Wistar rats were challenged with 30% high fat diet (HFD - butter, for 2 weeks to induce NAFLD. A hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa was administered to study the possible reversal of fatty changes in the liver. The extract was given in two doses viz., 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.i.d., p.o. for a period of 4 weeks. There were three control groups (n = 6/group - vehicle with a regular diet, vehicle with HFD, and HFD with silymarin - a known hepatoprotective. Histopathology showed that the P. kurroa extract brought about a reversal of the fatty infiltration of the liver (mg/g and a lowering of the quantity of hepatic lipids (mg/g compared to that in the HFD control group (38.33 ± 5.35 for 200mg/kg; 29.44 ± 8.49 for 400mg/kg of P. kurroa vs.130.07 ± 6.36mg/g of liver tissue in the HFD control group; P<0.001. Compared to the standard dose of the known hepatoprotective silymarin, P. kurroa reduced the lipid content (mg/g of the liver more significantly at the dose of 400mg/kg (57.71 ± 12.45mg/kg vs. 29.44 ± 8.49 for the silymarin group vs. 400mg/kg of P. kurroa, P<0.001. In view of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, P. kurroa should be investigated by the reverse pharmacology path as a potential drug for the treatment of NAFLD, and essential safety studies and preformulation research for concentration of the putative actives should be carried out.

  2. A New Furofuran Lignan Diglycoside and Other Secondary Metabolites from the Antidepressant Extract of Castilleja tenuiflora Benth

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    Maribel Herrera-Ruiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja tenuiflora has been used for the treatment of several Central Nervous System (CNS diseases. Herein we report the antidepressant activity of the methanol extract from the leaves of this medicinal plant. The oral administration of MeOH extract (500 mg/kg induced a significant (p < 0.05 decrement of the immobility parameter on Forced Swimming Test (FST and an increment in the latency and duration of the hypnosis, induced by administration of sodium pentobarbital (Pbi, 40 mg/kg, i.p.. Chemical analysis of this antidepressant extract allowed the isolation of (+-piperitol-4-O-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-O-glucopyranoside. This new furofuran lignan diglycoside was named tenuifloroside (1 and its complete chemical structure elucidation on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra analysis of the natural compound 1 and its peracetylated derivative 1a is described. This compound was found together with two flavones—apigenin and luteolin 5-methyl ether—a phenylethanoid—verbascoside—and three iridoids—geniposide, caryoptoside and aucubin. All these compounds were purified by successive normal and reverse phase column chromatography. Tenuifloroside, caryoptoside and luteolin 5-methyl ether were isolated from Castilleja genus for the first time. These findings demonstrate that C. tenuiflora methanol extract has beneficial effect on depressive behaviors, and the knowledge of its chemical constitution allows us to propose a new standardized treatment for future investigations of this species in depressive illness.

  3. [Effect of Morinda lucida Benth. (Rubiaceae) and Newbouldia leavis P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) on sickling of red blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, K M; Vovor, A; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K; Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the In vitro anti-sickling activity of two plants widely used for treatment of sickle cell disease in Togo, i.e., Morinda lucida et Newbouldia leavis. A concentration-dependent decrease in the rate of sickling was observed after incubation of red blood cells with plant extracts and 2% sodium metabisulfite as compared to incubation with 0.9% NaCl. On samples with a SS blood genotype the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida was 17.30% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 92.31% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. On samples with an AS blood genotype, the inhibition rate of Morinda lucida 48.10% at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 99.34% at a concentration of 30 mg/ml. Using Newbouldia leavis the inhibition rates at concentrations of 1 mg/ml and 30 mg/ml were 15.66% and 90.42% respectively on samples with a SS blood genotype and 64.03% and 99.02% respectively on samples with an AS blood genotype. The study protocol appeared to be adequate for both SS and AS blood genotypes since the Pearson correlation coefficient between rates measured on the two types of samples was 0.92 for Newuboulida and 0.89 for Morinda. These findings show that these two plants have clear-cut in vitro anti-sickling activity and support their use in traditional medicine.

  4. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth.

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    M.B. Bahadori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia species are important because of their medicinal, traditional and economical uses. They are used traditionally for treatment of several diseases. The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species of which, 17 are endemic.  In the present study, the phytochemical and biological effects of two Iranian Salvia species have been evaluated. Methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging activities of extracts of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangeawere evaluated. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents and brine shrimp lethality potential of the extracts were also determined. Results: Compared to podophyllotoxin (LC50 =42 µg/mL, the ethyl acetate extract of S. hydrangea demonstrated a significant cytotoxicity (LC50=36 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract of S. urmiensis was found to have significant antioxidant properties with IC50 value of 10.0±0.2 µg/mL. All tested extracts showed moderate to high flavonoid and phenolic contents. Conclusion: Findings showed that these plants contain important metabolites and could be suggested for discovery of biologically active natural compounds.

  5. Effect of seed harvesting season and sterilization treatments on germination and in vitro propagation of Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth.

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    Kuldeep YADAV

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the objective of standardizing the protocol for the micropropagation of Albizia lebbeck (L.. Seeds were collected from three different colored pods (yellow, dark yellow and brownish yellow harvested from field grown Albizia tree from November to January and were surface sterilized using different concentration of mercuric chloride (0.05-0.15% w/v for different exposure durations (2, 5 and 8 min. Seeds collected from dark-yellow colored pod showed the highest germination (83.3 % and short germination time (4.29 days, while those collected from brownish yellow colored pod showedrelatively less germination (53.3% and longer germination time (6.0 days. Success of seed germination increased with maturity upto a certain level after which it declines significantly with increasing harvesting time. A five-minute dip of HgCl2 (0.1% was found to be the optimum duration for giving the maximum (83.3% germinated and healthy seedlings. Increasing time and concentration ofHgCl2 significantly reduced the contamination, but on the other hand it also effected the germination of seeds. Best shoot regeneration response from in vitro nodal segment was obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l + NAA (0.5 mg/l. The highest percentage of callus induction (85% was also observed in the above same media from in vitro internodal segment. Proliferated micro-shoots showed 60% rooting on half strength medium supplemented with IAA (2.0 mg/l after 4 weeks of culturing. The well rooted micropropagated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (1:1 with 60% survival rate under field conditions.

  6. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, H2O2, Malondialdehyde and Photosynthetic Responses of Orthosiphon stimaneus Benth. to Different Irradiance Levels

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource availability hypothesis predicts an increase in the allocation to secondary metabolites when carbon gain is improved relative to nutrient availability, which normally occurs during periods of low irradiance. The present work was carried out to confirm this hypothesis by investigating the effects of decreasing irradiance on the production of plant secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics in the herbal plant Orthosiphon stamineus, and to characterize this production by carbohydrate, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, net photosynthesis, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N. Four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s were imposed onto two-week old seedlings for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design experiment. Peak production of total flavonoids, phenolics, soluble sugar, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate ocurred under low irradiance of 225 µmol/m2/s, and decreased with increasing irradiance. The up-regulation of secondary metabolites could be explained by the concomitant increases in H2O2 and MDA activities under low irradiance. This condition also resulted in enhanced C/N ratio signifying a reduction in nitrogen levels, which had established significant negative correlations with net photosynthesis, total biomass and total chlorophyll content, indicating the possible existence of a trade-off between growth and secondary metabolism under low irradiance with reduced nitrogen content. The competition between total chlorophyll and secondary metabolites production, as exhibited by the negative correlation coefficient under low irradiance, also suggests a sign of gradual switch of investment from chlorophyll to polyphenols production.

  7. Comparison of active constituents, acute toxicity, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Porana sinensis Hemsl., Erycibe obtusifolia Benth. and Erycibe schmidtii Craib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyong; Liao, Liping; Zhang, Zijia; Wu, Lihong; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-11-25

    Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii, which belong to the same genus as Erycibe, are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Porana sinensis has become a widely used substitute for Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii as they have declined in the wild. In the present work, the content of the main active components, the acute toxicity, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Porana sinensis, Erycibe obtusifolia and Erycibe schmidtii were compared, and the mechanisms of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were discussed. A quantitative HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method was first developed to compare the content of the main active components (scopoletin, scopolin and chlorogenic acid). The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants were compared using the models of xylene-induced ear edema, formalin-induced inflammation, carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation, acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced nociception. The acute toxicity of the 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants was studied. The assay suggested a large content of scopoletin, scopolin and chlorogenic acid in the three plants. The 40% ethanolic extracts of the three plants were almost non-toxic at the dose of 5g/kg and all of them showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the tests of xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation test, the synthesis of PGE2 was significantly inhibited by all the extracts. They significantly inhibited the number of contortions induced by acetic acid and the second phase of the formalin-induced licking response. Naloxone was not able to reverse the analgesic effect of these extracts. The study identifies the similarity of the three plants in their main active components as well as acute toxicity, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. It supports the use of Porana sinensis as a suitable substitute, but further studies are needed to confirm this. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Observações preliminares do "Angelim" (Andira nitida Mart. ex Benth para uso na arborização urbana

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    Sérgio Soares Martins

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar as qualidades estéticas e funcionais do Angelim (Andira nitida a fim de verificar as potencialidades e limitações dessa espécie para o uso na arborização urbana. Foram analisadas características como: altura da árvore, copa, floração, frutificação, altura do primeiro esgalhamento e sistema radicular. Também foram feitos plantios em sementeira a fim de obter informações como: percentagem de germinação, desenvolvimento da espécie, e característica da muda.The objective of this paper was to analize the functional and aesthetic qualities of "angelim" (Andira nitida to verify the potential of this species as am urban landscape plant. The analyzed characteristics were: height, crown form, flowering season, frutification, trunk height and root system. The percentage of germination and the seedling development and characteristics were also evaluate.

  9. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Periotto, Fernando; PEREZ,SONIA CRISTINA JULIANO GUALTIERI DE ANDRADE; Lima,Maria Inês Salgueiro

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v). Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas...

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  11. ALTERAÇÕES FISIOLÓGICAS DURANTE A HIDRATAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Dalbergia nigra ((Vell. Fr. All. ex Benth.

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    Glauciana da Mata Ataíde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During germination, a series of sequential events occur in seeds in response to endogenous and / or exogenous factors. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological changes resulting from the controlled hydration in water and temperature in seeds of jacaranda-da-bahia ( Dalbergia nigra . To this end, two lots of seeds separated as high and low vigor were used in the tests. Seeds belonging to the two lots, after desinfect, were hydrated in water, with the method of humid atmosphere (relative humidity 95-99% to reach four hydration levels: 10, 15, 20 and 25% moisture content in seeds, in temperatures (exogenous factor of 15 and 25 ° C. After hydration and temperature treatments, were analyzed the following variables: curve soaking, germination percentage, germination speed index (GSI and electrical conductivity. The results showed no significant difference in seeds physiological response between the temperatures. On the other hand, for hydration was found that up to 15% moisture content increased the seeds physiological quality of both lots, which showed higher germination values , IVG and smaller amounts of leached compounds. From 15% moisture content were found a reduction in the quality of seeds classified as high vigor, while those of low vigor continued to show positive responses in 20 and 25% humidity. Given this, it is concluded that the technique of controlled hydration in water favors the germination of Dalbergia nigra seeds, independent of the vigor. Hydration moisture content of 15% is more appropriate to increase the seeds quality. The hydration in values below or above resulted in a decrease in the stimulus.

  12. Phytochemical screening by LC-MS and LC-PDA of ethanolic extracts from the fruits of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Pellizzeri, Vito; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Kigelia africana is a tree native to Africa, with a local employment in numerous fields, ranging from traditional medicine to cosmetics and religious rituals. Parts of the plant generally used are stem bark, fruits, roots and leaves. The fruits, which have a singular 'sausage' shape, are widely exploited by local folk, in particular for applications/products involving genito-urinary apparatus of both human genders. The scope of this work was to make a consistent chemical investigation on this plant species, in order to clarify and increase the information at present available in literature. To this aim, ethanolic extracts of K. africana fruits were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) detection, revealing the presence of polyphenols and iridoids. The two detection systems used along with standard co-injection and comparison with previous reports, led to the identification and quantification of six phenolic compounds and three iridoids.

  13. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  14. Effect of processing on proximate composition, anti-nutrient status and amino acid content in three accessions of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (jacq.) benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urua, Ikootobong Sunday; Uyoh, Edak Aniedi; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Okpako, Elza Cletus

    2013-02-01

    Proximate composition, amino acid levels and anti-nutrient factors (polyphenols, phytic acid and oxalate) in the seeds of Parkia biglobosa were determined at three stages: raw, boiled and fermented. The highest anti-nutrient factor present in the raw state was oxalate, while phytic acid was the least. The amino acid of the raw seeds matched favourably to the World Health Organization reference standard. After processing, boiling increased fat, crude fibre and protein, while it reduced moisture, ash and the anti-nutrient content in 64% of the cases examined. Fermentation reduced ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate in all the accessions. It increased the moisture, fat and protein, while reducing the anti-nutrient factors in 78% of the cases. The high levels of protein, fat and amino acids coupled with the low levels of the anti-nutrients in the boiled and fermented seeds make Parkia a good source of nutrients for humans and livestock.

  15. Propagación in vitro de materiales seleccionados de Rubus glaucus Benth (mora de Castilla en la provincia de Pamplona, región nororiental de Colombia

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    Giovanni Orlando Cancino-Escalante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study plant materials were selected in 53 farms belonging to four growers associations of blackberry in the municipalities of Pamplona and Chitagá (North of de Santander, Colombia. Nodal segments were used as initial explants of R. glaucus. For the establishment stage Murashige and Skoog, 1962 (MS media was used and, supplemented with of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.0 -0.1 mg/L and 6-aminopurine (BAP (0.0 -2.0 mg/L; for the multiplication stage MS was supplemented with GA3 (0.0 -0.03 mg/L and BAP, (0.0 -2.5 mg/L and for the rooting stage MS was supplemented with acid indolbutirico (0.0 -1.0 mg/L. From the data generated during the three stages, an experimental design of incomplete blocks was randomly applied and the treatments averages were statistically analyzed using the Tukey Test. The results indicated average rates of contamination (16.5-49.7 %, multiplication (3.8-4.3 shoots/explant and in vitro rooting (3.3-4.3 roots/plant for the different evaluated materials. These results, achieved first in the Northeastern region of Colombia, are important in that they will feature selected materials available for blackberry growers in the region.

  16. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

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    Tomoe Nakashima

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%, dried leaves—Spring (85.32%, flowers—Winter (78.76% and fruits—Winter (80.97%. Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%, limonene (1.46% to 4.43%, α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%, and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%. The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus—Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL, Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL.

  17. Acides gras et insaponifiables d’extraits obtenus à partir des sommités fleuries et des rhizomes de Vetiveria nigritana (Benth. Stapf, Poaceae

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    Champagnat Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Vetiveria nigritana flowering tops and rhizomes were analyzed by mean of GC/MS for their fatty acids and unsaponifiable components. In flowering tops extract, the acid fraction is characterized by the presence of palmitic acid and other long chain fatty acids (until C34. Unsaponifiable contains a high percentage of sterols (43.89%, mainly b-sitosterol. In rhizomes extract, acid fraction is composed by a high amount of typical organic acids of the genus Vetiveria and by a low quantity of fatty acids. Unsaponifiable fraction is characterized by the presence of a great percentage of sesquiterpenic derivatives (54.8%, and of sterols in low amount (13.7%.

  18. FISIOLOGIA DA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth. SOB DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E TEMPOS DE EXPOSIÇÃO

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    Antônio César Batista Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A germinação de sementes é dependente de fatores abióticos, sendo a temperatura um dos principais, cuja influência, em condições extremas, causa danos às sementes. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar o efeito das diferentes temperaturas durante a germinação de Dalbergia nigra e suas implicações na fisiologia das sementes. Avaliaram-se o percentual de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a integridade de membranas celulares pelo teste de condutividade elétrica de sementes em diferentes tempos de exposição às temperaturas de 5, 15, 25 (controle, 35 e 45 ºC. A temperatura de 25 ºC correspondeu à temperatura ideal de germinação. Em temperaturas de 5 e 45 ºC, a germinação foi nula. Houve redução da germinação de sementes de D. nigra com o aumento do tempo de exposição das sementes às temperaturas de 5, 15, 35 e 45 ºC. Diferentemente das demais temperaturas, a semipermeabilidade da membrana não é recuperada nas temperaturas de 5 e 45 ºC. A condutividade elétrica é uma técnica eficiente para avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes em diferentes temperaturas.

  19. A biorefinery for efficient processing and utilization of spent pulp of Colombian Andes Berry (Rubus glaucus Benth.): Experimental, techno-economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated a model biorefinery for producing phenolic compounds extract, ethanol and xylitol from spent blackberry pulp (SBP). The biorefinery was investigated according to four potential scenarios including mass and heat integrations as well as cogeneration system for supplying part of the energy requirements in the biorefinery. The investigated SBP had 61.54% holocellulose; its total phenolic compounds was equivalent to 2700mg of gallic acid/100g SBP, its anthocyanins content was 126.41mg/kg of SBP and its total antioxidant activity was 174.8μmol TE/g of SBP. The economic analysis revealed that the level of integration in the biorefinery significantly affected the total production cost. The sale-to-total-production-cost ratio indicated that both, mass and heat integrations are of importance relevance. The cost of supplies (enzymes and reagents) had the most significant impact on the total production cost and accounted between 46.72 and 58.95% of the total cost of the biorefinery.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by enhanced chemiluminescence detection for the standardization of estrogenic miroestrol in Pueraria candollei Graham ex Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn

    2015-08-01

    Miroestrol (ME) is a potent phytoestrogen from the P. candollei tuberous root. It has been approved for use in clinical trials due to its beneficial effect on disorders associated with estrogen deficiency. To ensure medical efficacy and safety, high performance analytical methods for ME analysis are required to standardize products from the P. candollei root. An enhanced chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ECL-ELISA) was developed and validated using a polyclonal antibody against ME and a chemiluminescent system of luminol-H2 O2 -horseradish peroxidase-4-(1-imidazolyl) phenol. The ECL-ELISA system exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 0.31-10.00 ng mL(-1) , for which the relative standard variation (%RSD) was less than 10% for both intra- and interplate determinations. The ECL-ELISA is reliable for the determination of ME as reflected by the high recovery percentage (101.22-103.06%). As a comparative analysis, the ME content in each sample determined by ECL-ELISA was correlated with high coefficients of determination with colorimetric ELISA (R(2)  = 0.998) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (R(2)  = 0.998) methods. The ECL-ELISA method could be applied to all of the commercial products containing P. candollei root, when the products contain between 0.706 ± 0.046 and 13.123 ± 0.794 µg g(-1) dry wt. of ME. This method is useful as a high performance analytical method for the quantity control of ME in raw materials and end products at both the research and industrial levels.

  1. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM Rubus glaucus Benth AND Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE, STORAGE TIME AND WATER ACTIVITY

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    C.M. OLAYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento, la temperatura y la actividad de agua (Aw sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas microencapsuladas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus y tamarillo (Solanum betaceum. Las frutas se sometieron a deshidratación osmótica con etanol y el extracto antociánico se microencapsuló con maltodextrina ED 20 por atomización. La vida media de las antocianinas; los cambios en color, fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante se analizaron durante el almacenamiento a dos temperaturas (25 °C y 40 °C y dos niveles de Aw (0,20 y 0,35. Se observó una disminución de la antocianina monomérica en las dos muestras. La vida media de los pigmentos de mora de Castilla varió entre 11 y 32 días, mientras que la vida media de los pigmentos del tamarillo varió entre 9 y 21 días. Hubo oscurecimiento de las muestras como resultado del tiempo de almacenamiento. La actividad antioxidante de las dos muestras disminuyó, mientras que el contenido fenólico aumentó con el tiempo. La actividad antioxidante de las muestras de mora de Castilla presentó una alta correlación con los contenidos de antocianinas y fenoles totales mientras que la actividad antioxidante de las muestras de tamarillo se correlacionó con el contenido de fenoles totales. Estos resultados son útiles en el desarrollo de aplicaciones de antocianinas microencapsuladas como colorantes alimenticios.

  2. Ensayo del efecto diurético de los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Moquin) Gill. Ex Hicken, Bauhinia candicans Benth. y Smilax campestris Griseb.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Los extractos acuosos de Amaranthus muricatus (Amarantaceae), Smilax campestris (Liliaceae) y Bauhinia candicans (Leguminosae) fueron ensayados con relación a su actividad diurética en ratas. La evaluación farmacológica revela que la administración oral de los extractos de las especies citadas a dosis de 250,500 y 1000 mg/kg de peso no producen un aumento significativo en el volumen de orina excretado, por lo que el uso tradicional como diurético de las tres especies estudiadas no pudo ser de...

  3. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  4. Nutrição de mudas de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan submetidas a doses de N, P, K, Ca E Mg

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o teor e conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, bem como determinar o nível crítico desses nutrientes no solo e na planta. As mudas foram cultivadas, no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2005, em vasos com capacidade para 2,1 dm-3 contendo amostras de solo de três classes (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo AVA, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Álico LVA e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico - LVD. Os tratamentos foram delimitados segundo uma matriz baconiana, onde se variaram os macronutrientes, em três doses, e dois tratamentos adicionais (zero e referência, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que, em geral, as mudas da espécie absorveram maior quantidade de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, à medida que a disponibilidade destes aumentava no solo. Tal fato refletiu em maior concentração dos nutrientes aplicados em todas as partes da planta. Entretanto, em alguns casos não houve resposta em crescimento correspondente a esse aumento. Os nutrientes que mais proporcionaram efeitos foram o P, o N e o S; poucas respostas foram observadas nos demais nutrientes (Ca, Mg e K. A espécie tem baixo requerimento nutricional, sendo o nível crítico dos nutrientes, no solo e na planta, menores do que os observados em outras espécies florestais. Para o K e o Ca, sugerem-se estudos com doses dentro das faixas de valores encontrados, para melhor definição dos níveis críticos.

  5. Mechanisms underlying vasorelaxation induced in rat aorta by galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether, a flavonoid from Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, Cibério L; Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; de Correia, Ana C C; Martins, Italo R R; de Lira, Daysianne P; de O Santos, Bárbara V; de A Cavalcante, Fabiana; Silva, Bagnólia A da

    2014-11-27

    In this study, we investigated the relaxant action of galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether (FGAL) on rat aorta. The flavonoid relaxed both PMA‑ and phenylephrine (Phe)-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.36 ± 0.11 and 4.17 ± 0.10, respectively), suggesting the involvement of PKC and Phe pathways or α1 adrenergic receptor blockade. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted Phe-induced cumulative contraction‑response curves, indicating a noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors. The flavonoid was more potent in relaxing 30 mM KCl- than 80 mM KCl-induced contractions (pD2 = 5.50 ± 0.22 and 4.37 ± 0.12). The vasorelaxant potency of FGAL on Phe-induced contraction was reduced in the presence of 10 mM TEA+. Furthermore, in the presence of apamin, glibenclamide, BaCl2 or 4-AP, FGAL-induced relaxation was attenuated, indicating the participation of small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (SKCa), ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir) and voltage-dependent K+ channels (KV), respectively. FGAL inhibited and rightward shifted CaCl2-induced cumulative contraction-response curves in both depolarizing medium (high K+) and in the presence of verapamil and phenylephrine, suggesting inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV) and receptor operated channels (ROCs), respectively. Likewise, FGAL inhibited Phe-induced contractions in Ca2+-free medium, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). FGAL potentiated the relaxant effect of aminophylline and sildenafil but not milrinone, suggesting the involvement of phosphodiesterase V (PDE V). Thus, the FGAL vasorelaxant mechanism involves noncompetitive antagonism of α1 adrenergic receptors, the non-selective opening of K+ channels, inhibition of Ca2+ influx through CaV or ROCs and the inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ release. Additionally, there is the involvement of cyclic nucleotide pathway, particularly through PDE V inhibition.

  6. A New Polyoxypregnane Glycoside from the Roots of Dregea volubilis (L.f Benth. ex Hook. f and its Chondroprotective Effect

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    Saksri Sanyacharernkul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dregea genus (Asclepiadaceae is well known for the rich of steroid pregnane contents and these plants are famous for the potential to be applied as alternative biological activities. Dregea volubilis is the only species of Dregea genus in Thailand. The chemical and biological investigations of this plant are interesting to bioassay-guided fractionation, particularly chondroprotective effect. Approach: The research was carried out to extract, isolate, purify and elucidate structure of the active compound from the roots Dregea volubilis. Both of the solvent extracts and isolated compound were evaluated with kinds of chondroprotection. i.e., S-GAG, HA, UA and production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2. Results: Polyoxypregnane glycoside (PGG or 12-0-benzoyl-8, 11-ditigloyl-3β, 8β, 11β, 12β, 14β-pentahydroxy-pregn-14-ol, 20-one,-3-0-methyl-β-D-allopyranosyl (1→4-β-D-thevetopyranoside was isolated from the active ethyl acetate extract of the roots Dregea volubilis. The spectroscopic techniques were provided for success in structure determination. In addition, a new compound was the most powerful to biological activities. Chondroprotective effect of PPG on the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG, hyaluronan (HA, uronic acid (UA and production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 in interleukin-1β (IL-1β-stimulated porcine articular cartilage were also assessed. PGG was interestingly effective in reducing IL-1β induced S-GAG, HA release from cartilage explant and MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, PPG can reverse effect of IL-1β-reduced the levels of uronic acid remaining in cartilage tissue. Conclusion: The PGG was possessed a potent chondroprotective activity using the IL-1β stimulated cartilage explant model. Therefore, it is possible to use this compound as a new pharmacological agent for the management of degenerative joint diseases.

  7. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

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    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  8. Morfologia, Anatomia foliar e Fitoquímica de espécies de Eriope Humb. &Bonpl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) ocorrentes em Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    SCHLIEWE, Marcos Augusto

    2008-01-01

    O gênero Eriope com cerca de 30 espécies, pertence à família Lamiaceae, subfamília Nepetoideae, tribo Ocimeae e subtribo Hyptidinae, dessas 20 espécies são restritas aos campos rupestres do Brasil. Em Goiás, a Chapada dos Veadeiros, Serra de Caldas, Serra dos Cristais, Serra Dourada e a Serra dos Pireneus, são ambientes rupestres, nos quais ocorrem espécies desse gênero. Além destes locais, em ambientes de cerrado, nos municípios de Colinas do Sul, Goiânia, Mineiros, Planaltina...

  9. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

  10. Isolation of C-glycosylflavonoids with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from Passiflora bogotensis Benth by gradient high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Geison Modesti; Cárdenas, Paola Andrea; Gazola, Andressa Córneo; Aragón, Diana Marcela; Castellanos, Leonardo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we applied a gradient High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) method that allowed, by direct injection of an aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Passiflora bogotensis, the successful isolation of six flavonoids in a single run, with purity of each compound higher than 81%. This separation enabled the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, apigenin-6-C-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) and luteolin-6-C-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), and four known ones, isovitexin (1), isoorientin (3), isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (5) and isoorientin-2″-O-rhamnoside (6). The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD, LC-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and comparison with literature data. The inhibitory activities of all of these compounds were evaluated in vitro on α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae, and the IC50 was determinate. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of Passiflora bogotensis.

  11. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Katil Sigarroa-Rieche

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  12. Empleo de la función Weibull para evaluar la emergencia de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth

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    Marlen Navarro

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el vigor de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck mediante la evaluación de la emergencia de plántulas, a través de la función Weibull modificada, se realizó la siembra en tres condiciones ambientales y en diferentes tiempos de almacenamiento de la semilla. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, con arreglo factorial. Se realizó análisis de varianza para los parámetros M (emergencia acumulada máxima, k (tasa de emergencia y Z (retraso para el inicio de la emergencia de la función Weibull modificada. A partir de los seis meses de iniciado el almacenamiento (44,1 % se observó la pérdida brusca del porcentaje de M en el vivero (A y ligeras variaciones en la cabina (C, en comparación con A y B (sombreador. El ámbito de dispersión del parámetro k osciló entre 0,4-2,6; 0,29-1,9 y 0,5-1,4 % emergencia d-1 para las evaluaciones realizadas en A, B y C, respectivamente. Del análisis de Z se interpretó que el tiempo para el inicio de la emergencia, sin distinción del ambiente de siembra, estuvo enmarcado entre los 3,0 y 7,3 días posteriores a la siembra. En el vivero a pleno sol, en la evaluación a 6 mdia (meses de iniciado el almacenamiento, se obtuvieron los mejores resultados de los parámetros biológicos de la ecuación de Weibull, lo cual permitió un análisis global que indicó un grado de vigor alto en las semillas de A. lebbeck, en comparación con las restantes evaluaciones

  13. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

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    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  14. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

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    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  15. Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso Benth. & Hook f. ex S. Moore

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    Mauro Vasconcelos Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia aurea is a native arboreal species that can be used in recomposition programs of degradated areas, as ornamental plant and for production of wood of quality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the temperature and substrate on seed germination and initial growth of T. aurea seedlings. The experiment was developed in a completely randomized design in factorial scheme 5 x 5 with temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 20-30 and 20-35ºC; and substrates: paper towels, and into sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber and Tropstrato®, with four replications of 25 seeds each. The following parameters were also analyzed: germination, first germination count, germination speed index, average time of germination, length and dry weight matter of the shoot and the root. The temperatures and substrates influenced the analyzed parameters, except for the final percentage of germination, which varied from 84 to 94%. The optimal temperatures for germination were 30 and 35ºC. The substrates paper towels roll and sand can be recommended to evaluate the physiological quality of T.aurea seeds.

  16. Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população de Caldas Novas, GO e o conhecimento popular sobre a faveira (Dimorphandra mollis Benth Mimosoideae).

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Oriane F. do Vale; Gondim, Maria José da Costa

    2013-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo levantar o conhecimento de plantas medicinais pela população urbana de Caldas Novas-GO, realizado entre abril e maio de 2008. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulários semiestruturados (n:251), abrangendo diferentes faixas etárias, sendo levantadas informações quanto ao conhecimento e consumo de plantas medicinais, indicações e modo de uso. Além dessas informações, avaliou-se o conhecimento da população sobre a espécie nativa do cerrado Dimorphandra mollis ...

  17. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

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    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  18. Composition chimique du nététu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines du caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g.kg-1. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9–46.8% of the total fatty acids), oleic (12.6–14.6%), palmitic (10.2–11.3%), s...

  19. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds.

  20. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

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    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  1. Exogenous feeding of immediate precursors reveals synergistic effect on picroside-I biosynthesis in shoot cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun; Sharma, Neha; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-07-01

    In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis. However, a deficiency in the supply of either the iridoid or the phenylpropanoid precursor limits flux through the respective pathways as reflected by feedback inhibition effect on PAL and decreased transcripts expressions of rate limiting enzymes (DAHPS, CM, PAL, GS and G10H). It also appears that addition of CA alone directed flux towards both p-CA and P-I production. Based on precursor feeding and metabolic fluxes, a current hypothesis is that precursors from both the iridoid and shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathways are a flux limitation for P-I production in shoot cultures of P. kurroa plants. This work thus sets a stage for future endeavour to elevate production of P-I in cultured plant cells.

  2. Anticonvulsant profile of the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine isolated from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart ex Benth (Leguminosae-Papilionaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Silmara Aparecida; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Fachim, Helene Aparecida; Gavin, Amanda Salomão; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Beleboni, Renê Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying the onset and maintenance of epileptic seizures involve alterations in inhibitory and/or excitatory neurotransmitter pathways. Thus, the prospecting of novel molecules from natural products that target both inhibition and excitation systems has deserved interest in the rational design of new anticonvulsants. We isolated the alkaloids (+)-erythravine and (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine from the flowers of Erythrina mulungu and evaluated the action of these compounds against chemically induced seizures in rats. Our results showed that the administration of different doses of (+)-erythravine inhibited seizures evoked by bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, and kainic acid at maximum of 80, 100, and 100%, respectively, whereas different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine inhibited seizures at a maximum of 100% when induced by bicuculline, NMDA, and kainic acid, and, to a lesser extent, PTZ (60%). The analysis of mean latency to seizure onset of nonprotected animals, for specific doses of alkaloids, showed that (+)-erythravine increased latencies to seizures induced by bicuculline. Although (+)-erythravine exhibited very weak anticonvulsant action against seizures induced by NMDA, this alkaloid increased the latency in this assay. The increase in latency to onset of seizures promoted by (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine reached a maximum of threefold in the bicuculline test. All animals were protected against death when treated with different doses of (+)-11-α-hydroxy-erythravine in the tests using the four chemical convulsants. Identical results were obtained when using (+)-erythravine in the tests of bicuculline, NMDA, and PTZ, and, to a lesser extent, kainic acid. Therefore, these data validate the anticonvulsant properties of the tested alkaloids, which is of relevance in consideration of the ethnopharmacological/biotechnological potential of E. mulungu. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sobre a botânica, a etnofarmacologia e a química de Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hook. f. ex K. Schum

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Santos; J.P. RIBEIRO-OLIVEIRA; CARVALHO, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO O fato de possuir espécies com potencial econômico ilimitado, faz com que o ambiente amazônico se torne alvo constante da biopirataria e da extração predatória dos recursos. Muitas espécies deste ambiente sequer possuem catalogação e, mesmo assim, encontram risco eminente de desaparecimento. Neste âmbito, trabalhos que reúnam dados sobre estas espécies possuem grande valor científico, cultural e econômico, sendo este o estímulo que desencadeou a produção desta revisão. Aqui a espécie C...

  4. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon

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    Julia Penna Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  5. Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part I: Aspidosperma nitidum (Benth) used as a remedy to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Julia Penna; Aguiar, Anna Caroline Campos; dos Santos, Pierre Alexandre; Lima, Joaquim Corsino; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle Lima; Zani, Carlos Leomar; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2013-12-01

    Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.

  6. Influence of Removal of a Non-native Tree Species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda

    2015-11-01

    Exotic species are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these species may have negative effects later on. Since such species can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native tree species ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood tree species) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody species (height ≥0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia trees removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased species diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected tree species regeneration differently between species groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of tree removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from tree harvesting in restoration plantings.

  7. Composition and cytotoxic activity of essential oils from Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich, Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich) Benth.) and Monodora myristica (Gaertn) growing in Chad and Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer has become a global public health problem and the search for new control measures is urgent. Investigation of plant products such as essential oils from Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora might lead to new anticancer therapy. In this study, we have investigated the antineoplastic activity of essential oils from fruits of these plants growing in Chad and Cameroon. Methods The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora collected in Chad and Cameroon were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and investigated for their antiproliferative activity against the breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Results Overall, monoterpenes were mostly found in the six essential oils. Oils from X. aethiopica and X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon mainly contain β-pinene at 24.6%, 28.2%, 35.7% and 32.9% respectively. Monodora myristica oils from both origins contain mainly α-phellandrene at 52.7% and 67.1% respectively. The plant origin did not significantly influence the chemical composition of oils. The six essential oils exerted cytotoxic activity against cancer (MCF-7) and normal cell lines (ARPE-19), with more pronounced effect on neoplastic cells in the majority of cases. The highest selectivity was obtained with the essential oils of X. parviflora from Chad and Cameroon (5.87 and 5.54) which were more cytotoxic against MCF-7 than against normal cell line (ARPE-19) with IC50 values of 0.155 μL/mL and 0.166 μL/mL respectively. Conclusions Essential oils from fruits of Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora have shown acceptable antineoplastic potency, and might be investigated further in this regard. PMID:24708588

  8. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

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    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly bounded to the polysaccharide. GPC suggested the presence of polysaccharide-protein complex of molar mass ca 7.9 x 10(5 g/mol, and polysaccharides of molar masses of 8.3 x 10(4 g/mol and 2.2 x 10(4 g/mol. The whole gum has low viscosity and an activation energy of flow of 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol and 17,7 kJ/mol for solution at 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Comparison with other polysaccharides indicated that angico gum is a branched macromolecule, but in small amount than arabic gum and cashew nut tree gum.

  9. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance of the Asan Flood Control Study Area, Asan, Guam,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    plain. The plants dominating this area reflect the defoliation which resulted from the allied invasion in 1944 with tangan-tangan ( Leucaena ... leucocephala ), hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus), and kamachile (Pithecellobium dulce) accounting for about 80 percent of the ground cover. In the upland area the

  10. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of germinated seeds was done each 12h, calculating the percentage and germination rate. The extracts at 8, 12 and 16% (w/v reduced lettuce and radish germination rate, extracts of stems at 100% reduced the percentage of germination. Four replicates of eight germinated seeds of lettuce or radish were employed in the growth experiments conducted at 27 ºC in the absence of light and having filter paper as substracts moistened with concentrations of 0, 4 e 12% (w/v.Lettuce and radish seedlings suffered significant inhibition in length, when using leaves extracts. Only 4 e 12% (w/v stems extracts didn't caused growth inhibition in radish. The interference of extracts in germination and growth of lettuce and radish was disassociated of any pH and osmotic potential, indicating allelopathic activity.

  11. Potencial germinativo de sementes de fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae sob diferentes procedências, datas de coleta e tratamentos de escarificação Germinative potential of fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. - Fabaceae: Mimosoideae seeds from different locations and collection dates under distinct scarification treatments

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    Dario Alves de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais que possuem sementes duras e impermeáveis à água freqüentemente apresentam problemas para germinar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar tratamentos pré-germinativos em laboratório que permitam abreviar, aumentar e uniformizar a germinação das sementes de Dimorphandra mollis, além de avaliar essa germinação em diferentes épocas e locais de coleta. Foram coletadas sementes de D. mollis em quatro municípios do norte de Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela e Jequitaí, em duas datas distintas: agosto e setembro de 2004. As sementes foram submetidas a cinco tratamentos de escarificação: lixamento, imersão em ácido sulfúrico por 10 e por 20 min, imersão em água quente a 70 ºC e controle (sementes intactas. Nos testes de germinação, um delineamento experimental casualizado foi utilizado, com 10 repetições de 10 sementes de cada tratamento, localidade e data de coleta. Os efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos na germinação das sementes foram avaliados através da análise de variância e teste t. Após a análise, constatou-se que as sementes coletadas em agosto (X= 47,8 ± 6,8%, na localidade de Montes Claros (X= 41,7 ± 9,7%, e escarificadas mecanicamente (X= 83,0 ± 8,2% denotaram maior potencial germinativo. Nesse sentido, sementes de fava-d'anta apresentam dormência imposta pelo tegumento, com potencial germinativo maior no tratamento com lixa. Além disso, o grau de maturação das sementes e fatores ecológicos locais parecem interferir na germinação das sementes da espécie estudada.Forest species with hard and impermeable seeds often have problems to germinate. The present work aimed to select pre-germinative treatments in laboratory to homogenize the germination of Dimorphandra mollis seeds and to compare the germination rates of seeds collected from different periods and locations. D. mollis seeds were collected at four different regions in northern Minas Gerais: Montes Claros, Lontra, Mirabela and Jequitaí, in two distinct periods: August and September/2004. The seeds were submitted to five scarification treatments: sanding (mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid to 10 and 20 minutes, immersion in hot water (70 ºC and control (intact seeds. For the germination tests, a randomized experimental design was used, with ten replicates of ten seeds for each treatment, site and period of collection. The effects of the different treatments on seed germination were tested through an analysis of variance and t test. The germinative potential was significantly higher for seeds collected in August (X= 47.8 ± 6.8%, at the Montes Claros site (X= 41.7 ± 9.7%, and submitted to mechanical scarification (X= 83.0 ± 8.2%. Our results indicate that fava-d'anta seeds present dormancy imposed by the tegument, with the highest germinative potential under the sanding treatment. In addition, the degree of seed maturation and local ecological factors seem to interfere with seed germination in D. mollis.

  12. Germinação de sementes de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (sansão-do-campo sob diferentes condições de temperatura, luz e umidade. Seed germination of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. Under different conditions of temperature, light and moisture.

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    Márcia Balistiero FIGLIOLIA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae éuma espécie arbórea característica da caatinga,nativa da região Nordeste brasileira. Neste trabalhoforam realizados dois experimentos. No primeiroexperimento foi estudado o efeito da coloração dassementes (verde e marrom e da temperatura para agerminação (25, 30 e 20-30 ºC. No segundoexperimento foi estudado o efeito do volume deágua destilada adicionado ao substrato (45, 60 e75 mL e da qualidade de luz (ausência de luz e luzdos espectros branco, vermelho e vermelho-extremo,na germinação das sementes de coloração verdesubmetidas a 30 ºC. Os testes de germinação foramconduzidos sob fotoperíodo de 8 h, utilizando 30 gde vermiculita como substrato, e tiveram a duraçãode 14 dias. Foram avaliados a porcentagem final eo índice de velocidade de germinação dassementes. Os resultados obtidos no primeiroexperimento mostraram que as sementes decoloração verde são de melhor qualidade fisiológicae que a temperatura de 30 ºC foi a mais adequadapara a germinação. Os resultados obtidos no segundoexperimento mostraram que: (a as sementes decoloração verde são fotoblásticas positivaspreferenciais; (b o teste de germinação pode serconduzido sob luz branca, em substrato umedecidocom 75 mL de água, e (c os resultados obtidospermitem supor que, em condições naturais, assementes sejam capazes de germinar tanto a plenosol (luz do espectro vermelho como sob luzfiltrada pela vegetação (espectro vermelho-extremo.Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Fabaceae is animportant arboreal species native from the caatingavegetation of the northeastern of Brazil. In thiswork two experiments were carried out. In the firstexperiment, the effect of seed color (green andbrown and temperature for germination (25, 30,and 20-30 ºC was studied. In the second experiment,the effect of distilled water added to substrate(45, 60, and 75 mL and light quality (darkness andwhite, red, and far-red light on germination at30 ºC of green color seeds was studied. Germinationtests were performed for 14 days under an 8 hphotoperiod, using 30 g of vermiculite as substrate.Both final percentage and speed of germinationindex of seeds were evaluated. The results obtainedin the first experiment showed that seeds of greencolor have better physiological quality and that theconstant temperature of 30 ºC favoured the seedgermination. The results obtained in the secondexperiment showed that (a seeds of green color arepreferential positive photoblastic; (b germination testcan be performed under white light with substratemoistened with 75 mL of water and (c the resultsobtained in laboratory suggest that under naturalconditions seeds are able to germinate either inlight gap (red light or under canopy (far-red light.

  13. Variabilidade da espessura da lâmina foliar em duas espécies de Leucaena Benth. (Leguminosae e seus híbridos Variability of the foliar blade thickness in two species of Leucaena Benth. (Leguminosae and their hybrids

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    Paulo Emílio Kaminski

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A espessura da lâmina foliar foi analisada em duas espécies tetraplóides (2n=104 de Leucaena, L. leucocephala e L. diversifolia, e em híbridos entre ambas, num total de 25 plantas. Para cada planta, foram realizados cortes de 10 foliólulos. Os híbridos apresentaram valores médios para espessura da lâmina foliar intermediários (116,3 - 148,3µm entre os das espécies parentais (136,1-158,4µm e 169,2- 170,3µm para L.leucocephala e L.diversifolia, respectivamente e uma menor variabilidade individual.The foliar blade thickness was analyzed in two tetraploid (2n=104 species of Leucaena , L. leuccocephala and L. diversifolia and in hybrids between both, in a total of 25 plants. For each plant, 10 leaflets were measured. The hybrids presented intermediate average values of foliar blade (116.3 - 148.3µm in comparison with the parental species values (136.1-158.4µm and 169.2- 170.3µm for L. leucocephala and L. diversifolia, respectively and a smaller invidual variation.

  14. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos Stablishment and in vitro multiplication of thornless blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. by shoot apical meristems

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    Alina Katil Sigarroa-Rieche

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.We evaluated a technique of micropropagation in a thornless variety of blackberry (Rubus glaucus from shoot apical meristems. In the establishment phase, we evaluated a disinfection protocol: soapy solution (commercial detergent and water for 5 minutes + 70% alcohol for 2 minutes + 3% hypochlorite with two different exposure times: T1 for 5 minutes and T2 for 10 minutes. When the microcuttings were disinfected, the meristematic shoots were removed and established in vitro in a completely random design to evaluate two cultivation mediums: M1 and M2. From the seedlings developed, the multiplication was performed, which tested three cultivation mediums: M1, M3 and M4. Both disinfection treatments were effective achieving 100% disinfection of explants in each of them. Meristematic shoot planting allowed the establishment of aseptic cultivation and adequate development of the explants after six weeks of cultivation with rates of germination of 83.4% for M1 and 66.6% for M2. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple range test with Fisher’s method (LSD, showed that multiplication the M1 medium favored better growth and development of the explant to obtain a multiplication coefficient of 7.5 shoots per seedling and an average height of 1.95 cm.

  15. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

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    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  16. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extraído em diferentes intervalos de tempo Chemical composition and antimicrobial in vitro activity of the essential oil Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extracted in different time intervals

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    J. Franco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea é uma espécie aromática da família Myrtaceae, sendo utilizada como ornamental e que apresenta rendimento em óleo essencial considerável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi à avaliação da composição química e da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, e das frações coletadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo. A metodologia empregada para a extração do óleo essencial foi a hidrodestilação com arraste de vapor d'água, em aparelho de Clevenger. A análise da composição química foi procedida por CG/EM e para a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana foi utilizado o método de difusão em ágar frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6.538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 e Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. O rendimento do óleo essencial foi de 6,07 % (v/m, do qual grande parte foi extraída na primeira hora de hidrodestilação. Também foi observada maior concentração de 1,8-cineol nas frações coletadas em quinze minutos e uma hora. Os principais componentes identificados no óleo essencial de E. cinerea por CG/EM foram: 1,8-cineol, a-pineno, limoneno e a-terpineol. A avaliação de atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em disco indicou qualitativamente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial da espécie em questão frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, bactérias Gram-negativas e levedura.Eucalyptus cinerea is used as an ornamental plant and shows good concentration of essential oil. The aim of this work is a chemical investigation and analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea collected at different time's interval. This oil was obtained by hydrodestilation in a Clevenger apparatus, the chemical ivestigation was perfoomed by GC/MS and the antimicrobial activity was assayed in vitro using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. The yield of the essential oil was 6.07 % (v/w collected in the first hour of hidrodestilation. It was also observed a higher concentration of 1,8-cineole in the fraction collected in a quarter of hour and and one hour. The main components investigated in the essential oils by GC/MS were: 1,8-cineole, a-pineno, limoneno and a-terpineol. The antimicrobial study using agar diffusion method showed antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast.

  17. Efeito do álcool e substrato na germinação de sementes de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia pelthophoroides Benth. colhidas no chão e retiradas da vagem Alcohol and substratum effects on the germination of sibipiruna seeds (Caesalpinia pelthophoroides Benth. collected on the soil surface and from harvest pods

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    Silvana P. Quintão Scalon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a capacidade germinativa de sementes colhidas no chão e retiradas da vagem, ambas tratadas ou não com álcool absoluto em imersão por 5 minutos e semeadas em dois substrato terra ou areia O trabalho foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 3 repetições de 30 sementes. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG das sementes durante 31 dias após a semeadura. As sementes de sibipiruna colhidas no chão, tratadas com álcool e semeadas em terra adubada apresentaram a maior porcentagem de germinação (60,5% e maior IVG (1,028.The germinative capability of sibipiruna seeds collected on the soil surface and from harvest pods, immersed or not in absolute alcohol for 5 minutes, and sowed in fertilised soil or sand, was evaluated. The work was accomplished in a totally randomized outline, with three repetitions of 30 seeds. The germination percentage (%G and the germination speed index (GSI of the seeds were evaluated during 31 days after the sowing. The sibipiruna seeds collected on the soil surface, treated with alcohol and sowed in fertilized soil presented a greater germination percentage (60,5% and also a greater GSI (1,028.

  18. Efeito do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthe parviflora Benth (coração-de-negro aos 42 anos, em Bauru, SP. Effect of the spacing in the development of Poecilanthe parviflora Benth. (coração-de-negro of 42 year-old grown, in Bauru, SP.

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    Israel Luiz de LIMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, plantios de espécies nativas visando à exploração comercial são raros, devido ao crescimento lento e à falta de informações silviculturais e oferta de sementes e mudas de boa qualidade. Dessa forma, no ano de 1964 foi implantado umexperimento visando avaliar os efeitos do espaçamento no desenvolvimento de Poecilanthae parviflora, que é uma espécie de crescimento lento, na Estação Ecológica de Bauru, SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, comcinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos seguintes espaçamentos: 1,0 m x 1,0 m; 1,5 m x 1,5 m; 2,0 m x 2,0 m; 2,5 m x 2,5 m e 3,0 m x 3,0 m, tendo sido avaliados o diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual, volume por hectare e a sobrevivência. Os resultados demonstraram que os espaçamentos não influenciaram asobrevivência, mas produziram efeitos no diâmetro à altura do peito, altura total, volume individual e volume por hectare. Com o aumento do espaçamento, houvemaior incremento nos valores das três primeiras variáveis, ocorrendo o inverso na última. Possivelmente, o uso de espaçamentos iniciais mais adensados e o emprego de desbastes seletivos e sucessivos resultariamemmaior proporção de madeira e melhor qualidade.In Brazil, planting of native species aiming at the commercial exploration is rare, due to the slow growth, the lack of silvicultural information and supply of seeds and seedling of superior quality. On account of this, in 1964 an experiment aiming to evaluate the effects of planting spacings on growing of Poecilanthae parviflora, which is a species of slow growth, was implanted in the Ecological Station of Bauru, SP. The trial was established in a complete-randomized block-design, with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of the following spacings: 1.0 m x 1.0 m; 1.5 m x 1.5 m; 2.0 m x 2.0 m; 2.5 m x 2.5 m and 3.0 m x 3.0 m, which were evaluated at the breast height diameter, total height, individual volume, volume for hectare and the survival. The results demonstrated that the diameter at breast height, individual volume and volume for hectare has been influenced by the spacing. With the increase of the spacing, it had greater increment in the values of the three first variables, the opposite occurred in the last one. The survival however was not influenced by the spacing. Possibly, the use of more dense initial spacing and the use of selective and successive thinning can produce higher proportion of wood and better quality.

  19. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

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    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds only at the concentration of 30% extract prepared by decoction of leaves harvested in the winter. Germination speed index showed significant reduction for ground extracts prepared in the fall and winter, as well as for macerated leaves harvested in the summer and fall and for extracts prepared through decoction in the winter. The extracts stimulated the growth of shoots of lettuce seedlings, whereas root length was affected by the extracts, which either stimulated or inhibited its growth. Extracts of "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons had allelopathic effect on germination and development of lettuce, and the latter varied depending on the harvest season, the form of preparing the extracts and the tested concentrations.

  20. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Tourn; M. T. Cosa; G. G. Roitman; Silva,M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq.) Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Ja...

  1. Comparative leaf anatomy in argentine Galactia species Anatomía comparada de hoja en especies argentinas de Galactia

    OpenAIRE

    Tourn, G.M.; M. T. Cosa; G. G. Roitman; Silva,M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of anatomical characters of the leaves of argentine species of Genera Galactia was carried out in order to evaluate their potential value in Taxonomy. In Argentine 14 species and some varieties from Sections Odonia and Collaearia can be found. Section Odonia: G. benthamiana Mich., G. dubia DC., G. fiebrigiana Burkart var. correntina Burkart, G. glaucophylla Harms, G. gracillima Benth., G. latisiliqua Desv., G. longifolia (Jacq.) Benth., G. marginalis Benth., G. striata (Ja...

  2. 牛耳枫果实中抑菌活性成分的初步分离%Isolation of antifungal components from the fruit of Daphniphyllum calycinum Benth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 曾东强

    2013-01-01

    为探索牛耳枫Daphniphyllum calycinum在农业病害防治方面的应用前景,采用柱层析和重结晶等分离技术,从牛耳枫果实甲醇提取物的乙酸乙酯萃取物中分离得到10个已知化合物,并以水稻纹枯病菌Rhizoctonia solani、番茄白绢病菌Sclerotium rolfsii和香蕉枯萎病菌Fusariumoxysporum f.sp.cubense3种植物病原菌为指示菌种,对化合物的抑菌活性成分进行了测定.经核磁共振氢谱和碳谱解析,10个化合物分别鉴定为:对甲氧基苯甲酸(1)、对羟基苯甲醛(2)、5,7-二羟基色原酮(3)、对羟基苯甲酸(4)、反式对羟基肉桂酸(5)、5,7,4’-三羟基-3’-甲基黄酮(6)、山奈酚(7)、β-胡萝卜苷(8)、木犀草素(9)和3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(10).菌丝生长速率法测定结果表明:在100 mg/L下,化合物3、6、7和10对水稻纹枯病菌的抑制率分别为58.1%、74.3%、85.0%和79.5%;化合物6和7对番茄白绢病菌的抑制率分别为66.2%和72.5%;化合物6对香蕉枯萎病菌的抑制率为54.5%.化合物1~7和9~10为首次从该植物的果实中分离得到.%In order to explore the application prospects of Daphniphyllum calycinum in controlling agricultural disease,ten compounds were isolated from acetic ether-soluble fraction of D.calycinum by column chromatography and recrystallization,and three plant pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani,Sclerotium rolfsii,Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cubense) were used to screen antifungal activity of the compounds.The structure of ten compounds were identified as p-methoxybenzoic acid (1),p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2),5,7-dihydroxychromone (3),p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4),trans-p-hydroxylcinnamic acid (5),5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3 '-methoxyflavone (6),kaempferol (7),β-daucosterol (8),luteolin (9) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10) by NMR.The antifungal activities of nine compounds against the three plant pathogens were tested.At the concentration of 100 mg/L,compound 3,6,7 and 10 exhibited antifungal activity against R.solani,with inhibitory rates of 58.1%,74.3%,85.0% and 79.5%,respectively;compound 6 and 7 showed potential antifungal activity against S.rolfsii,with inhibitory rates of 66.2% and 72.5%,respectively; compound 6 had weak antifungal activity against F.oxysporum,with inhibitory rate of 54.5%.Compound 1-7,9-10 were obtained from the fruit of D.calycinum for the first time.

  3. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of 4 to 28 hours to reach the desired imbibition degrees (20, 40, 60, 80 and 90%. Seeds were then sown immediately in washed sand in the nursery (4 x 25 seeds / treatment or dried for 7 days (24±2°C and 68±3% R.H.. Unstored and unprimed (control seeds showed 59±8.9% germination, which was less than that of stored unprimed seeds (76±11.3 %. Submersion periods exceeding 13 hours reduced germination relative to unprimed seeds. After 4 hours of submersion (seed moisture 26-31%, both unstored and stored seeds increased their performance. Even higher improvement was verified when drying followed submersion. Thus, the positive effects of priming occurred in phase I of the imbibition curve. Hydropriming of 4 hours at 15 ºC was found to be a simple and inexpensive method for P. pendula seeds since it increased seedling development velocity, brought the germination percentage of unstored seeds to a level similar to that of stored seeds and increased germination synchronization of stored seeds.

  4. High Frequency Pulsatile Electromagnetic Fields and Ultrasound Pulsatile Fields Impact on Germination Dynamic at Ocimum basilicum L. and O. basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Observed with Open Source Software’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ONAC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum sp., generally knowned as “king of herbs” due to its pharmaceutical and culinary properties, is considered to be a native plant derived from Africa and Asia. Ocimum sp. grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions with more than 50 species knowned till present time. Germination percent of Ocimum sp. is considered to be between 85-95%. Even though Ocimum sp. are considered to have fast germination velocity index (GVI, short mean germination time (MGT and increased seedling vigor index (SVI values, their experimental monitoring is done with specialized software’s that are expensive. Low cost scientific solutions are keen on open source software germination protocols. For observing the accuracy of open source C.A.D. software’s Ocimum sp. seeds where submitted to high frequency pulsatile electromagnetic fields (300 impulses/3 peak penetrance - 293 W and ultrasound pulsatile fields (1/2 pulses by 0.5 W/cm2. All sequence images where taken using a positive/negative photo filter enhancing differences in seed development. At the end of the experiment all images where transformed into vector formats (dwg. On the dwg extension, selective free plug-ins such as Face Centroid and Area Properties help to collect data like seed development on X/Y scale, area, perimeter, no. of germinated seeds, length of seedling root, hypocotyl length.

  5. Teor e composição do óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco Benth. após diferentes tempos de secagem em estufa e temperatura ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. STORCK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOPatchouli é uma espécie aromática pertencente à família Lamiaceae que possui óleo essencial com alto valor comercial devido à aplicação nas indústrias de higiene, cosméticos e perfumarias. Considerando as características voláteis e estruturas de armazenamento em diferentes órgãos das plantas aromáticas, a determinação de métodos de secagem é de extrema importância e pode afetar tanto o rendimento como a composição do óleo essencial. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de patchouli após secagem por diferentes períodos em estufa e a temperatura ambiente. O experimento foi realizado durante o mês de fevereiro de 2011 em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2X6, correspondente a dois métodos de secagem (estufa 65ºC e temperatura ambiente e seis tempos para o início da extração do óleo essencial após a (0, 2, 4,6,8 e 10 dias após a colheita,com três repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por meio hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado de Clevenger e os constituintes do óleo essencial foram analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Houve interação significativa entre os métodos e tempos de secagem tanto para o teor como para a composição do óleo essencial. A secagem das plantas por dois dias em estufa a 65ºC aumentou o teor de óleo essencial, após este período houve redução significativa. Para as folhas secas em temperatura ambiente, o teor de óleo essencial foi superior aos quatro e aos seis dias após a colheita. Comparando-se os métodos, a secagem em estufa mostrou-se mais eficiente, sendo o teor significativamente superior após dois dias de secagem. Após este período, no entanto, houve drástica redução do teor de óleo essencial, sendo inferior ao teor observado em todos os períodos nas folhas secas em temperatura ambiente. Os diferentes métodos e tempos de secagem alteraram também a composição do óleo essencial. Embora a secagem em estufa a 65º por dois dias não tenha resultado em redução dos teores dos constituintes majoritários patchoulol e pogostol, maiores teores foram observados após seis ou oito dias de secagem. Quando a secagem foi realizada a temperatura ambiente, não houve alteração dos teores de ambos os constituintes.

  6. Efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório do extrato aquoso das folhas de trevo-roxo (Scutellaria agrestis A. St.-Hil. ex Benth. - Lamiaceae em roedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria agrestis é utilizada por comunidades ribeirinhas do Amazonas principalmente para o tratamento de otites por via tópica utilizando-se o extrato bruto obtido por maceração. O presente trabalho visou investigar preliminarmente o perfil fitoquímico, a segurança toxicológica e as ações analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiedematogência do extrato aquoso das folhas de S. agrestis. Foram coletados 80 indivíduos da espécie no horto medicinal da Universidade Nilton Lins, Manaus, Brasil. O perfil fitoquímico foi obtido por meio de prospecção da droga vegetal para heterosídeos cianogênicos, terpenos, compostos fenólicos e alcaloides. A toxicologia foi avaliada pelo teste de toxicidade aguda. As atividades analgésicas/ anti-inflamatórias foram analisadas por meio dos testes de formalina em camundongos e a atividade antiedematogência, pelo teste de edema de pata em ratos. Os metabólitos detectados foram fenóis (taninos hidrolisáveis, cumarinas e várias classes de flavonoides e terpenos (esteroides livres, saponinas. Não foi possível estabelecer DL50, haja visto que o extrato não provocou a morte de nenhum animal durante o teste de toxicidade aguda, provavelmente devido à ausência de heterosídeos cianogênicos na sua composição. Apesar de não provocar morte, considerou-se que o extrato apresenta uma discreta toxicidade, uma vez que foi observada a ocorrência de espasmos na primeira hora de observação dos animais. O extrato apresentou ainda efeito analgésico e anti-inflamatório significativo nas doses de 30, 100 e 300 mg/kg pelo teste da formalina, sendo o resultado na maior dose equivalente ao obtido com a droga padrão (fentanil. No entanto, não observamos efeito antiedematogênico nas doses testadas durante as 5 horas de registro do edema de pata. Os resultados obtidos nesta pesquisa conferem base científica preliminar quanto à segurança e ao efeito analgésico e antiinflamatório da droga vegetal, o que indica que tal espécie é promissora e expressamente recomendada para maiores estudos farmacológicos in vitro e in vivo.

  7. Etude des activités antimicrobienne et antioxydante des huiles essentielle et des flavonoides d'Artemisia herba alba Asso; Artemisia judaica .L. ssp. sahariensis; Artemisia campestris L; Herniaria mauritanica Murb et Warionia saharae Benth. et Cou.

    OpenAIRE

    GHERIB, MOHAMED

    2014-01-01

    naturels. Résumé Les plantes sont depuis toujours une source essentielle de médicaments. Aujourd'hui encore une majorité de la population mondiale, plus particulièrement dans les pays en voie de développement, se soigne uniquement avec des remèdes traditionnels à base de plantes. De l'aspirine au taxol, l'industrie pharmaceutique moderne elle-même s'appuie sur la diversité des métabolites secondaires des végétaux pour trouver de nouvelles molécules aux propriétés biologiq...

  8. The Jurema tree (Mimosa hostilis) as an energy source for the Brazilian arid northeast region; A Jurema preta (Mimosa hostilis, Benth) como fonte energetica do semi-arido do nordeste-carvao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Washington Luiz Fonseca

    1984-12-31

    This study was carried out to evaluate the charcoal production using `Jurema` wood and also to determine its potential as an alternative energy source for Paraiba state, northeast Brazil. Charcoal was produced in a laboratory electrical retort at temperatures of 400, 550 and 700 deg C. The following properties were analyzed: yield (condensed liquids and non-condensable gases), superior calorific value, specific gravity, volatile materials, fixed carbon and ash content. (author). 18 figs., 17 tabs., 47 refs

  9. Compostos de reserva em sementes de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth : caracterização histo e bioquimica e variação durante a germinação

    OpenAIRE

    Thelma Regina Gabriel da Silva

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho, foi realizado com sementes de D. miscolobium, uma espécie arbórea dos cerrados, de importância econômica como madeira e conhecida como cabiuna do cerrado. Como objetivos principais teve: verificar aspectos fisiológicos da germinação das sementes dessa espécie, determinar o padrão de crescimento para o eixo embrionário, detectar as alterações nos conteúdos das principais reservas da semente e sua mobilização e estabelecer parâmetros que permitissem analisar o padrã...

  10. FAAS法测定丰城鸡血藤中锶含量的方法探讨%Investigation of Determining Strontium in M.nitida Benth.var.hirsutissima.Z.Wei.by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌; 饶志军; 关媛媛; 张海明

    2010-01-01

    探索建立空气-乙炔火焰原子吸收测定丰城鸡血藤中微量元素锶含量的方法.以丰城鸡血藤为研究对象,HNOa-HCLO_4(4+1)为消解液,采用压力主控微波消解样品,EDTA-2Na溶液为抑制剂,用火焰原子吸收光谱法(FAAS)测定丰城鸡血藤中微量元素锶的含量.微波消解药材消化完全,测定线性良好,范围0~1.6 μg·mL-1,回归方程为Y=0.036 5X-0.0011,r=0.9994,方法学检出限为0.0082 μg · mL-1 (n=21),平均回收率101.5%,RSD=2.04%.该方法灵敏度高,操作简单,结果准确,适用于该药材中锶元素的含量测定.

  11. Anatomia de la madera de nueve leguminosas de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Argélia Silva; Carlos Blanco; Helga Lindorf

    1988-01-01

    Se estudió la estructura microscópica del leño de especies de las tres sub-famílias de leguminosas, con el fin de determinar caracteres distintivos de cada uno de estos taxa. Las observaciones se realizaron en: Acacia macracantha, Bauhinia aculeata, Calliandra gracillis, Cassia speclabilis, Coursetia arborea, Erythrina poeppigiana, Leucaena trichodes, Lonchocarpus violaceus, Pithecellobium saman, las cuales fueron colectadas en bosques, deciduos de dos localidades: Colinas del Jardín Botánico...

  12. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  13. Contributions to the moss flora of Gümüşhane Province (Torul and Kürtün districts, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Turan; Batan, Nevzat

    2009-02-15

    Some moss specimens were collected from Gümüşhane Province between September and October 2008. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 92 taxa belonging to 22 families were identified. These taxa are presented in a list. All taxa are new to the study area (Gümüşhane Province). Eight taxa are (Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe, Grimmia lisae De Not., Grimmia montana Bruch and Schimp., Herzogiella seligeri (Brid.) Z. Iwats., Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) J. Shaw, Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Taylor) Lindb. var. tenuirostre) new records for A4 Square (40-42 degrees N, 38-42 degrees E) were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the moss taxa growing in Gümüşhane Province (Torul and Kürtün districts) and to make a contribution to the moss flora of Turkey.

  14. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Lange

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA. One species, L. castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with L. oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, L. amissum sp. nov. and L. obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from L. banksii, L. flexicaule and L. oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (L. aegrum sp. nov., L. crassum sp. nov. and L. juvencum sp. nov.. One of these, L. juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (L. flexicaule, L. oblitum sp. nov., L. oleraceum, L. oligodontum sp. nov., L. panniforme sp. nov., and L. rekohuense sp. nov., one of which, L. oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, L. seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to L. oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for L. banksii, L. oleraceum, L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum.

  15. New Lepidium (Brassicaceae) from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, P. J.; Heenan, P. B.; Houliston, G. J.; Rolfe, J. R.; Mitchell, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A revision of the New Zealand endemic Lepidium oleraceum and allied species is presented. Sixteen species are recognised, 10 of these are new. The new species are segregated on the basis of morphological characters supported by molecular data obtained from three DNA markers (two rDNA and one cpDNA). One species, Lepidium castellanum sp. nov., is endemic to the Kermadec Islands where it is sympatric with Lepidium oleraceum. The North Island of New Zealand supports four species, with two of them, Lepidium amissum sp. nov. and Lepidium obtusatum, now extinct. The South Island supports six species, that, aside from Lepidium banksii, Lepidium flexicaule and Lepidium oleraceum, are all confined to the south-eastern half of the island (Lepidium aegrum sp. nov., Lepidium crassum sp. nov. and Lepidium juvencum sp. nov.). One of these, Lepidium juvencum sp. nov., extends to Stewart Island. The Chatham Islands support six species (Lepidium flexicaule, Lepidium oblitum sp. nov., Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., Lepidium panniforme sp. nov., and Lepidium rekohuense sp. nov.), one of which, Lepidium oligodontum sp. nov., extends to the Antipodes Islands group. The remote, subantarctic Bounty Islands group supports one endemic, Lepidium seditiosum sp. nov., which is the only vascular plant to be recorded from there. Lepidium limenophylax sp. nov. is known from islands off the south-western side of Stewart Island/Rakiura, The Snares and Auckland islands. Lepidium naufragorum, although not related to Lepidium oleraceum and its allies, is also treated because populations with entire leaves are now known. Typification is undertaken for Lepidium banksii, Lepidium oleraceum, Lepidium oleraceum var. acutidentatum, var. frondosum and var. serrulatum. PMID:23794938

  16. A sketch of the vegetation and flora of the Kappel Savanna near Tafelberg, Suriname. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.; Donselaar, van J.

    1968-01-01

    Humiria balsamifera (Aublet) St. Hil. var. balsamifera KH 3294, var. guianensis (Benth.) Cuatrecasas KH 2954, 3288, 3313. K: Widespread, but not common, in thickets. S: Northern and southern savannas, savanna scrub and savanna woods. R: Kaieteur savanna (var. guianensis).

  17. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  18. response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    small-effect genes has proved to be the most effective approach to control ... improved grain yield and stover quality; while significant ..... fodder yield in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Sr.] ... hermonthica (Del.) Benth in a tropical maize.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  20. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Ashrafuzzaman; A K M Kamruzzaman; M Razi ismail; S M Shahidullah; S A Fakir

    2009-01-01

    ... (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.), Ipil-ipil [Leucaena glauca (Linn) Benth], Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), Raintree [Albizia saman (Jacq.) F Müll], Segun (Tectona grandis L.), Shimul (Bombax ceiba L), Shisoo...

  1. Biosynthesis of Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloid Ajmaline Catalyzed by Novel Reductases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction One of the major root alkaloids of the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpenlina Benth. Ex Kurz is named ajmaline. The enzymatic biosynthesisof this alkaloid has been studied for a long time by our group[1].

  2. Characterization of weed flora in rubber trees plantations of Bongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... of 1 and 2 years old, weeds were dominated by leguminous cover crop Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth. ... diminish the growth of the tree by up to 50% (Grist ... diversity of the plantation, (2) analyze the evolution.

  3. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  4. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  5. Antinociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of hydroethanolic leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of ... Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) is used in Traditional African medicine for ...... inhibition of prostaglandin inhibited significantly the.

  6. Flora Polínica da Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brasil): Família: 136-Solanaceae

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ-BARROS, Maria Amélia Vitorino da; Silva,Elaine Lima; Gasparino, Eduardo Custódio [UNESP; Souza,Ligia Novac; Oliveira, Anedi Costa de

    2011-01-01

    Foram estudados os grãos de pólen de 12 gêneros e 41 espécies de Solanaceae ocorrentes na "Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga": Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schlecht., Athenaea picta (Mart.) Sendtn., Brunfelsia latifolia Benth., Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. & Schlecht.) Benth., Capsicum flexuosum (L.) Sendtn., Capsicum villosum (L.) Sendtn., Cestrum amictum (L.) Schlecht., Cestrum corymbosum (L.) Schlecht., Cestrum lanceolatum (L.) Miers, Cestrum schlechtendalii (L.) G. Don, C...

  7. Flora Polínica da Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (São Paulo, Brasil): Família: 136-Solanaceae

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ-BARROS, Maria Amélia Vitorino da; Silva,Elaine Lima; Gasparino, Eduardo Custódio [UNESP; Souza,Ligia Novac; Oliveira, Anedi Costa de

    2011-01-01

    Foram estudados os grãos de pólen de 12 gêneros e 41 espécies de Solanaceae ocorrentes na Reserva do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga: Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schlecht., Athenaea picta (Mart.) Sendtn., Brunfelsia latifolia Benth., Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. & Schlecht.) Benth., Capsicum flexuosum (L.) Sendtn., Capsicum villosum (L.) Sendtn., Cestrum amictum (L.) Schlecht., Cestrum corymbosum (L.) Schlecht., Cestrum lanceolatum (L.) Miers, Cestrum schlechtendalii (L.) G. Don, Cestrum...

  8. Diversidade polínica das Mimosoideae (Leguminosae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga, Pernambuco, Brasil Pollen diversity of Mimosoideae taxa (Leguminosae from a caatinga region, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Buril

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O município de Mirandiba, Pernambuco, considerado prioritário para a conservação da caatinga, apresenta cerca de 25% das espécies de Leguminosae do bioma, sendo 23 espécies em 13 gêneros da subfamília Mimosoideae, das quais 6 espécies são endêmicas. Dezenove táxons desta subfamília tiveram seus grãos de pólen caracterizados por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, ilustrados e incluídos em uma chave de identificação. A morfologia polínica dos táxons estudados é muito variada, principalmente em relação às unidades de dispersão, sendo encontradas desde mônades, em Neptunia e Desmanthus; políades com oito grãos de pólen, uniplanar em Calliandra depauperata e multiplanar em Mimosa spp. e Pityrocarpa moniliformis, políades com 16 grãos de pólen, em Anadenanthera, Inga, Parapiptadenia, Pithecellobium e Senegalia, tétrades também em espécies de Mimosa, e políades amorfas com 32 grãos de pólen, presentes em Chloroleucon e Pithecellobium. Essas diferenças aliadas a caracteres morfométricos e da ectexina possibilitam a identificação da maioria dos táxons de Mimosoideae de Mirandiba.Mirandiba municipality in Pernambuco, is a prioritary conservation area for caatinga. It has almost 25% of Leguminosae species from the caatinga, where 23 species in 13 genera belong to the Mimosoideae subfamily and 6 species are endemics. The pollen grains of 19 mimosoid taxa were characterized by their pollen grains using light and scanning electron microscopy. All taxa are illustrated and keyed. Pollen morphology of these taxa is varied, mainly regarding pollen units; we found monads in Neptunia and Desmanthus; 8-grain uniplanar polyads in Calliandra depauperata and multiplanar ones in Mimosa spp. and Pityrocarpa moniliformis, tetrads also in Mimosa, polyads with 16 pollen grains in Anadenanthera, Inga, Parapiptadenia, Pithecellobium and Senegalia, and polyads with 32 pollen grains in Chloroleucon and Pithecellobium

  9. Elaboración de un paquete tecnológico para productores, en manejo cosecha y poscosecha de mora (Rubus Glaucus Benth) aplicando ingeniería de calidad y determinación de las características nutracéuticas de la fruta en precosecha, en el municipio de Silvania – Cundinamarca / Development of a technological package for producers, in harvest and postharvest handling of blackberry (rubus glaucus benth) applying quality engineering and nutraceutical determining characteristics of the fruit in preharvest in the municipality of Silvania - Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    García Pulido, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    La mora es un producto altamente perecedero por lo que se generan altas pérdidas poscosecha (60-70%). Por esta razón el objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue elaborar un paquete tecnológico de manejo cosecha y poscosecha que permitiera disminuir las pérdidas en estas etapas y adicionalmente y como valor agregado, determinar las características nutracéuticas de la mora en la fase precosecha (desde floración a madurez fisiológica). La investigación se desarrolló en el municipio de ...

  10. Biodeterioração, anatomia do lenho e análise de risco de queda de árvores de tipuana, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) O. Kuntze, nos passeios públicos da cidade de São Paulo, SP

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Brazolin

    2009-01-01

    Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram: avaliar o processo de biodeterioração do lenho das árvores de tipuana na cidade de São Paulo e relacionar as alterações da sua estrutura anatômica e propriedades físico-mecânicas com o seu risco de queda. Nos passeios públicos de regiões selecionadas da cidade, 1109 árvores de tipuana foram caracterizadas quanto às condições de entorno, estado geral, variáveis dendrométricas, biodeterioração externa e interna e o risco de queda, estimado com modelo de ...

  11. 合水粉葛淀粉生产废渣水异黄酮成分比较分析%Comparative analysis of isoflavonoid content and constituent in the waste residue and water from Heshui Pueraria thomsonii Benth.starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董华强; 林丽超; 刘富来; 黄剑波; 李梅

    2009-01-01

    目的:了解合水粉葛淀粉生产废渣水中异黄酮含量和组成及其与葛粉和葛根原料的差别.方法:以葛根素为标准品,用高效液相色谱方法分析合水粉葛废渣、废水干物质与葛粉、葛根(分为根头、根皮和根芯三部分)中葛根素、总异黄酮含量和组成.结果:合水粉葛废渣、废水干物质中葛根素含量分别达到0.46%和0.34%,高于葛粉(0.21%)和葛芯(0.26%);其中葛渣中葛根素含量与根头相当(0.45%),总异黄酮含量则达到0.85%,超过根头(0.56%).另外葛渣和废水干物质中葛根素占总异黄酮含量的比例低于葛根,而且其它异黄酮组分也与葛根原料存在区别.结论:合水粉葛废渣和废水中含有值得进一步分析鉴定和分离纯化的异黄酮类化合物.%Objective:Understanding the isoflavonoid content and constituent in the waste residue and water from Heshui Pueraria thomsonii starch production and their differences from those in the starch and the root.Method :The isoflavonoid content and constituent in the waste residue and water,the starch and the different parts of the root (root head,root peel and root core included) were analyzed by HPLC with puerarin as the standard.Results: Puerarin contents in the waste residue and dried material of the waste water reached 0.46% and 0.34% respectively which were higher than in the starch (0.21%) and the root core (0.26%).The puerarin content (0.46%) and total isoflavonoid content (0.85%) in the residue were about equal to that(0.45%) and higher than that(0.56%) in the root, respectively.The ratios of puerarin/total isoflavonoid in the waste residue and water were lower than those in the root, and the other isoflavonoid constituents in the wastes were variable from in the root. Conclusion:It is worth to identified,separated and purified the isoflavonoids in the wastes.

  12. Influence of the Content of Evodiamine and Evodia Rutaecarpine in Different Combinations of the "'drug couples" Evodia rutae-carpa (Juss) Benth and Angelica sinensis(Oliv.)%吴茱英当归药对不同配伍比例对吴茱英碱和吴茱英次碱含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾慧; 朱会; 张振秋

    2009-01-01

    目的:考察吴茱萸当归药对中主要成分随吴茱萸当归配比变化的溶出规律.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定吴茱萸当归药对不同配伍比例对吴茱萸中活性成分吴茱萸碱和昊茱萸次碱含量的影响.色谱柱:Diamomil C18(4.6mm×150 mm,5μm)流动相:乙腈-0.04%辛烷磺酸钠溶液(45:55);检测波长:225nm;流速:1.0mL·min-1.结果:在所观察的吴茱萸与当归的9个配伍比例中,随着当归比例的降低,吴茱萸碱和吴茱萸次碱溶出率逐渐增高,以6:4配伍组含量较高,且其后含量增加趋于平稳,与温经汤配伍比例相符合.结论:以现代研究方法证实吴茱萸当归药对的最佳配伍比例与温经汤中的两药配伍比例相符合.

  13. Avaliação físico-química e energética da madeira das espécies Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke e Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A. C. Smith de ocorrência no semiárido nordestino brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Marcos César de Almeida; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Leandro Calegari; Pedro Nicó de Medeiros Neto; Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    2015-01-01

    A Caatinga é um bioma exclusivamente brasileiro, que apresenta uma grande variedade de espécies da fauna e da flora, sendo uma boa parte destas endêmicas. Ao longo dos anos, a supressão da caatinga por ação antrópica vem reduzindo bastante esse bioma. Este fato se dá, principalmente, pelo uso do potencial energético de suas espécies vegetais sem a devida preocupação com a sustentabilidade do mesmo. Um melhor conhecimento do potencial...

  14. 海南广藿香等四种南药的有机氯农药残留含量现状研究%Study on the Content of Organochlorine Pesticide Residue of Pogostemon cablin Benth.、 Piper nigrum L.、 Aloe barbadensis Miller.、 and Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符乃光; 张俊清; 赖伟勇; 刘红雨; 刘明生

    2005-01-01

    目的:利用气相色谱法调查海南主产区广藿香等4种南药10种有机氯农药的含量.方法:采用SE-54弹性石英毛细管(30 m×0.32 mm×25 μm)色谱柱,进样口温度为230℃;检测器温度为300℃.不分流进样,程序升温,检测器为63Ni-ECD电子捕获检测器,高纯氮气为载气.结果:海南万宁、东方及琼海产区广藿香总六六六、总DDT、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的现状含量水平分别为6.175,139.900,0.599及4.841 ng/g;52.940,18.710,未检出及5.376 ng/g;13.550,89.070,1.768及4.063 ng/g.海南文昌、万宁及琼海产区胡椒相应有机氯农药含量分别为2.533,10.22,未检出及3.174 ng/g;2.494,0.173,未检出及1.180 ng/g;3.944,3.167,0.063及1.793 ng/g.海南东方、万宁及琼海产区芦荟相应有机氯农药含量分别为3.362,8.772,0.381 3及1.197 ng/g;2.597,6.002,未检出及0.637 9 ng/g;2.491,2.611,未检出及0.608 9 ng/g.海南文昌、东方产区降香相应有机氯农药含量分别为2.743,5.607,未检出及1.991 ng/g;2.403,8.674,1.556及1.012 ng/g.结论:海南东方、琼海产区广藿香和海南所有采集产区胡椒、芦荟及降香等4种南药的总DDT、总六六六、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的含量符合绿色行业标准,海南万宁产区广藿香总六六六、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂的含量符合绿色行业标准,但其总DDT含量超标;不同产区药材农残含量差异较大;将海南槟榔、益智、丁香及肉豆蔻四种中药材中总六六六、总DDT、五氯硝基苯及艾氏剂限量标准定为0.1,0.1,0.1及0.02 μg/g是合理可行的.

  15. New Records of Lamiaceae from Guangxi,China%广西唇形科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 农云开; 杨平; 屈信成

    2015-01-01

    该文首次报道了唇形科5种植物在广西的新记录——簇序属(Craniotome Reichenb.)及簇序草[Craniotome furcata (Link) Kuntze]、西南水苏[Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn]、海南深红鸡脚参[Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth.var.hainanensis Sun ex C.Y.Wu]、黄花香薷[Elsholtzia flava(Benth.)Benth.]、滨海白绒草[Leucas chinensis (Retz.)R.Br.].引证标本均存放于广西中医药研究院标本馆(GXMI).

  16. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  17. Iteration expansion and regional evolution: phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four related taxa in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Beiwei; Luo, Jing; Zhang, Yusi; Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-06

    The genus Dendrobium was used as a case study to elucidate the evolutionary history of Orchidaceae in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) and Southeast Asia region. These evolutionary histories remain largely unknown, including the temporal and spatial distribution of the evolutionary events. The present study used nuclear and plastid DNA to determine the phylogeography of Dendrobium officinale and four closely related taxa. Plastid DNA haplotype and nuclear data were shown to be discordant, suggesting reticulate evolution drove the species' diversification. Rapid radiation and genetic drift appeared to drive the evolution of D. tosaense and D. flexicaule, whereas introgression or hybridization might have been involved in the evolution of D. scoriarum and D. shixingense. The phylogeographical structure of D. officinale revealed that core natural distribution regions might have served as its glacial refuges. In recent years, human disturbances caused its artificial migration and population extinction. The five taxa may have originated from the Nanling Mountains and the Yungui Plateau and then migrated northward or eastward. After the initial iteration expansion, D. officinale populations appeared to experience the regional evolutionary patterns in different regions and follow the sequential or rapid decline in gene exchange.

  18. Efeito tóxico de alimentos alternativos para abelhas Apis mellifera Toxic effect of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a existência de efeito tóxico em alimentos protéicos alternativos fornecidos para abelhas Apis mellifera. Medindo-se o tempo médio de mortalidade e o índice de mortalidade de abelhas confinadas, avaliou-se a existência de efeito tóxico do: (a feno das folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta; (b feno das folhas de leucena (Leucaena leococephala; (c farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora; (d farinha de vagem de bordão-de-velho (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana e (f sucedâneo do leite para bezerros da marca Purina®. O tempo médio de mortalidade variou de 4,46 a 11,74 e o índice de mortalidade variou de 4,58 a 12,80. Durante o experimento, obsevou-se que as abelhas alimentadas com farinha de bordão-de-velho ficavam envoltas em uma crosta de alimento, morrendo asfixiadas posteriormente. Os resultados demonstraram que a farinha de bordão-de-velho não deve ser fornecida às abelhas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico nos demais alimentos estudados.The objective of this research was to study toxic effects of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera. The average mortality time and the mortality index of cagged honeybees were assessed to evaluate any possible toxic effect of: (a cassava hay (Manihot esculenta; (b leucaena hay (Leucaena leococephala; (c mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora; (d "bordão-de-velho" pod meal (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana and (f succedaneous for calfskin from Purina®. The mortality time average varied from 4.46 to 11.74 and the mortality index varied between 4.58 and 12.80. It was obseved that honeybees fed with "bordão-de-velho" pod meal got involved by stichy layer of food and died asphyxiated. Results showed that the flour of Pithecellobium cf. saman should not be used for feeding honeybees, considering the early mortality of workers fed with this meal. The other food studied

  19. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  20. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz has been used in native Indian medicine for treatment of various illnesses and has been mainly used to treat hypertension. Reserpine is potent substance which shared both central nervous system depressant and hypotensive actions. An UHPLC-UV meth...

  1. Lectotypification of three endemic taxa of Ammi L. (Apiaceae from the archipelago of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, Esther

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes are designated here for taxa of the genus Ammi L. described by H.C. Watson from the Azores islands. The names Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. and A. trifoliatum (H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. still remain untypified from their description. Those typifications constitute the starting point to further taxonomical studies on that aggregate.Se tipifican los táxones del género Ammi L. endémicos del archipiélago de las Azores, que fueron descritos por H.C. Watson. Los nombres de Ammi huntii H.C. Watson, A. seubertianum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel. y A. trifoliatum H.C. Watson Benth. & Hook. f. ex Trel., permanecían sin tipificar desde su descripción original. Dichas tipificaciones se consideran el punto de partida para futuros estudios taxonómicos sobre este agregado.

  2. Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides from Gelsemium elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua; Qing Chun Zhao; Jia Yang; Guo Bing Shi; Li Jun Wu; Tao Guo

    2008-01-01

    Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides,gelsemiunoside A and B,were isolated from the whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.Furthermore,gelsemiunoside A and B were shown a potent cytotoxic activity by suppressing the proliferation of A375-S2 cells.

  3. Jasminum cuneatum Jongkind (Oleaceae), a new species from Guinee, Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The new species Jasminum cuneatum Jongkind (Oleaceae) from western Africa is described here. It differs from]. paucinervium Benth., a species that occurs in the same area and that is the most easily confused, by its cuneate and not rounded or cordate leaf base and the absence of pit domatia. It diff

  4. Prediction of potential productivity of perennial C{sub 4} grasses in Poland by means of physiological model (concepts and methodology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciorowski, R.; Koltoniak, K. [Agrigultural Univ. of Szczecin (Poland). Dept. of Biometry

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the methodology of the potential productivity modeling of M. sinensis Anderss., M. sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. et Hook. and P. virgatum L. throughout Poland is presented. The physiological empirical model is parameterized on a base of the field trials data. (orig.)

  5. Daphniphyllum (Daphniphyllaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, R.; Rafidah, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Daphniphyllum occur in Peninsular Malaysia: D. glaucescens Blume var. lancifolium (Hook.f.) T.C.Huang, D. laurinum (Benth.) Baill. and D. scortechinii Hook.f. Daphniphyllum glaucescens var. glaucescens and var. blumeanum (Baill. ex Müll.Arg.) J.J.Sm. do not occur in Peninsular Malay

  6. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  7. Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, a new species from Jalisco, Mexico Salvia cacomensis (Lamiaceae, una nueva especie de Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guadalupe González-Gallegos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species from a botanically little known region of Jalisco, Mexico, is described and illustrated. The morphology of Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez is related to that of the species of sections Briquetia Epling and Tubiflorae (Epling Epling of subgenus Calosphace (Benth. Benth. The new taxon is distinguished by the combination of its essentially glabrous surface, the 2-flowered verticillasters, the pink to magenta corollas, and the particular dimensions of the floral bract, the calyx and the corolla.Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva procedente de una región botánicamente poco conocida de Jalisco, México. La morfología de Salvia cacomensis J. G. González, J. Morales et J. Rodríguez está relacionada con aquella de las especies de las secciones Briquetia Epling y Tubiflorae (Epling Epling del subgénero Calosphace (Benth. Benth. El nuevo taxón se distingue por la combinación de su superficie esencialmente glabra, sus verticilastros bifloros, el color rosa o magenta de sus corolas y las dimensiones particulares de la bráctea floral, el cáliz y la corola.

  8. Hymenosporum in New Guinea (Pittosporaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1952-01-01

    Hymenosporum flavum (Hook.) F. v. M. Fragm. 2 (1860) 77; Benth. Fl. Austr. 1 (1863) 114; Bailey, Queensl. Fl. part 1 (1899) 71; White & Francis, Proc. R. Soc. Queensl. 35 (1923) 63; Pritzel, in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. Fam. ed. 2, 18a (1930) 281; White, Contr. Arn. Arb. 4 (1933) 39. — Pittosporum flavum Ho

  9. Striga infestation in northern Cameroon: Magnitude, dynamics and implications for managament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayongwa, G.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Hoevers, R.; Ngoumou, T.N.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Surveys of Striga (S. hermonthica (Del.) Benth.) infestation in northern Cameroon over the period 1987–2005 assessed Striga dynamics and evaluated its control strategies. In that period the percentage of Striga-infested fields increased in North and Far-North Provinces. Striga incidence increased mo

  10. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Crotalaria, slenderleaf—Crotalaria brevidens Benth. var. intermedia (Kotschy... Mart.) Reichb. Redtop—Agrostis gigantea Roth Rescuegrass—Bromus catharticus Vahl Rhodesgrass—Chloris.... sativa Vetch, hairy—Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa Vetch, Hungarian—Vicia pannonica Crantz...

  11. Cultural control measures to diminish sorghum yield loss and parasite success under Striga hermonthica infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Katile, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prospects of reducing Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. parasitism by means of cultural control measures were assessed. In a pot experiment, deep planting, the use of transplants and shallow soil-tillage, strongly delayed and reduced Striga infection of a sensitive and a tolerant sorghum cultivar.

  12. A revision of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) with a description of a new genus and six new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus of Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is described based on material reared from an unidentified Ophelimus species (Eulophidae: Ophelimini) on Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae). Mikeius Buffington n. gen. includes six species: M. berryi Buffington n. sp., M. hartigi (G...

  13. NOTES ON TWO LEGUMINOUS GENERA FROM EASTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. A new monotypic genus, Kalappia Kostermans, is established for a tree of commercial importance from Celebes, K. celebica Kostermans. The genus is assigned to Caesalpiniaceae (Tribus Cassiae. 2. The Papilionaceous genus Desmofischera Holth. (only species: D.monosperma Holth. is reduced to a synonym of Monarthrocarpus Merr. [only species: M. securiformis (Benth. Merr.]. Additional collections, from Morotai, are cited.

  14. NOTES ON TWO LEGUMINOUS GENERA FROM EASTERN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-01-01

    1. A new monotypic genus, Kalappia Kostermans, is established for a tree of commercial importance from Celebes, K. celebica Kostermans. The genus is assigned to Caesalpiniaceae (Tribus Cassiae). 2. The Papilionaceous genus Desmofischera Holth. (only species: D.monosperma Holth.) is reduced to a synonym of Monarthrocarpus Merr. [only species: M. securiformis (Benth.) Merr.]. Additional collections, from Morotai, are cited.

  15. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It has infested about 40%

  16. Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Cid Maia; G. Wilson Fernandes; Henrique Magalhães; Jean Carlos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae) in Brazil Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Lopesiini), L. mimosae Maia, sp. nov. and L. pernambucensis Maia, sp. nov., that induce galls on Mimosa hostilis Benth. (Mimosaceae) are described and illustrated based on material from "caatinga" in Pernambuco, Brazil.

  17. Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Mimosa hostilis (Mimosaceae in Brazil Two new species of Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Lopesiini, L. mimosae Maia, sp. nov. and L. pernambucensis Maia, sp. nov., that induce galls on Mimosa hostilis Benth. (Mimosaceae are described and illustrated based on material from "caatinga" in Pernambuco, Brazil.

  18. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  19. Especies nuevas y una lectotipificación en Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae para Mesoamérica New species and one lectotypification in Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran 7 especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae: Lonchocarpus bracteolatus endémica de Honduras, L. hydrophilus endémica de Guatemala, L. nebularis endémica de Panamá, L. sericocarpus endémica de Nicaragua, L. barbatus y L. multifoliolatus, ambas endémicas de la cuenca del golfo de México, y L. congestiflorus que se ubica en las montañas de Chiapas hasta Honduras. Estas especies pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth. M. Sousa y sect. Standleyi M. Sousa. En L. wendtii M. Sousa se designa lectotipo, debido a que 2 recolectas fueron citadas para el tipo.Seven new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae are described and illustrated: L. bracteolatus, endemic to Honduras; L hydrophilus, endemic to Guatemala, L. nebularis, endemic to Panama, and L. sericocarpus, endemic to Nicaragua. Two are found in the Gulf of Mexico's basin: L. barbatus and L. multifoliolatus, and L. congestiflorus is found in the mountains from Chiapas to Honduras. These species belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., sect. Obtusifolii (Benth. M. Sousa and sect. Standleyi M. Sousa. A lectotype is designated for L. wendtii M. Sousa, since 2 collections were cited as the type.

  20. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  1. Fenologia de espécies lenhosas da caatinga do Seridó, RN Phenology of woody species in the caatinga of Seridó, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Lucena de Amorim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia de 13 espécies arbustivas e arbóreas da caatinga do Seridó foi acompanhada durante dois anos para determinar se, nesta vegetação aberta e pobre de espécies, as fenofases sucedem-se ao longo de todo o ano. Foram selecionados 10 indivíduos adultos de cada espécie e feitas observações quinzenais sobre sua cobertura de folhagem, floração e frutificação. A cobertura de folhas foi fortemente influenciada pela pluviosidade, em 11 das espécies que tiveram as copas totalmente desfolhadas durante um número variável de dias durante as estações secas. Essa influência ficou patente nos rápidos fluxos de formação e queda de folhas, subsequentes a chuvas esporádicas, em épocas normalmente secas. No entanto, Capparis flexuosa e Erythroxylum pungens permaneceram com folhas o ano todo. Ao longo dos dois anos, apenas por curtos períodos de tempo (cerca de 15 dias não havia flores ou frutos na comunidade. No entanto, floração e frutificação tiveram picos na estação chuvosa. Os padrões em nível de espécie foram mais complexos do que em nível de comunidade. Erythroxylum pungens não floresceu, e Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Tabebuia impetiginosa floresceram uma única vez, ao longo dos dois anos, enquanto Mimosa acutistipula floresceu cinco vezes e Jatropha mollissima e Pithecellobium foliolosum, quatro. Em quatro espécies (Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera colubrina, Pithecellobium foliolosum e Tabebuia impetiginosa, a frutificação não ocorreu em todos os indivíduos que floresceram, enquanto nas outras espécies os que floresceram produziram frutos. Apesar de a frutificação ter ocorrido quase que continuamente, durante muitos períodos foi composta exclusivamente de frutos do tipo seco.The phenology of 13 shrub and tree species in the caatinga of Seridó was observed for two years to determine if, in this open vegetation, poor in species, phenophases occur throughout all the seasons. Ten plants of each species

  2. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  3. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment.

  4. Separation and purification of three alkaloids from Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) benth by high-speed counter-current chromatography and their quantification by thin layer chromatography using image analysis%薄层色谱图像分析定量-高速逆流色谱法快速分离制备吴茱萸中的三个生物碱类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玮; 周盈利; 唐铁鑫; 李雯婷; 杨得坡; 朱龙平; 王冬梅

    2014-01-01

    建立了薄层色谱图像分析定量-高速逆流色谱法从吴茱萸甲醇提取物中快速分离制备吴茱萸碱、吴茱萸次碱、吴茱萸卡品碱3个化合物的方法.采用数码相机对HSCCC溶剂系统上下相中的目标化合物进行TLC图像采集,使用积分软件OPSIA计算各溶剂系统对应的K值,筛选出最佳溶剂系统正己烷-乙酸乙酯-甲醇-水(3:2.5:3.5:2,V/V).取上相为固定相,下相为流动相,检测波长为254 nm,在主机转速860 r/min、流动相流速1.5 mL/min的条件下,一次性从300 mg样品中分离制备得到经1H-NMR和12C-NMR确证的吴茱萸碱(15.3mg)、吴茱萸次碱(10.1 mg)、吴茱萸卡品碱(20.7 mg),纯度分别为93.6%,97.3%和95.1%(HPLC法).

  5. Asemeia extraaxillaris (Chodat) J.F.B. Pastore e J.R. Abbott (Polygalaceae) e Microlobius foetidus (subsp. Paraguensis (Benth.)M. Sousa et G. Andrade) (Fabaceae - Mimosoideae) : Contribuição ao estudo fitoquímico e investigação das atividades biológicas (alelopática,.antiploriferativa, antineoplásica, antimicrobiana, antioxidante, tóxica e larvicida).

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Cristiane Bezerra da

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Dada a importância de estudos fitoquímicos e biológicos, associados à riqueza da flora do Pantanal Sul- Matogrossense, foram realizados estudos quanto a prospecção fitoquímica e atividades biológicas dos extrato etanólico bruto (EEB), fração hexânica (FH) clorofórmio (FCL), acetato de etila (FAE) e remanescente (FR) de Asemeia extraaxillaris e diferentes partes morfológicas de Microlobius foetidus (folhas, cascas, frutos e sementes), por meio de ensaios de atividade alelopática, antip...

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND CURVES OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF SEEDS OF JACARANDA-DA-BAHIA, ANGICO-VERMELHO AND ÓLEO-COPAÍBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Corrêa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic capacity of most of seeds and agricultural grains have already been studied, however, it can be observed in the specialized literature a lack of reports on equilibrium moisture content of seeds of jacaranda-da-bahia (Dalbergia nigra Fr. All., angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth. and óleo-copaiba (Copaifera langsdorffii Benth.. This research objectived to determine the desorption curves for these seeds, and to adjust different mathematical models already traditionally used for another seeds, to the experimental data. The equation of Sigma-Copace, with the constants determined for the species of jacaranda-da-bahia and angico-vermelho, was the model that better adjusted to the experimental data, while for óleo-copaiba the of Henderson-Modified equation represented better the experimental data.

  7. Zeuxine flava, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China%中国兰科线柱兰属一新记录种--黄花线柱兰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金效华; 覃海宁

    2005-01-01

    报道了中国兰科植物一新记录种,黄花线柱兰Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f..本种的唇瓣橘黄色并呈"T"形,前唇裂片成方形,长宽近相等,唇瓣基部囊内各具一枚钩状胼胝体.%Zeuxine flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f., a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is reported. This species is characterized by having flowers saffron, lip "T"-shaped, lobules of epichile squarish and not much longer than wide, and each side of sac with only one callus inside.

  8. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  9. Revision of the genus Calpurnia (Sophoreae: Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beaumont

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxa recognised in this revision are:  Calpurnia aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  aurea; C.  aurea (Aiton Benth. subsp.  indica Brummitt; C. floribunda Harv ; C. glabrata Brummitt; C. intrusa (R.Br in W.T.Aiton E.Mey.; C. reflexus A.J.Beaumont sp nov.;  C. sericea Harv. and  C. woodii Schinz. A putative hybrid between  C. sericea and  C. woodii is recorded. With the exception of C aurea, all species are restricted to southern Africa.  C. reflexus is possibly extinct, and C.  woodii is considered rare. Characters examined in this revision are habitat, habit, vestiture, leaf morphology and anatomy; floral, pollen, fruit and seed morphology and anatomy; and seedling morphology. Illustrations and a key to taxa are provided.

  10. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  11. 青海豆科3种新记录植物%Three Newly Recorded Species of the Leguminosae from Qinghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文权; 赵龙飞; 邓振山; 韦革宏

    2009-01-01

    Three newly recorded species of Leguminosae from Qinghai,China are reported.Oxytropis ningxiaensis C.W.Chang,Oxytropis xinglongshanica C.W.Chang and Astragalus tibetanus Benth.ex Bunge.All the specimens examined are preserved in Herbarium of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University(WUK).%报道了青海豆科3种新记录植物,六盘山棘豆(Oxytropis ningxiaensis C.W.Chang)、兴隆山棘豆(Oxytropis xinglongshanica C.W.Chang)和藏新黄耆(Astragalus tibetanus Benth.exBunge).凭证标本均保存于西北农林科技大学植物标本馆(原西北植物研究所标本馆)(WUK).

  12. Plectranthus (Labiatae and allied genera in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision is presented of the 40 species of Plectranthus, 1 species of Rabdosia and 3 species of Solenostemon which are indigenous, semi-naturalized or widely cultivated in Southern Africa. Descriptions, illustrations, keys and distribution data are provided. The following new names are published:  P. mutabilis Codd,  P. psammophilus Codd,  P. rubropunctatus Codd,  P. unguentarius Codd,  P. ornatus Codd (nom. nov. for Coleus comosus Hochst. ex Guerke, P. zatarhendi (Forsk. E. A. Bruce var.  tomentosus (Benth. Codd, —var.  woodii  (Guerke Codd,  P. madagascariensis (Pers. Benth. var.  aliciae  Codd,  Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Codd and  S. shirensis (Guerke Codd.

  13. Vegetation structure and small-scale pattern in Miombo Woodland, Marondera, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Campbell

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim ol this paper is to describe woodland structure and small-scale patterning of woody plants at a miombo site, and to relate these to past disturbance and soil properties. Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. and Julbemardia globiflora (Benth. Troupin were the most frequent woody plants at the five hectare site, with size-class distributions which were markedly skewed towards the smaller size classes. The vegetation structure at the site and the increase in basal area over the past thirty years point to considerable disturbance prior to the present protected status. Six woodland subtypes were identified, grouped into two structural types: open and closed woodland. The distribution of woodland subtypes related closely to certain soil properties. It was hypothesized that the distribution of open and closed woodland is stable and a positive feedback mechanism by which this occurs is postulated.

  14. New combinations and resurrected names in Microcharis and Indigastrum (Fabaceae—Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Schrire

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of cladistic studies in the tribe Indigofereae in Africa and Madagascar (Schrire 1991 evidence was accumulated to justify resurrecting the genera Microcharis Benth. and  Indigastrum Jaub. & Spach, which were previously considered part of Indigofera L. All described species in each genus are listed alphabetically. Forty-seven new combinations, six changes ain rank and four resurrected names are published.

  15. Survey on species composition of weed community at wheat-rape rotation fields in conservation tillage system of Qinghai province%保护性耕作制度下青海麦油轮作田间杂草群落组成调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏有海; 郭青云; 冯俊涛

    2011-01-01

    Weed survey was conducted by sampling methods of inverted W-pattern to determine the species composition and structure of weed communities in wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system. The results showed that among 55 weed species belonging to 22 families, 4 species were considered as dominant weeds, including Elsholtzia densa Benth, Chenopodium album, Polygonum convolvlus L and thlaspi arvense Linn.; 9 species were regional dominant weeds; 8 common weed species and 34 normal weed species. The overall abundance of Avenafatua Linn( Elsholtzia densa Benth), Sonchus arvensis Linn. And Chenopodium album were relatively high and were the main components of weed communities at the wheat-rope rotation fields in conservation tillage system.%采用倒置"W"取样法对青海麦油轮作区保护性耕作田间杂草进行了调查,以明确田间杂草的种类组成及群落结构.结果表明,青海省保护性耕作田杂革有55种,隶属于22科,其中优势杂草有密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、藜(Chenopodium album)、荞麦蔓(Polygonum convolvlus L.)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvense Linn.)等4种,区域性优势杂草有9种,常见杂草有8种,一般杂草有34种.发生优势度较大的杂草为野燕麦(Avena fatua Linn)、密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa Benth)、苣荬菜(Sonchus artensis Linn.)、藜(Chenopodium album)等,是构成保护性耕作制度下麦油轮作田间杂草群落的优势种.

  16. Calorific Value and Chemical Composition of Five Semi-Arid Mexican Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maginot Ngangyo-Heya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global energy crisis has generated growing interest in looking for alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, presenting lignocellulosic materials as a promising resource for sustainable energy production. In this paper, the calorific values and chemical composition of the trunks, branches, twigs and leaves of five timber species of the semi-arid land of Mexico (Helietta parvifolia (Gray Benth., Ebenopsis ebano (Berl. Barneby, Acacia berlandieri (Benth., Havardia pallens (Benth. Britton & Rose and Acacia wrightii (Benth. were determined according to international standards. The results highlighted the calorific value ranges of 17.56 to 18.61 MJ kg−1 in trunks, 17.15 to 18.45 MJ kg−1 in branches, 17.29 to 17.92 MJ kg−1 in twigs, and 17.35to 19.36 MJ kg−1 in leaves. The pH presented an acidic trend (3.95–5.64. The content of mineral elements varied in trunks (1.09%–2.29%, branches (0.86%–2.75%, twigs (4.26%–6.76% and leaves (5.77%–11.79%, showing the higher proportion in Ca (57.03%–95.53%, followed by K (0.95%–19.21% and Mg (0.88%–13.47%. The highest amount of extractives was obtained in the methanolic solvent (3.96%–17.03%. The lignin recorded values of 28.78%–35.84% for trunks, 17.14%–31.39% for branches and 20.61%–29.92% for twigs. Lignin showed a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.66 with calorific value, but the best mathematical model was registered with the calorific value depending on the pH and lignin (R2 = 58.86%.

  17. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  18. EL CARIOTIPO DE ANADENANTHERA COLUBRINA VAR. CEBIL y DE PARAPIPTADENIA RIGIDA (LEGUMINOSAE-MIMOSOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Honfi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cromosomas somáticos de dos especies de árboles han sido estudiados, ambos tienen 2n = 26. Los cariotipos de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul (18m + 8sm y Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (12m + 14sm se describen tor primera vez. Estas especies se distinguen por la fórmula de cariotipo y la longitud total del cariotipo.

  19. Electroactive nanocomposites made of poly (o-methoxyaniline) and natural polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Eiras; Ionara Nayana Gomes Passos; Ana Cristina Facundo de Brito; José Ribeiro dos Santos Júnior; Valtencir Zucolotto; Oliveira Jr., Osvaldo N.; Igor L. Kitagawa; Constantino, Carlos J. L.; Helder Nunes da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    In this work we take advantage of the polyelectrolyte character of some Brazilian native gums to fabricate electrically conductive, nanostructured films. The gums Sterculia urens, (caraia), Sterculia striata (chicha) or Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth were assembled in conjunction with poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) in the form of layered nanostructured films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. All the LbL films displayed a well-defined electroactivity, as confirmed via cyclic voltammetry...

  20. Nanocompósitos eletroativos de poli-o-metoxianilina e polissacarídeos naturais

    OpenAIRE

    Eiras, Carla; Passos, Ionara Nayana Gomes; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Santos Júnior,José Ribeiro dos; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira Jr., Osvaldo N.; Igor L. Kitagawa; Constantino, Carlos J. L.; Cunha, Helder Nunes da

    2007-01-01

    In this work we take advantage of the polyelectrolyte character of some Brazilian native gums to fabricate electrically conductive, nanostructured films. The gums Sterculia urens, (caraia), Sterculia striata (chicha) or Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth were assembled in conjunction with poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) in the form of layered nanostructured films using the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. All the LbL films displayed a well-defined electroactivity, as confirmed via cyclic voltammetry...