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Sample records for pitaya stenocereus stellatus

  1. Managing diversity: Domestication and gene flow in Stenocereus stellatus Riccob. (Cactaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Parker, Kathleen C; Friar, Elizabeth A; Huang, Daisie I; Mashayekhi, Saeideh; Prince, Linda M; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (N = 5) were developed for analysis of genetic variation in 15 populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus, managed under traditional agriculture practices in central Mexico. Microsatellite diversity was analyzed within and among populations, between geographic regions, and among population management types to provide detailed insight into historical gene flow rates and population dynamics associated with domestication. Our results corroborate a greater diversity in populations managed by farmers compared with wild ones (HE = 0.64 vs. 0.55), but with regional variation between populations among regions. Although farmers propagated S. stellatus vegetatively in home gardens to diversify their stock, asexual recruitment also occurred naturally in populations where more marginal conditions have limited sexual recruitment, resulting in lower genetic diversity. Therefore, a clear-cut relationship between the occurrence of asexual recruitment and genetic diversity was not evident. Two managed populations adjacent to towns were identified as major sources of gene movement in each sampled region, with significant migration to distant as well as nearby populations. Coupled with the absence of significant bottlenecks, this suggests a mechanism for promoting genetic diversity in managed populations through long distance gene exchange. Cultivation of S. stellatus in close proximity to wild populations has led to complex patterns of genetic variation across the landscape that reflects the interaction of natural and cultural processes. As molecular markers become available for nontraditional crops and novel analysis techniques allow us to detect and evaluate patterns of genetic diversity, genetic studies provide valuable insights into managing crop genetic resources into the future against a backdrop of global change. Traditional agriculture systems play an important role in maintaining genetic diversity for plant species. PMID:23762520

  2. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  3. Pitaya (Stenocereus spp. , cactaceae): An ancient and modern fruit crop of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimienta-Barrios, E. (Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico)); Nobel, P.S (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    Pitayas from various species were an important edible fruit in semiarid lands of tropical and subtropical Mexico in ancient times. Recently, farmers have been cultivating plants selected from the wild, such as Stenocereus queretaroensis in the Sayula Basin of Jalisco. These cacti can flower and produce fruit before the onset of the summer rainy period. Their fruits have an attractively colored pulp (often dark red) with digestible seeds and without the nasty glochids found on cactus pears. The sugar content is 10 to 11%. The shelf life is only a few days, as the fruits tend to dehisce longitudinally. Pitayas bring a competitive price in local markets, resulting in a substantial financial return with relatively low inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides.

  4. Physical, chemical, and antioxidant activity characterization of pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cruz, Leticia; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Salinas-Moreno, Yolanda; Joaquín-Cruz, Elvia

    2013-12-01

    Fruits with red and orange flesh of the columnar cactus pitaya (Stenocereus pruinosus) were studied to evaluate physical characteristics, total soluble solids, betalains and soluble phenols content, and antioxidant activity. Fruits had, in average, weight of 179.0 g, 9.8 °Brix, 9.4 % carbohydrates, 1.25 % protein, 0.11 % ethereal extract, 0.60 % crude fiber, and 0.62 % ash. Also, fruits resulted rich in Fe (22.8-27.8 mg/kg). Hue angle and contents of betacyanins, betaxanthins (μg/g dry sample), and total soluble phenols (mg GAE/g fresh sample) were 19.8°, 2860.0, 3210.0, and 1.6 in the red material, and 28.9°, 470.0, 2670.0, and 1.2, respectively, in the orange fruit. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the red material, since the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) technique reported 1090.6 and 735.4 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh in red and orange fruits, respectively, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay reported 7.84 and 5.16 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g fresh flesh, respectively. The chromatographic profile showed five betalains in red fruits, but only four of them were observed in those orange fleshed.

  5. Seed removal in a tropical North American desert: an evaluation of pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in Stenocereus stellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Espino, R; Ríos-Casanova, L; Godínez-Álvarez, H

    2016-12-31

    To determine seed removal influence on seed populations, we need to quantify pre- and post-dispersal seed removal. Several studies have quantified seed removal in temperate American deserts, but few studies have been performed in tropical deserts. These studies have only quantified pre- or post-dispersal seed removal, thus underestimating the influence of seed removal. We evaluated pre- and post-dispersal seed removal in the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in a Mexican tropical desert. We performed selective exclosure experiments to estimate percentage of seeds removed by ants, birds and rodents during the pre- and post-dispersal phases. We also conducted field samplings to estimate abundance of the most common seed removers. Birds (10-28%) removed a higher percentage of seeds than ants (2%) and rodents (1-4%) during pre-dispersal seed removal. Melanerpes hypopolius was probably the main bird removing seeds from fruits. Ants (62-64%) removed a higher percentage of seeds than birds (34-38%) and rodents (16-30%) during post-dispersal seed removal. Pogonomyrmex barbatus was probably the main ant removing seeds from soil. Birds and ants are the main pre- and post-dispersal seed removers in S. stellatus, respectively. Further studies in other S. stellatus populations and plants with different life forms and fruit types will contribute to evaluate seed removal in tropical American deserts.

  6. Effectiveness of bats as pollinators of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations in La Mixteca Baja, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cóyotl, Ethel; Stoner, Kathryn E; Casas, Alejandro

    2006-11-01

    Stenocereus stellatus is an endemic, self-incompatible, columnar cactus found in central Mexico where many of its wild populations have been fragmented. As an economically important species of fruit-producing cactus, S. stellatus occurs in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations. The objectives of this study were to determine the effective pollinators of S. stellatus, to compare pollinator visits and reproductive parameters among the three types of populations, and to determine if nectar feeding-bats are moving among populations. Effective pollinators were the nectarivorous bats Choeronycteris mexicana, Leptonycteris curasoae, and L. nivalis. Fewer total visits per flower per night and fewer visits by Choeronycteris were observed in cultivated populations, while the opposite pattern was observed for Leptonycteris. One aggressive interaction was filmed in which Choeronycteris was physically displaced by Leptonycteris, and Choeronycteris visits were significantly affected by Leptonycteris visits. Cultivated populations received more pollen grains and had more fruit set. Variation in pollinator visits between different populations and the consequent effects on reproductive success were likely a result of competition between bat species, and differences in foraging and in sensitivity of bat species to human populations. Three marked L. curasoae traveled 15 km from their roosting site to their foraging area, and one visited cultivated and managed populations, suggesting that this species may be particularly important in moving pollen among populations.

  7. Fenología reproductiva y tolerancia a temperaturas altas en Stenocereus queretaroensis

    OpenAIRE

    Whaleeha Gudiño; Erick De la Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Numerosas especies de cactáceas presentan frutos comestibles, por lo que han adquirido un papel importante dentro de la agricultura de zonas áridas y semiáridas, tanto para el comercio regional como para el internacional. Las pitayas son el tercer cultivo más importante dentro de las cactáceas después del nopal y la pitahaya. La fenología reproductiva deStenocereus queretaroensisrequiere condiciones específcas de temperatura y precipitación, así como también de la existencia de los polinizado...

  8. Legend of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the southwest of China,there is a natural paradise,where a green sea of plants studded with beautiful red fruit show up sort of tropic romance and exoticism.Here is just the Maxyield Agriculture Co.,Ltd's agricultural industrialization demonstrative base in Oinzhou.Guanuxi province.southern China.Maxvield.a 5.000 mu of certified organic soil agricultural base(1mu equals about 666.67m2),is both a demonstrative industrialization base for standard agriculture authenticated by the National Standard Commission and an agricultural industrialization base with multiple self-owned intellectual property right.Just on this stretch ofbeautiful land,Maxyield has been creating a legend of Pitaya.

  9. Fenología reproductiva y tolerancia a temperaturas altas en Stenocereus queretaroensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whaleeha Gudiño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas especies de cactáceas presentan frutos comestibles, por lo que han adquirido un papel importante dentro de la agricultura de zonas áridas y semiáridas, tanto para el comercio regional como para el internacional. Las pitayas son el tercer cultivo más importante dentro de las cactáceas después del nopal y la pitahaya. La fenología reproductiva deStenocereus queretaroensisrequiere condiciones específcas de temperatura y precipitación, así como también de la existencia de los polinizadores para asegurar la producción de frutos. Se cuantificó la producción de botones, flores abiertas y frutos de 2010 a 2012. Y se evaluó el efecto de temperaturas altas en la integridad celular de tejidos florales. Se midió la producción de néctar y la concentración de solutos a través del tiempo durante la antesis. La temperatura letal (LT50 para el ovario en promedio fue de 34.5 ± 0.4°C no varió para los botones y las flores. Por su parte los pétalos de los botones presentan una LT50 21.5 ± 1.6°C y que para el caso de las flores en antesis fue 33% mayor. El desarrollo reproductivo frecuentemente requiere de la acumulación de cierta cantidad de estas unidades de frío. El tejido de estructuras jóvenes tolera más el aumento de la temperatura, que sus contrapartes maduras.

  10. Tests for evaluating the physiological quality of pitaya seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiago Alberto Ortiz; Aline Moritz; Lúcia Sadayo Assari Takahashi; Mariana Ragassi Urbano

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, this study aimed to develop methodologies for conducting tests of germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity for the evaluation of the physiological quality of pitaya seeds...

  11. Extraction Optimization of Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cong-fen; LI Peng; ZHAO Hua; SONG Li-ya; ZHU Jun; DONG Yin-mao

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to describe the extraction of polysaccharides from pitaya stems.[Method] The hot water,enzyme-assisted and microwave-assisted methods were used,with the microwave-assisted extraction being deemed optimal by general evaluation.[Result] The main factors affecting the yield of polysaccharides in the microwave-assisted extraction,by order of magnitude,were as follows:timemicrowave powertemperature;additionally,optimal conditions included a 10 min extraction time,an 80 ℃ extraction temperature and a microwave setting of 200 W.Using these optimal conditions,the yield of PSPS(Polysaccharides from Pitaya Stems) was 1.42%.After purification,the yield of PSPS was 0.74%.[Conclusion] The PSPS was analyzed by IR,MALDI-TOF-MS and an element analysis technique.It was shown to be a polysaccharide mixture,and the molecular weight was between 3 900 and 4 300 Da.

  12. Landscape management and domestication of Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae in the Tehuacán Valley: human guided selection and gene flow

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    Parra Fabiola

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of plant resources and ecosystems practiced by indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica commonly involves domestication of plant populations and landscapes. Our study analyzed interactions of coexisting wild and managed populations of the pitaya Stenocereus pruinosus, a columnar cactus used for its edible fruit occurring in natural forests, silviculturally managed in milpa agroforestry systems, and agriculturally managed in homegardens of the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico. We aimed at analyzing criteria of artificial selection and their consequences on phenotypic diversity and differentiation, as well as documenting management of propagules at landscape level and their possible contribution to gene flow among populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 83 households of the region to document perception of variation, criteria of artificial selection, and patterns of moving propagules among wild and managed populations. Morphological variation of trees from nine wild, silviculturally and agriculturally managed populations was analyzed for 37 characters through univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In addition, indexes of morphological diversity (MD per population and phenotypic differentiation (PD among populations were calculated using character states and frequencies. Results People recognized 15 pitaya varieties based on their pulp color, fruit size, form, flavor, and thorniness. On average, in wild populations we recorded one variety per population, in silviculturally managed populations 1.58 ± 0.77 varieties per parcel, and in agriculturally managed populations 2.19 ± 1.12 varieties per homegarden. Farmers select in favor of sweet flavor (71% of households interviewed and pulp color (46% mainly red, orange and yellow. Artificial selection is practiced in homegardens and 65% of people interviewed also do it in agroforestry systems. People obtain fruit and branches from different population

  13. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen E dwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  14. Propagação da Pitaya 'vermelha' por estaquia Propagation of red Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus by cuttings

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    Débora Costa Bastos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do tamanho da estaca e a aplicação de ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de Pitaya 'vermelha'. Estacas de Pitaya 'vermelha' foram coletadas de plantas matrizes e padronizadas com 15,0 e 25,0 cm de comprimento, sendo que metade da quantidade das estacas foi imersa em solução de 3000 mg L-1 de AIB por vinte segundos (imersão rápida e a outra metade não. Posteriormente, as estacas foram colocadas em canteiro contendo mistura de terra + esterco de curral (3:1 v/v como substrato. Após 60 dias, foram avaliados as porcentagens de estacas enraizadas e de estacas vivas, e o número de raízes emitidas por estaca. Como conclusão observou-se que o AIB aumentou a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e promoveu a melhoria da qualidade do sistema radicular das estacas de pitaya vermelha. As estacas de 25,0 cm de comprimento foram mais promissoras para a produção de mudas.This work was carried with the objective to evaluate the cutting length and application of IBA in rooting of red pitaya cutting. The pitaya cutting were collected of stock plant and standardized with 15.0 and 25.0 cm of length and half of the amount of the cuttings received treatment with 3000 mg L-1 of IBA for twenty seconds. Later the cuttings were placed in stonemason containing a soil mixture + corral manure (3:1 v/v as substrate. After 60 days, the rooting and survival percentage and number of roots emitted by cutting were evaluated. As conclusion, were observed that IBA increased the rooting percentage and promoted the improvement of the quality of roots of red pitaya cuttings.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  16. Effects of the hydrogen potential and fungicide treatment on Pitaya seed germination

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    Thiago Alberto Ortiz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate pitaya seed germination under different hydrogen potentials, with or without fungicide treatment. A completely randomized design was employed under a 3 x 13 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to three pitaya species (white pitaya, pitaya hybrid I, pitaya hybrid II, thirteen hydrogen potentials (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 and two fungicide conditions (presence and absence, with four replications. The percentage of germination, germination speed index and mean germination time were evaluated. The data were subjected to ANOVA, and the means were compared using the Scott-Knott test (p < 0.05. The pH influenced the germination speed index in white pitaya. The mean germination time was affected by the pH levels for white pitaya and pitaya hybrid II. The fungicide did not increase the germination percentage in the evaluated species.

  17. Vigilancia comercial de la cadena productiva de la Pitaya Amarilla

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    Henry A. Mosquera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la interacción de los distintos eslabones y sus respectivos segmentos que conforman el encadenamiento productivo de la pitaya amarilla; el uso de la vigilancia comercial permitió estudiar los aspectos referentes a clientes, proveedores y empresas, los mercados, la evolución de necesidades, los proveedores, entre otros. Por otra parte, se empleó el instrumento conocido como agenda prospectiva, el cual es un proceso de gestión estratégica que permite evidenciar las posibilidades de desarrollo exitoso de los proyectos, realizando para ello actividades organizadas por medio de planes de trabajo que guíen las actividades a desarrollar, dando claridad en relación con los recursos y capacidades disponibles para el cumplimiento de los objetivos propuestos, cuando se planteó la vigilancia comercial de la pitaya amarilla.

  18. Vine-cacti pitayas: the new crops of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-01-01

    Until 1994, only scarce research existed on these plants; however the worldwide interest in this novel fruit crop is evident, as numbers of pitaya-related publications have grown rapidly, especially during the past decade .There is a big confusion about both botanical and commercial names and there is a need to clear this point. Herein, we attempt to review existing knowledge on the taxonomy, breeding and other horticultural characteristics of this unique crop. This paper comments abou taxono...

  19. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Application of red pitaya powder as a natural food colourant in fruit pastille

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    Low Pinn Yee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Confectionary products meet the important consumers’ need states of fun and enjoyment, especially among children. Synthetic colourant had been applied as a colouring agent in confectionery products for decades, however various adverse health effects have been reported after consumption. Hence, usage of natural colourant has increased enormously as it confers functional and nutraceutical benefits. Red pitaya, a common and popular fruit cultivated in South-east Asian countries. It is rich betacyanin content that gives the fruit a red-violet colour. Hence, red pitaya is a potential source of natural colorant as an alternative to the synthetic colorant. Objective: This research was aimed to produce fruit pastille with red pitaya powder applied as a natural colourant. Method: Production of red pitaya powder was achieved through spray drying process. Fruit pastille was prepared and subjected to antioxidant, stability and sensory analysis. Results: The Physicochemical study showed that pastille incorporated with red pitaya powder exhibited significantly (p<0.05 higher antioxidant properties than the blank pastille (control. An eight weeks storage stability study revealed that betacyanin content of pastille incorporated with pitaya powder remained stable for the first four weeks of storage. Besides, no significant change was observed in redness (a* of pastille throughout the storage study. Sensory study was carried out to assess the consumer preference on pastille incorporated with pitaya powder and synthetic colourant. Colour attribute of pastille incorporated with red pitaya powder has gained significantly (p<0.05 higher liking that the one added with synthetic colour. Conclusion: Red pitaya powder could be a potential natural colourant for gummy confectionery.

  1. Impact of cultivation of Mastocarpus stellatus in IMTA on the seaweeds chemistry and hybrid carrageenan properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Gabriela; Domingues, Bernardo; Abreu, Helena; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Feio, Gabriel; Hilliou, Loic

    2015-02-13

    The biomass yield potential of Mastocarpus stellatus, a commercially attractive carrageenophyte for foods and pharmaceutics, was investigated by cultivating the seaweeds in the nutrient-rich outflow of a commercial fish farm. Results from two consecutive 4 weeks experiments indicate that the cultivation of this seaweed produces a mean biomass of 21 to 40.6 gDW m(-2) day(-1) depending on the time of the experiment. DRIFT and CP-MAS NMR analyses of seaweeds indicate that cultivation during May affected quantitatively the seaweeds chemistry, and thus the chemical and gelling properties of native extracts of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI). Overall, algal growth leads to the production of more sulphated KI, the percentage increase varying between 27% and 44% for the two experiments. However, alkali treatment of seaweeds before extraction reduces the variations in gelling properties of KI induced by the algal growth. This study demonstrates the capacity of growing M. stellatus in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the sustainable production of high value polysaccharides.

  2. Vine-cacti pitayas: the new crops of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 1994, only scarce research existed on these plants; however the worldwide interest in this novel fruit crop is evident, as numbers of pitaya-related publications have grown rapidly, especially during the past decade .There is a big confusion about both botanical and commercial names and there is a need to clear this point. Herein, we attempt to review existing knowledge on the taxonomy, breeding and other horticultural characteristics of this unique crop. This paper comments abou taxonomy,breeding,physiology and horticultura e chatera ristics,postsharvest and uses.

  3. GERMINAÇÃO DE PITAYA EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

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    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research had the objective to determinate the ideal substrate for the germination of pitaya seeds in laboratorial conditions. The experiment was carried out in the Unesp - São Paulo State University - Campus of Jaboticabal - Brazil, using seeds that were extracted of a ripe fruit and testing the substrates: filter paper; vermiculite; sand; commercial substrate with pinus (Plantmax; coconut fiber (Amafibra; soil, sand and manure in the proportion of 3:1:1, being that the filter paper provided the largest values to percentage of germination among them, showing be the more appropriate.

  4. Antioxidant properties, quantification and stability of betalains from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus peel

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    Fernanda Robert de Mello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya peel can be used as a raw material for betalains extraction. The aim of this research was to quantify phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and betalains on pitaya peel. Furthermore, evaluate the betalains stability against various pH conditions and exposure time of heating. The results showed that pitaya peel contains phenolic compounds and presented antioxidant activity. Moreover it showed high concentration of betalains (101.04mg equivalent to betanin. 100g-1 which were stable over a wide pH range (3.2 - 7.0 and were resistant to heating (100oC up to 10 minutes at pH range from 3.7 to 5.5. Therefore, pitaya peel is a promising source of betalains which can be applied as a natural colorant for food.

  5. Fenologia reprodutiva da pitaya vermelha em Jaboticabal, SP

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    Adriana de Castro Correia da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Por ser uma cultura de cultivo recente no país, a pitaya (Hylocereus undatus ainda carece de estudos, de forma a dar suporte aos produtores. Nesse sentido, o trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a caracterizar a fenologia reprodutiva da cultura na região de Jaboticabal - SP. Avaliou-se clone de pitaya conduzido sob duas colorações de tela plástica, branca e preta, ambas com 50% de sombreamento, durante março de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Observou-se que a emissão de gemas florais tem início no mês de novembro, com emissão constante até o mês de março, enquanto que o florescimento ocorre até meados de abril, sendo que as altas temperaturas associadas ao início da estação chuvosa são fatores fundamentais para a emissão das gemas reprodutivas. A coloração da tela plástica influenciou no total de flores. O tempo compreendido desde a emissão das gemas até a antese é de 18 a 23 dias, enquanto, da antese à colheita é de 34 a 43 dias. O tempo total entre o aparecimento do botão floral até a colheita pode levar de 52 a 66 dias

  6. Nutrient accumulation at the initial growth of pitaya plants according to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the amount of nutrient uptake in pitaya plants helps the balanced fertilizer recommendation for the crop, providing adequate nutrition and contributing to the maximum expression of this species potential. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the growth, nutrient accumulation and efficiency of absorption, transportation and use of P by pitaya according to phosphorus fertilization. A randomized blocks design was used, with five doses of P (0 mg dm-3, 20 mg dm-3, 40 mg dm-3, 80 mg dm-3 and 160 mg dm-3 incorporated into the soil, with four replications, three pots per plot and one cutting per pot. Differences in the nutrient accumulation of all doses were evident in the pitaya shoots and roots, as well as in the efficiency of absorption, transport and use of P, according to phosphorus fertilization. The nutrient accumulation in the pitaya roots was ranked in the following order: N > K > Ca > S > P > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > B ≥ Cu. For the shoots, the order was: K > N > Ca > S > Mg > P > Mn > Fe > Zn > B ≥ Cu. The initial growth of pitaya plants was maximum with 81 mg dm-3 of P, in a Red-Yellow Dystrophic Latosol. The application of 44-67 mg dm3 of P to the soil promoted the highest accumulation of macro and micronutrients in the pitaya.

  7. [Cardon dato (Stenocereus griseus, Cactaceae) fruit pulp as raw material for marmalade production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaldi, Unai; Nassar, Jafet M; Semprum, Carla

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the possibility of producing marmalades from the fruit pulp of the red and white varieties of card6n dato (Stenocereus griseus). We developed the formulations of the marmalades and evaluated their stability during three months of storage at room temperature. As first step, we characterized the fruits of the two color varieties, observing that despite the considerable difference between both color varieties, there were no significant differences in average weight, dimensions and proportion of pulp, skin and seeds. The pulp of the two color types had high pH (5.2) values and low contents of reductor sugars (3.59 g/ 100 g white variety 2.23 g/ 100 g red variety), non reductor sugars (0.75 g/ 100 g white variety and 2.03 g/ 100 g red variety), pectin (0.14 g/ 100 g white variety and 0.23 g/ 100 g red variety) and acids (7.67 g/ 100 g white variety and 0.15 g/ 100 g red variety). It is needed to include sugar, pectin, and citric acid in the marmalade formula. The first marmalades produced were gummy, a problem that we solved adding the acid from the beginning of the making process. During the three months of storage, the marmalades had good acceptance by the evaluators, this despite slight fluctuations observed in pH, solid contents, and acidity.

  8. Physical and chemical characteristics of pitaya fruits at physiological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T A; Takahashi, L S A

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the maturation process of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus) to identify indicators that can be used to determine the point of physiological maturity and establish the optimal timing of physiological maturity for harvesting the fruit. A completely randomized experimental design was employed and four biological repeats were performed. Physiological maturity was assessed using various physical characteristics: longitudinal length (LL), equatorial diameter (ED), pericarp thickness (PeT), pulp thickness (PuT), fruit mass (FM), pulp mass (PuM), pericarp mass (PeM), pericarp percentage (%Pe), pulp percentage (%Pu), pulp/pericarp ratio (Pu/Pe), pericarp color index (CI), hue color angle (h°), lightness index (L*), chroma (C*), blue-yellow variation (b*), and green-red variation (a*). Additionally, chemical characteristics such as soluble solid content (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, and pH were screened. The data were statistically analyzed by fitting regression models and computing Pearson's correlation coefficients (P pitaya fruits occurred between the 30th and 32nd days after anthesis, and this proved to be the optimal period for harvest. At this time, the fruit was completely red with high SS, and had the recommended values of TA, pH, and SS/TA ratio. During this period, ED, PuT, FM, PuM, %Pu, and Pu/Pe increased while PeT, PeM, and %Pe fell; these changes are considered desirable by producers and/or consumers. PuM was the variable that displayed more strong's association with other variables in the analysis.

  9. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0 μm and 77.5 μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0 mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15 mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20 min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0 ± 0.7 °C) were independent of both salt concentrations.

  10. Description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Thoracocharax cf. stellatus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.

  11. Effect of sea buckthorn and vitamin E on growth performance of Acipenser stellatus (Pallas 1771 juveniles

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    Oana Georgiana Dorojan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of natural additives (prebiotics, probiotics, phytobiotics in fish feed is a benefic method because it leads to improved growth performance of fish reared in intensive production systems. Sea buckthorn is one of the most commonly phytobiotics used in aquaculture because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunostimulant, anti-stress, cytoprotective, liver and tissue regeneration properties. Sea buckthorn berries are rich in vitamins (B, C, E and K, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and many volatile compounds. In this context the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet and sea buckthorn on growth performance and survival of the A. stellatus juveniles reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment took place in the recirculating pilot system of “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galați. In order to emphasize the influence of the above mentioned immunostimulants on sevruga fingerlings with different genetic background, four experimental groups from different genitors (V1: ♀2 Danube x ♂1 Aquaculture, V2: ♀1 Danube x ♂1 Danube, V3: ♀1 Danube x ♂2 Aquaculture and V4: ♀2 Danube x ♂2 Danube have been used. At the end of the experiment no significant differences (p>0.05 were observed in terms of final mean weight, individual growth rate, SGR, FCR, PER, between the sevruga fingerlings obtained from wild genitors, comparing with those obtained from aquaculture genitors.

  12. Comparative antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of red and white pitayas and their correlation with flavonoid and polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyoenJi; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Moon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Young Suk; Mosaddik, Ashik; Cho, Somi Kim

    2011-01-01

    Pitaya, commonly known as dragon fruit, has generated considerable consumer interest because of its attractive color and micronutrient content. The present study investigated the total polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity against various free radicals, and antiproliferative effect on several cancer cell lines of extracts of flesh and peel of white and red pitayas, collected from Jeju Island, Korea. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of 80% methanol extracts of red pitaya peel (RPP) and white pitaya peel (WPP) were approximately 3- and 5-fold higher than those of red pitaya flesh (RPF) and white pitaya flesh (WPF), respectively. Overall, the total flavonoid and polyphenol contents of these extracts were RPP>WPP>RPF>WPF and WPP>RPP>RPF>WPF, respectively. In addition, a study involving nontargeted high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) of different pitaya extracts indicated the presence of phenolic, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol glycosides, betacyanin, and its derivatives with a few unknown compounds. Separately, peel extracts of both red and white pitayas showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and alkyl radical-scavenging activity than did the corresponding flesh extracts. Both peel extracts also showed stronger antiproliferative activity against AGS and MCF-7 cancer cells than either flesh extract. There was a direct correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant effect, but no correlation observed between antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity. These results suggest that the peel of white and red pitaya may be a valuable ingredient in foods and may also be useful in cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE PITAYA VERMELHA EM DIFERENTES SUBSTRATOS

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    Marco Túlio Habib Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red pitaya is a cactacea that has been more and more demanded both for theproducers and for the consumers. Nevertheless, there are still several aspects about its cultivation that need to be elucidated, in order to provide a good culture development and profitability to the producer. This work was done aiming to study the effect of substrate in the vegetative propagation of this fruit, commonly done through cutting. The experiment was carried out in a lath house from the Departamento de Produção Vegetal of FCAV - UNESP. Cuttings of adult plant were used and placed in different substrates for rooting, composing the following treatments: (1 soil, sand and manure of tanned corral mixture, in the proportion of 3:1:1; (2 coconut fiber (Amafibra; (3 sand and (4 commercial substrate (Plantmax. For each treatment, 4 replications with 10 cuttings were done. Fresh and dry mass of roots (grams and volume (mL were evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, and data evaluated by Tukey test at 5% probability. In the conditions in which the experiment was accomplished, one can conclude that there was influence of the substrate in the fresh mass and volume of the roots, being the substrate (1 the most appropriate for seedlings formation of this species.

  14. Development of seedlings of red pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Haw in different substrate volumes = Desenvolvimento de mudas de pitaya vermelha (Hylocereus undatus Haw em diferentes volumes de substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing search for alternatives by producers and demand for exotic fruits by consumers, the market for fruits species has grown considerably. In this context, the pitaya has been sought not only for its exotic appearance, but also for its organoleptic characteristics. The present research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the influence of the substrate volume in the development of seedlings of red pitaya, by using polystyrene trays expanded with different volumes of cells: 10, 15, 30 and 65 mL. The evaluations, conducted during 90 days, evaluated: survival percentage; number and height of stems (cm; largest root length (cm; fresh and dry masses of the stems and roots (g. The delineation was entirely randomized. The values of survival percentage were transformed in arc sin and the averages were compared by the Tukey test at 5%. The survival and vegetative development for seedlings of red pitaya were directly proportional to the volume of the substrate used. In order to form seedlings of red pitaya from seeds, the use of containers with 65 mL of capacity is recommended.Com a procura cada vez maior de alternativas por parte dos produtores rurais e de frutas exóticas pelos consumidores, o mercado de frutíferas tem crescido consideravelmente. Neste contexto, a pitaya vem sendo procurada não apenas pelo exotismo de sua aparência, como também por suas características organoléticas. O presente trabalho foi realizado objetivando avaliar a influência do volume de substrato no desenvolvimento de mudas de pitaya vermelha, utilizando-se bandejas de poliestireno expandido com diferentes volumes de células: 10, 15, 30 e 65 mL. As avaliações, realizadas aos 90 dias, foram quanto: porcentagem de sobrevivência; ao número e altura doscladódios (cm, ao comprimento da maior raiz (cm; às massas fresca e seca dos cladódios e das raízes (gramas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. Os dados de

  15. Optimization of Extraction of Novel Pectinase Enzyme Discovered in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel

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    Nor Khanani Zohdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X1, extraction temperature (−15 to +25 °C, X2 and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X3 on specific activity, temperature stability, storage stability and surfactant agent stability of pectinase from pitaya peel was investigated. The study demonstrated that the optimum conditions for the extraction of pectinase from pitaya sources could improve the enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and protect its activity and stability during the extraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions cause the pectinase to achieve high specific activity (15.31 U/mg, temperature stability (78%, storage stability (88% and surfactant agent stability (83%. The most desirable conditions to achieve the highest activity and stability of pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel were the use of 5:1 buffer to sample ratio at 5 °C and pH 8.0.

  16. Optimization of extraction of novel pectinase enzyme discovered in red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Nor Khanani; Amid, Mehrnoush

    2013-11-20

    Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X₁), extraction temperature (-15 to +25 °C, X₂) and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X₃) on specific activity, temperature stability, storage stability and surfactant agent stability of pectinase from pitaya peel was investigated. The study demonstrated that the optimum conditions for the extraction of pectinase from pitaya sources could improve the enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme and protect its activity and stability during the extraction procedure. The optimum extraction conditions cause the pectinase to achieve high specific activity (15.31 U/mg), temperature stability (78%), storage stability (88%) and surfactant agent stability (83%). The most desirable conditions to achieve the highest activity and stability of pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel were the use of 5:1 buffer to sample ratio at 5 °C and pH 8.0.

  17. Polygalacturonase Activity in Yellow Pitaya Peel (Acanthocereus pitajaya Estudio de la actividad enzimática poligaracturinasa en la corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya

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    Narváez Cuenca Carlos Eduardo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase activity was determinated in yellow pitaya fruit (Acanthocereus pitajaya. Protein concentrations and activities of the enzyme in the extracts weredetermined. Buffer sodium phosphate 20 mM pH 7,0 with NaCl 0,5 M was the most effective extraction system. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5,0 in buffer citrate at 40 °C. The KM of the enzyme was 2.9 mg/mL for polygalacturonic acid and VMÁX of 0.076 nmol of reducing groups/s. Results show that polygalacturonase is related with softening on yellow pitaya fruit.Se determinó la actividad poligalacturonasa en corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya. El buffer fosfato de sodio 20 mM pH 7,0 con NaCl 0,5 M se constituyó en el sistema más efectivo para la extracción. Se obtuvieron valores óptimos de actividad a pH 5,0 en buffer citratos, a una temperatura de 40 °C. Los valores de KM y VMÁX hallados para esta enzima fueron 2,9 mg ácido poligalacturónico/ml y 0,076 nmol de azúcares reductores/s, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la poligalacturonasa está vinculada con el ablandamiento de este fruto.

  18. ESTUDIO DE LA ACTIVIDAD ENZIMÁTICA DE POLIGALACTURONASA EN LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya Polygalacturonase Activity in Yellow Pitaya Peel (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHANNA PAOLA RODRÍGUEZ CASTRO

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad poligalacturonasa en corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya. El buffer fosfato de sodio 20 mM pH 7,0 con NaCl 0,5 M se constituyó en el sistema más efectivo para la extracción. Se obtuvieron valores óptimos de actividad a pH 5,0 en buffer citratos, a una temperatura de 40 °C. Los valores de KM y VMÁX hallados para esta enzima fueron 2,9 mg ácido poligalacturónico/ml y 0,076 nmol de azúcares reductores/s, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la poligalacturonasa está vinculada con el ablandamiento de este fruto.Polygalacturonase activity was determinated in yellow pitaya fruit (Acanthocereus pitajaya. Protein concentrations and activities of the enzyme in the extracts were determined. Buffer sodium phosphate 20 mM pH 7,0 with NaCl 0,5 M was the most effective extraction system. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5,0 in buffer citrate at 40 °C. The KM of the enzyme was 2.9 mg/mL for polygalacturonic acid and VMÁX of 0.076 nmol of reducing groups/s. Results show that polygalacturonase is related with softening on yellow pitaya fruit.

  19. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  20. Growth and development of the arborescent cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis in a subtropical semiarid environment, including effects of gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Eulogio; Hernandez, Gerardo; Domingues, Alejandro; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    In Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, an arborescent cactus cultivated in Jalisco, Mexico, for its fruits but studied here in wild populations, stem extension occurred in the autumn at the beginning of the dry season, flowering and fruiting occurred in the spring at the end of the dry season, and new roots grew in the summer during the wet season. The asynchrony of vegetative and reproductive growth reduces competitive sink effects, which may be advantageous for wild populations growing in infertile rocky soils. Seasonal patterns of sugars in the roots and especially the stems of S. queretaroensis were closely related to the main phenological stages, becoming lower in concentration during periods of major stem extension. Cessation of stem extension occurred in 100-year-old plants for which injection of GA(3) reinitiated such growth. Isolated chlorenchyma cylinders had maximum extension in a bathing solution containing 0.1 &mgr;M gibberellic acid.

  1. Analysis of the Propagation Technology of Pitaya%火龙果繁殖技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣雄智; 唐蓉; 汪成忠; 顾国海; 吴松芹

    2016-01-01

    The research progress of breeding technology on pitaya fruit was reviewed in this paper to provide refer⁃ence for the research and production of pitaya fruit.%该文综述了火龙果繁殖技术方面的研究进展,以期为火龙果的生产和科研提供参考依据。

  2. Uso, manejo y conservación de Stenocereus griseus (Haworth Buxb. en la Alta Guajira colombiana

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    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Alta Guajira del Caribe colombiano, el cactus Stenocereus griseus es muy utilizado por la comunidad Wayuu. En el presente trabajo se caracteriza el sistema de uso y manejo, así como la demanda y oferta potencial de S.
    griseus en dos localidades. Una evaluación de los factores que afectan las poblaciones permitió determinar cinco
    categorías de daño, de las cuales las más importantes son las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (Tipo II y cabras (Tipo III. El uso actual de Stenocereus griseus se restringe a la colecta de la madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas tradicionales en la cultura Wayuu; la colecta de frutos en temporada de cosecha y la cosecha de tallos jóvenes para alimento de cabras y cercas vivas. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y generan el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie, y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo, dado que con el ritmo actual de extracción, la población de cactus está expuesta a una inminente disminución local.

  3. Tests for evaluating the physiological quality of pitaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Alberto Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination test is used to assess the physiological quality of seeds; however, since it is carried out under ideal conditions, this test has not been shown sufficient for this purpose. Instead, it is possible to use vigor tests, although the lack of standardized methodologies has reduced their applicability and reproducibility. Thus, this study aimed to develop methodologies for conducting tests of germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity for the evaluation of the physiological quality of pitaya seeds. For this purpose, seeds from ripe Hylocereus undatus fruits were used. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications. The physiological quality of the seeds was assessed using germination, accelerated aging, and electrical conductivity tests, and the speed of germination index (SGI and mean germination time (MGT were determined for both the germination test and accelerated aging test. For the statistical analysis, we performed regression model adjustments and calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient (p < 0.05. The germination test for H. undatus seeds can be performed at 25 °C, with the aim of reaching the highest SGI and lowest MGT values. The accelerated aging test can be conducted at 43 °C for 48 h, because combining these factors favors the expression of seed vigor, allowing seeds to achieve the maximum SGI and minimum MGT, while reducing the time of the assay. The electrical conductivity test can be performed using 25 seeds at a temperature of 30 °C and a water volume of 10 mL, since under these conditions there is less interference from external factors on the leachate content of the solution.

  4. Temperature in the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimum temperature for germination of cacti vary with the species. With this work, we aimed to evaluate the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes under different temperatures. The used genotypes were: Hylocereus undatus (PB, H. polyrhizus (PV, Selenicereus megalanthus (PA, H. undatus x H. costaricensis (PH1 and H. costaricensis x H. undatus (PH2. For each genotype we used four replicates of 50 seeds, in a completely randomized design. The sowing was carried out on blotter paper in boxes type Gerbox ®, maintained at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oC constant and 15-25, 20-30 and 25-35 oC alternating with photoperiod 12 hours. The test lasted 30 days which were appraised the germination percentage, the germination speed index and the average time of germination. For seeds germination of PB, the result obtained in the temperature of 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 30 and 20-30 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. In PV, the result at 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 20 and 30 oC, being superior to the results of the others temperatures. For PA, the best result was obtained to 25 oC. In PH1, the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC presented superiors results to the others. For PH2, the result obtained in 15-25oC didn’t differ of the obtained at 25 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. The constants temperatures of 25 and 30 °C and alternating 20-30 °C are suitable for germination of H. undatus and for the hybrid H. undatus x H. costaricensis. For H. polyrhizus, constant temperatures of 20, 25 to 30 °C are suitable for seed germination. The constant temperature of 25 °C is the most suitable for the germination of S. megalanthus. For the hybrid H. costaricensis x H. undatus, constant temperature of 25 °C and alternating 15-25°C are suitable for seed germination.

  5. 火龙果色素研究进展%Research progress of pitaya pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋边

    2015-01-01

    综述了火龙果色素的理化性质,提取、分离纯化与鉴定方法,生物活性及应用研究进展,为火龙果色素的研究与开发利用提供一定参考,并探讨了研究中存在的问题及其未来的研究与应用方向.%A review on the physical and chemical properties, extraction, purification and identification, biological activity and application research progress of the pitaya pigment was summarized and the existing problems and its fu-ture direction of research and application was discussed, which might provide certain reference for the research and u-tilization of pitaya pigment.

  6. Polygalacturonase Activity in Yellow Pitaya Peel (Acanthocereus pitajaya) Estudio de la actividad enzimática poligaracturinasa en la corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez Cuenca Carlos Eduardo; Rodríguez Castro Johanna Paola; Restrepo Sánchez Luz Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase activity was determinated in yellow pitaya fruit (Acanthocereus pitajaya). Protein concentrations and activities of the enzyme in the extracts weredetermined. Buffer sodium phosphate 20 mM pH 7,0 with NaCl 0,5 M was the most effective extraction system. The enzyme exhibited optimum activity at pH 5,0 in buffer citrate at 40 °C. The KM of the enzyme was 2.9 mg/mL for polygalacturonic acid and VMÁX of 0.076 nmol of reducing groups/s. Results show that polygalacturonase is rela...

  7. Catalasa, peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa en pitaya amarilla (acanthocereus pitajaya): maduración y senescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Baquero Duarte, Lucía Estrella; Castro Rivera, Jhon Alexander; Narváez Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the relation between some symptoms of deterioration and the activity of enzymes entailed with both the browning and the antioxiding system in fruits of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya), harvested in its physiological maturity and stored for 15 days at 24°C and 85% of relative humidity. In the whole fruits, the respiratory intensity and the external colors were evaluated; further, the activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was studied in the ...

  8. Quality of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus as influenced by storage temperature and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tonetto de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus is an exotic non-climacteric fruit that reaches its best eating quality when harvested ripe, decreasing thereafter during storage. Our objectives were to determine the best combination of storage temperature and use of perforated plastic bags to maintain the postharvest quality of the fruit. Fruits were stored at 5, 7, or 10 ºC with and without a perforated plastic bag for 20 days, followed by five days at 20 ºC without the bag for shelf-life determination. Storage at 5 ºC, followed by 7 ºC maintained better visual appearance of the pitaya fruit after 20 days, by reducing decay incidence and severity, and maintaining greener bracts compared with fruit stored at 10 ºC. Pitaya fruit stored at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag showed no decay after storage and shelf-life. In general, higher temperatures and the use of a perforated plastic bag increased decay incidence, as well as decay severity after storage and shelf-life conditions. At all temperatures, fruit stored in a perforated plastic bag had lower weight loss during storage. After shelf-life, weight loss was highest in fruit stored at higher temperatures. Storage of fruits at 5 ºC resulted in minor chilling injury symptoms in the outer flesh tissue, close to the peel. Storage at 5 ºC without a perforated plastic bag was the best condition to maintain the postharvest quality of the pitaya fruit.

  9. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidaefrom Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceaein the semiarid region of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marroquín M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas diseasein a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3.The insects were mainly found (52.4%in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X² =26.0,PEn Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3.Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X ²=26.0,p<0.00001,el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%. El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie.Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.

  10. Simple Characterization of Betalain Compound from RED Pitaya (Hylocereus Polyrhizus Peel Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peel of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence. While the red pitaya peel contain betalain pigment which is useful as a natural colourant for functional food and can be applied to food products. The aim of this study was to simple characterization of betalain compound from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel. The extraction method employed the use of distilled water, since betalain peel is water soluble. The compound of betalain in the solution was determined by HPLC analysis, spectrophotometrically at 200 nm to 800 nm with a UV–Vis spectrometer and Measurement stability, Antioxidant capacity and Antibacterial Activity. Concentration of the sample solution was 7,72 mg / 100 g. Absorption peak at a wavelength of 540 nm obtained from solution of samples showed the presence of betalain compound. The main compound present in a sample suspected of betanin, isobetanin and betanidin that compared to standard. Increasing betalain degradation rates resulting from increasing  temperature. Sample solution has antioxidant activity, but weak, and do  not to have antimicrobial activity.

  11. World's Cheapest Readout Electronics for Kinetic Inductance Detector by Using RedPitaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, N.; Jeong, H.; Choi, J.; Ishitsuka, H.; Mima, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic inductance detector (KID) is a cutting-edge superconducting detector. The number of KID developers is growing. Most of them have switched from their previous study to superconducting technologies. Therefore, infrastructures for the fabrication of KIDs and cooling systems for their tests have already been established. However, readout electronics have to be newly prepared. Neither a commercial system nor low-cost standard electronics are available despite various attempts to create a standard one. We suggest the use of RedPitaya as readout electronics for the initial step of KID development, which is low cost (≈ 400 USD) and easy to set up. The RedPitaya consists of an all-programmable FPGA-CPU module and a dual-channel 14 bit DAC (ADC) to generate (measure) fast analog signals with 125 MSpS. Each port can be synchronized in-phase or quadrature-phase, and functions for generating and sampling analog signal are prepared. It is straightforward to construct vector network analyzer-like logic by using a combination of these default functions. Up-conversion and down-conversion of its frequency range are also possible by using commercial equipment, i.e., mixers, couplers, and a local oscillator. We implemented direct down-conversion logic on the RedPitaya, and successfully demonstrated KID signal measurements.

  12. Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant Capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Patricia; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay together with the spectrophotometric determination of betalains were applied to investigate the correlation between phenolics and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of five different Costa Rican genotypes of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) and of H. polyrhizus fruits. Maximum antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and betalain contents were observed in the genotype 'Lisa'. While non-betalainic phenolic compounds contributed only to a minor extent, betalains were responsible for the major antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya juices evaluated. The phenolic pattern of each genotype was also thoroughly investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to the well known betalains previously reported in Hylocereus fruits, several biosynthetic precursors were detected. Notably, decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betalains were identified as genuine compounds of the juices. Some of these compounds were previously described as artifacts upon heat exposure. Moreover, gallic acid was identified for the first time in pitaya fruits. While the phenolic profiles generally differed between genotypes, phenolic compound composition of 'Rosa' resembled that of H. polyrhizus with respect to total contents of betacyanins, betalainic precursors, phyllocactin and cyclo-Dopa malonyl-glucosides.

  13. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Stenocereus Eichlamii (Cactaceae) in the semiarid region of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín, Ricardo; Bor, Silvia; Monroy, M Carlota

    2004-12-01

    A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae, Subfamily Cereoideae) was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas disease) in a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections, 24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T. ryckmani. In comparison with other areas of Guatemala, T ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5, density = 2.3 and crowding index 4.3). The insects were mainly found (52.4%) in the dead portions of S. eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X2 = 26.0, P < 0.00001), followed by dry cactus sections between 3.2 and 5.0 m (35.9%). They were less frequent 0.2 to 2.0 m above the ground. A considerable proportion (75.7%) had no aparent blood in their digestive systems. To determine the presence of flagellates, 43 of the bugs were dissected, but none were found. This is the first report on T. ryckmani population dynamics in this habitat.

  14. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w), beeswax (5%–25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w)—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to opti...

  15. Uso, manejo y conservacion de “yosú” Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae,en la alta guajira colombiana Usage, Managment and Conservation of “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae, in the Upper Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Sandra

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracteriza el sistema de uso, manejo, demanda y oferta potencial de Stenocereus griseus, un cactus columnar muy utilizado por la comunidad indígena Wayúu en la Guajira, Caribe colombiano. Actualmente el uso de S. griseus se restringe a la recolección de madera seca ("yotojoro" para construcción de viviendas, la recolección de frutos para la alimentación, de tallos jóvenes para alimentos de cabras y para utilizarlos en cercas vivas. Una evaluación de los factores que afectan las poblaciones permitió determinar cinco categorías de daño: las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (tipo II, cabras (tipo III, aves (tipo IV y viento (tipo V. La demanda anual de "yotojoro" está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y es la que genera el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo.The present paper characterizes the usage and handling system, demand and potential offer of Stenocereus griseus, a columnar cactus widely used by the "Wayúu", an indigenous community in the Colombian Caribbean region of "La Guajira". The current use of S. griseus is restricted to the collection of dry timber wood ("yotojoro" for house building; of the fruit, which is used for human consumption; and of the young stems, used as goat fodder, and as living fences. An evaluation of the factors that affect the populations allowed the detection of five different harm categories: those caused by cuttings with cutlass (type I; by insects (type II; goats (type III; birds
    (type IV; and wind (type V. The annual "yotojoro

  16. USO, MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN DE “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (CACTACEAE, EN LA ALTA GUAJIRA COLOMBIANA Usage, Managment and Conservation of “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (Cactaceae, in the Upper Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORAYA VILLALOBOS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracteriza el sistema de uso, manejo, demanda y oferta potencial de Stenocereus griseus, un cactus columnar muy utilizado por la comunidad indígena Wayúu en la Guajira , Caribe colombiano. Actualmente el uso de S. griseus se restringe a la recolección de madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas, la recolección de frutos para la alimentación, de tallos jóvenes para alimentos de cabras y para utilizarlos en cercas vivas. Una evaluación de los factores que afectan las poblaciones permitió determinar cinco categorías de daño: las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (tipo II, cabras (tipo III, aves (tipo IV y viento (tipo V. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y es la que genera el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie y se recomienda establecer alternativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo.The present paper characterizes the usage and handling system, demand and potential offer of Stenocereus griseus, a columnar cactus widely used by the “Wayúu”, an indigenous community in the Colombian Caribbean region of “ La Guajira ”. The current use of S. griseus is restricted to the collection of dry timber wood (“yotojoro” for house building; of the fruit, which is used for human consumption; and of the young stems, used as goat fodder, and as living fences. An evaluation of the factors that affect the populations allowed the detection of five different harm categories: those caused by cuttings with cutlass (type I; by insects (type II; goats (type III; birds (type IV; and wind (type V. The

  17. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success.

  18. USO, MANEJO Y CONSERVACIÓN DE “yosú”, Stenocereus griseus (CACTACEAE, EN LA ALTA GUAJIRA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORAYA VILLALOBOS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se caracteriza el sistema de uso, manejo, demanda y oferta potencial de Stenocereus griseus, un cactus columnar muy utilizado por la comunidad indígena Wayúu en la Guajira, Caribe colombiano. Actualmente el uso de S. griseus se restringe a la recolección de madera seca (“yotojoro” para construcción de viviendas, la recolección de frutos para la alimentación, de tallos jóvenes para alimentos de cabras y para utilizarlos en cercas vivas. Una evaluación de los factores que afectan las pobla- ciones permitió determinar cinco categorías de daño: las ocasionadas por corte con machete (tipo I, insectos (tipo II, cabras (tipo III, aves (tipo IV y viento (tipo V. La demanda anual de “yotojoro” está sujeta a la necesidad de construcción de los habitantes del área, que es definida como ocasional. El método actual de cosecha y extracción del mismo no está generando desequilibrio local en el mantenimiento de la especie. La demanda de cardones para cercas vivas y pastoreo es constante durante todo el año y es la que genera el mayor impacto de daño. Finalmente, se discuten los principales problemas de conservación de la especie y se recomienda establecer alter- nativas de manejo para las actividades de pastoreo.

  19. Substratos e regulador vegetal no enraizamento de estacas de pitaya Substrates and plant growth regulator on the rooting of pitaya cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Márcio Guimarães Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma cactácea originária das florestas tropicais americanas que produz frutos exóticos bem apreciados e comercializados, principalmente no continente asiático. Contudo, ainda é uma espécie vegetal que demanda informações técnicas de cultivo nas áreas agrícolas brasileiras, motivando pesquisas em várias áreas do conhecimento. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes substratos no enraizamento de cladódios imersos e não imersos no regulador de crescimento, ácido naftalenacético (ANA, na formação e desenvolvimento inicial de raízes em estacas de Hylocereus undatus, resultando em mudas mais vigorosas e de melhor qualidade. O experimento foi conduzido sob ripado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal - setor de Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas no campus de Botucatu - UNESP. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente aleatorizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (substratos x condições com quatro repetições. Após 60 dias da instalação do experimento foram avaliados: massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca das raízes e o comprimento da maior raiz. O crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular inicial de mudas não são influenciados pelo regulador vegetal ANA. Os substratos com a presença de areia são os mais adequados para a formação de mudas vigorosas e de boa qualidade. A mistura areia + esterco bovino proporciona maior acúmulo de fitomassa no sistema radicular de pitaya (H. undatus.The pitaya, a cactaceous species native to American tropical forests, produces well-appreciated and commercialized exotic fruits, mainly in the Asian continent. However, this plant species still requires technical information regarding cultivation in Brazilian agricultural areas, encouraging thus studies in several knowledge areas. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the rooting of cladodes immersed or not in the plant growth regulator naphthaleneacetic acid (ANA, as well as on

  20. Optimization of Extraction of Novel Pectinase Enzyme Discovered in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Khanani Zohdi; Mehrnoush Amid

    2013-01-01

    Plant peels could be a potential source of novel pectinases for use in various industrial applications due to their broad substrate specificity with high stability under extreme conditions. Therefore, the extraction conditions of a novel pectinase enzyme from pitaya peel was optimized in this study. The effect of extraction variables, namely buffer to sample ratio (2:1 to 8:1, X1), extraction temperature (−15 to +25 °C, X2) and buffer pH (4.0 to 12.0, X3) on specific activity, temperature st...

  1. El choque térmico mejora la aptitud al almacenamiento refrigerado de pitaya amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueñas G. Yenny Maritza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La pitaya amarilla es una fruta exótica producida en Colombia, muy apreciada gracias a su aroma y a sus semillas digestivas. Esta fruta climatérica, tiene un tiempo de vida útil corto y manifiesta daños por frío a temperaturas de conservación inferiores a 12°C. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del choque térmico para mejorar la aptitud a la conservación frigorífca de los frutos de pitaya. Se efectuaron tres tipos de almacenamiento, donde en el primero, los frutos se almacenaron a 18°C durante dos semanas; en el segundo, los frutos fueron precalentados a 25°C durante 24 horas y luego almacenados a 2°C durante dos semanas; finalmente los frutos fueron transferidos a 18°C. En el tercer tratamiento los frutos fueron tratados en forma similar al segundo lote, excepto que no hubo choque térmico. Cada tres días se midió la acidez titulable, los sólidos solubles, la firmeza y pérdida de peso. La calidad de los frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente se deterioró marcadamente luego de dos semanas de almacenamiento. Los frutos refrigerados presentaron pardeamiento, necrosis y pérdida de firmeza tras 15 días a 2°C, pero estos síntomas se evidenciaron en menor medida en los frutos al haber sido tratados con un choque térmico a 25°C durante 24 horas previamente. El choque térmico antes del almacenamiento a 2°C puede ser una técnica adecuada que permita extender la vida útil de los frutos de pitaya amarilla, dado que se retardan las pérdidas de peso, y el fenómeno de ablandamiento se reduce notoriamente asociándose este último con el parámetro de la firmeza o resistencia al rompimiento de la corteza. Adicionalmente, con el choque térmico previo a la refrigeración, las características relacionadas con color y apariencia física de los frutos de pitaya amarilla se conservan por tiempos más prolongados.

  2. 旱地火龙果栽培技术%Dryland cultivation technique of pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泉康

    2012-01-01

    介绍旱地种植火龙果的主要技术,包括采用单柱直立法种植、苗期管理、土肥管理与整形修剪、间隔种植与人工授粉、适时收获等栽培措施。%This paper introduced dryland cuhivation technique of pitaya, including using a single column vertical method for cultivation, seedling management, fertilizer management and pruning, planting spacer and artificial pollination, timely harvest.

  3. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya: MADURACIÓN Y SENESCENCIA Catalase, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase from Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruits: Ripening and Senescense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO NARVÁEZ CUENCA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre algunos síntomas de deterioro y la actividad de enzimas vinculadas tanto con el pardeamiento como con el sistema antioxidante en frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y almacenados durante 15 días a 24 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. En los frutos enteros se evaluaron la intensidad respiratoria y el color externo; en la corteza se determinaron la actividad de catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO. Los frutos exhibieron un comportamiento climatérico luego de seis días de la cosecha. El pardeamiento de la corteza tuvo una relación directa con la actividad de POD y PFO. La máxima actividad de CAT observada en el climaterio responde al balance adecuado con la alta producción de H2O2 esperada en ese momento.We evaluate the relation between some symptoms of deterioration and the activity of enzymes entailed with both the browning and the antioxiding system in fruits of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya, harvested in its physiological maturity and stored for 15 days at 24°C and 85% of relative humidity. In the whole fruits, the respiratory intensity and the external colors were evaluated; further, the activity of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO was studied in the peel of the fruit. The fruit exhibited a climacteric behavior six days after the date of the harvest. The browning of the peel had a direct relation with the activity of POD and PPO. The maximum observed activity of CAT in the climacterium, responds to the proper balance with the high production of H2O2 expected at that moment.

  4. 78 FR 49251 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Pitayas and Pomegranates From Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... demonstrate the effectiveness of the cited mitigation measures. As noted in the risk management documents... likelihood of Milax species following the pathway of pitayas is low due to the management of the orchards, the post-harvest management of the fruit, and the sensitivity of Milax species to the...

  5. Impact of pH and temperature on the colour and betalain content of Colombian yellow pitaya peel (Selenicereus megalanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Hurtado, Nelson; Delgado, Angélica; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    The effects of different pHs (4, 5 and 6), temperatures (4, 20 and 80 °C) and storage (up to 12 days) on differential tristimulus colorimetry and betalain content related to the colour of yellow pitaya (Selenicereus megalanthus) have been investigated. The peel of the yellow pitaya was extracted with different solvents to see its colorant capacity. Highly-acidic extracts (pH 4) showed the lowest betalain content, chroma (C* ab = 60 against 70) and the yellow component of the colour (b*). Storage temperature manifested a great influence on CIELAB parameters when yellow pitaya peel was added to highly-acidic foodstuffs, with a tendency towards red hues (h ab , from 100° to 85°) and remarkable changes on lightness (L*, from 90 to 75) as temperature increased. However, low-acidic extracts (pH 5 and 6) were superior from a colour stability standpoint, not being influential the temperature of storage. All colour changes according to pH and temperature were visually appreciable by human eyes (∆E* ab  > 3). New opportunities for diversification of colorant market could be possible by employing yellow pitaya peel as natural resource.

  6. Effects of Different Cooking and Drying Methods on Antioxidant and Dietary Fiber Properties of Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Omidizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the influence of several thermal processing methods such as cooking and drying on biologically active compounds of red pitaya. Flesh of red pitaya was subjected to five different thermal processes: oven cooking at 95ºC 30 min, oven cooking at 95ºC 60 min, oven cooking at 105ºC 60 min, drum drying, and spray drying. Total phenolic content, scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and dietary fiber contents of the fresh and processed red pitaya were subsequently determined. The effect of oven cooking on antioxidant parameters of red pitaya were highly significant compared to fresh one (p<0.05. Whereas, drum drying and spray drying were the best methods for antioxidant preservation in this fruit, compared to the other thermal processes applied in this study. Among all of the heating temperatures applied in this study, drum drying was the best method for preservation of total phenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and 95ºC for 30 min oven cooking was the best process to preserve dietary fiber parameters of this fruit.

  7. Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) for comparing betalain biosynthesis and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunmin; Heo, Do Yeon; Kim, Young-Suk; Cho, Somi Kim; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-08-27

    Metabolite profiling of red and white pitayas (Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus) was performed using gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with multivariate analysis. Different species and parts of pitayas (red peel, RP; white peel, WP; red flesh, RF; and white flesh, WF) were clearly separated by partial least-squares discriminate analysis. Furthermore, betalain-related metabolites, such as betacyanins and betaxanthins, or their precursors were described on the basis of their metabolites. The results of antioxidant activity tests [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)], total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and total betacyanin contents (TBC) showed the following: RP ≥ WP > RF > WF. TPC, TFC, TBC, and betalain-related metabolites were higher in the peel than in the flesh and suggested to be the main contributors to antioxidant activity in pitayas. Therefore, peels as well as pulp of pitaya could beneficially help in the food industry.

  8. 76 FR 46268 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for the Importation of Fresh Pitaya and Pomegranates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for the... prepared pest risk analyses that evaluate the risks associated with the importation into the continental... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh pitaya and...

  9. Red pitaya juice supplementation ameliorates energy balance homeostasis by modulating obesity-related genes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-07-26

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) or known as buah naga merah in Malay belongs to the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to give protection against liver damage and may reduce the stiffness of the heart. Besides, the beneficial effects of red pitaya against obesity have been reported; however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the red pitaya-targeted genes in obesity using high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rat model. A total of four groups were tested: corn-starch (CS), corn-starch + red pitaya juice (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat + red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5 % red pitaya juice was continued for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Retroperitoneal, epididymal and omental fat pads were collected and weighed. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using commercial kits. Gene expression analysis was conducted using RNA extracted from liver samples. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. The rats fed HCHF-diet for 16 weeks increased body weight, developed excess abdominal fat deposition and down-regulated the expression level of IL-1α, IL-1r1, and Cntfr as compared to the control group. Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased omental and epididymal fat but no change in retroperitoneal fat was observed. Red pitaya juice reversed the changes in energy balance homeostasis in liver tissues by regulation of the expression levels of Pomc and Insr. The increased protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in HCHF group and red pitaya treated rats confirmed the results of gene expression. Collectively, this study revealed the usefulness of this diet-induced rat model and the beneficial effects of red pitaya on energy balance homeostasis by modulating the anorectic, orexigenic and energy expenditure related

  10. The Application of Stick Technology of Pitaya Greenhouse Cultivation%火龙果日光温室栽培的搭架技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷业理

    2014-01-01

    Sticking Pitaya is the basic operation link in the sunlight greenhouse cultivation.But most people don't realize the importance and related research is not thorough.People also think that sticking Pitaya don't need technology and always stick Pitaya optionally,which make the negative impact on the technolo-gy promotion and application of Pitaya greenhouse cultivation.Based on many years of production experi-ence,the paper presents the importance of sticking Pitaya and the technology requirement,and also de-scribes the current Pitaya plant methods in detail,which is very import to guide the standardization cultiva-tion of Pitaya and also has a positive guiding role in achieving high quality of Pitaya.%搭架是火龙果日光温室栽培的基本操作环节,但是人们对其重要性认识不足,研究也不够深入,认为其技术含量不高,操作的随意性很大,对火龙果温室栽培技术推广应用产生了不利的影响。该文在多年生产试验的基础上,对搭架的重要性,搭架的技术要求和目前普遍采取的种植方式作了详尽的描述,对指导火龙果的标准化,规范化栽培,实现优质丰产具有积极的指导作用。

  11. Shading of stock plants and the use of auxin in red pitaya cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Igor Bernardo Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a significant expansion of red pitaya cultivation in Brazil and other countries around the world, its cultivation requires scientific expertise to identify the plant production systems best suited to Brazilian soils and climate. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous auxin and shading of the parental stock plants on the subsequent quality of red pitaya cuttings. The use of a commercial rooting auxin (with and without and five shading levels on stock plants (full sun, 35, 50, 65 and 80% shading were tested via four randomized blocks in a factorial 2x5 scheme with two plants per plot. After 90 days, the following vegetative characteristics were evaluated: length of the longest root (LR, root dry mass (RDM, root width (RW, shoot fresh weight (SFW and shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW, number of axillary shoots (NAS, sum of the length of the axillary shoots (SLAS, and shoot:root ratio (SRR. We concluded that for the production of high quality plants, collecting cuttings from stock plants grown in full sun or 80% shade is recommended, eliminating the need to use commercial rooting auxin.

  12. 火龙果花的研究现状与开发前景%Research Progress and Development of Pitaya Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧颖; 王琦; 余亚白

    2012-01-01

    Originated in the Central America, pitaya have been spread for cultivation in 20 countries or regions. Pitaya flower has many medical benefits such as lowering blood pressure, lung-nourishing, beauty care, etc. Pi- taya have a long period of flowering and produce a huge number of pitaya flower each year. The recent research and developments of pitaya are reviewed in terms of planting area and cultivars as well as the biological charac- teristics and functional constituents of pitaya flower and pilot trial of pitaya flower products. Essential amino acids and medical amino acids were evaluated nutritionally based on the available data. The evaluation showed that pi- taya flower contained limited amount of Met + Cys amino acids and large amount of Leu and Try amino acids and similar amount of lie, Phe + Tyr and Thr amino acids to the pattern spectrum which FAO/WHO revised in 1973. A good prospect for development of pitaya flower is also described.%对火龙果的种植概况、品种资源以及火龙果花的生物学性状、功效成分、产品试制等方面的研究进行了综述,并根据氨基酸含量分析数据,对火龙果花中必需氨基酸和药用氨基酸进行了营养学评价,阐明了火龙果花开发利用的良好前景。

  13. Efeito de substratos e boro no enraizamento de estacas de pitaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Marcio Guimarães Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma espécie vegetal trepadeira e frutífera, pertencente à família das cactáceas e que vem se destacando no mercado de frutas exóticas no Brasil. Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes substratos no enraizamento de cladódios com a base imersa e não-imersa em solução com ácido bórico, na formação e no desenvolvimento inicial de raízes, visando à obtenção de mudas mais vigorosas, de melhor qualidade e com maiores chances de sobrevivência. O experimento foi conduzido sob ripado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal, setor de Horticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas no campus de Botucatu, UNESP, São Paulo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (substratos x boro, com quatro repetições. Após 60 dias da instalação do experimento foram avaliados: massa de matérias fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e comprimento da maior raiz. O crescimento e desenvolvimento radicular inicial de estacas são influenciados pelo tipo de substrato e pelo uso do micronutriente boro. A mistura areia + esterco proporciona maior acúmulo de fitomassa na parte aérea e no sistema radicular de pitaya vermelha. Dentre os substratos trabalhados, o mais indicado para a produção de mudas mais vigorosas e de boa qualidade é o preparado à base de mistura de areia + esterco bovino curtido.

  14. 红龙果最适贮藏温度试验%Optimal Storage Temperature for Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦家书; 秦延春; 廖莉莉; 莫振茂; 李丹丹

    2016-01-01

    Pitaya variety 'Guilong 1' was stored at different levels of temperature to observe the effects of storage temperature on the fruit quality to explore the optimal storage temperature for Pitaya. The results indicated that the low temperature of 0~5℃ significantly inhibited the respiratory intensity of pitaya fruit, reduced the weight loss, effectively delayed the decomposition of the soluble sugar, and maintained the fruit flavor and quality. The chilling injury occurred when pitaya fruit were stored at below 3℃, resulting in loss of their commercial value. The optimal storage temperatures were found to be 3~5℃.%以桂龙1号红龙果为试材,研究不同贮藏温度对红龙果果实品质的影响,探寻红龙果的最适贮藏温度,为延长红龙果的贮藏保鲜期提供理论依据。结果表明:0~5℃低温可显著抑制红龙果果实的呼吸强度,减少果实的重量损失,有效延缓可溶性糖的分解消耗,保持红龙果果实的风味和品质;3℃以下低温会引起红龙果冻害的发生,使果实失去商品价值。红龙果最适宜贮藏温度为3~5℃。

  15. STABILITY OF BETACYANIN PIGMENTS FROM RED PURPLE PITAYA FRUIT (Hylocereus polyrhizus : INFLUENCE OF PH, TEMPERATURE, METAL IONS AND ASCORBIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C.S Tang, C.S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin pigments from red-purple pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus could be an attractive source of red colourant for food application. This paper presents results on the extraction of betacyanin pigments from pitaya fruits grown locally in Malaysia. Both the flesh of the fruit and its mesocarp were investigated and it was found that the flesh had higher pigment contents compared to its peel component. The concentration of betacyanins expressed as betanin equivalents per 100 g of flesh and peel were 10.1 ± 0.6 mg and 6.7 ± 0.2 mg, respectively when 80% methanol was used.  The stability of betacyanin pigments were investigated at different pH, temperature and in presence of different concentrations of metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ and ascorbic acid. The results showed that the pigment was most stable at pH range between 5 and 6. However, it forfeited its stability to the heat induced at elevated temperatures. Metal ions (Cu2+ and Fe2+ proved to be capable of accelerating betacyanin degradation, with Cu2+ exhibiting the greatest effect. By contrast, supplementation with ascorbic acid could enhance the pigment stability against the detrimental effects caused by pH, temperature and metal ions. Nevertheless, if the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds 0.7 %, it may change its role from pigment stabilizer to become a pro-oxidant.    Keywords: Betacyanin, pigments, pitaya fruit, Hylocereus polyrhizus, ascorbic acid

  16. Optimization of natural lipstick formulation based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil using D-optimal mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamairudin, Norsuhaili; Gani, Siti Salwa Abd; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Hashim, Puziah

    2014-10-16

    The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components-pitaya seed oil (10%-25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (25%-45% w/w), beeswax (5%-25% w/w), candelilla wax (1%-5% w/w) and carnauba wax (1%-5% w/w)-were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point) could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w), virgin coconut oil (37% w/w), beeswax (17% w/w), candelilla wax (2% w/w) and carnauba wax (2% w/w). With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point) with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  17. 火龙果的人工辅助授粉技术%The Technology of Artificial Supplementary Pollination for Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷业理; 郁建强; 郜晨; 张扬

    2014-01-01

    Artificial supplementary pollination is one of the important and difficult technology for the Pitaya cultivation,and is also the base of high quality and quantity.In this paper,we discuss the reasons,time, method and the matters needing attention for the Pitaya artificial supplementary pollination. The presented artificial pollination technology has very strong practicability,pertinence and maneuverability. It is also very easy to master the technology for the fruit farmers. The technology also has a positive guiding role in the popularization and application of Pitaya Greenhouse cultivation.%人工辅助授粉是火龙果栽培的重点和难点技术之一,是取得优质丰产的基础。该文探讨了人工辅助授粉的时间、方法和注意事项,具有很强的实用性、针对性、可操作性,便于果农正确掌握,对火龙果棚室栽培技术的推广应用具有积极的指导作用。

  18. Evidences for involvement of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor in ovarian development of starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjiang; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao; Zang, Kun

    2017-04-01

    Although gonadotrophins are major regulators of ovarian function in teleosts and other vertebrates, accumulating evidence indicates that the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis also plays an important role in fish reproduction. As a first step to understand the physiological role of the GH-IGF system in the ovarian development of starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), the expression profiles of GH and IGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and plasma GH, IGF-I, estradiol-17β (E2), and testosterone (T) levels during the ovarian development were investigated. The developmental stages of ovaries were divided into five stages (II, III, IV, V, and VI) by histological analysis. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) values increased and peaked at stage IV and stage V, respectively, and then declined at stage VI. Pituitary GH mRNA levels decreased sharply at stage III and raised to top level at stage VI. The hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels ascended to maximum value at stage V and then declined significantly at stage VI. However, the hepatic IGF-II mRNA levels remained stable and increased significantly at stage VI. In contrast, the ovarian IGF-I mRNA levels increased gradually and peaked at stage VI. The ovarian IGF-II mRNA levels were initially stable and increased significantly at stage V until the top level at stage VI. Consistent with the pituitary GH mRNA levels, plasma GH levels reduced sharply at stage III and remained depressed until stage V and then raised remarkably at stage VI. Plasma IGF-I level peaked at stage V and then declined to initial level. Plasma E2 level peaked at stage IV and then dramatically descended to the basal level. Plasma T level peaked at stage V and then declined significantly back to the basal level. Based on statistical analysis, significant positive correlations between hepatic IGF-I mRNA and GSI, ovarian IGF-II mRNA and hepatic IGF-II mRNA, ovarian IGF-I mRNA and ovarian IGF-II mRNA, and plasma IGF-I and

  19. 火龙果加工综合利用状况%Research Progress of Processing and Comprehensive Utilization of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春华; 李进学; 龚琪; 高俊燕; 岳建强

    2014-01-01

    综述火龙果花、果皮、果肉及种仁各部位的营养保健价值及其加工利用的研究现状,提出对火龙果进行精深加工利用、研究开发新产品、提高产品附加值的建议,旨在为火龙果资源的综合开发利用提供参考依据。%This paper summarized the nutrition and health care values of flower, fruit peel, pulp and seeds of pitaya, and research status of their processing and utilization, put forward some proposals such as deep processing and utilization of pitaya, research and development of new products, and improving product added value, in order to provide reference for comprehensive exploitation and utilization of resources of pitaya.

  20. 台湾红肉火龙果新品种栽培技术%Cultivation and management techniques of new red flesh pitaya cultivar from Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗渊; 潘礼明; 林敏; 黄鹏

    2015-01-01

    Red flesh pitaya is one of the fine pitaya varieties and shows some merits such as big fruit size,high quality and high yield after introduction into Fuqing City. This paper stated key points of cultivation and management of red flesh pitaya from some aspects including field selection,seedling selection,field management and harvest.%红肉火龙果是火龙果的优良品种,在福清市引种后,表现出果大、质优、丰产等优点。该文从种植地选择、种苗选育、田间管理和果实采收等方面总结红肉火龙果的栽培管理要点。

  1. Variabilidade genética de acessos de pitaya com diferentes níveis de produção por meio de marcadores RAPD Pitaya accesses genetic variability with different pruduction levels through RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie de pitaya mais cultivada atualmente é Hylocereus undatus, a pitaya-vermelha-de-polpa-branca. Colômbia e México são os principais produtores mundiais e, devido à sua rusticidade, a pitaya é considerada uma alternativa potencialmente viável também para o aproveitamento de solos pedregosos, arenosos e maciços rochosos. Apesar da crescente demanda, ainda não há uma cultivar lançada no mercado que atenda às necessidades climáticas de produção e às exigências do consumidor brasileiro. O presente trabalho é parte do programa de seleção e melhoramento da pitaya CPAC PY-01 da Embrapa Cerrados. Objetivou-se realizar o estudo da variabilidade genética de 16 acessos de pitayas mantidos na coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Cerrados, apresentando diferentes características fenotípicas relacionadas especialmente à produção, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído, e onze iniciadores decâmeros foram utilizados para a obtenção de marcadores moleculares RAPD, que foram convertidos em matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Foram obtidos 111 marcadores RAPD, perfazendo uma média de 10,1 marcadores por primer, dos quais 45 (40,54% foram polimórficos. As distâncias genéticas entre os 16 acessos variaram entre 0,006 e 0,148. As maiores distâncias genéticas foram obtidas entre os acessos "52" e "61", sendo que, em 2007, o primeiro produziu mais de 25 frutos, e o segundo, nenhum. Assim, deduz-se que, nesse caso, a próvável causa da variação seja genotípica. As menores distâncias genéticas foram constatadas entre os acessos "63"e "55" e entre "19"e "59". Os dois grupos apresentaram valores de produção próximos. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD mostraram que, mesmo dentro da mesma espécie, há variabilidade gen

  2. Diversidade genética de pitayas nativas do cerrado com base em marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of native pitaya native from brazilian savannas with basis on RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Pereira Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As pitayas do Cerrado vegetam naturalmente sobre maciços rochosos de arenito ou quartzito, troncos de árvores e em solos arenosos de campos rupestres de Minas Gerais, Bahia, Goiás, Distrito Federal, Tocantins, Rio de Janeiro e Bahia, havendo fortes evidências de que a região central do Brasil seja o maior centro de dispersão das pitayas, tendo em vista a grande diversidade fenotípica observada em acessos coletados. Objetivou-se realizar o estudo da diversidade genética de 13 acessos de pitayas mantidos na coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Cerrados por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. O DNA genômico de cada acesso foi extraído, e quatorze iniciadores decâmeros foram utilizados para a obtenção de marcadores moleculares RAPD, que foram convertidos em matriz de dados binários, a partir da qual foram estimadas as distâncias genéticas entre os acessos com base no complemento do coeficiente de similaridade de Nei e Li (1979 e realizadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica. Foram obtidos 162 marcadores RAPD, perfazendo uma média de 11,57 marcadores por primer. Do total de marcadores, 154 (95,06% foram polimórficos. As distâncias genéticas variaram entre 0,088 e 0,848, sendo que os maiores valores observados se referem a distância entre o acesso de Unaí-MG e o acesso Seleção Embrapa Cerrados. O acesso que mais se diferenciou dos demais foi "Unaí-MG", que apresentou uma distância genética média de 0,675 em relação aos demais acessos. A alta distância genética verificada é devido ao fato de os referidos acessos não pertencerem à mesma espécie. Os agrupamentos dos acessos de pitaya pouco se relacionaram com a origem geográfica dos mesmos. A grande diversidade genética das pitayas encontradas no Cerrado permite incluir esse Bioma no centro de diversidade e abre boas perspectivas para maiores estudos acerca do potencial dessa frutífera.Brazilian savanna pitayas

  3. Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Ki; Kim, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-07-01

    Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period. For plasma components, calcium and magnesium levels in plasma were generally decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and glucose level was also mainly increased over 60mg Pb/kg. Total protein was significantly decreased over 120mg Pb/kg after 4 weeks exposure. Glucose and total protein showed the restoration after the depuration period in groups of fish exposed previously to over 60 and 120mg Pb/kg, respectively. However, other parameters that changed during the exposure over 60mg Pb/kg did not recovered. For enzymatic components in plasma, glutamic oxalate transminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvate transminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased over 120mg Pb/kg, and there was only restoration observed after the depuration for ALP over 120mg Pb/kg.

  4. Financial assessment of investment projects on crop fruits in Colombia. a case sutdy pitaya Evaluación financiera de proyectos de inversión en frutales en Colombia. El caso Pitaya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Nilson

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A financial assessment and asensitivity analysis for a yellow pitaya (Selenicereus megalanthus Schuman ex. F.Vaupel crop, based on the methodology for evaluation of financial investments, were performed. The spreadsheet Quattro was utilized. Data on yield per plant, cropdensity, and fruit price were modified simulating real scenarios for the pitaya cropin Colombia. The results show a high sensitivity of the project to thase three factors. One of the important conclusions is that investment projects on crops in which technology and markets are not stabilized should be very strict in the analysis of the internal return rate and its sensitivity.

    A partir de la metodología de evaluación financiera de proyectos de inversión se analizó la rentabilidad y sensibilidad de un proyecto para un cultivo de pitaya amarilla (Selenicereus megalanthus Schuman ex F. Vaupel a través de la utilización de una hoja electrónica. Datos sobre producción por planta, densidad de siembra y precio de la fruta se modificaron simulando escenarios reales del cultivo en Colombia. Los resultados muestran una alta sensibilidad del proyecto a estos factores de variabilidad. Una de las conclusiones importantes es que proyectos de inversión en productos cuya tecnología y mercados no están suficientemente estabilizados, deben ser exigentes en el análisis de su rentabilidad y sensibilidad. 

  5. Growth and reproductive characteristics of the columnar cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis and their relationships with environmental factors and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta-Barrios, Eulogio; Pimienta-Barrios, Enrique; Salas-Galván, Mariá Eugenia; Zañudo-Hernandez, Julia; Nobel, Park S

    2002-06-01

    Three natural populations of pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum), a columnar arborescent cactus, were studied in their subtropical environments in western Mexico. All of the sites were characterized by shallow, nutrient-poor soils. Percentage of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi, stem growth, fruit mass, and percentage germination were greater in S. queretaroensis at Autlan, Jalisco (AJ) than at Zacoalco de Torres, Jalisco (ZTJ) or Santa Rosa, Zacatecas (SRZ). The onset of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae during the middle of the summer wet period preceded increases in stem extension rate and stem phosphorus concentration. Based on previous studies of effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis, climatic conditions were more favorable for photosynthesis at AJ than at SRZ and ZTJ, as indicated by the amount of summer rainfall, the amount of light, and the moderate air temperatures that prevailed during the fall and winter seasons. There was a significant positive correlation between stem growth and percentage of total root length colonized by arbuscules of AM fungi for S. queretaroensis at SRZ and AJ, but not at ZTJ. A negative significant correlation was observed between stem growth and maximal and minimal air temperatures at the three study sites. Stem growth was positively related to rainfall only at SRZ, and light was statistically related to stem growth only at ZTJ. Among sites, S. queretaroensis at AJ had the highest carbon gain and greatest AM colonization, creating physiological conditions that led to the highest stem growth, fruit mass and percentage of seed germination.

  6. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya: MADURACIÓN Y SENESCENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCÍA ESTRELLA BAQUERO DUARTE

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre algunos síntomas de deterioro y la actividad de enzimas vinculadas tanto con el pardeamiento como con el sistema antioxidante en frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y alma- cenados durante 15 días a 24 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. En los frutos enteros se evaluaron la intensidad respiratoria y el color externo; en la corteza se determinaron la actividad de catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO. Los fru- tos exhibieron un comportamiento climatérico luego de seis días de la cosecha. El pardeamiento de la corteza tuvo una relación directa con la actividad de POD y PFO. La máxima actividad de CAT observada en el climaterio responde al balance ade- cuado con la alta producción de H2O2 esperada en ese momento. P

  7. Purification and characterisation of a novel amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2014-12-15

    An amylase enzyme from pitaya peel was purified 234.2-folds with 72.1% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 42.1kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the amylase were 2.7 mg/ml and 34.30 u/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range from pH 3 to pH 11.0, with optimum activity being observed at pH 5.0. The enzyme was highly selective for soluble starch, amylopectin, glycogen and pulullan. The purified amylase did not require calcium and displayed extreme stability with regard to surfactants and oxidising agents. EDTA, a powerful chelating agent, did not have any significant effect on the stability of the enzyme. Such characteristics have not been previously reported for this type of enzyme from fruit peel. This enzyme, which possesses unique properties, could be widely used in different types of industries, especially in food and biotechnological applications.

  8. Optimization of Natural Lipstick Formulation Based on Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Seed Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norsuhaili Kamairudin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The D-optimal mixture experimental design was employed to optimize the melting point of natural lipstick based on pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus seed oil. The influence of the main lipstick components—pitaya seed oil (10%–25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (25%–45% w/w, beeswax (5%–25% w/w, candelilla wax (1%–5% w/w and carnauba wax (1%–5% w/w—were investigated with respect to the melting point properties of the lipstick formulation. The D-optimal mixture experimental design was applied to optimize the properties of lipstick by focusing on the melting point with respect to the above influencing components. The D-optimal mixture design analysis showed that the variation in the response (melting point could be depicted as a quadratic function of the main components of the lipstick. The best combination of each significant factor determined by the D-optimal mixture design was established to be pitaya seed oil (25% w/w, virgin coconut oil (37% w/w, beeswax (17% w/w, candelilla wax (2% w/w and carnauba wax (2% w/w. With respect to these factors, the 46.0 °C melting point property was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 46.5 °C. Carnauba wax is the most influential factor on this response (melting point with its function being with respect to heat endurance. The quadratic polynomial model sufficiently fit the experimental data.

  9. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya (dragon fruit) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Cai, Yongqiang; Peng, Zhijun; Liu, Tao; Yang, Shengjie

    2014-01-03

    Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits, and pitaya fruits have gained popularity in many countries all over the world. However, studies on chemical composition and the nutritional quality of pitaya flesh peel are limited. Extracts of pitaya (H. polyrhizus and H. undatus) peel were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities were investigated. The main components of H. polyrhizus extract were β-amyrin (15.87%), α-amyrin (13.90%), octacosane (12.2%), γ-sitosterol (9.35%), octadecane (6.27%), 1-tetracosanol (5.19%), stigmast-4-en-3-one (4.65%), and campesterol (4.16%), whereas H. undatus were β-amyrin (23.39%), γ-sitosterol (19.32%), and octadecane (9.25%), heptacosane (5.52%), campesterol (5.27%), nonacosane (5.02%), and trichloroacetic acid, hexadecyl ester (5.21%). Both of the two extracts possessed good cytotoxic activities against PC3, Bcap-37, and MGC-803 cells (IC50 values ranging from 0.61 to 0.73 mg/mL), and the activities of their main components were also studied. Furthermore, these extracts also presented some radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 0.83 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively. This paper provides evidence for studying the chemical composition of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of pitaya peel and their biological activity.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a catalase gene "HuCAT3" from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and its expression under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qiong; Gao, Guo-Li; Fan, Qing-jie; Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Tao; Peng, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yong-Qiang

    2015-05-25

    Abiotic stresses usually cause H2O2 accumulation, with harmful effects, in plants. Catalase may play a key protective role in plant cells by detoxifying this excess H2O2. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) shows broad ecological adaptation due to its high tolerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought, heat and poor soil. However, involvement of the pitaya catalase gene (HuCAT) in tolerance to abiotic stresses is unknown. In the present study, a full-length HuCAT3 cDNA (1870 bp) was isolated from pitaya based on our previous microarray data and RACE method. The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence shared 73-77% and 75-80% identity with other plant catalases, respectively. HuCAT3 contains conserved catalase family domain and catalytic sites. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HuCAT3 is most similar to Eriobotrya japonica CAT, followed by Dimocarpus longan CAT and Nicotiana tabacum CAT1. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that HuCAT3 is mainly expressed in green cotyledons and mature stems, and was regulated by H2O2, drought, cold and salt stress, whereas, its expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with stress types. HuCAT activity increased as exposure to the tested stresses, and the fluctuation of HuCAT activity was consistent with HuCAT3 mRNA abundance (except for 0.5 days upon drought stress). HuCAT3 mRNA elevations and HuCAT activities changes under cold stress were also in conformity with the cold tolerances among the four genotypes. The obtained results confirmed a major role of HuCAT3 in abiotic stress response of pitaya. This may prove useful in understanding pitaya's high tolerance to abiotic stresses at molecular level.

  11. 火龙果栽培的整形修剪技术%The Trimming and Pruning Technology of Pitaya Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷业理

    2014-01-01

    整形修剪是火龙果栽培关键技术之一,由于缺乏规范化的技术指导,果农操作的随意性很大,对产量和品质产生了不利的影响,影响了火龙果栽培技术的推广应用。该文以实践经验为基础,全面阐述了整形修剪的作用和注意事项,规范了操作程序,方法具体,标准量化,具有很强的可操作性,便于果农正确掌握,对发展火龙果生产具有实际指导意义。%The trimming and pruning is one of the key technology of Pitaya cultivation. Due to lack of stan-dardization of technical guidance,fruit farmers use different methods to plant Pitaya,which make the nega-tive impact on improving the yield and quality of Pitaya's produce,meanwhile,the non-standard plant tech-nology also affects the promotion and application of the Pitaya's cultivation technology. Based on the practi-cal experience,the paper comprehensively presents the functions and the precautions of trimming and prun-ing and standardizes the operating procedures. The technology is concrete and has quantitative standard and strong operability. It's also easy for fruit farmers to master the technology. The paper has a practical guiding significance to the production of the Pitaya.

  12. 火龙果水晶钵仔糕的制备%Study on the Technology of Healthy Pitaya Pastry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 谭文俊; 许胜嘉

    2012-01-01

    以新鲜火龙果汁、黏米粉、澄面粉为主要原料,研制出组织状态、色泽和口感均优良的火龙果水晶钵仔糕。采用正交试验对其生产工艺和配方进行了研究。结果表明:适宜工艺参数为火龙果汁21%,黏米粉17%,澄面粉13%,白砂糖17%。经检测,其理化、卫生和微生物指标均符合NY/T1890—2010绿色食品蒸制类糕点标准要求。%With fresh pitaya juice, sticky rice flour, yicheng flour as the main raw material, the Pitaya Pastry was made and showed good sensory properties and health functions. Using orthogonal test, the optimum formula and production process were studied. The optimum process parameters were: fruit juice 21%, sticky rice flour 17%, yicheng flour 13% , sugar 17%. Through inspecting, the physical-chemical, hygiene and microbiological indexes all met the standard requirements of NY/T 1890-2010 Green Food Steamed Pastry.

  13. White Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Juice Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhao Song

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are the most common complications of obesity. Pitaya is an important source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoid and vitamin C which are related to its antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of white pitaya juice (WPJ on obesity-related metabolic disorders (e.g. insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into four groups and fed low-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ, or fed high-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ for 14 weeks. Our results showed that administration of WPJ improved high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, but it exerted no influence on body weight gain in mice. Hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that WPJ supplement not only changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism (Srebp1, HMGCoR, Cpt1b, HL, Insig1 and Insig2 but also significantly increased the expression levels of FGF21-related genes (Klb, FGFR2, Egr1 and cFos. In conclusion, WPJ protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, which was associated with the improved FGF21 resistance and lipid metabolism.

  14. White Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) Juice Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Zihuan; Wu, Jianan; Lai, Jia; Chu, Qiang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are the most common complications of obesity. Pitaya is an important source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoid and vitamin C which are related to its antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of white pitaya juice (WPJ) on obesity-related metabolic disorders (e.g. insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis) in high-fat diet-fed mice. Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into four groups and fed low-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ, or fed high-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ for 14 weeks. Our results showed that administration of WPJ improved high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, but it exerted no influence on body weight gain in mice. Hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that WPJ supplement not only changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism (Srebp1, HMGCoR, Cpt1b, HL, Insig1 and Insig2) but also significantly increased the expression levels of FGF21-related genes (Klb, FGFR2, Egr1 and cFos). In conclusion, WPJ protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, which was associated with the improved FGF21 resistance and lipid metabolism.

  15. Influência da condição e período de armazenamento na germinação de sementes de pitaya vermelha Influence of the condition and storage period in germination of red pitaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Sementes do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP - Câmpus de Jaboticabal-São Paulo, utilizando sementes extraídas de fruto maduro de pitaya, as quais foram lavadas, secadas em condição ambiente por 24 horas e acondicionadas em sacos de papel, dispostas segundo os tratamentos a serem realizados: 3 condições de armazenamento das sementes: ambiente; câmara seca (16-18ºC e 60% UR e câmara fria (10ºC e 60-70% UR, e 4 tempos de armazenamento: 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a extração das sementes, além da semeadura logo em seguida à extração das sementes (testemunha. Após esses períodos, as sementes foram acondicionadas em caixas gerbox, tendo como substrato papel de filtro e mantidas em câmara de germinação à temperatura constante de 25ºC. Com base nos resultados encontrados, pode-se concluir que as sementes de pitaya vermelha podem ser armazenadas em câmara fria por até 28 dias sem prejuízos à porcentagem de germinação.The experiment was carried out in the Department of Vegetable Production of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus of Jaboticabal- São Paulo State - Brazil, using seeds that were extracted from ripe fruit, that were washed, drying in environmental condition during 24 hours and conditioned in paper bags, disposed according to the treatments: 3 storage conditions of the seeds: environmental; dry chamber (16-18ºC e 60% UR and cold chamber (10ºC e 60-70% UR, and 4 storage periods: 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the extraction of the seeds, besides of the seedling immediately of the extraction of the seeds. After these periods the seeds were conditioned in gerbox boxes, having as substrate filter of paper and maintained in a germination chamber with a constant temperature of 25ºC. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that the seeds of red pitaya can be storage in cold chamber

  16. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  17. Study on extraction natural red pigment form pitaya skin%火龙果果皮色素提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彬霞; 赵文红; 白卫东; 钱敏; 李夏雷

    2011-01-01

    火龙果果皮色素是从火龙果果品加工副产物果皮中提取的天然色素,具有“天然、营养、多功能”等多重优点,故作为添加剂在食品加工业、化妆品制造业等中都具有很好的应用前景.本实验拟实现火龙果的综合利用,提高火龙果的附加值,拓展其应用范围,研究了从火龙果果皮中提取红色素的工艺条件.选用火龙果果皮为原料,对火龙果果皮内红色素采用溶剂浸提法进行提取,研究材料的储存方法、浸提液种类、液料比、浸提时间、浸提温度以及pH对色素提取的影响,确定最适的工艺条件:对火龙果果皮进行冷冻储存;浸提液为去离子水;液料比为5∶1;浸提时间30min;浸提温度50℃;浸提液pH6时,可以得到高产率、高色值、安全的火龙果果皮红色素.%Pitaya (Hylocereus undutusL) peel pigment, a natural pigment extracted from pitaya peel, is a by -product during the processing of pitaya. The pigment has multiple advantages such as natural, nutritional, muld -functional. It has a good application in food industry, cosmetics manufacturing and m any other fields as additives. This experiment discussed the comprehensive utilization, the additional value and potential application of the pigment. The extracting condition of red pigment from the pitaya peel was studied. Pitaya peel was used as raw materials and pigment was extracted by solvent extraction. The influence factors such as storage of raw material, the type of the extract solvents and its ratio, the extraction time and the temperature , the pH on yield of pigment were studied. The optimum technological conditions were; refrigerator storage of pitaya peel, deionized water extraction at ratio of 5:1, extraction 30 min, 50 ℃, pH 6.

  18. ESTUDIO DE LA ACTIVIDAD ENZIMÁTICA DE POLIGALACTURONASA EN LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHANNA PAOLA RODRÍGUEZ CASTRO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad poligalacturonasa en corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya. El buffer fosfato de sodio 20 mM pH 7,0 con NaCl 0,5 M se constituyó en el sistema más efectivo para la extracción. Se obtuvieron valores óptimos de actividad a pH 5,0 en buffer citratos, a una temperatura de 40 °C. Los valores de KM y VMÁX hallados para esta enzima fueron 2,9 mg ácido poligalacturónico/ml y 0,076 nmol de azúcares reductores/s, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la poligalacturonasa está vinculada con el ablandamiento de este fruto.

  19. Estudio de la actividad enzimática poligaracturinasa en la corteza de pitaya amarilla (acanthocereus pitajaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Castro, Johanna Paola; Narváez Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Restrepo Sánchez, Luz Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la actividad poligalacturonasa en corteza de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya). El buffer fosfato de sodio 20 mM pH 7,0 con NaCl 0,5 M se constituyó en el sistema más efectivo para la extracción. Se obtuvieron valores óptimos de actividad a pH 5,0 en buffer citratos, a una temperatura de 40 °C. Los valores de KM y VMÁX hallados para esta enzima fueron 2,9 mg ácido poligalacturónico/ml y 0,076 nmol de azúcares reductores/s, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que la po...

  20. 台湾常见火龙果产期调节技术%Biological characteristics and maturity regulating technology of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 翁武斌

    2015-01-01

    Maturity regulating is one of the key technologies in fruit production. Biological characteristics of pitaya and several maturity regulating technology measures commonly used in Taiwan pitaya production were introduced in this paper,including training and pruning,light treatment during the night,hydrophobic treatment and drug treatment,etc.%产期调节是果树生产上的关键技术之一。该文介绍火龙果的生物学特性及台湾生产上常见的几种火龙果产期调节技术措施,包括整枝修剪、夜间灯照、疏花处理及药剂处理等。

  1. Adubação orgânica e intensidade luminosa no crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial da Pitaya em Bom Jesus-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma cactácea de sub-bosque, originária de florestas tropicais do México e das Américas Central e do Sul, pouco estudada no Brasil, principalmente quanto à sua resposta à intensidade luminosa e adubação. Nesse sentido, realizou-se um experimento objetivando avaliar crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial da pitaya em função da intensidade luminosa e adubação orgânica. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, referentes, respectivamente, aos níveis de adubação orgânica (0; 5; 10; 20 e 30 L de esterco bovino cova-1 e aos percentuais de luz (0; 50 e 75% de sombreamento, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados semanalmente diâmetro do cladódio (mm, altura de estacas (cm e comprimento do ramo secundário (cm; ao final do experimento, massa fresca da parte aérea e massas secas de raiz e parte aérea (g, sendo que para as variáveis mensuradas, semanalmente, foram calculados os respectivos incrementos percentuais semanais. Segundo os resultados do presente trabalho, no cultivo da pitaya, é necessário o uso de cobertura contra a incidência direta dos raios solares, onde as estruturas com 50% ou 75% de luminosidade podem ser usadas. O fornecimento de 20 L cova-1 de esterco bovino pode ser adotado como quantitativo no preparo de covas de pitaya, nas condições de clima e solo de Bom Jesus-PI.

  2. 不同采后处理对火龙果贮藏品质的影响%Effect of Different Postharvest Disposes on Storage Quality of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 何绪晓; 李胜海; 邓仁菊

    2014-01-01

    为了解复合保鲜剂对火龙果常温贮藏的效果,研究了1-MCP、CaCl2、壳聚糖对火龙果常温贮藏期品质的影响,结果表明:常温条件下火龙果的货架期为8 d左右,不同复合保鲜试验处理贮藏的整体效果优于对照,以1.0μg/L 1-MCP+2%CaCl2+2%壳聚糖的复合保鲜剂处理效果最佳。%In order to understand the effect of compound preservative on pitaya stored at ambient temperature , the author stud-ied the effects of 1-MCP, CaCl2 and chitosan on the storage quality of pitaya at normal temperature .The results showed that:under the condition of normal temperature , the shelf life of pitaya was about 8 days, different composite fresh -keeping treatments obtained better integral storage effect than the control , and the treatment with the compound preservatives 1.0μg/L 1-MCP+2%CaCl2 +2%chitosan had the best storage effect .

  3. Comparison of the effects of dietary single and multi-probiotics on growth, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Lee, Seunghan; Hong, Jeongwhui; Won, Seonghun; Lee, Jong Min; Yun, Hyeonho; Kim, Kang-Woong; Ko, Daegyun; Bai, Sungchul C

    2016-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics on growth performance and non-specific immune responses in starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Fish averaging 46.5 ± 0.65 g (mean ± SD) were fed one of the six experimental diets; one control (Cont), and five other diets were prepared by supplementing single-probiotics 1 (Bacillus subtilis; SP1, 2 × 10(9) CFU kg(-1) diet), single-probiotics 2 (Bacillus licheniformis; SP2, 2 × 10(9) CFU kg(-1) diet), multi-probiotics 1 (Bacillus subtilis + Bacillus licheniformis; MP1, 2 × 10(9) CFU kg(-1) diet), multi-probiotics 2 (commercial probiotics; Bacillus subtills + Bacillus licheniformis + Paenibacillus polymyxa + Aspergillus oryzae + Saccharomyces cerevisiae; MP2, 2 × 10(9) CFU kg(-1) diet) and oxytetracycline (OTC) at 5 g OTC kg(-1) diet. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed SP1, MP1 and MP2 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed control diet (P probiotics were equally effective statistically. These results demonstrated that single or multi-probiotics had equal beneficial effect as an antibiotic replacer in terms of growth performance, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in starry flounder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of differentially-expressed genes potentially implicated in drought response in pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qing-Jie; Yan, Feng-Xia; Qiao, Guang; Zhang, Bing-Xue; Wen, Xiao-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most severe threats to the growth, development and yield of plant. In order to unravel the molecular basis underlying the high tolerance of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) to drought stress, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray approaches were firstly combined to identify the potential important or novel genes involved in the plant responses to drought stress. The forward (drought over drought-free) and reverse (drought-free over drought) suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using in vitro shoots of cultivar 'Zihonglong' exposed to drought stress and drought-free (control). A total of 2112 clones, among which half were from either forward or reverse SSH library, were randomly picked up to construct a pitaya cDNA microarray. Microarray analysis was carried out to verify the expression fluctuations of this set of clones upon drought treatment compared with the controls. A total of 309 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 153 from forward library and 156 from reverse library, were obtained, and 138 unique ESTs were identified after sequencing by clustering and blast analyses, which included genes that had been previously reported as responsive to water stress as well as some functionally unknown genes. Thirty six genes were mapped to 47 KEGG pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and amino acid metabolism of pitaya. Expression analysis of the selected ESTs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) corroborated the results of differential screening. Moreover, time-course expression patterns of these selected ESTs further confirmed that they were closely responsive to drought treatment. Among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), many are related to stress tolerances including drought tolerance. Thereby, the mechanism of drought tolerance of this pitaya genotype is a very complex physiological and biochemical process, in

  5. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  6. 国内外火龙果研究进展及产业发展现状%Present Research Status and Industrial Development of Pitaya at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 蔡永强

    2011-01-01

    To provide reference and basis for production and scientific research of pitaya in China, in this paper, the present research status and industrial development of pitaya were reviewed, application and development prospect were clarified and suggestions on problems existing in research and industrial development of pitaya and research directions in the future were proposed as well.%为给我国火龙果的生产和科研提供参考和依据,综述了国内外火龙果研究进展及产业的概况,阐明了火龙果的应用及发展前景,并对火龙果研究和产业发展中存在的问题和未来研究方向提出了建议.

  7. Nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from wheat flour and pitaya (Hylocereus undatus peel flour blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hoon Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food waste produced from fruits and vegetables processing plants possesses an important natural and valuable material in producing less expensive functional food due to the presence of several bioactive substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory quality of the control, wheat flour cookies substituted with 5, 10, and 15% pitaya peel flour (PPF. The proximate analyses results demonstrated that PPF-containing cookies had significantly higher ash, fiber, and carbohydrate content but lower moisture and protein than the control. Physical analyses results showed that cookies incorporated with PPF had higher diameter and spread ratio but lower crumb height than the control. Sensory evaluation results indicated that wheat flour partially substituted with PPF up to 15% level did not affect to the overall acceptability ratings of cookies by panelists. Thus it can be concluded that PPF can be partially substituted for wheat flour in cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory acceptability of composite cookies.

  8. 火龙果果汁饮料护色工艺%Colour Protection Process of Pitaya Juice Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国芳; 周俊良; 许倩; 张兴无

    2012-01-01

    选用D-异抗坏血酸钠、茶多酚、VE、无水亚硫酸钠和植酸5种抗氧化剂为护色剂进行试验,通过火龙果汁色泽的保持率,评判其护色效果,同时对3种灭菌方式进行对比研究.实验结果表明:煮沸灭菌结合添加D-异抗坏血酸钠的护色效果最佳,当D-异抗坏血酸钠的添加量为0.013%时,保持率为最大达到77.42%.%The antioxidants, including D-erythorbate sodium, polyphenols, vitamin E, anhydrous sodium sulfite and phytic acid were selected as a color fixative of Pitaya juice beverage. The comparison of different sterilization method on color retention was also studied. The results showed that combination of bulliat sterilization with 0. 013% D-erythorbate sodium was the best color protection and the retention rate was up to 77. 42%.

  9. Avaliação de características físico-químicas de frutos de duas espécies de pitaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andréa de Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características físico-químicas dos frutos de 21 acessos de duas espécies de pitaya, Hylocereus undatus e Selenicereus setaceus. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, sendo cada repetição a média de três frutos. Foram analisados comprimento e diâmetro dos frutos, sólidos solúveis, massa total da casca e da polpa dos frutos. As análises de variância foram realizadas por meio do programa Genes e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Scott e Knott, a 5% de significância. Foram determinados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson entre as diferentes características analisadas. Os acessos 02 e 05 da espécie H. undatus destacam-se por apresentarem maiores comprimento, diâmetro e massa dos frutos, comparando com os dos demais acessos. A espécie S. setaceus apresenta maior teor de sólidos solúveis da polpa dos frutos, diferenciando-se significativamente da espécie H. undatus. Altos valores foram encontrados para herdabilidade e CVg, para as características físicas dos frutos de pitaya, estimativas importantes para se determinarem estratégias de seleção e para se estimar o ganho genético. Os resultados das correlações indicam que quanto maior o tamanho e a massa, menor é o teor de sólidos solúveis na polpa dos frutos de pitaya.

  10. 火龙果果汁饮料的杀菌工艺%Sterilization Process of the Pitaya Fruit Juice Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧; 余定浪; 张兴无

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure the quality of pitaya fruit juice beverage and filter out the best sterilized method, Prepared pitaya fruit juice beverage was sterilized with different sterilized ways such as water bath,microwave heating,ozone sterilization through the sensory evaluation, determination of mecrobes and physico-chemical parameters, then they were compared using Duncan's honestly significant difference multiple comparison test. The results showed that the best sterilization process was microwave heating for 1. 5 min. The sterilized pitaya fruit juice beverage contained amino nitrogen 4. 85 mg/100 mL and Vc 0. 85 mg/L, and the sterilization process had little destructiveness to the nutritional components such as total sugar, amino nitrogen and Vc.%为筛选出最佳的杀菌方法,保证火龙果果汁饮料的品质,将配制好的火龙果果汁饮料分别进行水浴、微波加热、臭氧杀菌处理,通过感官评分、微生物检验及理化指标测定,并进行Duncan多重比较.结果表明:最佳的杀菌工艺参数为微波高火加热1.5 min,杀菌后饮料中的氨基态氮为4.85 mg/100 mL,维生素C含量为0.85 mg/L,对总糖、氨基态氮和维生素C等营养成分的破坏较小.

  11. Study on the Processing TechnoIogy of Pitaya Vinegar%红心火龙果营养果醋加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓怡; 何艳梅; 覃丽娟; 郑惠霓; 何小珍; 王玲

    2016-01-01

    Using pitaya as raw material,the optimal processing technology of pitaya vinegar is discussed by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The result shows that the alcoholic fermentation conditions are yeast inoculum size of 8%,fermentation temperature of 28 ℃ and fermentation time of 6 days;the acetic acid fermentation conditions are acetic bacteria inoculum size of 10%,initial alcoholicity of 6%,fermentation temperature of 33 ℃,fermentation time of 6 days. Under such conditions,the pitaya vinegar with brown color,outstanding flavor,strong fruity and moderate sourness is produced.%以红心火龙果为原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验,探讨火龙果果醋生产的最佳工艺条件。经实验结果证明:其最佳酒精发酵工艺条件为发酵温度28℃,酵母接种量8%,发酵时间6天;醋酸发酵工艺条件为温度33℃,恒温发酵6天,起始酒精度6%,醋酸菌接种量10%。在此工艺条件下能生产出色泽棕红、风味突出、果香浓郁、酸味柔和的火龙果果醋。

  12. Fenologia reprodutiva de pitaia vermelha no município de Lavras, MG Reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Braga Marques

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do comportamento fenológico pode contribuir para melhorar a produtividade das culturas e a qualidade dos frutos. O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia reprodutiva da pitaia vermelha em Lavras, MG, Brasil. Foram avaliados em cem plantas de pitaia vermelha (Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose os períodos das subfases desde a emissão das gemas até a maturação dos frutos de 2008 a 2010. O botão floral se desenvolve no período de 19 a 21 dias. A antese é noturna que dura aproximadamente 15 horas. A maturação do fruto ocorre de 30 a 40 dias após a abertura da flor, quando o fruto adquire a coloração rosa a vermelho intenso e a textura firme. Em Lavras, MG o período reprodutivo da pitaia ocorre de novembro a maio e tempo do aparecimento do botão floral até a colheita do fruto é de 50 a 60 dias.The study of phenology can contribute to improve the productivity of crops and fruit quality. The study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive phenology of red pitaya in Lavras, MG, Brazil. It was evaluated in one hundred plants of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose the subphase's periods from the issuance of buds to fruit ripening from 2008 to 2010. The bud develops from 19 to 21 days. The anthesis is nocturnal which lasts about 15 hours. The maturation occurs from 30 to 40 days after flower opening, when the fruit acquires color pink to deep red and firm texture. In Lavras, MG the reproductive period of red pitaya occurs from November to May and the time of appearance of flower buds to fruit harvest is from 50 to 60 days.

  13. Rapid and large-scale synthesis of pitaya-like silver nanostructures as highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingli; Zhu, Xiashi

    2013-02-15

    A new wet-chemical approach to prepare surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates with pitaya-like silver nanostructures (PSNs) was proposed. It has been found that the morphology of as-prepared products is dependent on the reaction parameters. PSNs exhibit a high detection sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) with a limit of detection of 1.0 × 10(-13) mol L(-1). This facile, large-scale, low-cost, and green chemistry synthesized Ag nanostructures make it a perfect choice for practical SERS detection applications.

  14. 火龙果花中多酚类化合物抗氧化活性研究①%Antioxidant Activity of Pitaya Flower Polyphenol Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国胜; 张伟敏

    2016-01-01

    The pitaya flower polyphenol compounds in antioxidant activity were studied. Using antioxidant activity in vitro methods, research the pitaya flower polyphenol compounds in reducing power, scavenging·OH, O2-, DPPH, ABTS·four kinds of free radical ability to evaluate its antioxidant and BHT as the positive control.The results showed that pitaya flower polyphenol compounds in antioxidant capacity and concentration (0.4~08 mg/mL) assumes the concentration-response relationship. Although the overall antioxidant activity is less than BHT, but the overall trend is the same as BHT, at the concentration is 0.7 mg/mL, the scavenging hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and even slightly higher than the contrast solution. Therefore, pitaya flower polyphenol compounds has good antioxidant activity, could be further studied and developed for antioxidant functional food.%对火龙果花中多酚类化合物抗氧化活性进行研究。采用抗氧化能力的体外实验方法,研究火龙果花中多酚类化合物的还原能力、清除·OH、 O2-、 DPPH·和ABTS·四种自由基的能力,以评价其抗氧化性,并以BHT作为阳性对照。结果表明,火龙果花中多酚类化合物抗氧化能力与浓度(0.4~0.8 mg/mL)呈量效关系。虽总体抗氧化活性较弱于BHT,但总体趋势与BHT相同,在浓度为0.7 mg/mL时,其羟自由基清除活性甚至略高于对比溶液。因此,火龙果花中多酚类化合物具有较好的抗氧化活性,可进一步研究开发为抗氧化功能性食品。

  15. Generation of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins in thermally treated purified fruit extract from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) monitored by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2005-08-24

    Pigments of purple pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (F.A.C. Weber) Britton and Rose] fruits were submitted to extraction and were decarboxylated during heating experiments in acidified ethanolic and aqueous solutions. Groups of betacyanins with different decarboxylation levels were identified in the heating products by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The main decarboxylation products were 2-decarboxy-betacyanins, 17-decarboxy-betacyanins, and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins. The structures of other compounds were assigned to 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-betacyanins and 14,15-dehydrogenated derivatives (neo-derivatives) of all decarboxylated betacyanins found.

  16. Pollination Technique of Pitaya with Red Pericarp and Flesh in Rainy Season%红肉型火龙果雨季授粉技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志平; 张阳梅

    2013-01-01

    为减少降雨对火龙果产量造成的损失,探索红肉型火龙果雨季授粉技术,比较了不同降雨类型气候条件下,套袋授粉和自然授粉对火龙果产量和品质的影响.结果表明,与自然授粉相比,红肉型火龙果雨季套袋授粉后,座果率提高18.89%~51.67%,平均单果重提高181.79~201.77 g,增产23006.55~27073.95 kg/hm2,为自然授粉处理的2.63~4.19倍;套袋授粉还促进了火龙果的果实发育,增加了一、二级商品果比率,每公顷比对照净增收18.92~20.62万元,增幅达240.7 %~433.2%,大幅提升了火龙果种植效益,同时对火龙果的内在品质无影响.雨季套袋授粉在生产上是简便、有效、经济、可操作性强的一项技术措施.%In order to reduce yield losses because of rainfall, pollination techniques of pitaya with red pericarp and flesh in rainy season was explored. The effects of different pollination treatments on the yield and quality of pitaya were clarified in different types of rainfall climatic conditions. Compared with natural pollination, pollination with bagging treatment increased fruit-set rate of 18.89%~51.67%, the average weight of 181.79~201.77 g and yield 23 006.55-27 073.95 kg/hm2. Pollination with bagging not only promoted pitaya development but also made higher percentage of commercial fruit and yield as well as economic benefits. The net income over the CK was 189 200-206 200 Yuan/hm2, an increase rate of 240.7%~433.2%. The bagging pollination technique of pitaya with red pericarp and flesh in rainy season is simple, high efficiency and operable.

  17. Adubação orgânica e intensidade luminosa no crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial da Pitaya em Bom Jesus-PI Organic fertlizing and light intensity on initial growth and development of Pitaya in Bom Jesus, Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Herbert Lucena Cavalcante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya é uma cactácea de sub-bosque, originária de florestas tropicais do México e das Américas Central e do Sul, pouco estudada no Brasil, principalmente quanto à sua resposta à intensidade luminosa e adubação. Nesse sentido, realizou-se um experimento objetivando avaliar crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial da pitaya em função da intensidade luminosa e adubação orgânica. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 5 x 3, referentes, respectivamente, aos níveis de adubação orgânica (0; 5; 10; 20 e 30 L de esterco bovino cova-1 e aos percentuais de luz (0; 50 e 75% de sombreamento, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados semanalmente diâmetro do cladódio (mm, altura de estacas (cm e comprimento do ramo secundário (cm; ao final do experimento, massa fresca da parte aérea e massas secas de raiz e parte aérea (g, sendo que para as variáveis mensuradas, semanalmente, foram calculados os respectivos incrementos percentuais semanais. Segundo os resultados do presente trabalho, no cultivo da pitaya, é necessário o uso de cobertura contra a incidência direta dos raios solares, onde as estruturas com 50% ou 75% de luminosidade podem ser usadas. O fornecimento de 20 L cova-1 de esterco bovino pode ser adotado como quantitativo no preparo de covas de pitaya, nas condições de clima e solo de Bom Jesus-PI.Pitaya is a hemiepiphytic cactus native to tropical rainforests of Mexico and Central and South America little studied in Brazil especially in relation to light intensity and fertilizing. In this way, an experiment was realized in 2007 aiming to evaluate the initial growth and development as a function of light intensity and organic fertilizing. A complete randomized blocks design was adopted with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement 5 x 3 referring respectively to organic fertilizing levels (0, 5, 10, 20 e 30 L of bovine manure plant-1 and

  18. EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE PECTIN METIL ESTEARASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya, ENZIMA RELACIONADA CON EL ABLANDAMIENTO Extraction And Assay Of Pectinmethyl Esterase From Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya, Enzyme Vinculated To Softening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID LILIANA CARABALÍ MIRANDA

    Full Text Available En diversas técnicas aplicadas para la conservación en fresco de la pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de su corteza contribuye al deterioro de su calidad. Puesto que pectinmetilestearasa (PME se ha vinculado con el ablandamiento de frutos este estudio se desarrolló con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de los aditivos tritón X-100, NaCl y cisteína en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 sobre la cantidad de proteína extraída y sobre la actividad de PME. También se evaluó la necesidad de recurrir al proceso de diálisis en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0. En la medida de actividad se pusieron a punto el tiempo de incubación, la concentración del cofactor NaCl, pH, temperatura y concentración de sustrato (pectina cítrica. Se encontró que el mejor sistema de extracción fue el compuesto por buffer fosfato 20 mM, pH 7,0 con concentraciones de NaCl que pueden estar entre 0,0 a 1,0 M. La medida de actividad se puede realizar empleando pectina cítrica entre 0,40 a 0,75%, a valores de pH entre 5,0 a 8,0, con incubación a una temperatura entre 40 a 45 °C, durante 2,5 min.Using diverse techniques applied to keep the freshness of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya fruit it has been found that excessive softening of its crust leads to quality deterioration. Since pectinmethyl esterase (PME has been related to fruit softening in this study we evaluated the protein levels and the PME activity after the addition of Triton X-100 1% and NaCl in concentrations from 0 to 2 M in buffer 20 mM phosphate pH 7.0. Effects of cysteine addition and dialysis were also evaluated for the extraction processes. Factors that can affect the activity of PME such as incubation time, different NaCl concentration, as value level of pH during the incubation, temperature and pectin (citric pectin concentration were evaluated. The best system found in this study for PME extraction was buffer phosphate

  19. 1-MCP对火龙果果实采后生理特性的影响%Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene Fumigation Treatment on Physiological Characteristics of Pitaya Fruits during Storage Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 何绪晓; 李胜海; 邓仁菊; 周俊良

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Jinghonglong, a new pitaya variety with white flesh, were fumigated with 1 -MCP to study the effects on fruit hardness, respiration intensity, POO and CAT activity, PG and PE enzymatic activity, content of soluble pectin and insoluble pectin and discuss the anti-aging mechanism of 1-MCP in fresh preservation of pitaya during the storage period. Hie results showed that 1-MCP fumigation treatment delayed reduction of fruit hardness at the late storage period and inhibited the respiratory intensity of pitaya fruits to some extent. The 1 -MCP fumigation treatment delayed the senescence process of pitaya fruits during the earlier storage period, but it accelerated the senescence process of pitaya fruits during the late storage period.%为探明1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)在火龙果果实保鲜过程中的抗衰老作用机理,为火龙果保鲜提供理论依据,以白肉火龙果新品种晶红龙为试验材料,分别研究了1 -MCP处理对火龙果低温贮藏期的果实硬度、呼吸强度、POD、CAT、PG、PE、水溶性果胶和不溶性果胶的影响.结果表明,1-MCP熏蒸处理减缓了火龙果贮藏后期果实硬度下降,对火龙果果实的呼吸作用具有一定的抑制作用;贮藏前期(第24天前)可廷缓火龙果果实衰老,但是在贮藏后期却加速了果实的衰老.

  20. Pitaya Extracts Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on Human Cell Lines of Breast Cancer via Downregulation of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Almeida Bauer Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world and is also the leading cause of cancer death in women. The use of bioactive compounds of functional foods contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and the influence of pitaya extract (PE on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435. PE showed high antioxidant activity and high values of anthocyanins (74.65 ± 2.18. We observed a selective decrease in cell proliferation caused by PE in MCF-7 (ER+ cell line. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PE induced an increase in G0/G1 phase followed by a decrease in G2/M phase. Also, PE induced apoptosis in MCF-7 (ER+ cell line and suppressed BRCA1, BRCA2, PRAB, and Erα gene expression. Finally, we also demonstrate that no effect was observed with MDA-MB-435 cells (ER− after PE treatment. Taken together, the present study suggests that pitaya may have a protective effect against breast cancer.

  1. Purification and characterization of alkaline-thermostable protease enzyme from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) waste: a potential low cost of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid A B D; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-01-01

    The thermoalkaline protease enzyme from pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) waste was purified by a factor of 221.2 with 71.3% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, and cation exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography together with sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 26.7 kDa. The apparent K m and V max of the protease were 2.8 mg/mL and 31.20 u/min, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 70°C. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range (from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0 with the optimum activity at pH 8.0). The protease has broad specificity toward azocasein, casein, hemoglobin, and gelatine. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Fe(2+) and Zn(2+), while protease activity was increased in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) by factors of 125%, 110%, and 105%, respectively. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability toward surfactants and oxidizing agent. The purified protease exhibited extreme stability in the presence of organic solvents and inhibitors. In addition, the enzyme was relativity stable toward organic solvents and chelating agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The enzyme, derived from pitaya peel, possesses unique characteristics and could be used in various industrial and biotechnological applications.

  2. Study on Extraction Technology for Polysaccharides in Pitaya Flower%热水法提取火龙果花多糖的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧颖; 王琦; 陈源; 郑恒光; 余亚白

    2013-01-01

    采用热水法提取火龙果花多糖,研究不同的加热温度、料水比、加热时间等3个单因素对火龙果花多糖提取量的影响,采用L9(33)正交试验确定最佳提取工艺参数.结果表明:在加热温度90℃、料水比1∶35、加热时间3h的条件下,火龙果花多糖的提取效果最好,为55.87 mg·g-1.%Hot water was used for extracting polysaccharide from pitaya flower.Heating temperature,the ratio of solid to liquid,and heating time were three factors used separately in single factor test to analyze the influence of various factor on extraction efficiency.Orthogonal experiment design L9 (33) was applied to optimize the extraction parameters.The results showed that,with ratio solid ∶ liquid in 1 ∶ 35 and extraction temperature at 90℃ for 3h,the best extraction efficiency of polysaccharides from pitaya flower was obtained for 55.87 mg · g-1.

  3. Fermentation Process Research of Dry Red Wine Using Unpeeled Red Pitaya%红火龙果带皮发酵干红生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 张建伟

    2013-01-01

    以红皮红肉的火龙果为原料,通过不同酵母对其进行发酵实验,筛选出合适的酵母,对筛选出酵母的发酵条件进行优化实验,并对实验结果进行极差、方差分析。结果表明:葡萄酒活性干酵母适合火龙果干红发酵;最佳发酵工艺条件为:发酵温度为30℃,pH4.3,发酵时间为5d。%Using Red Pitaya which has red peel and red pulp as raw material, fermentation experiments with different yeast were done to screening out the right yeast. Then experiments were designed to optimize the fermentation conditions of the yeast, the experiment results were analyzed by range and variance analysis. The results showed that:Wine active dry yeast is the right yeast for Red Pitaya fermented to dry red wine;The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows:The fermentation temperature is 30℃, pH is 4.3 and fermentation time is 5 days.

  4. 紫肉火龙果优质高产栽培关键技术%Key Techniques for Purple Flesh Pitaya Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶正平; 董斌; 岳海林

    2013-01-01

    The purple pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is very popular in the market, due to the beautiful color and rich nutrition. This kind fruit originate to tropical and subtropical region. It is shade-tolerant, heat-resistant, drought-tolerant plant; and growing best in sunny condition. The purple pitaya ordinarily reproduce by cuttage and grafting methods. Cement pole is usually chosen as bracket in this kind fruit cultivation, and sunny slope is choosing to build the gardening. During the growing period, thin fertilizer is applied frequently, and irrigation and drainage in time. Topping, budding and trimming are needed to build the perfect plant shape. Artificial pollination, flower and early fruit reduction are necessary managements to fulfill the high yield requirement.%紫肉火龙果可用扦插法和嫁接法育苗.在栽培管理中利用水泥杆做支架,选用向阳的坡地建园,栽培管理要薄肥勤施,及时浇水和排水,进行摘心、绑缚、修剪等植株管理,授粉、疏花疏果等花果管理.

  5. Effects of Different N, P and K Combination on Yield and Quality of Pitaya%氮磷钾肥配施对火龙果产量及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴忠; 范建新; 邓仁菊; 蔡永强; 钟杰

    2012-01-01

    为火龙果生产上的合理施肥提供科学依据,采用3414试验设计,研究了氮、磷、钾肥配施对火龙果产量及品质的影响.结果表明:不同氮、磷、钾肥的配施水平均可显著提高火龙果的产量,但处理15(常规施肥区)与处理9(3414试验的最高产量)的产量无显著差异;不同施肥处理对火龙果果实的可溶性固形物、总糖、总酸及矿质营养元素的影响程度各不相同,果实中的N、P、K元素含量并不随氮、磷、钾肥用量的增加而提高,可能与火龙果的生长特性和植株对养分的分配需求密切相关.%The "3414" test was used to study the effects of N, P and K combination on yield and quality of pitaya to provide the scientific basis for rational application in pitaya production. The results showed that the tested different N, P and K combinations all improved yield of pitaya significantly, but there was no significant difference in yield between Treatment 15 (the convention application plot and Treatment 9 (the highest yield in the "3414" test). Different N, P and K combination had different effects on soluble solids, total sugar, total acid and mineral elements of pitaya fruit, but the N, P and K content in pitaya fruit didn't increased with increment of N, P and K application, which may be closely related to growth characteristics and nutrient distribution and demand of pitaya.

  6. 壳聚糖对火龙果汁澄清效果的影响%Effects of Chitosan on Clarification of Pitaya Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹湛慧; 杨志娟; 黄和; 陈美娜

    2015-01-01

    用壳聚糖为澄清剂对火龙果汁进行澄清试验,研究壳聚糖添加量、澄清时间、澄清温度、 pH值等工艺条件与火龙果汁透光率的关系。在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验确定壳聚糖澄清火龙果汁的最佳工艺条件为壳聚糖添加量1.6 g/L,澄清时间60 min,澄清温度20℃, pH值5.0。澄清后,火龙果汁透光率达95%以上,火龙果汁中的可溶性固形物、蛋白质和总糖的含量基本保持不变,果胶和可溶性蛋白质大量清除,提高了火龙果汁的贮藏稳定性。%The experiments on the clarification of the pitaya juice is carried out by the use of the chitosan as a clarifier. The relationships among the technical conditions, such as chitosan usage, clarifying time, temperature, and pH, the transmittance of the pitaya juice are investigated. On the base of the single factor analysis, the optimum technical conditions of the clarification by the chitosan are obtained by orthogonal analysis. The results show that the optimum conditions are chitosan usage 1.6 g/L, temperature 20 ℃, pH 5.0 and clarified for 60 minutes. The transparency is over 95% after clarification. The contents of soluble solids, protein and reducing sugar are almost the same after clarification. Removing both the pectin and some proteins improved the stability of pitaya juice for storage.

  7. Study on Physiological Characteristics of Postharvest Pitaya Fruits%火龙果果实采后生理特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 何绪晓; 李胜海; 邓仁菊

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the preservation of postharvest pitaya fruits,we studied the changes in the physiological characteristics( the contents of soluble protein,water-soluble pectin and insoluble pectin,and the activities of POD, CAT,PG,PE)of pitaya fruits in the process of room-temperature storage. The results indicated that:during the room-tempera-ture storage of pitaya fruits,the protein content decreased,but the variation was small;the peroxidase activity decreased at the earli-er stage,continued to rise at the later stage,and had a rising trend in general;the catalase activity increased;the water-soluble pectin content generally revealed an upward trend;the insoluble pectin content showed a decreasing trend;the activity of both polyg-alacturonic acid enzyme and pectin methylesterase had an overall rising trend.%为探明火龙果果实在常温贮藏过程中的生理变化,为火龙果保鲜提供理论依据。以火龙果果实为试验材料,分别测定了火龙果果实在常温贮藏过程中可溶性蛋白质、POD、CAT、PG、PE、水溶性果胶和不溶性果胶的含量。结果表明:火龙果果实在常温贮藏过程中,蛋白质含量呈下降趋势,但变化幅度不大;过氧化物酶活性前期下降,后期持续上升,总体变化呈上升趋势;过氧化氢酶活性变化呈上升趋势;水溶性果胶总体呈上升趋势,不溶性果胶呈下降趋势,且水溶性果胶与不溶性果胶的变化呈互补关系;多聚半乳糖醛酸酶和果胶甲酯酶活性总体均呈上升趋势。

  8. 火龙果树体主要矿质营养元素的分布特征%Distribution Characteristics of Main Mineral Elements in Pitaya Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 金吉芬; 刘涛

    2012-01-01

    Five years old trees of Zihonglong and Jinghonglong Pitaya were uprooted and divided into four parts (roots, branches, flowers and fruits) to analyze the distribution characteristics of mineral elements, so as to provide a reference for scientific fertilization and water and nutrient management of pitaya. The results showed that the contents of mineral elements were obviously different in each part at different growth stage. The K and Mg accumulated at large blossom and fruiting stage. In the end of harvest stage, the content of Fe which may be consumed by or transferred to other parts was only 2. 5% (Zihonglong) and 1. 8% (Jinghonglong) of that before flowers budding. In addition, the differences of mineral contents were significant between basal branches and top branches, but it was not notable between basal branches and middle branches. The changeable law of mineral elements in flowers of Jinghonglong pitaya was similar to that of Zihonglong, but the mineral elements in fruits of each variety had totally different changeable law.%为给火龙果的科学施肥及水肥管理提供依据,采用整株枝解法分析了5年生紫红龙和晶红龙火龙果的根系、枝条、花、果中矿质元素的分布特征.结果表明:不同生长期,树体各部位的矿质元素分布差异明显.在盛花盛果期,根系中的K、Mg元素都在不断积累,到果实采收末期,根系中的大部分Fe元素已被消耗掉或转移到树体其他部位,其含量仅为现蕾前的2.5%(紫红龙)和1.8%(晶红龙).另外,火龙果基部枝条的矿质元素含量与顶部枝条差异较为明显,与中部枝条的矿质元素含量差异较小.2个火龙果品种的花中的矿质元素具有相似的变化规律,而果实中矿质元素的变化规律完全不同.

  9. 火龙果种子数与单果重的相关性分析%Relativily Analysis between Seeds Quantity and Single Fruit Weight of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡子有; 梁桂东; 黄海生; 孙奇; 何春玫

    2012-01-01

    To study relativity between seeds quantity and single fruit weight of Pitaya, red pulp Pitaya (ttylocereus undatus (Weber)Britt.&Rose)was used as female parent treated witb natural pollination and self-pollination and cross pollination respectively, the relativity analysis results suggest that aver- age single fruit weight is positive correlating to seeds quantity by all three pollination manners with re- gression equation and correlation coefficient of y=0.0347x + 84.144,r=0.gg28;y=0.0145x+269.78,r= 0.187g;y=0.0477x-7.3009,r=0.5617 respectively. Average single fruit weight is increasing with seeds quantity increased by all three pollination manners. Artificial pollination is an effective way to increase seeds quantity and single fruit weight of Pitaya.%研究火龙果果实种子数与单果重的相关性。试验以红肉火龙果为母本,进行自然授粉、自花授粉和异花授粉,并对其果实种子数与单果重的相关性进行分析。结果表明,3种授粉方式果实种子数与单果重均存在线性正相关,回归方程和相关系数分别为y=O.0347x+84.144、r=O.9428;y=0.0145x+269.78、r=O.1874;y=0.0477x-7.3009、栅.5617。3种授粉方式果实单果重随种子数量增加而提高。人工授粉是增加果实种子数和提高单果重一项有效的技术措施。

  10. EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE PECTIN METIL ESTEARASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya, ENZIMA RELACIONADA CON EL ABLANDAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARVAEZ-CUENCA CARLOS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    En diversas técnicas aplicadas para la conservación en fresco de la pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de su corteza contribuye al deterioro de su calidad. Puesto que pectinmetilestearasa (PME se ha vinculado con el ablandamiento de frutos este estudio se desarrolló con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de los aditivos tritón X-100, NaCl y cisteína en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 sobre la cantidad de proteína extraída y sobre la actividad de PME. También se evaluó la necesidad de recu-rrir al proceso de diálisis en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0. En la medida de actividad se pusieron a punto el tiempo de incubación, la concentración del cofactor NaCl, pH, temperatura y concentración de sustrato (pectina cítrica. Se encontró que el mejor sistema de extracción fue el compuesto por buffer fosfato 20 mM, pH 7,0 con concen-traciones de NaCl que pueden estar entre 0,0 a 1,0 M. La medida de actividad se puede realizar empleando pectina cítrica entre 0,40 a 0,75%, a valores de pH entre 5,0 a 8,0, con incubación a una temperatura entre 40 a 45 °C, durante 2,5 min.

    Palabras claves: pectinmetilesterasa, pectina, ablandamiento, frutas, pitaya.

    ABSTRACT Using diverse techniques applied to keep the freshness of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya fruit it has been found that excessive softening of its crust leads to quality deterioration. Since pectinmethyl esterase (PME has been related to fruit softening in this study we evaluated the protein levels and the PME activity after the addition of Triton X-100 1% and NaCl in concentrations from 0 to 2 M in buffer 20 mM phosphate pH 7.0. Effects of cysteine addition and dialysis were also evaluated for the extraction Acta biol. Colomb., Vol. 14 No. 2, 2009 73 - 82 processes. Factors that can affect the activity of PME such as incubation time, different NaCl concentration, as value

  11. Study on Research Status and Development Trend of Pitaya in China Based on Bibliometric%基于文献计量的我国火龙果研究现状与发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉芝; 刘钟; 任凤英

    2011-01-01

    Taking the Chinese Periodical Full-text Database as the data resource, the publishing years, periodical distribution, research field, main authors, main research units, etc. About pitaya research paper were analyzed by bibliometric method, the status and characteristics were analyzed, which will provide basis for further study and information exchange about pitaya.%以《中国期刊全文数据库》为数据来源,采用文献计量学的方法对火龙果研究文献的年度分布、研究领域、核心作者群、主要产出单位等进行统计分析,分析中国火龙果研究的现状及研究特点,为火龙果的深入研究及信息交流提供文献依据.

  12. The Fermentation Techniques of Apple & Pitaya Compound Fruit Wine%火龙果苹果复合果酒发酵工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正荣; 马汉军

    2016-01-01

    Fresh apples and pitaya (red pericarp and white flesh) were used as raw materials to produce compound fruit wine. On the basis of single factor test (inoculating quantity, sugar content, and fermenting time), the fermentation conditions were optimized by Box-Benhnken re-sponse surface method as follows:mixed fermentation of apple juice and pitaya juice at the ratio of 2∶1, pH value was 4.0, yeast inoculating quantity was 0.95%, the initial sugar content was 19.23%, and fermentation time was 7.3 d. The produced wine had harmonious fruit aroma and wine aroma, and clear and transparent wine body. Besides, it was of great nutritional value.%以新鲜的苹果和红皮白肉型火龙果果实为原料,进行复合果酒发酵工艺的研究,在接种量、糖度和发酵时间单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面设计优化复合果酒的发酵工艺条件。实验结果表明,以苹果和火龙果的纯果汁,按2∶1的比例混合发酵,在pH4.0,酵母接种量0.95%,初始糖度19.23%,时间为7.3 d的工艺下,酿造出品质优良,酒体透亮,具有清雅和谐的果香和酒香的复合果酒,具有极大的营养价值。

  13. ABLANDAMIENTO DE FRUTOS DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE Y EN REFRIGERACIÓN: ACTIVIDAD DE POLIGALACTURONASA, CELULASA Y XILANASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Cuenca Carlos Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Una de las mayores causas de pérdidas poscosecha de frutos de pitaya amarilla es su ablandamiento excesivo, el cual ha sido documentado previamente cuando la fruta es almacenada a temperaturas de cosecha o después de refrigeración. Además, tratamientos de choque térmico antes del almacenamiento refrigerado ofrecen control en el ablandamiento de estos frutos. Diferentes experimentos fueron llevados a cabo para evaluar el papel de algunas enzimas degradadoras de pared celular en el ablandamiento de frutos de pitaya amarilla: almacenamiento a 18 °C (TA y refrigeración con choque térmico previo (ChT-R. Se incluyó también un tratamiento refrigerado control, sin choque térmico (control-R. Si midió el color de la corteza, la firmeza y las actividades de poligalacturonasa (PG, celulasa (CEL y xilanasa (XIL. La evaluación del color indicó que los frutos almacenados a TA alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de seis días. Luego de 12 días de almacenamiento a TA el pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo afectaron negativamente la calidad de los frutos. El pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo fueron detectados también en los frutos control-R cuando se movieron de 2 a 18°C. Un ligero pardeamieno fue observado en los frutos ChT-R. Estos frutos alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de 24 días de almacenamiento (9 días luego de terminado el almacenamiento refrigerado. La actividad de XIL se asoció al ablandamiento en los frutos almacenados a TA y ChT-R. No se observó una clara correlación entre las actividades de PG y el ablandamiento, como tampoco entre CEL y el ablandamiento.

  14. ABLANDAMIENTO DE FRUTOS DE PITAYA AMARILLA (ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE Y EN REFRIGERACIÓN: ACTIVIDAD DE POLIGALACTURONASA, CELULASA Y XILANASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las mayores causas de pérdidas poscosecha de frutos de pitaya amarilla es su ablandamiento excesivo, el cual ha sido documentado previamente cuando la fruta es almacenada a temperaturas de cosecha o después de refrigeración. Además, tratamien- tos de choque térmico antes del almacenamiento refrigerado ofrecen control en el ablandamiento de estos frutos. Diferentes experimentos fueron llevados a cabo para evaluar el papel de algunas enzimas degradadoras de pared celular en el ablandamiento de frutos de pitaya amarilla: almacenamiento a 18 °C (TA y refrigeración con choque térmico previo (ChT-R. Se incluyó también un tratamiento refrigerado control, sin choque térmico (control-R. Si midió el color de la corteza, la firmeza y las actividades de poligalacturonasa (PG, celulasa (CEL y xilanasa (XIL. La evaluación del color indicó que los frutos almacenados a TA alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de seis días. Luego de 12 días de almacenamiento a TA el pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo afectaron negativamente la calidad de los frutos. El pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo fueron detectados también en los frutos control-R cuando se movieron de 2 a 18 °C. Un ligero pardeamieno fue observado en los frutos ChT-R. Estos frutos alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de 24 días de almacenamiento (9 días luego de terminado el almacenamiento refrigerado. La actividad de XIL se asoció al ablandamiento en los frutos almacenados a TA y ChT-R. No se observó una clara correlación entre las activi- dades de PG y el ablandamiento, como tampoco entre CEL y el ablandamiento.

  15. Purification and Characterization of Alkaline-Thermostable Protease Enzyme from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Waste: A Potential Low Cost of the Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermoalkaline protease enzyme from pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus waste was purified by a factor of 221.2 with 71.3% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, and cation exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography together with sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 26.7 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax of the protease were 2.8 mg/mL and 31.20 u/min, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 70°C. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range (from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0 with the optimum activity at pH 8.0. The protease has broad specificity toward azocasein, casein, hemoglobin, and gelatine. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Fe2+ and Zn2+, while protease activity was increased in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and Cu2+ by factors of 125%, 110%, and 105%, respectively. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability toward surfactants and oxidizing agent. The purified protease exhibited extreme stability in the presence of organic solvents and inhibitors. In addition, the enzyme was relativity stable toward organic solvents and chelating agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The enzyme, derived from pitaya peel, possesses unique characteristics and could be used in various industrial and biotechnological applications.

  16. Red pitaya betacyanins protects from diet-induced obesity, liver steatosis and insulin resistance in association with modulation of gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Yan, Fujie; Yang, Yunyun; Han, Wen; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Growing evidence indicates that gut microbiota contributes to obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Betacyanins possess free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting its potential beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic effect of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit betacyanins (HPBN) on high-fat diet-fed mice and determine whether the beneficial effects of HPBN are associated with the modulation of gut microbiota. Thirty-six male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet plus HPBN of 200 mg/kg for 14 weeks. Sixteen seconds rRNA sequencing was used to analyze the composition of gut microbiota. Our results indicated that administration of HPBN reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral obesity and improved hepatic steatosis, adipose hypertrophy, and insulin resistance in mice. Sixteen seconds rRNA sequencing performed on the MiSeq Illumina platform (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) showed that HPBN supplement not only decreased the proportion of Firmicutes and increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes at the phylum level but also induced a dramatic increase in the relative abundance of Akkermansia at the genus level. Red pitaya betacyanins protect from diet-induced obesity and its related metabolic disorders, which is associated with improved inflammatory status and modulation of gut microbiota, especially its ability to decrease the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and increase the relative abundance of Akkermansia. The study suggested a clinical implication of HPBN in the management of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. 黄桃木瓜火龙果酸奶的研制%Study on development of yoghurt with yellow peach,papaya and pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡炜东; 鲁富宽; 杨俊峰

    2011-01-01

    The set yoghurt using yellow peach,papaya,pitaya and fresh milk as taw materials was produced by mix fermentation of Strptococcus and lactobadllus bulgarics.based on the detemination of amounts of 4% yellow peach,4%papaya,4%pitaya and 8%sugar,proportion of compound stabilizers were 0.2% Xanthan Gum,the ratio of inoculation by Strptococcus and lactobadllus bulgarics was 1:1.By orthogonal test L, (33),the optimum fermentation conditions at 42 t were as follows.fermentation time 4h,inoculation amout 3%.%以黄桃、木瓜、火龙果和和鲜牛奶为主要加工原料,经乳酸菌发酵制备凝固型酸奶,在确定了牛乳中添加4%黄桃丁、4%木瓜丁、4%火龙果丁,8%蔗糖,0.2%黄原胶的基础上,杀菌冷却后投入嗜热乳链球菌、保加利亚乳杆菌的比例为1:1的混合菌发酵,通过正交实验L9(33)优选出黄桃木瓜火龙果酸奶的最佳发酵工艺条件为接种量为3%,发酵时间为4h,发酵温度为42℃.

  18. Study on Extraction and Stability of Pigment from Peel of Pitaya%火龙果果皮色素的提取及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军涛; 肖付刚; 李芳

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and stability of pigment from the peel of pitaya are studied.The results indi-cate that the optimum extraction parameters are alcohol concentration of 70%,extraction time of 50 min,the ratio of material to fluid of 1∶1.5,extraction temperature of 40 ℃.The pigment of pita-ya is more stable at pH 5.0~6.0 and 60 ℃.The stability of pigment gradually reduces in the dark, sunlight,blue-ray,ultraviolet light.Metal ions such as Na+,Ca2+,K+,Fe2+,Al3+ and Mg2+ with 0.01 mol/L display little effect on the stability of pigment.Starch,sucrose and glucose additives can improve the stability of pigment.%研究了火龙果果皮色素的提取工艺及稳定性。结果表明:火龙果果皮色素提取工艺为乙醇提取浓度55%,提取时间50 min,料液比1∶1.5,提取温度40℃。在 pH 5.0~6.0和60℃条件下色素的稳定性高,在黑暗、日光灯照射、蓝光、紫外光条件下,色素的稳定性依次下降;0.01 mol/L 的 Na+,Ca2+, K+,Fe2+,Al3+,Mg2+等金属离子对色素稳定性影响不大;淀粉、蔗糖和葡萄糖等添加剂能够提高色素的稳定性。

  19. 火龙果不同发育期果实营养成分的动态变化%Dynamic Changes of Nutrition Composition of Pitaya Fruits in Different Growth Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘秀海; 王瑞; 赵超; 周欣

    2012-01-01

    为给火龙果果实的合理采收及优质丰产栽培提供科学依据,测定了火龙果果实不同时期总糖、总酸、维生素C、可溶性固形物和花色苷的含量.结果表明:火龙果果实在发育期总糖含量和可溶性固形物先升高后下降,总酸、维生素C和花色苷的含量在发育期不断升高并于成熟期前后达最高值;采摘后总糖、维生素C和花色苷均逐渐下降,总酸先下降后上升;火龙果果实的最佳采收期为谢花后25~30d,其常温保质期约9d.%The contents of total sugar, total acid, total soluble solid(TSS) , vitamin C and anthocyanin of pitaya fruits in different growth period were determined to provide a scientific basis for rational harvesting, high quality and yield cultivation of pitaya fruits. The results showed that the content of total sugar and total soluble solid (TSS) in pitaya fruits first increased and then decreased through the growth period. The contents of total acid, vitamin C and anthocyanin increased gradually and reached the highest value at maturity before or after. The contents of total sugar, vitamin C and anthocyanin decreased gradually after picked,while that of total acid first decreased and then increased. The optimal harvest time of pitaya fruits was 25~30 days after blossom fall. Its shelf-life at room temperature was about nine days.

  20. 火龙果黑腐病病原鉴定与 ITS 序列分析%Identification and ITS Sequence Analysis of Black Rot Pathogen of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 王彬; 彭丽娟; 李兴忠

    2014-01-01

    为了对火龙果黑腐病的防治提供理论依据,对从火龙果黑腐病病株上分离得到的病原菌进行形态特征、致病性以及核糖体 DNA.ITS 序列分析。结果表明,引起火龙果黑腐病的病原只有1种,其分生孢子单生,梭形,PDA 培养基上菌落生长圆形;克隆分析菌株的核糖体 DNA.ITS 区域序列,该病原菌与B.cactivora的菌株同源性高达100%。引起火龙果黑腐病病原菌为半知菌亚门丝孢纲丝孢目平脐蠕孢属(Bipolaris)的 B.cactivora。%The morphological characteristics,pathogenicity and sequence of ribosoml DNA-ITS of the pathogenic bacteria isolated from disease pitaya plants with black rot were identified and analyzed to provide the theoretical basis for control of black rot in pitaya.The results showed that the pathogen to cause black rot of pitaya is only one,its conidium is single and fusiformis,and its colony on PDA medium is roundness.The homology between the pathogen and B.cactivora strain is up to 100% by analyzing the sequence of ribosoml DNA-ITS.The pathogen to cause black rot of pitaya is identified as B.cactivora, Bipolaris,Moniliales,Hyphomyceles,Deuteromycotina according to its morphological characteristics.

  1. Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila mojavensis wrigleyi and D. mojavensis sonorensis are geographically separated races of cactophilic fruit flies. D. mojavensis sonorensis inhabits the Sonoran Desert and utilizes necrotic rots of Stenocereus thurberi Engelm. as a food source and to oviposit while D. mojavensis wrigleyi inhabits Santa Catalina Island, California and utilizes the necrotic rots of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. The objectives of this study were to determine the volatile compositions of the necrotic cacti and to determine if the volatile components show either selective toxicity or attraction toward the fruit flies. The volatile chemical compositions of field-rot specimens of both necrotic cacti were obtained by dynamic headspace (purge-and-trap) and hydrodistillation techniques and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The volatile fraction of necrotic S. thurberi early rot was dominated by carboxylic acids (84.8%) and the late rot by p-cresol (32.6% in the dynamic headspace sample and 55.9% in the hydrodistilled sample). O. littoralis volatiles were dominated by carboxylic acids (86% in the dynamic headspace sample and 89.1% in the hydrodistilled sample). Fifteen compounds that were identified in the necrotic rot volatiles were used to test insecticidal activity and olfactory preference on the cactophilic Drosophila species, as well as D. melanogaster. Differences in toxicity and olfactory preference were observed between the different taxa. Both races of D. mojavensis exhibited toxicity to benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone, while butanoic acid and palmitic acid were tolerated at high concentrations. D. m. wrigleyi demonstrated a greater olfactory preference for anisole, butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, and palmitic acid than did D. m. sonorensis, while D. m. sonorensis demonstrated a greater preference for hexadecane, octanoic acid, and oleic acid than did D. m. wrigleyi.

  2. 火龙果果实的功效及保鲜贮存技术研究(综述)%Research Progress on Nutritional Roles and Storage Preservation Technology of Pitaya Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄青云; 张文惠; 洪丽萍

    2012-01-01

      The fruit of pitaya contains rich in saccharides, plants albumin, unsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins and many trace elements,which is good for the antioxidation, reducing blood fat and beauty and postponing senility, etc. This paper mainly introduced nutritious ingredients and health-care function of pitaya fruits,as well as the research progress of its storage preservation technology, to provide useful information for pitaya researchers.%  火龙果果实含有丰富的糖、白蛋白、不饱和脂肪酸、膳食纤维、维生素及多种微量元素,在抗氧化、降血脂、美容养颜等方面具有较好的保健功效,开发利用前景广阔。本文综述火龙果果实的营养成分和保健价值以及在保鲜贮存方面的研究进展,以期为火龙果的生产和科研提供参考依据

  3. 广西火龙果产业 SWOT 分析和发展对策%Pitaya Industry in Guangxi by SWOT Analysis and Its Strategies for Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金乔; 张江周; 李宝深

    2016-01-01

    广西火龙果种植近10余年间发展很快,2013年种植面积达6700 hm2,已成为当地一项新兴农业产业。本文运用 SWOT 分析方法,分析广西火龙果产业发展的优势、劣势、机遇和挑战,为广西火龙果产业的发展战略提供对策和建议。%In the recent 10 years, pitaya plant has been developed rapidly in China, especially in Guangxi.In 2013, the planting area covers 6 700 hectares in Guangxi, and has become a emerging agricultural industry. In this paper, the SWOT analysis is used to analyze the internal and external environment of Guangxi, try to find out the advantages, disadvantage, opportunities and challenges in the production of pitaya, and will thus provide some suggestions for the development of pitaya in Guangxi.

  4. ABLANDAMIENTO DE FRUTOS DE PITAYA AMARILLA (ACANTHOCEREUS PITAJAYA A TEMPERATURA AMBIENTE Y EN REFRIGERACIÓN: ACTIVIDAD DE POLIGALACTURONASA, CELULASA Y XILANASA Yellow Pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruit Softening During its Storage at Room Temperature and on Refrigerated Conditions: Polygalacturonase, Celualase and Xilanase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las mayores causas de pérdidas poscosecha de frutos de pitaya amarilla es su ablandamiento excesivo, el cual ha sido documentado previamente cuando la fruta es almacenada a temperaturas de cosecha o después de refrigeración. Además, tratamientos de choque térmico antes del almacenamiento refrigerado ofrecen control en el ablandamiento de estos frutos. Diferentes experimentos fueron llevados a cabo para evaluar el papel de algunas enzimas degradadoras de pared celular en el ablandamiento de frutos de pitaya amarilla: almacenamiento a 18 °C (TA y refrigeración con choque térmico previo (ChT-R. Se incluyó también un tratamiento refrigerado control, sin choque térmico (control-R. Si midió el color de la corteza, la firmeza y las actividades de poligalacturonasa (PG, celulasa (CEL y xilanasa (XIL. La evaluación del color indicó que los frutos almacenados a TA alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de seis días. Luego de 12 días de almacenamiento a TA el pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo afectaron negativamente la calidad de los frutos. El pardeamiento y ablandamiento excesivo fueron detectados también en los frutos control-R cuando se movieron de 2 a 18 °C. Un ligero pardeamieno fue observado en los frutos ChT-R. Estos frutos alcanzaron su madurez comercial luego de 24 días de almacenamiento (nueve días luego de terminado el almacenamiento refrigerado. La actividad de XIL se asoció al ablandamiento en los frutos almacenados a TA y ChT-R. No se observó una clara correlación entre las actividades de PG y el ablandamiento, como tampoco entre CEL y el ablandamiento.One of the major causes of yellow pitaya fruit loss during its marketing is its excessive softening, which has been previously documented when the fruit is stored at harvest temperature or after refrigeration. Furthermore, its excessive softening has been controlled by the application of heat shock treatments before refrigeration. Different experiments were

  5. Pathogens analysis of soft rot disease of imported pitaya in Shanghai%上海市进口火龙果软腐病病害分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志婧; 王奕文; 于岳; 许玲

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the major pathogens that caused soft rot disease of imported dragon fruit were studied morphologically and molecularly. Two strains of Fusarium were identified in this study, which respectively belongs to Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum. F. oxysporum was the most important pathogen which caused postharvest rot on imported pitaya. The most optimum temperature for F. oxysporum growth and pathogenicity was 25 °C. In addition, there was a positive relationship between pathogenicity and illumination. It could neither grow nor form lesion under lower temperature (5 °C) and higher temperature (45 °C), its pathogenicity became weaker under 15 °C and 35 °C. Further analysis showed that it could also cause postharvest rot on banana, tomato and grape. Taken together, our results analysis the key pathogen caused postharvest rot on imported pitaya and provide a useful reference for making measures towards the disease.%应用病原形态学和真菌rDNA-ITS分子标记及Fusarium oxysporum种特异性序列分析,对引起上海市水果市场销售的进口火龙果软腐的市场病害进行了分离与鉴定,明确了两种主要的致病真菌为尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum)和单隔镰刀菌(Fusarium dimerum).其中,Foxysporum为引起进口火龙果采后软腐的最主要病原真菌,该菌最适生长温度和致病温度均为25℃,光照条件下的致病性强,在15℃和35℃条件下致病性明显降低,5℃和45℃条件下该菌无法正常生长和致病,并且该菌还能够引起香蕉、番茄、葡萄等多种水果腐烂.系统研究引起进口火龙果采后软腐病病原真菌的生物学特性,为进口火龙果采后病原真菌有效控制方法的制定提供了有益的参考.

  6. 火龙果愈伤组织诱导与植株再生%Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration from Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红梅; 任希望; 刘清波

    2012-01-01

    为了建立火龙果愈伤组织诱导与植株再生体系,以火龙果茎段、幼苗和子叶为外植体进行离体培养试验.结果表明:茎段诱导愈伤组织的最优培养基为1/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-16-BA 0.5 mg·L-1,诱导子叶愈伤组织的最适培养基是1/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1,诱导愈伤组织分化的最优培养基为1/2MS+6-BA 4.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1,最佳生根培养基为1/2MS+6-BA 1 mg·L-1+NAA 0.3 mg·L-1.%To establish the system of callus induction and plantlet regeneration from pitaya,pitaya was in vitro cultured using stem segments,seedlings and cotyledons as explants. The results showed the optimum medium for the callus induction of stem segments was l/2MS+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 0.5 mg·L1. The most suitable medium to induce the callus from cotyledons was 1/2MS+2.4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1. The optimal medium for inducing the callus differentiation was 1/2MS+6-BA 4.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1. The greatest medium of root regeneration was 1/2MS+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA0.3 mg·L-1.

  7. Stomatal behavior in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya [Hylocereus megalanthus (K. Schum. ex Vaupel Ralf Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants as C3 and CAM react photosynthetically different but both can grow in the same agroecological zone in the tropics. Therefore we studied the behavior of stomatal opening in fruits and leaves of the purple passion fruit and fruits and cladodes of the yellow pitaya was studied under natural growing conditions in Granada and Fusagasuga, Cundinamarca (Colombia. Imprints were made on the surface of leaves, fruits and cladodes using cosmetic enamel impressions. Three cycles were carried out, each cycle took 72 hours, obtaining three different samples every 3 hours; then the impressions were observed by microscope and the opened and closed stomata were counted in each species. In each sampling, data of solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity (RH were measured. The purple passion fruit had the typical behavior of a C3 plant in the leaves as well as the fruits, and a positive correlation between the stomatal aperture and radiation and temperature was found, along with a negative correlation between stomatal aperture and RH. The pitaya showed the typical behavior of a CAM plant with a negative correlation between the stomatal opening and radiation and temperature, as well as a positive correlation between stomatal opening and RH. Radiation, temperature and RH affected the stomatal opening in the fruits and cladodes. Stomatal densities differed greatly between the species and plant organs. In the purple passion fruit, 106.53 stomata per mm² leaf surface were found, but only 12.64 stomata per mm² fruit surface; whereas in the pitaya, 11.28 and 1.43 stomata per mm² were found on the cladodes and fruits, respectively

  8. Study on the Technology of Compound Beverage Made from Ananas and Pitaya%菠萝火龙果复合饮料制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 吕美

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted on the production technology of a compound beverage made from Ananas(Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr) and pitaya (Hylocereus undulates Britt) as the raw materials. The effects of stabilizers on the stability and sensory indexes of compound beverage were investigated. The optimum formula of the drink was Ananas∶pitaya=3∶2, juice mixture 40%(v/v), sugar 10%, citric acid 0.15%, with 0.2% (CMC-Na∶xanthan gum=1∶1) as a complex stabilizer. The beverage is featured by light yellow color, uniform structure, aromas of Ananas and pitaya, and pleasant sweetness and sourness.%以新鲜的云南香水菠萝(Ananas comosus(Linn.) Merr)和海南火龙果(Hylocereus undulates Britt)为原料,通过正交试验确定了菠萝火龙果复合饮料的制作工艺参数,并初步分析了稳定剂对复合果汁稳定性以及感官指标的影响。通过实验得出,菠萝火龙果复合饮料的最佳工艺配方为:菠萝汁∶火龙果汁比例为3∶2、复合果汁含量40%(v/v)、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.15%、稳定剂(CMC-Na∶黄原胶=1∶1)添加量0.2%。该饮料呈金黄色,质地均匀,具有菠萝和火龙果香气,酸甜适口。

  9. Effect of Antistaling Agent and Preservation Method on Pitaya Storage%保鲜剂及保鲜方式对火龙果贮藏时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绿萍; 金吉林; 邓仁菊

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chitosan, tea polyphenol, chitosan composite membrane, coating ways,nanometric fruit waxes on pitaya storage were studied to know the effect of antistaling agent on pitaya storage. The results showed that the exclusive use of antistaling agent had no significant fresh-keeping effect. The combined application of composite antistaling agent and refrigeration storage, and 1. 0%chitosan+0.6% nanometer silicon oxidize added with silver+0. 08% tea polyphenol could prolong the storage time for 2~4 d. PVC freshness protection package and coating fruit-waxes were bad for pitaya storage.%为了解保鲜剂对火龙果贮藏的影响,进行了壳聚糖、茶多酚、壳聚糖复合保鲜剂、保鲜剂涂膜方式及纳米果蜡对火龙果贮藏时间的影响试验.结果表明,试验所选保鲜剂单独使用对延长火龙果贮藏时间的效果不明显;复合保鲜剂结合冷库贮藏,1.0%壳聚糖+0.6%纳米载银抗菌粉+0.08%茶多酚的复合保鲜剂处理能延长火龙果的贮藏时间2~4 d.PVC保鲜袋套袋和果蜡涂膜处理不利于火龙果贮藏.

  10. 响应面法优化超临界CO_2萃取火龙果籽油工艺%Optimization of Supercritical C02 Extraction of Pitaya Seed Oil by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋玲; 莫建光; 谢一兴

    2012-01-01

    采用响应面法优化超临界二氧化碳萃取工艺提取火龙果籽油,用Design Expert软件对试验数据进行分析,并用气相色谱-质谱法对萃取所得火龙果籽油进行成分分析。结果表明:萃取时间、萃取压力、萃取温度对火龙果籽油超临界CO2萃取工艺影响显著,其最佳提取工艺参数为萃取压力25MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间3.5h,火龙果籽油萃取得率为30.21%。火龙果籽油中脂肪酸主要成分以不饱和脂肪酸为主,占总脂肪酸含量的74.64%,其中亚油酸及其异构体为46.91%,油酸及其异构体为25.36%;饱和脂肪酸以棕榈酸为主,棕榈酸及其异构体占总脂肪酸含量的21.10%。火龙果籽油可以作为一种食品保健油进行开发。%The extraction process for pitaya seeds oil via supercritical carbon dioxide was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), the test data were analyzed by software Design Expert and the chemical compositions of pitaya seed oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that sUpereritical CO2 extraction process were impacted significantly by extraction time, pressure, and temperature; the optimum exti:action parameters were extraction pressure at 25 MPa, extraction temperature at 40 *C, and extraction time for 3.5 h the oil extraction yield was 30.21%. The main fatty acids of pitaya seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids, which accounted for 74.64% of total fatty acids, and linoleic acid and its isomer were 46.91%, oleic acid and its isomer were 25.36%; saturated fatty acids were dominated by palmitic acid, and palmitic acid and its isomer consisted of 21.10%. Pitaya seed oil can be used as healthy oil for development.

  11. 不同贮藏温度对火龙果采后生理和品质的影响%Effects of Different Storage Temperature on Postharvest Physiology and Quality of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 李胜海; 何绪晓; 邓仁菊; 周俊良

    2012-01-01

    In order to study effects of different storage temperature on postharvest physiology and quality of pitaya and explore the optimal storage temperature, meanwhile, to provide further theoretical guide for the development and application of pitaya storage technique. Respiration intensity , weight-loss ratio, rotten rate, soluble solid, reducing sugar, titratable acid and ascorbic acid of pitaya during the storage at room temperature and (10 ±0.5) ℃ were studied. The results showed that compared with room temperature, storage temperature at (10 ±0. 5)℃ could significantly reduce the respiration intensity,suppress rapid weight loss, decay, and soluble solids of pitaya, reduce sugar increasing, slow the decreasing of titratable acid and ascorbic acid during the whole storage period.%为了探索适宜的贮藏温度,为火龙果贮藏技术的发展与应用提供理论指导,以火龙果新品种晶红龙为试材,从火龙果贮藏期果实的呼吸强度、失重率、腐烂率、可溶性固形物、还原糖、可滴定酸及Vc等各项生理生化指标着手,研究了不同温度贮藏对火龙果贮藏生理及品质的影响.结果表明,(10±0.5)℃恒温冷库贮藏与室温(20-30℃)贮藏相比,可显著降低火龙果的呼吸强度,抑制果实水分缺失、腐烂,并可抑制可溶性固形物、还原糖的增加,减缓火龙果果实整个贮藏期可滴定酸和Vc含量的下降,从而延缓果实的成熟衰老.

  12. Búsqueda de las mejores condiciones para la extracción y medida de actividad de celulasa y xilanasa extraídas de la corteza de pitaya amarilla (acanthocereus pitajaya)

    OpenAIRE

    RESTREPO SÁNCHEZ LUZ PATRICIA; NARVÁEZ CUENCA CARLOS EDUARDO; DUEÑAS GÓMEZ YENNY MARITZA

    2009-01-01

    Para pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya) se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de la cáscara contribuye al deterioro del fruto, al aplicar diferentes técnicas de conservación en fresco. Dado que tanto la celulasa como la xilanasa se han vinculado con el ablandamiento de la cáscara de frutos, este trabajo se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de celulasa y xilanasa. El mejor sistema de extracción fue buffer fosf...

  13. Depth of planting and apical dominance on cuttings of red pitayaProfundidade de plantio e dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Braga Marques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting depth and breaking apical dominance on cutting of red pitaya Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications in a 2x3 factorial, with two kinds of cuttings (with or without apical dominance, cutting not sectioned and sectioned at 5 cm from the upper portion, and three planting depths (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm and each plot consisted of ten 20 cm long cuttings. After 60 days of planting, counts of the number of shoots were began weekly and 90 days after planting survival rooting, number and length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and root dry mass were evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression at 5% significance level. The percentage of rooting and the survival were 100% in all treatments. With increasing depth of planting it was observed linear reduction in numbers of shoots, dry weight of shoot and root dry mass. The cladodes with apical dominance had longer shoots. The planting of red pitaya cuttings at 1 cm of planting depth with apical dominance is more suited to the production of nursery plants. O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da profundidade de plantio e da quebra de dominância apical na estaquia de pitaia vermelha Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose. O experimento foi instalado no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições no esquema fatorial 2x3, sendo dois tipos de estacas (com e sem dominância apical, estacas não seccionadas e seccionadas a 5 cm da porção superior, e três profundidades de plantio (1,0; 5,0; 10,0 cm e cada parcela foi constituída de dez estacas com 20 cm de comprimento. Após 60 dias do plantio, foram iniciadas as avaliações semanais do número de brotações e aos 90 dias após o plantio foram avaliados sobrevivência, enraizamento, número e comprimento de brotações, massa seca das brota

  14. Pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposites as high-rate and long-life anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Qing; Han, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingang; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we report on the preparation of the pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposite with an aerosol spray pyrolysis and its application as a high-rate and long-life anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology analysis of the as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite shows that Sn nanoparticles with a size of about 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix (denoted as Sn8@C). The Sn8@C nanocomposite exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 1007.1 mA h g-1 and maintains a reversible capacity of 910 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 200 mA g-1 (0.305 C). A capacity of 410 mA h g-1 was obtained after 1000 cycles at 4000 mA g-1 (6.1 C). Furthermore, the Sn8@C nanocomposite displays a charge-discharge capacity of 205.3 mA h g-1 at 16 000 mA g-1 (24.4 C). This high-rate performance is owing to the fact that the ultrasmall tin nanoparticles can effectively alleviate the absolute stress/strain during the lithiation/delithiation process and that the uniformly embedded nanoparticles in the stable carbon framework can accommodate the large volume change with a buffering effect to prevent Sn nanoparticles from aggregating.In this article, we report on the preparation of the pitaya-like Sn@C nanocomposite with an aerosol spray pyrolysis and its application as a high-rate and long-life anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure and morphology analysis of the as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite shows that Sn nanoparticles with a size of about 8 nm are homogeneously dispersed in the spherical carbon matrix (denoted as Sn8@C). The Sn8@C nanocomposite exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 1007.1 mA h g-1 and maintains a reversible capacity of 910 mA h g-1 after 180 cycles at 200 mA g-1 (0.305 C). A capacity of 410 mA h g-1 was obtained after 1000 cycles at 4000 mA g-1 (6.1 C). Furthermore, the Sn8@C nanocomposite displays a charge-discharge capacity of 205.3 mA h g-1 at 16 000 mA g-1 (24.4 C). This high-rate performance is owing to the

  15. 基于RS与GIS的贵州省火龙果种植气候区划%The Climatic Division of Pitaya in Guizhou Province Based on RS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 向青云; 谭伟; 蔡永强; 范建新; 邓仁菊

    2011-01-01

    To provide scientific basis for sustainable development of pitaya industry in Guizhou, the possible planting area for pitaya were confirmed according to the meteorological index of the growth of pitaya based on integrated consideration of climatic factor, gradient and elevation by using spatial analysis function of GIS and the climate and geographic date recorded in the main meteorogical stations for 46 years (1960-2006) in Guizhou province, the climatic divisions of pitaya in Guizhou were divided into 3 areas(the most suitable, suitable, sub-suitable) objectively by screening unsuitable planting areas on the present land use map finished by using image classification technology of RS. The possible planting area for pitaya mainly distributed in Qiannan, Qianxinan and Qianbei. The most suitable area(8299.35hm2), suitable area(16 933.72 hm2) were mainly distributed in low-heat river valley at the south edge of Guizhou province with an elevation of 200~400m and valleys of Hongshuihe river, Nanpanjiang river and Beipanjiang river with an elevation of 400~600 m,respectively. And the sub-suitable area (22 874.19 hm2) was the largest.%为了对贵州火龙果产业的持续发展提供科学依据,根据火龙果栽培种植的气象指标,利用贵州省各县主要气象站点46年(1960-2006年)的气象统计资料,综合考虑气候因子、坡度、海拔高度等要素,利用GIS的空间分析功能,确定火龙果的种植区域.结合RS的图像分类技术,完成贵州省土地利用现状图,将不适宜火龙果种植的地块屏蔽,将贵州省火龙果种植气候区划分为最适宜区、适宜区和次适宜区3个等级.可种植区域主要分布在黔南、黔西南和黔北.最适宜种植区面积共计8 299.35 hm2,主要分布在贵州省南部边沿的低热河谷地带海拔200~400 m处;适宜种植区面积共计16 933.72 hm2,集中分布在红水河谷、南盘江河谷和北盘江河谷地带海拔400~600 m的区域;次适宜种

  16. Amino Acid and Mineral Contents of Pitaya Fruits Harvested from Saline Habitats%盐碱环境火龙果氨基酸和矿质元素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道富; 林旗华; 李玉发; 蔡秋英; 陈源; 卓玉辉

    2011-01-01

    在盐碱环境下,测定不同果肉颜色火龙果品种‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’果实的氨基酸和8种矿质元素(钾、镁、钙、钠、铁、锌、锰和铜)含量.结果表明:盐碱环境下生产的火龙果含有17种氨基酸,氨基酸种类齐全,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中总氨基酸含量分别为765.62 mg·hg-1 FW和1 122.60 mg·hg-1FW,其中谷氨酸的含量最高,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中分别达到了15.88%和20.77%;药用氨基酸也较为丰富,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中分别为62.79%和66.88%.2个参试品种中的钾、镁、钙、铁、锌等矿质元素含量均高于种植于其他生态环境下相应肉色火龙果.并探讨了盐碱环境对火龙果果实氨基酸、矿质元素等营养品质的影响,以及盐碱环境下火龙果种植模式的社会经济效益.%Contents of amino acids and 8 minerals (I. E. , K,Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) in two of pitaya fruit, Yinlong and Baiyulong, grown in saline habitats were determined. The results indicated that the pitaya fruits contained 17 amino acids. The total amino acid contents of Yinlong and Baiyulong were 765. 62 mg · Hg-1 FW and 1, 122. 60 mg · Hg-1 FW, respectively. Glutamic acid cotent was the highest among them, accounting for 15. 88% and 20. 77% of the total amino acids in Yinlong and Baiyulong, respectively. The pharmacological amino acids were rich in the pitaya fruits, constituting 62. 79% and 66. 88% of the total amino acids in Yinlong and Baiyulong, respectively. The contents of K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn were higher in the pitaya fruits from the plants grown in saline habitats than otherwise. Thus, the effect of cultivation of pitaya fruit plants under saline conditions on the fruit's chemical contents, quality and socio-economic benefits are presented for future reference.

  17. Semilethal Temperature of Pitaya under Low Temperature Stress and Evalua-tion on Their Cold Resistance%低温胁迫下火龙果的半致死温度及抗寒性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 王永清; 金吉芬; 刘涛

    2014-01-01

    Physiological response of annual branches on the adult pitaya trees to chilling stress and synthetic evaluation of their cold resistance will be researched to provide theoretical foundation and reference for screen-ing of cold materials and looking for a new approach to increase the cold hardiness. The relative electric con-ductivity (REC) were determined in branches (lfeshy stem) of pitaya and their semilethal temperatures (LT50) were calculated after the plants had been treated under a series of low temperature (6, 4, 2, 0,–2,–4 and–6℃) for 12 h, respectively. The cold resistance of pitaya was evaluated by LT50 and veriifed through recovery growth experiments. Then the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, free proline (Pro) and malonadehyde (MDA) were analyzed under LT50 after a serial treatment period. The results indicated that the REC of the four types of pitaya increased following an S-curve with the temperature drop and LT50 was between 0.347 and–1.031℃. The soluble sugar, soluble protein and malonadehyde (MDA) increased with the extension of time, and the free proline (Pro) increased at the beginning of 0–24 h, then decreased at the time of 24–48 h when treated at LT50. Based on LT50 and related cold resistance physiological indexes analysis of pitaya, the cold resistance ability of four types was evaluated as‘Liang Tianchi’>‘Jing Honglong’>‘Fen Honglong’>‘Zi Honglong’, the result of which was in close agreement with the test result of recovery growth experiment.%以野生火龙果‘量天尺’和贵州主栽品种‘紫红龙’、‘晶红龙’、‘粉红龙’为试材,设置6、4、2、0、–2、–4和–6℃7个处理温度,以未处理作对照,测定不同温度处理12 h后枝条的电解质渗出率(REC),应用Logistic方程计算出半致死温度(LT50),并通过恢复生长试验进行验证;在半致死温度下设置不同处理时间,测定可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、游

  18. Optimization of extraction with the solvent method and physicochemical properties of pitaya seed oil%溶剂法提取火龙果籽油工艺优化及其理化性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚津; 刘书成; 陶柳清; 吴晓萍

    2013-01-01

    The Soxhlet extraction method was utilized to extract the oil from pitaya seed (H.polyrhizus).Single-factor tests were applied to study the effects of extraction solvent,drying time,solvent/material ratio,extraction temperature and time on the yield of pitaya seed oil.Then,response surface methodology(RSM) was conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions for oil extraction.The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of the oil were analyzed.Results indicated that the optimal parameters of extraction were using petroleum ether as solvent,solvent/material ratio 7∶ 1 (mL∶ g),extraction temperature 78℃,and time 3h.Under these conditions,the extraction yield was high up 31.47% (v/w).The acid value and peroxide value of the produced pitaya seed oil met a criterion for edible oils of nation.According to the results of the GC-MS analysis,the pitaya seed oil was composed of eight kinds of fatty acids.The contents of linoleic acid,oleic acid,palmitic acid and stearic acid were 47.98%,28.13%,16.77% and 5.02%,respectively.Calculating via the area normalization method,the unsaturated fatty acid accounted for 77.58% (w/w)of the total amount of oil.Therefore,the pitaya seed oil was a kind of nutritional oil with a high development potential.%以火龙果籽(H.polyrhizus)为原料,采用索氏抽提法提取火龙果籽油,通过单因素实验研究了抽提溶剂、干燥时间、液料比、抽提温度、抽提时间等因素对油脂提取率的影响,响应面优化实验确定了溶剂抽提火龙果籽油的最佳工艺条件,并分析了火龙果籽油的理化性质及其脂肪酸组成.结果表明,石油醚抽提法提取火龙果籽油的最佳条件为:液料比7∶1 (mL∶g),抽提温度78℃,抽提时间3h,在此条件下油脂提取率31.47%;火龙果籽油的酸值、过氧化值等指标达到食用油脂的国家标准;GC-MS分析结果表明火龙果籽油中含8种脂肪酸,主要为亚油酸(47.98%)、油酸(28.13

  19. Effect of different combined drying methods on the quality characteristics of pitaya powder%不同联合干燥方式对火龙果粉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓旭; 易建勇; 毕金峰; 刘璇; 陈芹芹; 吴昕烨

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of different dehydration methods on coarse powder and superfine powder for pitaya,the paper studied different dying methods on physicochemical and nutritional quality of coarse powder and superfine powder for pitaya.These methods include hot air combined with explosion puffing drying (HA-EP),short and medium-wave infrared combined with explosion puffing drying (IR-EP),short and medium-wave infrared combined with vacuum drying (IR-V).The results showed that:the color of pitaya coarse powder and superfine powder were closest to that of fresh sample after IR-EP drying ; HA-EP and IR-EP drying superfine powder had better bulk density ; IR-EP and IR-V drying superfine powder had better solubility; IR-EP drying superfine powder had better rehydration; particle size of IR-EP drying superfine powder was 10.46 μm.By three different drying methods,the nutrition quality of dehydrated products decreased.In coarse powder of IR-Ep drying and superfine powder of IR-V drying,the protein content decreased 28.34%,16.92% respectively,the Vitamin C decreased 41.67%,33.33% respectively.With comprehensive consideration,pitaya coarse and superfine powder of IR-EP drying keepbetter quality of pitaya.%为比较不同联合干燥方式对火龙果粗粉和超微粉品质的影响,研究了热风联合变温压差膨化干燥(HA-EP)、中短波红外联合变温压差膨化干燥([R-EP)和中短波红外联合真空干燥(IR-V)方式对火龙果粗粉和超微粉理化和营养品质的影响.结果表明:经IR-EP干燥制得的火龙果粗粉和超微粉色泽最接近鲜样的颜色;经HA-EP和IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉具有较好的堆积密度;经IR-EP和IR-V干燥制得的超微粉溶解性较好;经IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉具有较好的复水性;经IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉粒径最小,为10.46 μm.经3种不同方法干燥制得的火龙果超微粉,其营养成分较鲜样均有不同程度的降低,如经IR-EP和IR-V干燥制得的粗粉

  20. INHIBICIÓN DE LESIONES POR FRÍO DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya A TRAVÉS DEL CHOQUE TÉRMICO: CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARVÁEZ CUENCA CARLOS EDUARDO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En los ensayos de almacenamiento de pitaya a temperatura ambiente de Bogotá (18 ºC se encontró que esta fruta tiene un comportamiento climatérico con un máximo en la respiración luego de tres días de iniciado el almacenamiento. En el máximo climatérico la actividad de catalasa fue máxima, en tanto que en la etapa de senescencia las actividades de peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa exhibieron valores máximos. El choque térmico inhibió las lesiones por frío, vistas en los frutos refrigerados a 2 °C, este choque incrementó la actividad de catalasa y peroxidasa y disminuyó la actividad de polifenoloxidasa, respecto a los frutos refrigerados sin tratamiento de choque térmico. Los resultados muestran que la catalasa está en relación directa con la vida útil del fruto, mientras que polifenoloxidasa guarda estrecha relación con el deterioro. La peroxidasa manifiesta su acción antioxidante con la generación de pardeamiento, en frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente, si bien en los tratados con choque térmico, su acción antioxidante no va de la mano con el incremento en el pardeamiento, por lo que en este caso, su expresión fue favorable. Los resultados encontrados se constituyen en un aporte en la búsqueda de técnicas que permitan mayores tiempos de vida en anaquel de los frutos.

  1. EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE PECTIN METIL ESTEARASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya, ENZIMA RELACIONADA CON EL ABLANDAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID LILIANA CARABALÍ MIRANDA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En diversas técnicas aplicadas para la conservación en fresco de la pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de su corteza contribuye al deterioro de su calidad. Puesto que pectinmetilestearasa (PME se ha vinculado con el ablandamiento de frutos este estudio se desarrolló con el objeto de determinar el efecto de la incorporación de los aditivos tritón X-100, NaCl y cisteína en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 sobre la cantidad de proteína extraída y sobre la actividad de PME. También se evaluó la necesidad de recurrir al proceso de diálisis en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0. En la medida de actividad se pusieron a punto el tiempo de incubación, la concentración del cofactor NaCl, pH, temperatura y concentración de sustrato (pectina cítrica. Se encontró que el mejor sistema de extracción fue el compuesto por buffer fosfato 20 mM, pH 7,0 con concen-traciones de NaCl que pueden estar entre 0,0 a 1,0 M. La medida de actividad se puede realizar empleando pectina cítrica entre 0,40 a 0,75%, a valores de pH entre 5,0 a 8,0, con incubación a una temperatura entre 40 a 45 °C, durante 2,5 min.

  2. INHIBICIÓN DE LESIONES POR FRÍO DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya A TRAVÉS DEL CHOQUE TÉRMICO: CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En los ensayos de almacenamiento de pitaya a temperatura ambiente de Bogotá (18 ºC se encontró que esta fruta tiene un comportamiento climatérico con un máximo en la respiración luego de tres días de iniciado el almacenamiento. En el máximo climatérico la actividad de catalasa fue máxima, en tanto que en la etapa de senescen- cia las actividades de peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa exhibieron valores máximos. El choque térmico inhibió las lesiones por frío, vistas en los frutos refrigerados a 2 °C, este choque incrementó la actividad de catalasa y peroxidasa y disminuyó la actividad de polifenoloxidasa, respecto a los frutos refrigerados sin tratamiento de choque térmico. Los resultados muestran que la catalasa está en relación directa con la vida útil del fruto, mientras que polifenoloxidasa guarda estrecha relación con el deterioro. La peroxidasa manifiesta su acción antioxidante con la generación de pardeamiento, en frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente, si bien en los tratados con choque térmico, su acción antioxidante no va de la mano con el incremento en el pardea- miento, por lo que en este caso, su expresión fue favorable. Los resultados encon- trados se constituyen en un aporte en la búsqueda de técnicas que permitan mayores tiempos de vida en anaquel de los frutos.

  3. Study on Ultrasonic -Assisted Extraction of Pigment from Pitaya Peel%超声辅助提取火龙果果皮色素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娅玲; 李维峰; 曹海燕

    2015-01-01

    In this study,red pigment from pitaya fruit peel was extracted by ultrasonic -assisted ex-tracting.To determine the optimal extraction conditions,the effect of the conditions,such as the solid -liq-uid ratio,the ultrasonic frequency,the ultrasonic time and the extraction temperature were studied by the single factor experiment and the orthogonal test.The results showed that the order of factor to affect red pig-ment extraction was solid -liquid ratio > ultrasonic time > extraction temperature >ultrasonic frequency. The optimum extracting conditions were as follows:the solid to solution ratio was 1∶40,the ultrasonic time was 25min,the ultrasonic frequency was 80Hz and the extraction temperature was 40℃.Compared with tra-ditional extraction,it saves time and increases efficiency.%利用超声辅助萃取技术提取火龙果果皮色素。通过单因素实验和正交实验对料液比、超声功率、超声时间和提取温度等因素进行探讨,以建立火龙果果皮色素的提取工艺。结果显示,影响火龙果果皮色素提取因素的主次顺序为料液比>超声时间>提取温度>超声频率。最优提取条件为料液比1∶30(g/mL),超声时间25 min,超声提频率80Hz,提取温度40℃。与浸提法相比,超声辅助提取用时更短,提取效率更高。

  4. Effects of 60 Co γIrradiation and EMS Treatment on Survival Rate and Seeding Growth of Pitaya%60Co γ射线辐照和EMS处理对火龙果成活率及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 蔡永强; 高安辉; 袁启凤

    2011-01-01

    采用不同剂量的60Coγ射线辐照火龙果枝条,结果表明,枝条的成活率随辐照剂量的增加而降低,白肉火龙果枝条的适宜辐照范围为5 446.6~6 060.1 Rad,红肉火龙果枝条的适宜辐照范围为4 444.1~4 981.7 Rad,粉红火龙果枝条的适宜辐照范围为5 069.1~5 601.0 Rad;辐照处理抑制了火龙果幼苗的生长,且辐照剂量越大,对火龙果幼苗的生长抑制作用越明显.采用不同浓度的EMS溶液处理火龙果嫩芽,结果发现,芽的成活率随EMS浓度增加和处理时间延长而逐渐减小,适宜EMS诱变的浓度范围为0.34~0.41 mol/L;随EMS浓度增加和处理时间的延长,火龙果幼苗的高生长也明显受到抑制.%The cutting branches of pitaya (Hylocereus SPP. ) were irradiated by different dose 60Co γ-rays. The results indicated that survival rate of cutting branches decreased with the increase of irradiation dose, and the suitable irradiation dose rang for mutation breeding was 5 446.6 ~6 060.1 Rad of white flesh pitaya,4 444.1 ~4 981.7 Pad of red flesh pitaya, 5 069.1 ~5 601.0 Red of pink flesh pitaya. Irradiation could inhibit the growth of young seedlings, and for the higher irradiation dose, the inhibition was more significant. The shoots of pitaya were treated with different EMS concentration. The results showed that survival rate of shoot decreased with EMS concentration increased and treatment time prolonged. The suitable EMS concentration rang for mutation breeding was 0.34 ~ 0.41 mol/L, and the higher EMS concentration and longer treatment time had obvious inhibition for height growth of pitaya seedlings.

  5. Optimization of Extraction Process of Pitaya Seed Oil by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Based on Artificial Neural Network%人工神经网络优化火龙果籽油的超临界CO2萃取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚津; 刘书成; 陶柳清; 吴晓萍

    2014-01-01

    采用超临界CO2萃取火龙果籽油,通过单因素试验研究了干燥时间、原料粒度、CO2流量等因素对油脂得率的影响,利用JMP 7.0软件中的人工神经网络平台,建立了超临界CO2萃取火龙果籽油的人工神经网络模型,并优化了萃取过程的工艺条件。试验结果表明:火龙果籽晒干后经(80±1)℃干燥1 h,稍粉碎过40目筛,CO2流量为20 L/h,萃取压力30 MPa,萃取温度55℃,萃取时间3 h,油脂得率达31%以上;超临界CO2萃取的火龙果籽油酸值、过氧化值都较低,不饱和程度较高,是一种具有较高的开发潜力的植物油脂。%Pitaya see d oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 . Single-factor tests was applied to study the effects of drying time, granularity of raw material and flux of CO2 on the extraction rate of pitaya seed oil. A artificial neural network model of supercritical CO2 extracting pitaya seed oil was established to optimize extracting process parameters in JMP 7.0 software. The parameters were listed as follows:the sun-burned pitaya seed were dried at the temperature of (80±1)℃for 1 hour, slightly-grinded pitaya seeds were screened through a 40-inch boult, flow of CO2 was 20 L/h, extraction pressure was 30 MPa, extraction temperature was 55℃, and extraction time was 3 hours. Under these conditions, the extraction rate was above 31%. With a comparatively low acid value, peroxide value, as well as a high degree of unsaturation in fatty acids, Pitaya seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2 is a kind of vegetable fat with a high development potential.

  6. 火龙果 MSAP 体系的优化及组培苗 DNA 甲基化检测%On Optimization of MSAP Analysis System and Assessment of DNA Methylation in In Vit ro Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 乔光; 刘涛; 彭志军; 蔡永强; 晓鹏

    2016-01-01

    The MSAP‐PCR system has been optimized through orthogonal design on several key factors with in vitro pitaya .The optimum conditions for restriction digestion were 300 ng genome DNA ,10 U EcoR I ,2 5. U Msp I (Hpa II) through two steps .The 20μL pre‐amplification reaction mixture contained 1 0.μL digest‐ligation products ,10 μL Mix ,and 2 .0 μL Primers E+ A/HM + T .The pre‐amplification products were diluted 50 times for the selective amplification .The 20 μL selective amplification reaction mixture including 3 0.μL pre‐amplification diluted products ,and 5 μL Mix ,and 2 0.μL Primers E+ANN/HM+ TNN .The level of methylated CCGG was up to 24% among the in vitro plants of pitaya ,as detec‐ted by 17 primer pairs ,and the mean ratio of polymorphism was 1 8.% .Therefore ,the methylated sites of DNA sequence remains some variance among the different in vitro pitaya .%以火龙果组培苗为材料,采用正交实验设计,优化了适用于火龙果的MSAP体系.结果表明,基因组DNA约300 ng ,采用 EcoR I 10 U和M s p I/H p a II 2.5 U两步酶切法,酶切较充分;使用20μL预扩增体系,含酶连产物1.0μL ,M ix 10μL ,上下游引物E+A/H M+T各2.0μL ;选择性扩增反应体系20μL ,含稀释50倍的预扩增产物3.0μL ,Mix 5μL ,上下游引物E+ANN/HM+ TNN各2.0μL .选用17对引物检测发现,组培苗CCGG位点的甲基化程度约为24%,平均多态性比率为1.8%,表明火龙果组培苗在短期无性系繁殖中,存在一定程度的DNA甲基化差异.

  7. 火龙果采后贮藏品质变化及活性氧代谢规律%Post harvest changes in storage quality and active oxygen metabolism in pitaya (Hylocereus undatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绿萍; 金吉林; 邓仁菊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Key metabolic factors affecting storability of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) were identified in order to optimize pitaya storage conditions. [Method]The storability of pitaya varieties, viz., Zihonglong (white pulp) and Jinghonglong (red pulp) was compared on the basis of inclusion, active oxygen content and its relative metabolism enzyme activities. [Result]During the storage, Jinghonglong fruits had more water in scales, pericarp and pulp compared to those in Zihonglong, in addition, its weight loss rate and the rate of turning into thinner pericarp was higher than Zihonglong. However, Zihonglong fruits had higher soluble solids, protein and vitamin C content. The changes in inclusion of fruits during storage period were basically the same in both cultivars. Regarding active oxygen metabolism, Jinghonglong had more POD and CAT activities and less O2 content compared to Zihonglong. O2 content in both cultivars decreased initially followed by an increase and sudden decline at the end. The activity of SOD showed similar trends. The activity of POD and CAT increased initially and then decreased. [Conclusion ]It was concluded that active oxygen accumulation was one of critical factor affecting storability of pitaya fruits, and changes in other quality had no obvious effect on storability.%[目的]寻找影响火龙果耐贮性的关键生理代谢因子,为火龙果的贮藏保鲜提供理论依据.[方法]以火龙果晶红龙(白肉)和紫红龙(红肉)为试材,通过测定其相关内含物、活性氧含量及活性氧代谢相关酶活性,比较不同火龙果的耐贮性.[结果]整个贮藏过程中,晶红龙的失重率和鳞片、果皮、果肉的含水量及果皮变薄的速度均高于紫红龙,在可溶性同形物、蛋白质、维生素C等含量方面则是紫红龙高于晶红龙,但两种火龙果内含物的变化规律及幅度基本一致.在活性氧相关代谢方面,晶红龙的Or2含量低于紫红龙,而POD和CAT的酶活性高于

  8. Crescimento de pitaia vermelha com adubação orgânica e granulado bioclástico Growth of red pitaya with organic fertilizer and calcified seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar o crescimento de pitaia vermelha (Hylocereus undatus submetida à adubação orgânica e à aplicação de granulado bioclástico. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com oito adubações: testemunha, esterco de curral, cama de frango, granulado bioclástico, esterco de curral + cama de frango, esterco de curral + granulado bioclástico, cama de frango + granulado bioclástico e esterco de curral + cama de frango + granulado bioclástico, aplicados a cada três meses, com três blocos, e a parcela experimental composta por quatro plantas. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas no comprimento e no número de cladódios principais. Houve diferença significativa no número de cladódios laterais retirados e de cladódios emitidos acima do suporte. A adubação com esterco de curral + cama de frango + granulado bioclástico favoreceu o crescimento de plantas de pitaia vermelha.The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth of red pitaya (Hylocereus undatus subjected to organic fertilization and calcified seaweed application. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with eight fertilization: control, cattle manure, chicken manure, calcified seaweed, cattle manure + chicken manure, cattle manure + calcified seaweed, chicken manure + calcified seaweed and cattle manure + chicken manure + calcified seaweed, applied every three months, with three replications and plot consisted of four plants. There were no significant differences in the length and in the number of central cladodes. There were significant differences in the number of side cladodes removed and in cladodes above the support. Fertilization with cattle manure + chicken manure + calcified seaweed favored the growth of red pitaya.

  9. Distribution and Accumulation Characteristics of Mineral Elements in Pitaya Seedling%火龙果幼苗矿质营养元素的分布及累积特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仁菊; 范建新; 金吉林; 金吉芬

    2011-01-01

    为了对火龙果幼苗期的肥水管理提供科学依据,对1年生火龙果幼苗进行了树体营养分析.结果表明,根系中各营养元素含量大小表现为N>K>Ca>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Cu>Zn,主干中各元素含量表现为Ca>K>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu,幼茎中各营养元素含量表现为K>Ca>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.不同矿质元素的累积量大小均表现为幼茎>主干>根系,且各部位的矿质元素累积量差异显著.矿质元素的累积与各部位的生物量大小、矿质元素本身的含量和特性密切相关.%Mineral elements in one year old pitaya seeding were analyzed to provide scientific basis for fertilizer and water management. The results showed that mineral elements content showed N>K>Ca>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Cu>Zn in root, Ca>K>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu in cutting wood, and K>Ca>N>P>Mg>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu in young stem. Accumulation of mineral elements in young stem was significantly higher than that in other parts, and root had the lowest accumulation of mineral elements, which indicated that accumulation of mineral element closely related to its content and properties, and biomass of parts in pitaya seedling.

  10. Degradation Kinetics of Pigments from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) under Different pH Conditions%不同pH值条件下火龙果色素的降解动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽君; 邵伟琪; 王兴莉; 黄雪松

    2012-01-01

    以火龙果色素提取液的吸光度变化为指标,研究其在pH2.0~9.0条件下的降解规律。结果表明:在室温(28℃)、pH2.0~9.0时,火龙果色素的最大吸收波长分别为532、534、536、534、535、536、538、543nm。火龙果色素在特定pH值条件下的降解符合一级反应规律。降解速率常数(脚与pH值呈抛物线关系。pH4.0~6.0范围内,列皮小,色素稳定性较好。%The effect of pH 2.0-9.0 on the maximum absorption wavelength of pitaya pigment extract was analyzed. Meanwhile, we studied the degradation kinetics of the pigment extract. It was found that pitaya pigment extract showed maximum absorption at 532, 534, 536, 534, 535, 536, 538 nm and 543 nm, respectively under the conditions of 28℃ and pH 2.0-9.0. The degradation of the extract obeyed first-order reaction at specific pH levels. A parabolic relationship between rate constant (k) and pH was found. At pH levels between 4.0 and 6.0, smaller k values were obtained and the extract was stable.

  11. Study on Stabilizer for Suspension Drinks of Pitaya and Honey Peach%火龙果水蜜桃果粒悬浮饮料稳定剂的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金艳梅; 耿安健

    2013-01-01

    以火龙果(Hylocereus undatus)、水蜜桃(Prunus persica)为主要原料,以柠檬酸、白砂糖、甜蜜素、黄原胶、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na)、琼脂、卡拉胶等为辅料,研制火龙果水蜜桃果粒悬浮饮料,主要对稳定剂的选择及配比、果粒大小和用量等工序进行了重点研究.结果表明,60g/L的大小为3mm3的方形火龙果果粒能保证成品的色泽和香味;最佳稳定剂配比为CMC-Na 0.8 mg/mL、琼脂1.0 mg/mL、黄原胶0.5mg/mL.%Pitaya honey peach suspension drink was produced using pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and honey peach(Prunus persica) as the main material,while citric acid,sugar,sweet element,xanthan gum,CMC,AGAR and carrageenan as accessories.The processing parameters including choice of stabilizer,proportioning,fruit grain size and dosage were mainly studied.According to orthogonal test,the best stabilizer and proportion was CMC 0.8 mg/mL,agar 1.0mg/mL,xanthan gum 0.5 mg/mL.

  12. Determination of Total Flavonoids in Pitaya Flower by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry%紫外-可见分光光度法测定火龙果花中总黄酮的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小艳; 郭璇华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the extraction and separation of the total flavones from pitaya flower were studied. Based on single-factor experiment, the extraction process conditions were optimized by using orthogonal test. Results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows:ethanol concentration 70%, ratio of raw material to ethanol solution 1∶40(g/mL), extraction temperature 75℃and extraction time 2 h. Under the above conditions, the content of total flavones from dry pitaya flower was 0.747%. The average recovery rate and RSD were 99.51%and 2.06%respectively (n=5).%研究火龙果花中黄酮类化合物的分离提取和测定方法。在单因素实验的基础上,利用正交实验对分离提取条件进行优化。结果表明,最佳分离提取条件为:乙醇浓度为70%,固液比为1∶40(g/mL),提取温度为75℃,提取时间为2 h;以芦丁为标准品,采用AlCl3显色-分光光度法测得火龙果花中总黄酮含量为0.747%,样品平均回收率为99.51%, RSD值为2.06%(n=5)。

  13. The Optimization of Extraction Technology of Pitaya Flower Essential Oil with Organic Solvent by Response Surface Method%响应面法优化有机溶剂提取火龙果花精油工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 高慧颖; 郑亚凤; 余亚白

    2014-01-01

    In recent years ,the pitaya is widely cultivated in Fujian ,Guangdong ,Guangxi and other regions .Pitaya flower is large and smell fragrant .Besides some edible ,its potential has not been developed .On the basis of single factor experiment ,this paper applied the response surface method to study the effects on the yield by the various factors including different shatter degrees , reagent , temperature and process time , and further optimized the extraction technology of the pitaya flower essential oils :smash degree reached 100 meshes ,temperature 65℃ ,time of 3 h ,reagent of n-hexane .The yield of pitaya flower essential oil was up to 5.242% .%近年来,火龙果已在福建、广东、广西等地区广泛种植。火龙果花花型大、气味芬芳,除了部分食用外,其潜在价值尚未得到开发。本研究在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面优化设计研究不同粉碎度、有机溶剂、温度以及提取时间对火龙果花精油提取率的影响,确定火龙果花精油的最佳提取工艺:粉碎度100目,温度65℃,时间3 h ,试剂采取正己烷,该工艺下火龙果花精油的提取率为5.242%。

  14. BÚSQUEDA DE LAS MEJORES CONDICIONES PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE CELULASA Y XILANASA EXTRAÍDAS DE LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya Searching the Best Conditions for the Extraction and Activity Measurement of Cellulase and Xylanase Extracted from the Yellow Pitaya Fruit Peel (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    Full Text Available Para pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de la cáscara contribuye al deterioro del fruto, al aplicar diferentes técnicas de conservación en fresco. Dado que tanto la celulasa como la xilanasa se han vinculado con el ablandamiento de la cáscara de frutos, este trabajo se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de celulasa y xilanasa. El mejor sistema de extracción fue buffer fosfato 20 mM, NaCl 0,5 M, pH 7,0. Para la medida de actividad de celulasa es necesario incubar durante 60 min a 37 ºC, con un volumen de extracto enzimático crudo de 30 µL, empleando buffer acetato 100 mM a pH 5,0; los valores de constante aparente de Michaelis Menten (K M aparente y velocidad máxima (V MÁX fueron 0,279 mg/mL y 0,00014 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente. Para determinar la actividad de xilanasa se establecieron 15 min de tiempo de incuba-ción, a 50 ºC, empleando 30 µL de extracto enzimático crudo a pH 4,0 (buffer acetato 100 mM; los valores de K M aparente y V MÁX para xilanasa fueron 0,073 mg/mL y 0,0011 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente.By applying different conservation techniques on yellow pitaya fruit (Acanthocereus pitajaya it has been found that excessive softening of the peel contributes to the deterioration of the fruit. Due to that both cellulase and xylanase have been related to the softening of the fruit's peel; this work was based on the search of the best conditions not only for the extraction, but also for the activity measurement of both cellulase and xylanase. The best extraction system for both enzymes was 20 mM buffer phosphate, 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.0. For the cellulase activity measurement it was necessary to incubate during 60 min at 37 ºC, with a volume of raw enzymatic extract of 30 µL, using buffer acetate 100 mM at pH 5,0; the values of apparent K M and V MÁX were 0.279 mg/mL and 0.00014 nmol glucose/min, respectively. To

  15. INHIBICIÓN DE LESIONES POR FRÍO DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya A TRAVÉS DEL CHOQUE TÉRMICO: CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA Inhibition of Chillyng Injury in Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruit by Heat Shock: Catalese, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    Full Text Available En los ensayos de almacenamiento de pitaya a temperatura ambiente de Bogotá (18 ºC se encontró que esta fruta tiene un comportamiento climatérico con un máximo en la respiración luego de tres días de iniciado el almacenamiento. En el máximo climatérico la actividad de catalasa fue máxima, en tanto que en la etapa de senescencia las actividades de peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa exhibieron valores máximos. El choque térmico inhibió las lesiones por frío, vistas en los frutos refrigerados a 2 °C, este choque incrementó la actividad de catalasa y peroxidasa y disminuyó la actividad de polifenoloxidasa, respecto a los frutos refrigerados sin tratamiento de choque térmico. Los resultados muestran que la catalasa está en relación directa con la vida útil del fruto, mientras que polifenoloxidasa guarda estrecha relación con el deterioro. La peroxidasa manifiesta su acción antioxidante con la generación de pardeamiento, en frutos almacenados a temperatura ambiente, si bien en los tratados con choque térmico, su acción antioxidante no va de la mano con el incremento en el pardeamiento, por lo que en este caso, su expresión fue favorable. Los resultados encontrados se constituyen en un aporte en la búsqueda de técnicas que permitan mayores tiempos de vida en anaquel de los frutos.In the storage of yellow pitaya fruit at room temperature in Bogotá (18 ºC, it was found that this fruit has a climacteric behavior with a maximum in the respiration after 3 days of its storage. In the climacteric the activity of catalase was higher, while in the senescence stage the activities of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase exhibited maximum values. The heat shock inhibited the chilling injury, shows in the fruits refrigerated at 2 °C, this heat shock increased the activity of catalase and peroxidase and it delayed the activity of polyphenoloxidase, regarding the fruits refrigerated without treatment of heat shock. The results show that

  16. 星斑川鲽、大菱鲆及其杂交后代的线粒体DNA序列比较分析%Comparative analysis of genetic variability of mtDNA seque-nce inPlatichthys stellatus,Scophthalmus maximus and their hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永双; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 滕照军; 徐世宏; 马道远; 李军

    2014-01-01

    为了揭示星斑川鲽(Platichthys stellatus)♀×大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)♂杂交后代的种质遗传属性,作者采用线粒体(mt)DNA COI基因片段和控制区(D-loop)序列对星斑川鲽、大菱鲆及两种间的杂交后代(星斑川鲽♀×大菱鲆♂)遗传特性进行研究。研究结果显示,基于mtDNA COI和D-loop序列结果显示星斑川鲽和大菱鲆的种间遗传距离分别为22.9%和41.2%,相似的研究结果显示星斑川鲽♀×大菱鲆♂杂交后代与大菱鲆的遗传距离分别为22.9%和41.2%,遗传差异极其显著。而基于mtDNA D-loop序列结果显示星斑川鲽♀×大菱鲆♂杂交后代与星斑川鲽的遗传距离仅为0.4%,并且在mtDNA COI基因片段上两者序列完全一致,杂交后代在线粒体DNA上呈现明显的偏母遗传。%Partial COI gene fragments and D-loop sequences of mitochondrial DNA were used to estimate genetic variability inPlatichthys stellatus,Scophthalmus maximus and their hybrids (P. stellatus♀×S. maximus♂). Based on the analyses of the mtDNA COI gene and D-loop fragments, the genetic distances (D) betweenP. stellatusand S. maximus were 22.9% and 41.2% respectively. Similar result was obtained between the hybrids (P. stellatus♀×S. maximus♂) andS. maximus, which showed significant differentiation between hybrids and male parent. A very low differentiation (D= 0.4%) was observed between the hybrid and female parent based on the mtDNA D-loop sequences, and no genetic differentiation was found between them based on the mtDNA COI gene sequences. According to the above results, the hybrids (P. stellatus♀×S. maximus♂) showed strict maternal inheritance in mtDNA genome.

  17. NaCl胁迫对火龙果扦插苗若干生理生化指标的影响%Effects of NaCl Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) Seedlings

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    袁亚芳; 陈明贤; 陈清西; 郑梦娇

    2012-01-01

    以火龙果扦插盆栽植株为试材,研究NaCl胁迫后火龙果茎若干生理生化指标的变化,以探索火龙果的耐盐特性.结果表明:在0.4%的NaCl胁迫下,0~14d火龙果茎的各项生理指标变化较小,到28 d后变化显著;0.8%的NaCl胁迫7~14d后,火龙果茎相对电导率、MDA含量开始显著升高,可溶性糖、抗氧化酶SOD、POD、CAT的活性均升高,且有一个调节的过程,Pro含量变化无规律;在1.2%的NaCl胁迫下,火龙果茎的相对电导率、MDA、Pro含量显著升高,可溶性糖呈“降低-升高-降低”的变化趋势,抗氧化酶SOD、POD、CAT的活性显著上升,到14~21 d达到最大值后开始下降.当土壤中Na+含量为5 mg/g时,植株生理生化指标未表现出明显的变化,说明火龙果具有较强的耐NaCl胁迫的能力.%The cutting potted pitaya was used as the material for the study on the changing tendency of physiological index in the tender stem under NaCl stress. The results showed that: The physiological index of pitaya tender stem did not change significantly in the period of 0~14 d, but changed greatly after 28 d when under stress of 0.4% NaCl; The relative conductivity, contents of MDA and soluble saccharides, and the activity of SOD, POD and CAT were significantly increased under stress of 0.8% NaCl, but Pro contents changed erratically; Under stress with 1.2% NaCl, the relative conductivity, contents of MDA and Pro were significantly increased; The contents of soluble saccharides showed the trend of declining—rising—declining. And the SOD, POD and CAT activity raised up remarkably, but the activity was decreased when- reached the peak after 14- —21 d; The physiological and biochemical indices of plants not changed obviously at the Na ^concentration of 5 mg/g in soil indicated that pitaya had stronger salt tolerance.

  18. 火龙果皮总黄酮提取与体外抗氧化作用研究%Study on extraction and antioxidative activity of flavonoids in the peel of pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓波; 何晓燕; 王梅; 刘冬英; 陈海珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To provide the theoretical basis for the development and utilization of flavonoids from the peel of pitaya(PPF).Method:Using ethanol as the extraction solvent,crude flavonoids was extracted.The optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids were determined by single factor experiments and orthogonal test,the antioxidation activity of flavonoids of peel of pitaya was investigated through comparing the eliminating effect to the free-radical of VC and BHT in vitro.Result:Optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ethanol concentration was 80%,the extraction liquid-material ratio was 1∶ 30,the extraction temperature was 80℃ and the extraction time was 0.5h.Under optimum extraction conditions for twice extraction,the yield rates of the total extraction rates of flavonoids in the dry powder of the peel of hylocereus andatus were 10.9 mg/g.Results:The flavonoids extracted from the peel of pitaya had strong scavenging ability on removing superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals,and strong reducing power at the same conditions.Conclusion:Flavonoids of the peel of pitaya had strong antioxidative capabilities in vitro and had potential as a natural antioxidant.%目的:为火龙果皮总黄酮(PPF)的开发利用提供理论依据。方法:采用乙醇为溶剂,通过单因素实验和正交实验建立火龙果皮总黄酮最佳提取工艺条件,从还原能力、对不同体系产生的活性氧自由基清除效果评价火龙果皮乙醇提取物的抗氧化活性。结果:火龙果皮中总黄酮提取的最佳工艺条件为:乙醇浓度80%,料液比1∶30,温度80℃,时间0.5h。在最佳工艺提取条件下提取两次,火龙果皮总黄酮的提取率为10.9mg/g。体外抗氧化实验结果表明,火龙果皮总黄酮对超氧阴离子自由基和羟自由基具有较强的清除能力,对.OH〉O2-.,还原能力与VC相当,弱于BHT。结论:火龙果皮总黄酮具有较强的体外抗氧化活性,作为天

  19. Diversidade genética intra e interespecífica de pitaya com base nas características físico-químicas de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Andréa de Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade genética intra e interespecífica de 21 acessos de duas espécies de pitaya, Hylocereus undatus (Haw Britton & Rose e Selenicereus setaceus Salm-Dyck. A. Bereger ex Werderm., com base nas características físico-químicas dos frutos. Foram avaliadas as características: comprimento, diâmetro, sólidos solúveis, massa total da casca e da polpa dos frutos. Com base na média das características físico-químicas de cada acesso, foram calculados índices de distância genética entre cada par de acessos com base na distância euclidiana média padronizada. A partir da matriz de distâncias genéticas, realizaram-se análises de agrupamento por meio de dendograma e dispersão gráfica baseada em escalas multidimensionais. As variáveis analisadas apresentaram diferentes contribuições relativas para a diversidade genética. O diâmetro do fruto foi a variável que teve maior contribuição no índice de diversidade genética (27,45 %, seguido pela massa total do fruto (25,43 % e pela massa da polpa do fruto (24,67 %. As distâncias genéticas entre os 21 acessos de pitaya variaram entre 2,2 e 540,1. A análise de agrupamento permitiu subdividir os 21 acessos em dois grupos de similaridade genética, Hylocereus e Selenicereus, a uma distância genética relativa de 100. As características físico-químicas dos frutos evidenciaram alta diversidade genética entre os acessos das espécies H. undatus e S. setaceus.

  20. Qualidade de frutos de pitaya em função da época de polinização, da fonte de pólen e da coloração da cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Castro correia da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya (Hylocereus undatus é uma cactácea propagada vegetativamente, o que resulta em pequena ou nula variabilidade nos plantios comerciais. Devido a diversos estudos mostrarem que a espécie é auto ou parcialmente incompatível, realizou-se este trabalho com o intuito de verificar a eficiência de polinização da pitaya autofecundada e utilizando-se de pólen de H. polyrhizus e Selenicereus setaceus, além da influência da época do ano e da coloração da cobertura da tela plástica na qualidade dos frutos. O experimento foi realizado na Área de Fruticultura da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 X 2 X 2 (três espécies doadoras de pólen X duas colorações de cobertura de sombrite, branca e preta, com 50% de sombreamento X duas épocas do ano, com quatro repetições para cada espécie doadora de pólen, em cada uma das coberturas. As flores foram emasculadas em duas épocas (março e abril e polinizadas manualmente. As variáveis avaliadas foram porcentagem de pegamento dos frutos, características físicas e químicas dos frutos (comprimento e diâmetro, massas total, de polpa e de casca, % de polpa, espessura da casca, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (ºBrix, teor de vitamina C, acidez titulável, índice de maturação - ST/AT e dias da antese até a colheita. Não houve frutificação nas flores autopolinizadas, enquanto as polinizadas com pólen de H. polyrhizus e S. setaceus obtiveram 100% de pegamento. Pode-se concluir que há necessidade de interplantio de plantas de H. undatus (clone avaliado com H. polyrhizus ou S. setaceus para a ocorrência de frutificação, sendo que a utilização de H. polyrhizus como doadora de pólen proporciona a obtenção de frutos com maior massa e menor acidez. As condições climáticas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos, nas épocas estudadas, afetaram a

  1. 不同品种火龙果的氨基酸含量测定及其营养评价%Determination and Nutritional Evaluation of Amino Acids in Different Pitaya Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晋宁; 陈训; 樊丛令

    2011-01-01

    为了解不同品种火龙果的营养成分,对贵州目前种植的红皮红肉火龙果(红龙果)和红皮白肉火龙果(白龙果)中氨基酸的含量进行了测定.结果表明,红龙果与白龙果中都含有18种氨基酸,总含量(以干质量计)分别为131.168 mg/100 g和1 409.36 mg/100 g;18种氨基酸中,8种为人体必需氨基酸,总含量分别为457.70 g/100g和466.93 g/100g,分别占氨基酸总含量的35%和33 %;2个品种中必需氨基酸的构成比例基本符合食品法典委员会(FAO/WHO)的标准,氨基酸比值系数分别为82.689和77.469.综合比较,红龙果的营养价值优于白龙果.%Amino acid contents in Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus were determined to evaluate the nutrition constitution of pitaya. The results show that there are 18 amino acids in Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus, the total contents of which (dry weight) are 1311.68 mg/100 g and 1409.36 mg/100 g, respectively. There are 8 essential amino acids, total contents of which are 457.70 g/100g and 466. 93g/100g, accounting for 35% and 33% of total content of amino acids. The essential amino acid composition in pitaya basically meet the requirements of the food standard issued by FAO/WHO. The coefficient of amino acids ratio was 82. 689 in Hylocereus polyrhizus and 77. 469 in Hylocereus undatus. The Hylocereus polyrhizus nutritional value is superior to Hylocereus undatus.

  2. Comparison of Ultra-High Pressure and Heat Treatment on Rheological Property of Pitaya Juice%超高压与热处理对火龙果汁流变特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严勇强; 李威; 刘娟; 李汴生; 阮征

    2011-01-01

    采用不同温度和不同压力处理鲜榨火龙果汁,以果汁流体类型、触变性为评价指标,探讨热处理和超高压处理对火龙果汁流变特性影响。结果表明:原果汁、热处理和超高静压处理后果汁都属于假塑性流体。在1-30s^-1低剪切速率下,果汁的表观黏度随处理温度提升而降低;在大于30s^-1剪切速率下,表观黏度基本与空白保持一致。超高静压处理中,经过400MPa处理的果汁表观黏度比其他压力条件处理的都要大,而300MPa和450MPa处理的结果略高于空白,350MPa处理结果基本与空白吻合。触变性方面,空白与经过超高压处理果汁没有表现出明显的触变性,而经过热处理的果汁却表现出明显触变性质,而且随着处理温度升高,触变环面积逐渐变少。%The rheological properties and thixotropy properties of the pitaya juice treated at different heating temprature and different ultra-high pressure were investigated. The result showed that all the processed pitaya juice behaved as pseudoplastic fluid. At the low shear stress of 1 -30 s^-1, colloidal viscosity was decreased with the increase of treatment temperature. When the shear stress was more than 30 s^-1, the sample viscosity were essentially the same with the control one. At the different high pressure, the highest colloidal viscosity was found at 400MPa; the colloidal viscosity at 300 MPa and 450 MPa were slightly higher than the blank sample. The colloidal viscosity was almost the same with blank samples at 350 MPa. For the thixotropy properties, the blank sample and high pressure treated sampies all showed no thixotropy properties. But the samples of heat treatment behaved the thixotropy properties and the thixotropie loop area was decreased with the increase of treatment temperature.

  3. 火龙果色素在不同体积分数乙醇溶液中的稳定性%Stability of pigments from pitaya in different volume fraction of ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶丽君; 邵伟琪; 王兴莉; 黄雪松

    2012-01-01

    为研究火龙果色素在不同体积分数的乙醇溶液中的稳定性,以吸光度变化为指标,探讨火龙果色素在pH 5.0时,不同乙醇体积分数在不同温度条件下的稳定性.结果表明:乙醇不影响火龙果色素的紫外可见吸收光谱.在40℃和80℃时,火龙果色素降解符合一级反应,其降解速率常数k随着乙醇体积分数的升高而增大,其稳定性降低;而在4℃时,火龙果色素在乙醇溶液中的稳定性较好,其中在体积分数为0、16%、30%的乙醇溶液中稳定性较在体积分数为60%的乙醇溶液中好.此研究结果为含醇火龙果饮料的稳定性提供参考依据.%To investigate the stability of pigments extracted from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in the ethanol solutions, the degradation of pigments in 0, 16% , 30% and 60% ethanol at pH5. 0 have been monitored by the change in spectroscopic absorption under the temperature of 4 °C , 40 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The maximum absorption of the extracted pigments in the given concentrations of ethanol kept constant at 534 nm. The degradation of the pigments followed first-order kinetics reaction and the rate constants raised with the increase in the temperature of ethanol from 40 °C to 80 °C. Moreover, the pigments exhibited better stability in 0, 16% and 30% ethanol solutions than that in 60% ethanol. Taken together, these results could provide scientific information for evaluation of the stability of pitaya wine.

  4. 火龙果Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大玫

    2009-01-01

    [知识吧]火龙果,又称红龙果,原产于巴西、墨西哥等中美洲热带沙漠地区。属典型的热带植物。火龙果营养丰富,功能独特。它外观独特,味道堪称一绝,

  5. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of a Thermo-Separating Polymer and an Organic Solvent for Purification of Thermo-Acidic Amylase Enzyme from Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR, pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  6. Effects of Polyphenols and Metal Ions on the Stability of Pigment from Pitaya%多酚类物质和金属离子对火龙果果皮色素稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄明珠; 刘青茹; 李婉霞; 章旋; 林仁望; 韦庆益

    2011-01-01

    本试验以火龙果果皮色素为原料,以不同金属离子损伤火龙果果皮色素为基础,进而研究不同多酚类物质对金属离子损伤火龙果果皮色素的护色作用.结果表明Fe3+、Al3+和Cu2+对该色素的损伤较大,多酚类物质中抗坏血酸的护色效果最优.%In this paper, the pigment of pitaya was treated by the different metal ions and the protecting effect of polyphenols on the pigment was also studied. The results showed that Fe3+. Al3+ and Cu2+ displayed a great damage to the pigment, and the protecting effect of vitamin C on pigment was better than those of the other polyphenols.

  7. A novel aqueous two phase system composed of a thermo-separating polymer and an organic solvent for purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-05-22

    The purification of thermo-acidic amylase enzyme from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel for the first time was investigated using a novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of a thermo-separating copolymer and an organic solvent. The effectiveness of different parameters such as molecular weight of the thermo-separating ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) copolymer and type and concentration of organic solvent on the partitioning behavior of amylase was investigated. In addition, the effects of phase components, volume ratio (VR), pH and crude load of purification factor and yield of amylase were evaluated to achieve the optimum partition conditions of the enzyme. In the novel ATPS method, the enzyme was satisfactorily partitioned into the polymer-rich top phase in the system composed of 30% (w/w) EOPO 2500 and 15% (w/w) 2-propanol, at a volume ratio of 1.94 and with a crude load scale of 25% (w/w) at pH 5.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step of the ATPS process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 96.6% and copolymer was also recovered and recycled at a rate above 97%, making the method was more economical than the traditional ATPS method.

  8. 油菜素内酯对火龙果果实生长和品质的影响%Effects of brassinolide on fruit growth and quality of pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 王俊宁; 陈奕杰; 李润唐

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Effects of different concentrations (0.25,0.50,1.00,and 2.00 mg/L) of brassinolide on growth and quality of pitaya fruit were studied to provide references for improving its yield and quality.[Method] Using single factor experiment with randomized block design,'Baiyulong' pitaya fruit was sprayed with different concentrations of brassinolide at full-bloom stage and the period of fruit rapid expansion (15 days after flowering).Single fruit weight,fruit set rate,fruit shape index,and contents of protein,amino acid,organic acid,VC,sucrose,reducing sugar and total soluble sugar were determined.[Result]After two consecutive spraying of brassinolide at full-bloom stage and the period of fruit rapid expansion,fruit set rate at different concentrations was all over 10 percentage higher than that of the control,vnder the concentration of 1.00 mg/L,pitaya single fruit weight was 376.59 g,20.51% higher than that of the control(308.77 g).The content of total soluble sugar (103.97 mg/g) in brassinolide treatment was vastly different from that of the control (92.76 mg/g).Fruit longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter were increased.The biggest fruit transverse diameter was 8.46 cm at the concentration of 1.00 mg/L.Under the concentration of 0.50 mg/L,the fruit longitudinal diameter was the largest at 10.75 cm and the fruit shape index was the highest at 1.31.[Conclusion]Spraying brassinolide to pitaya can get better yield and quality through the increase of fruit set rate,single fruit weight and the content of total soluble sugar.%[目的]研究油菜素内酯对火龙果果实生长和品质的影响,为提高火龙果产量和品质提供参考依据.[方法]以白玉龙火龙果为材料,采用单因素随机区组试验方法,在火龙果盛花期和果实迅速膨大期(花后第15 d)两次喷施不同浓度(0.25、0.50、1.00、2.00 mg/L)的油菜素内酯,测定火龙果的坐果率、单果重、果形指数、蛋白质、氨基酸、有机酸、维生

  9. 广西亚热带喀斯特岩溶石山区农业可持续发展道路探析--以平果县火龙果产业为例%Exploration of Sustainable Development Path for Agriculture in Guangxi Karst Mountainous Regions---Taking the Pitaya Industry of Pingguo County as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许进龙; 黎谚桦; 余海芯; 陈诗林; 蒋艳

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at hills' soil and climate in Guangxi Karst mountainous regions, the development of Pitaya in Karst mountainous regions is suitability analyzed. The regions' conditions, scale, output, outlook and the governance of stony desertification are elaborated. As an example, pitaya industry of Pingguo county in Guangxi have difficulties in hard land trade, poor cultivation and breeding base, short industry chain and low value-added products. Under deeply discussion and individual research, suggestions to implement border layout, speed up the establishment of no-virus pitaya seedlings base are provided.%针对广西亚热带喀斯特岩溶石山区的土壤、气候条件,对火龙果在喀斯特岩溶石山区发展条件进行适宜性分析,以广西平果县火龙果产业为例,对火龙果产业在平果的先天条件、发展规模、产值效益、市场前景以及火龙果对石漠化的治理作用等展开阐述,并根据调查中发现的火龙果产业发展遇到的石山地区土地流转难度大,栽培技术及苗木繁育基地未能满足发展需求、产业链短,产品附加值低等过程中一系列发展瓶颈,进行深入地分析探讨,有针对性地提出诸如实行区域布局、加快火龙果无病毒健康苗木基地的建立等对策建议。

  10. The Variation of Main Nutrient Element Contents in the Fruit of Pitaya during the Development under Saline Conditions%盐碱环境下火龙果生长过程中果实主要营养元素含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道富; 林旗华; 谢鸿根; 蔡秋英; 陈源; 卓玉辉

    2012-01-01

    在盐碱环境下,对白肉火龙果果实生长过程中氮、磷、钾、钙、镁和钠等营养元素的动态变化进行观察、测定和分析.结果表明:氮、磷、钾和镁含量的变化趋势相似,总体呈“倒N”型变化,钙含量的变化在整个生长过程中始终保持下降趋势,钠含量波动较大.在不同生长阶段,氮、磷、钾、钙、镁和钠等营养元素含量变异系数较大,从27.60 %~43.52%.果实中氮、磷、钾、钙、镁和钠含量累积的峰值均出现在花后30d,分别为682.22、83.11、993.92、55.73、107.04和11.94 mg,在花后6~15 d及26~30d累积速率较快.该研究结果为指导盐碱环境下火龙果的高效栽培利用提供参考.%In this study, the variation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na contents in Pitaya fniit were observed and analyzed during the development stages under saline conditions. The results revealed the contents of N, P, K, and Mg all displayed a ' inverted N' variation, while the Ca content showed a unilateral down trend and the Na content showed a comparatively large fluctuation. In seven different development stages of Pitaya fruit, the variation coefficient of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na were from 27.60% to 43.52%. The maximum contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na per single Pitaya fruit all appeared at 30 d after flowering, were 682.22、 83.11、 993.92、 55.73、 107.04 and 11.94 mg respectively. The accumulation rate of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na increased faster during 6~15 d after flowering and 26~30 d after flowering. Our data provided clues for guiding effective cultivation and utilization of Pitaya in saline soils.

  11. Reconocimiento de parasitoides y evaluación de un cebo tóxico para el control de las moscas del botón floral dasiops spp. (diptera: lonchaeidae) del maracuyá amarillo y la pitaya amarilla en el Valle del Cauca

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Quintero, Edgar Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente, el control de las moscas de los botones florales del maracuyá amarillo Dasiops inedulis Steyskal y de la pitaya amarilla, D. saltans Townsend (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), se basa en aplicaciones de insecticidas de amplio espectro que contaminan el medio ambiente y afectan negativamente la entomofauna benéfica (p.ej., enemigos naturales y polinizadores). Los objetivos principales de este estudio fueron la evaluación de un cebo tóxico de origen natural y la búsqueda de parasitoides para...

  12. Adequação da metodologia para o teste de germinação de sementes de pitaia vermelha Methodology adjustment for the germination test of red pitaya seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Zaratin Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hylocereus undatus (Haw., popularmente conhecida como pitaia vermelha é uma cactácea para a qual se tem registrado um aumento de consumo nos últimos anos e, por ser ainda pouco explorada, vários aspectos referentes à sua propagação ainda são desconhecidos. Até o momento, não existem critérios para a execução de testes de germinação para sementes dessa espécie, publicados nas Regras para Análise de Sementes. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho adequar a metodologia quanto ao substrato, temperatura e tempo de contagem inicial e final para o teste de germinação. Foram testados quatro substratos (rolo de papel, areia, vermiculita e solo e quatro temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 20-30°C. O efeito dos substratos no desempenho germinativo das sementes foi avaliado pelo teste de germinação e de primeira contagem instalado com quatro subamostras de 50 sementes. Foram feitas contagens diárias do número de plântulas emergidas até atingirem a estabilidade e, no final do experimento, foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação das sementes, considerando as plântulas normais, anormais e sementes mortas. Concluiu-se que o teste de germinação de sementes de pitaia vermelha deve ser realizado à temperatura constante de 25°C em rolo de papel, com contagens inicial e final aos cinco e dez dias após a semeadura, respectivamente.Hylocereus undatus (Haw., popularly known as red pitaya is a cactus for which it has been registered an increase in consumption in recent years and, being as yet little explored, several aspects related to its propagation are still unknown. Yet, there are no criteria for the performance of germination tests for seeds of this species published in Rules for Seed Analysis. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to adapt the methodology to the substrate, temperature and time of initial and final count for the germination test. Four substrates were tested (rolled paper, sand, vermiculite and soil and

  13. Effect of methyl jasmonate pre-treatment on quality and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut pitaya fruit%茉莉酸甲酯预处理对鲜切火龙果品质和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓安; 韩聪; 高梵; 龙清红; 金鹏; 郑永华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)预处理对鲜切火龙果在10℃,4 d贮藏期间品质和抗氧化活性的影响。方法完整火龙果先用浓度分别为0、1、10和100μmol/L 的MeJA熏蒸,再进行鲜切处理,测定其贮藏期间的品质和理化指标。结果100μmol/L的MeJA熏蒸处理能最显著地诱导鲜切火龙果贮藏期间总酚、总黄酮等次级代谢产物的积累,提高鲜切火龙果贮藏期间DPPH自由基清除能力。MeJA预处理能有效地促进鲜切火龙果贮藏期间超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)等抗氧化酶活性的提高。同时, MeJA预处理抑制了可滴定酸(TA)含量的下降,对可溶性固形物(TSS)、维生素C含量无不良影响。结论100μmol/L的MeJA预处理能较好地保持鲜切火龙果的品质,并有效地提高其抗氧化能力,最终提高鲜切火龙果的营养品质。%Objective To investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) pre-treatment on food quality and antioxidant activity in fresh-cut pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) during storage at 10℃ for up to 4 days. Methods Whole pitaya was pre-treated with 0, 1, 10, and 100μmol/L of MeJA, then was cut into pie-cuts, and its quality and physicochemical indexes during storage were measured.Results MeJA 100μmol/L pre-treatment had the most significant inducement effect on the accumulation of the secondary metabolites such as total phenolics and total flavonoids, and significantly enhanced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of fresh-cut pitaya during storage. MeJA pre-treatment could significantly promote the increase of antioxidant enzymes activities such as SOD, CAT and GR. Meanwhile, this pre-treatment inhibited the decrease of titratable acid, and had no bad effect on the total soluble solid and vitamin C. Conclusion The MeJA 100μmol/L pre-treatment has a promising application prospect in food quality maintenance of fresh-cut pitaya and markedly

  14. BÚSQUEDA DE LAS MEJORES CONDICIONES PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE CELULASA Y XILANASA EXTRAÍDAS DE LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENNY MARITZA DUEÑAS GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para pitaya amarilla ( Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de la cáscara contribuye al deterioro del fruto, al aplicar diferentes técnicas de conservación en fresco . Dado que tanto la celulasa como la xilanasa se han vinculado con el ablandamiento de la cáscara de frutos, este trabajo se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de celulasa y xilanasa. El mejor sistema de extracción fue buffer fosfato 20 mM, NaCl 0,5 M, pH 7,0. Para la medida de actividad de celulasa es necesario incubar durante 60 min a 37 ºC, con un volumen de extracto enzimático crudo de 30 μ L, empleando buffer acetato 100 mM a pH 5,0; los valores de constante aparente de Michaelis Menten (K M aparente y velocidad máxima (V MÁX fueron 0,279 mg/mL y 0,00014 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente. Para determinar la actividad de xilanasa se establecieron 15 min de tiempo de incuba-ción, a 50 ºC, empleando 30 μ L de extracto enzimático crudo a pH 4,0 (buffer acetato 100 mM; los valores de KM aparente y V MÁX para xilanasa fueron 0,073 mg/mL y 0,0011 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente.

  15. BÚSQUEDA DE LAS MEJORES CONDICIONES PARA LA EXTRACCIÓN Y MEDIDA DE ACTIVIDAD DE CELULASA Y XILANASA EXTRAÍDAS DE LA CORTEZA DE PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RESTREPO SÁNCHEZ LUZ PATRICIA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Para pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya se ha encontrado que el ablandamiento excesivo de la cáscara contribuye al deterioro del fruto, al aplicar diferentes técnicas de conservación en fresco. Dado que tanto la celulasa como la xilanasa se han vinculado con el ablandamiento de la cáscara de frutos, este trabajo se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de celulasa y xilanasa. El mejor sistema de extracción fue buffer fosfato 20 mM, NaCl 0,5 M, pH 7,0. Para la medida de actividad de celulasa es necesario incubar durante 60 min a 37 ºC, con un volumen de extracto enzimático crudo de 30 µL, empleando buffer acetato 100 mM a pH 5,0; los valores de constante aparente de Michaelis Menten (KM aparente y velocidad máxima (VMÁX fueron 0,279 mg/mL y 0,00014 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente. Para determinar la actividad de xilanasa se establecieron 15 min de tiempo de incuba-ción, a 50 ºC, empleando 30 µL de extracto enzimático crudo a pH 4,0 (buffer acetato 100 mM; los valores de KM aparente y VMÁX para xilanasa fueron 0,073 mg/mL y 0,0011 nmol glucosa/min, respectivamente.

  16. Study on the Extraction Natural Red Pigment from Pitaya Skin with Ultrasonic Wave Cooperated Method%超声波辅助提取火龙果果皮红色素工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳鹍; 潘志恒; 刘鹏; 孙勇民

    2015-01-01

    以火龙果果皮为原料,优化红色素的超声波辅助提取工艺,考察超声波功率、提取时间、提取温度、pH和液料比5个因素对红色素提取率的影响。确定火龙果果皮红色素的超声波辅助提取工艺条件为:提取溶剂50%乙醇,超声波功率300 W,提取温度30℃,提取pH 4.0,料液比1∶8(g/mL),超声波作用时间15 min。与常规提取法相比,超声波辅助提取工艺提取率具有提取时间短,提取溶剂用量少,提取效率高的优点。%Ultrasonic extraction of natural red pigment from pitaya skin was optimized by the single factor experiment method. The effects of ultrasonic treatment power, ultrasonic treatment time, temperature, pH value and ratio of liquor to material on the extraction yield were investigated. The optimized ultrasonic extraction was determined as follows:the extraction temperature 30℃, extraction pH value 4.0, the ratio of liquor to material 8 mL/g at 300 W for 15 min with 50 % ethanol in a single ultrasonic extraction process. A comparison was conducted between ultrasonic and the ethanol refluxing extraction. The results showed that the extraction yield of red pigment by ultrasonic extraction was higher than it of the ethanol refluxing extraction , ultrasonic extraction was faster and needed less solvent, which were superior to solvent extraction method.

  17. Crecimiento de cactáceas introducidas en Angostillo, Municipio de Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Malpica Vázquez, Alín

    2011-01-01

    En las zonas semisecas, es necesario buscar alternativas de producción agrícola para el mejor aprovechamiento del suelo, por ello, el objetivo fue evaluar el crecimiento de cuatro variedades de Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill nopal de tuna verde (ntv), nopal de verdura (ndv), nopal de tuna roja (ntr) y nopal de tuna sin semilla (ntss), así como las especies columnares Stenocereus stellatus (Pfeiffer) Riccobono, S. griseus (Haworth) Buxbaum y epifita Hylocereus undatus (Haw) Br & R variedades N...

  18. Pathogen Identiifcation and Environmental Effects Analysis of Black Rot Dis-ease of Imported Vietnamese ‘Red’ Pitaya%越南‘红心’火龙果黑腐病病原真菌鉴定及环境因素影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚昇华; 范诗睿; 邢云莱; 何嘉琳

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the major pathogen that caused black rot disease of imported ‘red’ pitaya was studied morphologically and molecularly.Bipolaris cactivora was the most important pathogen which caused black rot on imported Vietnamese ‘red’ pitaya. The optimum living temperature forB.cactivoragrowth was 30–35℃. The mycelium stopped growing at 40℃, and low temperature inhibited the growth of mycelium. The optimum pH forB.cactivoragrowth was 9. Different light conditions had no signiifcant effect on the growth of mycelium, but it affected the production of pigments. The abilities to produce excreted cellulase and pectase were also tested and the results showedB.cactivoracan produce these cell wall degrading enzymes.B.cactivorawas incubated onto other fruits and vegetables, and the results showed that it can also infect white radish, tomato and pear.%应用病原形态学和真菌rDNA-ITS分子标记,对引起上海市进口越南‘红心’火龙果黑腐病的病害进行了分离与鉴定,明确了一种主要的致病菌仙人掌平脐蠕孢(Bipolaris cactivora)。该菌的最适生长温度为30~35℃,在40℃时停止生长,而低温对该真菌的生长也有明显的抑制效果。菌丝生长的最适pH为9。在不同的光照条件下,真菌生长的速率没有明显的变化,但该菌的色素生成对不同光照条件有明显的响应。对该菌分泌纤维素酶与果胶酶的能力进行鉴定,发现该菌能够明显产生大量纤维素酶与果胶酶。将该菌接种到其他常见的果蔬上,结果显示该菌能够侵染白萝卜、西红柿和梨,具有一定的广谱寄主性。

  19. Effect of dairy-yeast prebiotic on growth performance and antioxidant capability of juvenile starry flounder Platichthys stellatus%乳制品-酵母益生元对星斑川鲽幼鱼生长性能和抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德瑞; 张利民; 王际英; 马晶晶; 李宝山; 姜柯君

    2013-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dairy-yeast prebiotic (Grobiotic-A) on the survival rate,growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile starry flounder Platichtahys stellatus.A total of 540 fish at body weight of 15.05±0.04 g were randomly allocated into six groups with three replicates and each replicate contained 30 fish.The fish were fed diets supplemented with 0,0.4%,0.8%,1.2%,1.6% and 2.0% dairyyeast prebiotic,respectively.The results are shown as follows:1) weight gain rate (WGR),specific growth rate (SGR),feed intake (FI),protein efficiency rate (PER) and condition factor (CF) increased whereas feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation of dairy-yeast prebiotic in diets.However,there were no statistical differences in viscerosomatic index (VSI),hepatosomatic index (HSI) (P>0.05) ; 2) compared with the control,the activity of catalase (CAT) and total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC) in serum and liver,and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and anti-superoxide anion activities (T-AOC) in serum were significantly increased (P<0.05),while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in serum and liver of fish fed diets supplemented with dairy-yeast prebiotic was significantly decreased (P<0.05).These results indicated that dairy-yeast prebiotic positively influenced the growth performance and anti-oxidation of juvenile starry flounder in this experiment.Quadratic regression of SGR indicated that the optimal supplementation level of dairy-yeast prebiotic in juvenile starry flounder diet was 1.32 %.%选取平均初始体重为15.05±0.04g的星斑川鲽幼鱼540尾,随机分成6组,每组3个重复,分别饲喂添加0、0.4%、0.8%、1.2%、1.6%和2.0%乳制品-酵母益生元的试验饲料,实验期56d.结果表明:1)饲料中添加乳制品-酵母益生元可显著提高星斑川鲽幼鱼的增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)、摄食率(DFI)、蛋白

  20. 紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代鱼粉对星斑川鲽幼鱼生长、体组成及血液生化指标的影响%Effects of replacement of fishmeal by alfalfa protein concentrate on growth performance, body composition, and blood biochemistry in juvenile starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晶晶; 张利民; 王际英

    2012-01-01

    鱼粉蛋白对星斑川鲽(Platichthys stellatus)幼鱼生长、体组成及血液生化指标的影响.实验幼鱼体质量(83.0±0.20)g.结果显示:1)当替代比例≤20%时,各组间星斑川鲽幼鱼特定生长率(SGR)、日摄食率(DFI)、饲料效率(FE)和蛋白质效率(PER)均无显著变化,高于此值时呈显著下降(P<0.05).随饲料中紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代鱼粉比例的升高,鱼体肥满度(CF)呈显著下降趋势(P<0.05),而消化道指数(DTI)则呈显著上升趋势(P<0.05);各实验组干物质、蛋白质及脂肪表观消化率均呈直线下降趋势(P<0.05).以星斑川鲽幼鱼特定生长率(SGR)为参考指标,采用折线回归分析得出,在本实验条件下,星斑川鲽幼鱼获得最佳生长时紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代鱼粉蛋白的适宜比例为19.0%.2)紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白替代鱼粉对星斑川鲽幼鱼肌肉水分、蛋白及粗灰分含量未产生显著性影响,肌肉脂肪含量仅S40组显著低于S0和S20组,其他各组间无显著差异;当替代比例小于20%时,肝脏水分呈显著上升趋势(P<0.05),之后趋于平稳(P>0.05).肝脏粗脂肪变化趋势与此相反.肝脏粗蛋白含量仅表现为S30、S50组显著高于S0组(P<0.05),其他各组无显著差异(P>0.05).肝脏粗灰分含量不受饲料鱼粉替代比例的影响(P>0.05);全鱼水分呈显著上升趋势(P<0.05),而粗脂肪含量呈显著下降(P<0.05).S30组全鱼粗蛋白最高,S40组最低(P>0.05),除S30组外,其他各组均与S0组间无显著性差异(P>0.05).各组间全鱼粗灰分含量变化不显著(P>0.05).3)当替代比例>20%时,星斑川鲽幼鱼血浆甘油三酯(TG)含量呈显著降低.各组间胆固醇(CHO)含量随紫花苜蓿浓缩叶蛋白的添加呈直线下降趋势(P<0.05).当替代比例≥20%时,碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性有下降趋势(P<0.05).当替代比例分别大于20%和40%时,谷草转氨酶(AST)和谷丙转氨酶(ALT)

  1. Influência da fonte material e do tempo de cura na propagação vegetativa da pitaya vermelha (Hylocereus undatus Haw Influence of the material source and the cicatrize time in vegetative propagation of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Andrade

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A pitaya vermelha é uma cactácea cujos frutos são de interesse comercial crescente por produtores e consumidores. No entanto, ainda há diversos aspectos sobre seu cultivo que precisam ser elucidados, proporcionando rentabilidade ao produtor. Diante disso, realizou-se o presente trabalho, que teve como objetivo obter informações quanto à propagação vegetativa desta fruteira, utilizando-se de diferentes fontes de material em função do tempo de cura. O experimento foi realizado no Ripado de Fruticultura, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Unesp - Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, utilizando estacas de plantas de pitaya de diferentes origens (planta adulta, estacas de brotações de plantas adultas recém-enraizadas e planta em início de desenvolvimento, originária de semente, submetidas a 3 períodos de cura: 0; 7 e 14 dias. As avaliações foram quanto a: enraizamento; volume de raiz; comprimento da maior raiz (cm; massas fresca e seca das raízes (gramas; número e tamanho das brotações nas estacas (cm. Foram realizadas 5 repetições, com 10 estacas cada, totalizando 150 estacas de cada material. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado, pode-se concluir que a estaquia deve ser realizada tão logo feita a segmentação dos cladódios e que as estacas obtidas de brotações de plantas recém-enraizadas apresentam melhores resultados.The red dragon fruit has been a great incresing commercial interest for the producers and the consumers. However, there are still several aspects on its cultivation that need to be elucidated, providing profitability to the producer. The present work was done with the objective of getting information about the vegetative propagation of this fruitful, using different sources of material in function of the cicatrize time. The research was carried out in the lath house of Unesp - São Paulo State University - Campus of Jaboticabal

  2. In situ management and domestication of plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-11-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Artificial selection operating on in situ managed populations of the

  3. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  4. Quality Analysis of Red Pitaya and White Pitaya%红肉火龙果与白肉火龙果的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 王明月; 杜海群; 杨春亮

    2015-01-01

    以不同种类的火龙果为试材,分析红肉火龙果和白肉火龙果的营养成分.结果表明:红肉火龙果的可溶性固形物含量显著高于白肉火龙果(P<0.05),可滴定酸含量差异不显著,其口感比白肉火龙果稍甜,二者均富含蛋白质和膳食纤维,也有一定含量的VC,但差异不显著.

  5. 76 FR 30036 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... and auditing implementation of the systems approach. (2) The NPPO of the exporting country must... subject to a systems approach that would include requirements for monitoring and oversight, establishment... Information: Additional information about APHIS and its programs is available on the Internet at...

  6. Physical and physico-chemical traits of red pitaya during ripeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiane Padilha de Menezes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of exotic fruit consumption worldwide, the cultivation of dragon fruit has been favored. To increase the agronomic potential of the culture, knowledge aiming the increase of fruit quality is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical and pyhisical characteristics of dragon fruit during maturation, in order to define the best harvest point. Fresh weight, longitudinal and transverse diameter, skin color, flesh firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, ratio and flesh pH were evaluated. A completely randomized design was carried out, represented by harvest time (days after anthesis. In each evaluation time, seven fruits were harvested, representing the replications, being one fruit per parcel. The averages of each evaluation time were subjected to polynomial evaluation, being selected according to the significance of F test and the coefficient of determination. The best dragon fruit harvest time was observed 41 days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits presented higher weight and higher red skin color intensity, lower flesh firmness, higher contents of total soluble solids and lower acidity.

  7. 77 FR 22465 - Importation of Fresh Pitaya Fruit From Central America Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ..., Ceratitis capitata, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, and Planococcus minor. (a) Monitoring and oversight. (1) The... crop itself, must not shade the crop during the day. No C. capitata or A. ludens host plants may be.... capitata and A. ludens--(1) Pest- free places of production. (i) Beginning at least 1 year before harvest...

  8. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele.

  9. Microencapsulation of Purified Amylase Enzyme from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel in Arabic Gum-Chitosan using Freeze Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is one of the most important enzymes in the world due to its wide application in various industries and biotechnological processes. In this study, amylase enzyme from Hylocereus polyrhizus was encapsulated for the first time in an Arabic gum-chitosan matrix using freeze drying. The encapsulated amylase retained complete biocatalytic activity and exhibited a shift in the optimum temperature and considerable increase in the pH and temperature stabilities compared to the free enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme protected the activity in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (H2O2 and enhanced the shelf life. The storage stability of amylase is found to markedly increase after immobilization and the freeze dried amylase exhibited maximum encapsulation efficiency value (96.2% after the encapsulation process. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the encapsulation of the enzyme in a coating agent using freeze drying is an efficient method to keep the enzyme active and stable until required in industry.

  10. Development of the Pitaya Flower Healthy Drink%火龙果花保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏杏洲; 钟日初; 郭茵薇

    2004-01-01

    以火龙果花为主要原料,探讨了浸提火龙果花营养液的最适条件,通过正交设计、感官评价和微生物检验等方法,筛选了饮料的最佳配方,探讨了其稳定性,确定了饮料的最佳工艺.

  11. Microencapsulation of purified amylase enzyme from pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel in Arabic gum-chitosan using freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-03-24

    Amylase is one of the most important enzymes in the world due to its wide application in various industries and biotechnological processes. In this study, amylase enzyme from Hylocereus polyrhizus was encapsulated for the first time in an Arabic gum-chitosan matrix using freeze drying. The encapsulated amylase retained complete biocatalytic activity and exhibited a shift in the optimum temperature and considerable increase in the pH and temperature stabilities compared to the free enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme protected the activity in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (H₂O₂) and enhanced the shelf life. The storage stability of amylase is found to markedly increase after immobilization and the freeze dried amylase exhibited maximum encapsulation efficiency value (96.2%) after the encapsulation process. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the encapsulation of the enzyme in a coating agent using freeze drying is an efficient method to keep the enzyme active and stable until required in industry.

  12. Study on the producing of pitaya icecream%火龙果冰淇淋的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 王蕊

    2004-01-01

    火龙果营养价值丰富且具有一定的保健功能.实验结果表明,以红皮红肉型火龙果汁15%,奶油8%,全脂淡奶粉10%,白砂糖15%,乳化稳定剂0.4%(均为质量分数)为配方,制作的火龙果冰淇淋色泽自然,风味独特,组织细腻,是一种高档的水果冰淇淋制品.

  13. 火龙果嫁接繁殖技术研究%Study on grafting propagation technique of Pitaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 王彬; 蔡永强; 金吉芬; 韦茜

    2010-01-01

    用现有火龙果资源为穗材,本地量天尺为砧木进行嫁接繁殖试验,分析影响火龙果嫁接成活率的影响因素,做了不同方法嫁接、不同品种嫁接、露地和大棚嫁接等试验.结果表明,在不同嫁接方法中楔接法成活率最高,抽梢最快;不同品种嫁接试验中以新红龙果嫁接在量天尺上的成活率最高;大棚内嫁接抽梢早,抽梢数、枝梢生长量和成活率均比在露地上高.

  14. Study on and preparation of a suspended pulpy beverage of pitaya%火龙果果粒悬浮饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹琼

    2010-01-01

    以火龙果为主要原料,以柠檬酸、白砂糖、甜蜜素、XC2型饮料悬浮剂等为辅料,研坝火龙果果粒悬浮饮料.通过L9(34)正交试验确定了饮料的最佳配方为:火龙果原汁15%、白砂糖6%、甜蜜素0.03%、柠檬酸0.1%、XC2型悬浮剂0.24%.

  15. A Preliminary Study on Introduction of Pitaya cv.‘Honey Red’%‘蜜红’火龙果引种研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    ‘蜜红’是自交亲和型的红肉火龙果优良新品种,在福建产区表现出树势强、早果性强、大果型、质优、早丰产、产量高、适应性和抗逆性强等特点,生产上采用扦插育苗、搭架栽培、节水灌溉、科学施肥、整形修剪、疏花疏果、套袋、适时采收、病虫害综合防治等关键栽培技术措施,以促进丰产.

  16. 偶联协酵法生产红心火龙果酒工艺初探%Production of Red Pitaya Wine by Biological Coupling Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厚培; 王超萍

    2016-01-01

    采用多菌协联发酵等前沿加工技术,使用新鲜红心火龙果为发酵原料,通过挑选、清洗、破碎榨汁以后添加实验室自筛的火龙果酒酵母和生香酵母,采用多菌协联发酵,所得的产品口味纯正、香气突出浓郁、回味协调丰盈的火龙果酒.

  17. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  18. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  19. The Effects of Plant Growth Regulator on Fruit Setting Rate and Fruit Growth in Pitaya%植物生长调节剂对火龙果坐果率和果实生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志雄; 袁亚芳; 谢倩; 许小勇

    2013-01-01

    以‘红龙果Ⅱ’为试材,研究不同生长调节剂处理对火龙果坐果率和果实生长的影响。结果表明:浓度为30 mg/L GA 3或100 mg/L 6-BA对提高火龙果坐果率及促进果实生长效果最佳。%The influence of different plant growth regulators on Hylocereus polyrhizusⅡ fruit setting rate and fruit growth were studied. The results showed that the 30 mg/L GA3 or 100mg/L 6-BA was the suitable solvent for fruit setting rate and growth.

  20. Effect of CaCl2 on Quality of Pitaya Fruits under Cold Storage%CaCl2处理对火龙果低温贮藏期品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 何绪晓; 邓仁菊; 彭玉基; 周俊良

    2010-01-01

    以白肉火龙果新品种晶红龙为试验材料,研究了3种不同浓度的CaCl2溶液处理对低温贮藏期火龙果品质的影响.结果表明,CaCl2处理对火龙果呼吸作用的抑制作用不明显,但对降低火龙果的腐烂率有一定的作用,以2 % CaCl2处理效果较好,而6 % CaCl2处理可延缓果实的腐烂;2 % CaCl2处理可降低火龙果果实的水分蒸腾率;火龙果果实在整个贮藏过程中,各处理间的营养品质变化差异不显著.3种钙浓度处理中以2 % CaCl2溶液浸果效果较好.

  1. 根施普钙对火龙果果实耐贮性及挂果量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高安辉; 张兴无; 陈守一; 李向林

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to improve the storability of pitaya fruit. [Method] The calcium superphosphate was fertilized at root of pitaya, and fruit store test was done and fruit quantity was counted after fruit riping. [Result] The calcium superphosphate could improve the storability of pitaya fruit and increase fruit quantity. [Conclusion] The calcium superphosphate could been used properly in production of pitaya.%[目的]提高贵州省地区火龙果的耐贮性。[方法]火龙果植株根施普钙,果实成熟后采果常温贮藏试验和统计挂果数。[结果]根施普钙对火龙果耐贮性和挂果量都有一定的提高作用。[结论]火龙果生产中可适当地施用普钙。

  2. PAR and UVBR effects on photosynthesis, viability, growth and DNA in different life stages of two coexisting Gigartinales : implications for recruitment and zonation pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roleda, MY; van de Poll, WH; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2004-01-01

    The effects that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280 to 400 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) had on early life stages of Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus were studied to determine if differences in UVR tolerance could influence their recruitment success on the u

  3. Xestocephalus van Duzee: descrições de seis espécies novas (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae Xestocephalus van Duzee: descriptions of six new species (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new species of Xestocephalus Van Duzee, 1892 are described: X. crocatus sp. n., X. punctulatus sp. n., X. concolor sp. n., X. coloreus sp. n., X. tripartitus sp. n, and X. stellatus sp. n., the former two from Rondônia and others from Paraná, Brasil.

  4. Novel Approach of Using Nutraceutic-Directed Caloric Antioxidant Density and Ion-Ratio for Evaluating Fruit's Health Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Huang, Shang-Ming; Chen, Li-I; Yu, Chien-Mei; Wong, Cheng-Hsin; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-08-01

    Seven kinds of indigenous fruits and five imported fruits were compared for their "health quality." Methods including the calorific, antioxidant, and ion ratios were carried out. Results indicated the order of content (in mg/100g) was: Ca(2+) , Murcott orange (218.2) > Kiwifruit (200.0) > pineapple (138.5) > Golden kiwi (117.6); Mg(2+) , Pitaya (192.2), banana (88.0), Kiwifruit (63.4), and Golden kiwi (58.4); Zn(2+) , Pitaya (19.53) > pear (10.8) > Kiwifruit (6.09) > Irwin mango (4.58). Cu(2+) , Kiwifruit (0.70) > Red globe grape (0.67) > Golden kiwi (0.65) > Irwin mango (0.42) ≈ Pitaya (0.40). In terms of ion ratio, Pitaya showed Zn(2+) /Cu(2+) (48.8), Mg(2+) /Ca(2+) (6.7) and uniquely possessed selenium 0.002 mg/100 g; for pear, Zn(2+) /Cu(2+) = 37.2, while Kyoho grape, Red globe grape, and Golden kiwi revealed extremely high Fe(2+) /(Co(2+) +Ni(2+) ) ratios. On the other hands, Irwin mango and Pitaya astonishingly contained huge amount of inositol, reaching 3523.2 mg/100 g and 1998.7 mg/100 g, respectively. To evaluate the "health quality" of fruits, an overall ranking method by combining (a) the Function-directed Caloric Antioxidant Density (CAD) and (b) the ion ratio was developed. The finalized ranking of these selected fruits was: Pitaya > cherry > Irwin mango > Murcott orange = pineapple > banana > Golden kiwi > pear > Kiwifruit > Red globe grape > apple > Kyoho grape. Conclusively, this evaluation method is novel, contemporary and scientific, which could more clearly assess the "health quality" of fruits in view of nutritional, calorific, and antioxidant balance.

  5. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  6. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar; Ahmad R.B.A.L. Rahman; Nor Z.C. Mahmod; Vasudevan, R.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus) is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids co...

  7. 火龙果日光温室引种观察及栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春茂; 范海延; 姜河; 杨伟力; 王霞

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 火龙果的生物学特性 火龙果又称红龙果,英文名pitaya,为仙人掌科量天尺属(hylocereus undatus)和蛇鞭柱属(seleniereusMeja-lantous)植物,原产于中美洲热带沙漠地区,耐热,耐旱,不耐寒.

  8. QUALIDADE DE PITAIAS DE POLPA BRANCA ARMAZENADAS EM DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA AMALIA BRUNINI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature on the quality of red pitaya of pulp white, produced in Itajobi city, São Paulo state. The pitayas were stored at room temperature, (21-27 ºC with 44-63% de UR, at 18 ± 1 ºC, with 86-92% RH, 13 ± 1 ºC, with 85-90% RH and at 8 ± 1 ºC, with 85-95% RH. The quality was monitored during storage time through the parameters: fresh weight loss titleble acidity; soluble solids contents; vitamin C, external appearance, pH and fruit firmness. Through the results obtained may be concluded that the temperature at 8 ± 1 ºC it was proportioned the small fresh weight loss; the acidity, soluble solids, pH and fruit firmness were influenced by the storage temperature and storage time, but the temperature at 8 ± 1 ºC it was that occasioned the small change theses parameters. In general, it can be concluded that the temperature at 8 ± 1 ºC it was the best to maintenance the quality of pitaya fruit.

  9. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SELENICEREUS MEGALANTHUS (K. SCHUM EX VAUPEL MORAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sorace

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumer Vaupel Moran is known as yellow Pitaya because of yellow peel color. Originated from Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, it belongs to the family Cactaceae and has climbing habit, besides being edible and currently grown. In Brazil the production of yellow pitaya is incipient. Pitaya propagates through cuttings, seed or grafting. Its seeds have sarcotesta mucilaginous, which may be a deterrent factor or decrease germination. This study aimed to study biometric aspects and germination of seeds with and without mucilage removal. The removal of mucilage was made by immersion in 25% sucrose solution and were evaluated biometric aspects of fruit and seed quality through tests of germination and tetrazolium, rate of germination speed and imbibition curve. Through biometrics establishes the relationship between the size of the fruit and seed number, where the number of seeds per unit mass is greater in smaller fruits. The continuous production of mucilage prevented the establishment of imbibition curve. The result obtained in the tetrazolium test was not consistent with the germination. Seeds with mucilage removal by pretreatment with sucrose solution showed better germination and IVG, producing stronger plants.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis reveals key genes related to betalain biosynthesis in pulp coloration of Hylocereus polyrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eQingzhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains have high nutritional value and bioactivities. Red pulp pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only fruit containing abundant betalains for consumer. However, no information is available about genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus. Herein, two cDNA libraries of pitaya pulps with two different coloration stages (white and red pulp stages of Guanhuahong (H. polyrhizus were constructed. A total of about 12 Gb raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 122,677 transcripts with an average length of 1,183 bp and an N50 value of 2008. Approximately 99.99% of all transcripts were annotated based on seven public databases. A total of 8,871 transcripts were significantly regulated. Thirty-three candidate transcripts related to betalain biosynthesis were obtained from the transcriptome data. Transcripts encoding enzymes involved in betalain biosynthesis were analyzed using RT-qPCR at the whole pulp coloration stages of H. Polyrhizus (7-1 and H. Undatus (132-4. Nine key transcripts of betalain biosynthesis were identified. They were assigned to four kinds of genes in betalain biosynthetic pathway, including tyrosinase, 4, 5-DOPA dioxygenase extradiol, cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase. Ultimately, a preliminary betalain biosynthetic pathway for pitaya was proposed based on betalain analyses and gene expression profiles.

  11. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance.

  12. 火龙果加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓旭; 易建勇; 郭小宁; 毕金峰

    2014-01-01

    Pitaya, originated from Central America, is one of the most famous fruits in tropical and subtropical areas. Since the processing technology in the pitaya mainly includes juice extracting, brewing, sugaring, so the related technology is still under improvement to make full use of the pitaya. In this paper, some processing technology employed in the pitato is summarized and the research outlook is made.%火龙果是仙人掌科的三角柱属植物(量天尺属)的果实,该植物原产中美洲,是热带、亚热带的著名水果之一。目前火龙果主要以鲜食为主,其加工技术还不够完善,已有的火龙果加工产品主要有制汁、酿造、糖渍等。对火龙果加工技术现状进行综述和展望。

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Key Genes Related to Betalain Biosynthesis in Pulp Coloration of Hylocereus polyrhizus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingzhu, Hua; Chengjie, Chen; Zhe, Chen; Pengkun, Chen; Yuewen, Ma; Jingyu, Wu; Jian, Zheng; Guibing, Hu; Jietang, Zhao; Yonghua, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Betalains have high nutritional value and bioactivities. Red pulp pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only fruit containing abundant betalains for consumer. However, no information is available about genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus. Herein, two cDNA libraries of pitaya pulps with two different coloration stages (white and red pulp stages) of Guanhuahong (H. polyrhizus) were constructed. A total of about 12 Gb raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 122,677 transcripts with an average length of 1183 bp and an N50 value of 2008. Approximately 99.99% of all transcripts were annotated based on seven public databases. A total of 8871 transcripts were significantly regulated. Thirty-three candidate transcripts related to betalain biosynthesis were obtained from the transcriptome data. Transcripts encoding enzymes involved in betalain biosynthesis were analyzed using RT-qPCR at the whole pulp coloration stages of H. polyrhizus (7-1) and H. undatus (132-4). Nine key transcripts of betalain biosynthesis were identified. They were assigned to four kinds of genes in betalain biosynthetic pathway, including tyrosinase, 4, 5-DOPA dioxygenase extradiol, cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase. Ultimately, a preliminary betalain biosynthetic pathway for pitaya was proposed based on betalain analyses, gene expression profiles and published documents.

  14. 不同稳定剂对火龙果汁酸奶稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金合意; 杨志娟

    2014-01-01

    This topic with pitaya juice, whole milk powder as the main raw material, different stabilizers on pitaya juice yoghurt beverage stable effect. The results show that 0.1% pectin and 0.1% xanthan gum material to mix, or 0.2% xanthan gum and 0.2% carrageenan material to mix, product stable effect is good. Through a series of single factor experiment and orthogonal test, determine product optimum production conditions and formula. The results show that mixing type pitaya juice yoghurt fermentation temperature for 42 ℃, fermentation time, the product formula for 4 h, milk powder∶water for 1∶8, add sugar yield 8%, pitaya juice 8%, kefir 4%. Through the test system of pitaya juice yoghurt beverage is slightly red, homogeneous structure, delicate taste, no separation, no whey precipitation, unique flavor and high nutritional value.%以火龙果汁、全脂奶粉为主要原料,研究不同稳定剂对火龙果汁酸奶饮料的稳定作用。结果表明,0.1%果胶与0.1%黄原胶进行复配,或0.2%黄原胶与0.2%卡拉胶进行复配,产品稳定效果好。通过一系列单因素试验和正交试验,确定产品最佳生产工艺条件和配方。搅拌型火龙果汁酸奶最佳工艺条件和配方为发酵温度42℃,发酵时间4 h,奶粉与水配比1∶8,白砂糖添加量8%,火龙果汁添加量8%,发酵剂添加量4%。通过试验制得的火龙果汁酸奶饮料呈微红色,质地均匀,口感细腻,无分层、无乳清的析出,具有独特的风味和较高的营养价值。

  15. Comparative pollination biology of Venezuelan columnar cacti and the role of nectar-feeding bats in their sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, J; Ramirez, N; Linares, O

    1997-07-01

    The floral biology, reproductive system, and visitation behavior of pollinators of four species of columnar cacti, Stenocereus griseus, Pilosocereus moritzianus, Subpilocereus repandus, and Subpilocereus horrispinus, were studied in two arid zones in the north of Venezuela. Our results support the hypothesis that Venezuelan species of columnar cacti have evolved toward specialization on bat pollination. Additional information on the floral biology of a fifth species, Pilosocereus lanuginosus, was also included. All species showed the typical traits that characterize the pollination syndrome of chiropterophily. All species but Pilosocereus moritzianus were obligate outcrossers. Nectar and pollen were restricted to nocturnal floral visitors. Two species of nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris curasoae Miller and Glossophaga longirostris Miller, were responsible for practically all the fruit set in these cacti. Frequency of bat visitation per flower per night was highly variable within and between species of cactus, with average frequencies varying between 27 and 78 visits/flower/night. In general terms, the pattern of floral visitation through the night was significantly correlated with the pattern of nectar production and nectar sugar concentration for all species of cactus. Under natural pollination, fruit:flower ratios varied from 0.46 in Subpilocereus repandus to 0.76 in Stenocereus griseus. The efficiency of bat pollination in terms of seed:ovule ratio was high in all species, varying between 0.70 and 0.94.

  16. Seed morphology and variation in the genus Pachycereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Salvador; Terrazas, Teresa

    2004-08-01

    Seeds of 13 Pachycereus species and two Stenocereus species that have been suggested as closely related were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Quantitative features were evaluated using multivariate analysis in order to identify characters that distinguish them. Several species groups were recognized on the basis of 16 qualitative characters. All species studied are keeled. Stenocereus aragonii and S. eichlamii share with most Pachycereus species large size, glossy appearance, and a flat relief on periclinal cells in the lateral region. Pachycereus gatesii and P. schottii are unique in having the smallest seeds and a deeply impressed hilum-micropylar region. P. hollianus does not exhibit micro-relief on periclinal walls in the lateral region, and P. fulviceps has no expanded testa border. Multivariate analysis showed that four characters, length, breadth, hilum-micropylar region length, and angle, made the greatest contribution to distinguishing among species groups. More than 80% of P. fulviceps, P. hollianus, P. tepamo, P. weberi, and S. eichlamii seeds could be classified correctly using four seed features and the percentage was even higher using just two or three features for P. gatesii, P. grandis, P. militaris, P. pringlei, and P. schottii. Testa appearance, testa cell-pattern, and position relative to the rim of the hilum-micropylar region were found to be potentially informative and should be combined with other sources of data in future phylogenetic analyses.

  17. Keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keratinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. pond. beach pool. two lakes and two rivers were studied. Samples of water were collected every other month for bydrochemical analysis and once a month (1989-1990 in order to determine the fungus content. Human hair, snippings of finger-nails, chips of hoofs, feathers and snake exuviae were used as bait. Twenty-five species of keratinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies. Hyphochytrium catenoides, Aphanomyces stellatus, Leptolegniella caudala and Achlya oligacantha represent new records as koratinophilic fungi.

  18. REFERENCED TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES FOR STURGEON FINGERLING BREEDING IN INTENSIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILENA TALPES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Work objective is to present an oversight regarding the modality to rearing the descendents of anadromous sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser gueldenstaedti and Huso huso, obtained trough artificial reproduction, indicating successively, the production system, its management, alimentation strategy for sturgeon species and technological performances registered by these. Experiments developed during two phases, respectively the post-embryonary one and sapling rearing during of a 168 days period. Registered performances of sturgeon species material were assessed in conformity with specifically biotechnological indicators.

  19. Development of edible and active film coatings from marine products : desarrollo de recubrimientos activos comestibles a partir de productos del mar

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Pascual, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Se desarrollaron películas activas y comestibles de proteínas y polisacáridos, a partir de recursos de origen marino, tales como los desechos del procesado industrial de cefalópodos (Dosidicus gigas) y las algas infrautilizadas (Mastocarpus stellatus, Laminaria digitata y Ascophyllum nodosum). Con este fin, se valorizaron los materiales poliméricos y extractos potencialmente bioactivos recuperados para el desarrollo de películas antioxidantes y su caracterización físico-química; y se microenc...

  20. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  1. Human disturbance provides foraging opportunities for birds in primary subalpine forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuBay, Shane G.; Hart Reeve, Andrew; Wu, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    to species that naturally occur in edge, open, or disturbed habitats. With observations and experiments we provide evidence of insectivorous birds exploiting human disturbance in primary subalpine forest in the mountains of southern China, displaying behavioral flexibility to gain novel foraging...... or Cettia major, and Heteroxenicus stellatus. This behavior is likely a modification of pre-existing interspecific foraging associations with pheasants and large mammals in the region. These larger animals disturb the earth and lower vegetation layers upon passage and while foraging, exposing previously...

  2. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    methane production (P 0.05) by either seaweed species or the collection season. Higher final pH (P production, ammonia...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...... by collecting season (P = 0.208–0.341). The TEP values ranged from 1.46 to 50.3 mg/g dry matter (DM), and differed (P production parameters for a rumen passage...

  3. Dispersal responses override density effects on genetic diversity during post-disturbance succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annabel L; Landguth, Erin L; Bull, C Michael; Banks, Sam C; Gardner, Michael G; Driscoll, Don A

    2016-03-30

    Dispersal fundamentally influences spatial population dynamics but little is known about dispersal variation in landscapes where spatial heterogeneity is generated predominantly by disturbance and succession. We tested the hypothesis that habitat succession following fire inhibits dispersal, leading to declines over time in genetic diversity in the early successional gecko Nephrurus stellatus We combined a landscape genetics field study with a spatially explicit simulation experiment to determine whether successional patterns in genetic diversity were driven by habitat-mediated dispersal or demographic effects (declines in population density leading to genetic drift). Initial increases in genetic structure following fire were likely driven by direct mortality and rapid population expansion. Subsequent habitat succession increased resistance to gene flow and decreased dispersal and genetic diversity inN. stellatus Simulated changes in population density alone did not reproduce these results. Habitat-mediated reductions in dispersal, combined with changes in population density, were essential to drive the field-observed patterns. Our study provides a framework for combining demographic, movement and genetic data with simulations to discover the relative influence of demography and dispersal on patterns of landscape genetic structure. Our results suggest that succession can inhibit connectivity among individuals, opening new avenues for understanding how disturbance regimes influence spatial population dynamics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  5. New Records of Seed Plants from Guangdong, China%广东省种子植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 肖建生

    2016-01-01

    Eight species (including varieties),Hamamelis mollis, Lychnis senno, Gelidocalamus stellatus, Monochasma sheareri, Epimedium leptorrhizum, Triadenum breviflorum, Juglans cathayensis var. formosana,Corydalis decumbens, are reported as new records from Guangdong. In addition, the generaHamamelis, Lychnis, Triadenum have not been previously recorded in Guangdong.%报道广东省种子植物分布新记录8种(变种):金缕梅Hamamelis mollis Oliver、剪红纱花Lychnis senno Sieb. et Zucc.、井冈寒竹Gelidocalamus stellatusWen、沙氏鹿茸草Monochasma savatieriFranch. ex Maxim.、黔岭淫羊藿Epimedium leptorrhizum Stearn、三腺金丝桃Triadenum breviflorum (Wall. ex Dyer) Y. Kimura、华东野核桃Juglans cathayensis Dode var.formosana (Hayata) A. M. Lu et R. H, Chang、伏生紫堇Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers.。其中,金缕梅属、剪秋罗属、三腺金丝桃属为广东新记录属。

  6. Novos táxons de Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae da Região Neotropical New taxa of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos da Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (também do Panamá; do Panamá: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; da Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; do Equador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; do Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., espécie-tipo, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; do Brasil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. Acrescenta-se chave para as espécies de Cotycuara.New taxa described from Costa Rica: Erana cretaria sp. nov., Itumbiara denudata sp. nov., Hilaroleopsis coloratus sp. nov., Alampyris flavicollis sp. nov., Cotycuara viridis sp. nov., Adesmus stellatus sp. nov., A. pilatus sp. nov. (also from Panama; from Panama: Eulachnesia amoena sp. nov., Cotycuara crinita sp. nov.; from Venezuela: Abanycha fasciata sp. nov.; from Ecuador: Mariliana hovorei sp. nov., Adesmus ocellatus sp. nov.; from Peru: Susuanycha gen. nov., type species, S. susua sp. nov., Malacoscylus elegantulus sp. nov., Adesmus guttatus sp. nov., A. calca sp. nov.; from Brazil (Minas Gerais: Sybaguasu cornutum sp. nov. A key to the species of Cotycuara is added.

  7. Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes and Staphylococcus Aureus on Fresh-Cut Tropical Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke; Hu, Wenzhong; Jiang, Aili; Xu, Yongping; Sarengaowa; Li, Xiaobo; Bai, Xue

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and natural microbiota on fresh-cut tropical fruits (pitaya, mango, papaya and pineapple) with commercial PVC film at different storage temperature (5, 13, and 25 °C). The results showed that S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and natural microbiota increased significantly on fresh-cut tropical fruits at 25 °C. Both pathogen and natural microbiota were able to grow on fresh-cut tropical fruits at 13 °C. The maximum population of L. monocytogenes was higher than that of S. aureus on fresh-cut tropical fruits. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus could survive without growth on fresh-cut pitaya, mango, and papaya at 5 °C. The population of L. monocytogenes declined significantly on fresh-cut pineapple at all temperature, indicating composition of fresh-cut pineapple could inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes. However, S. aureus was still able to grow on fresh-cut pineapple at storage temperature. Thus, this study suggests that 4 kinds of fresh-cut tropical fruits (pitaya, mango, papaya, and pineapple) should be stored at low temperature to extend shelf life as well as to ensure the safety of fresh-cut fruits. The data collected in this study demonstrated that L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were able to grow on fresh-cut tropical fruits at different temperatures. These results could be of interest in knowing the capacity of tropical fruits to support the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. This information may also be useful to local and state regulatory officials responsible for food safety.

  8. 火龙果热风联合变温压差膨化干燥工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓旭; 易建勇; 毕金峰; 刘璇; 周林燕; 陈芹芹

    2014-01-01

    采用响应面方法优化火龙果热风联合变温压差膨化干燥工艺,分析预干燥含水率、膨化温度、抽空温度3个因素对火龙果膨化产品色泽、硬度、脆度和复水比的影响。采用因子分析法确定指标的权重,通过综合评分得到火龙果热风联合变温压差膨化干燥的最佳工艺参数范围。结果表明,预干燥含水率、膨化温度、抽空温度3个因素对产品的色泽、硬度、脆度和复水比均影响显著。火龙果热风联合变温压差膨化干燥的最佳工艺参数范围为预干燥含水率10.23%~20.56%,膨化温度90.68~100.23℃,抽空温度55.69~65.23℃。%In this paper,the pitaya drying process by combination of hot-air and explosion puffing drying is optimized. Color, density,brittleness and rehydration ratio are used to determine the effects of pre-drying water content,puffing temperature and evacuation temperature by using the response surface method. Factor analysis method is used to determine the drying quality of pitaya too. The results show that the pre-drying water content,puffing temperature and evacuation temperature affect apparently on the quality of dried pitaya. Optimal combination of hot-air and explosion puffing drying parameters of pitaya are:pre-drying water content 10.23%~20.56%,puffing temperature 90.68~100.23 ℃,evacuation temperature 55.69~65.23 ℃.

  9. [Digestibility of columnar cacti pollen grains in the glosophagine bats Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Romo, Mariana; Sosa, Maricela; Quintero, Yveth Casart

    2005-01-01

    We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested) pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested) pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis) in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus) used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L. curasoae digested 64.2% and 71.3% of all the pollens fed, respectively. These high values confirm the importance of pollen in the diet of these bats, given its high nitrogen level.

  10. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gregoris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa in order to (i verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  12. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  13. The Research of High-quality and High Yield Culture Technique of Hylocereus Undatus in Huizhou%惠州优质高产火龙果的栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺握权; 廖建良; 闻莲; 宋冠华

    2015-01-01

    In order to select excellent pitaya varieties suitable for cultivation in Huizhou region,we analyse biological characteristics and economic characteristics of different pitaya varieties of Huizhou city, and sum up the cultivation techniques of different varieties.The results showed that Xianmiguo No.1, Shihuoquan,Mibao,rouge,and Zhuangzhuang each have their own advantages,but the rouge and Mibao have the highest economic benefit,they are the excellent varieties recommended.%分析惠州市的不同火龙果品种的生物学特性和经济特性,总结不同品种的栽培技术要点,筛选适宜惠州地区栽培的丰产、优质的火龙果品种。结果表明:仙蜜果1号、石火泉、蜜宝、胭脂、壮壮各自都有着自己的优点,但胭脂和蜜宝的经济效益最高,是值得推荐的优良品种。

  14. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%.

  15. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.

  16. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA DE PITAHAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alexander Castro Rivera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enzimas catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO fueron extraídas de la corteza de frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para CAT se halló que su actividad fue máxima a pH entre 6,8 y 7,5 y temperatura entre 30 a 50 °C y un KM de 442 mM con H2O2 como sustrato. Para POD se encontró un pH de máxima actividad entre 5,0 a 5,5, temperatura de máxima actividad entre 20 a 25 °C y valores de KM de 10,6 mM para guayacol y 5,1 mM para H2O2. Para PFO las actividades máximas se obtuvieron a pH 7,0 y a temperaturas entre 30 a 40 °C; para esta enzima se obtuvo un KM de 5,5 mM con L-DOPA como sustrato. Las características encontradas para POD y PFO indican que estas enzimas pueden jugar un papel importante en el pardeamiento de la corteza de pitaya amarilla. Además, se evidenció el papel complementario que tienen CAT y POD ante diversas concentraciones celulares de H2O2.

  17. In situ Morphological Characterization of Hylocereus spp. (Fam.: Cactaceae Genotypes from Antioquia and Córdoba (Colombia / Caracterización Morfológica in situ de Genotipos de Hylocereus spp. (Fam.: Cactaceae de Antioquia y Córdoba (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Henry Andrés

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hylocereus includes many importantspecies for human and animal nutrition, including those known as dragon fruits. Although Colombia produces yellow pitaya on a commercial scale, there have been no advances for the red pitahaya crop. This study aimed to do an in situ evaluation of genetic material of wild red pitahaya (Hylocereus spp. from three populations located in Antioquia and Córdoba; with special interest for the fruits, taking into account the desired characteristics by the market. To achieve this, 23 descriptors of stems and fruits, measurable in the field, were chosen; and 35 individuals where located, using GPS, and described. The populations were compared using mean comparison and the similarity was evaluated with cluster analysis. The stem descriptors differed in spine number, contour and margin hardness, areole distance and stem color; the first three are important for species distinction.According to the fruit descriptors, populations 1 and 2 presented similar fruits that were different from those of population 3, for almost all variables except total soluble solids content. The fruits of population 1 and 2 only differed for pulp weight. Individual 3 of population 1 presented fruits with the best characteristics for the market / El género Hylocereus presenta varias especies importantes en la alimentación humana y animal, incluyendo aquellas conocidas como pitayas rojas. Aunque Colombia produce comercialmente pitaya amarilla, no ha avanzado en el cultivo de pitaya roja. Este trabajo se propuso caracterizar in situ materiales genéticos silvestres de pitaya roja (Hylocereus spp. provenientes de tres poblaciones de Antioquia y Córdoba, especialmente de sus frutos, según las características deseables para el mercado. Para ello,se eligieron 23 descriptores de tallos y frutos, medibles en campo; se ubicaron y georeferenciaron 35 individuos y se describieron. Las poblaciones fueron comparadas en cada uno de los

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of South China Sea snappers (genus Lutjanus; family Lutjanidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yusong; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu; Liu, Li; Liu, Yun

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of intra- and interspecies were elucidated based on complete cytochrome b (cyt b) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequences from 12 recognized species of genus Lutjanus Bloch in the South China Sea (SCS). Using the combined data set of consensus cyt b and COII gene sequences, interspecific relationships for all 12 recognized species in SCS were consistent with Allen's morphology-based identifications, with strong correlation between the molecular and morphological characteristics. Monophyly of eight species (L. malabaricus, L. russellii, L. stellatus, L. bohar, L. johnii, L. sebae, L. fulvus, and L. fulviflamma) was strongly supported; however, the pairs L. vitta/L. ophuysenii and L. erythropterus/L. argentimaculatus were more similar than expected We inferred that L. malabaricus exists in SCS, and the introgression caused by hybridization is the reason for the unexpectedly high homogeneity.

  19. Two new species of Psyttalia Walker (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae reared from fruit-infesting tephritid (Diptera hosts in Kenya

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    Robert Wharton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species of opiine Braconidae, reared from fruit-infesting Tephritidae in Kenya, are described. Psyttalia masneri sp. n. was reared from fruits of Dracaena fragrans (L. Ker Gawl. (Liliaceae infested with Taomyia marshalli Bezzi in western Kenya. Psyttalia masneri is the only opiine braconid known to attack members of the genus Taomyia. Unusual morphological features of P. masneri and its host are detailed. Psyttalia halidayi sp. n. was reared from fruits of Lettowianthus stellatus Diels (Annonaceae infested with Ceratitis rosa Karsch in coastal Kenya. Psyttalia halidayi is morphologically similar to several described species of Psyttalia that have previously been used in the biological control of tephritid pests. Unlike these other species, P. halidayi can attack and successfully develop on C. rosa, a serious pest of cultivated fruits. A list of valid species in Psyttalia is provided, along with comments on species groups and host records.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000).

  1. Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard coastal infrastructure and natural rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The numbers of hard coastal artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard coastal structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of sites we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard coastal structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised coastal areas.

  2. Comercialização de frutas exóticas

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    Hélio Satoshi Watanabe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas Centrais de Abastecimento - CEASAs, a fruta é considerada exótica quando comercializada em menor volume. Apesar do aumento significativo da demanda de algumas frutas exóticas nos últimos anos, o volume total ainda é pequeno em relação ao volume total das demais frutas. Em 2012, na Companhia de Entrepostos e Armazéns Gerais de Säo Paulo - CEAGESP, as frutas exóticas representaram 0,65% do volume total de frutas comercializadas e 2,09% do volume financeiro do setor de frutas. A oferta de algumas frutas exóticas na CEAGESP teve crescimentos surpreendentes nos últimos 5 anos, como foi o caso da lichia, romä, mangostäo, pitaya, physalis e das frutas vermelhas- amora e framboesa. Por outro lado, carambola, abiu e umbu tiveram o volume comercializado diminuído nos últimos 3 anos.

  3. TAMANHO DE CLADÓDIOS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PITAIA VERMELHA

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    VIRNA BRAGA MARQUES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cladodes size is an important feature when selecting cuttings for red pitaya (Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose seedling production. The paper was carried out with the aim of evaluating different sizes of cladodes in the production of dragon fruit seedlings. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments, which were the cladodes sizes: 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25 cm, with four replicates and four cladodes per plot. After 80 days of the experiment, there were evaluated: number of shoots per plant, percentage of rooting, length of greater root and dry weight of roots. The size of cladodes directly influences the production of seedlings. The lengths of cladodes from 15 to 25 cm are the most suitable for the dragon fruit seedlings.

  4. Catalasa, peroxidasa y polifenoloxidasa de pitahaya amarilla (acanthocereus pitajaya)

    OpenAIRE

    Jhon Alexander Castro Rivera; Lucia Estrella Baquero Duarte; Carlos Eduardo Narváez Cuenca

    2008-01-01

    Las enzimas catalasa (CAT), peroxidasa (POD) y polifenoloxidasa (PFO) fueron extraídas de la corteza de frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya) y caracterizadas parcialmente. Para CAT se halló que su actividad fue máxima a pH entre 6,8 y 7,5 y temperatura entre 30 a 50 °C y un KM de 442 mM con H2O2 como sustrato. Para POD se encontró un pH de máxima actividad entre 5,0 a 5,5, temperatura de máxima actividad entre 20 a 25 °C y valore...

  5. 西瓜·火龙果复合凝固型酸奶的研究%Research on Solidified Yoghurt with Watermelon and Pltaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文彬; 张翠媚; 刁艳莹; 曾婷婷; 谢玩莲

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 探讨制作西瓜、火龙果复合凝固型酸奶的最佳配方.[方法] 以西瓜汁、火龙果浆和全脂奶粉为主要原料制备西瓜、火龙果复合凝固型酸奶,研究混合果浆添加量、蔗糖添加量、奶粉用量、接种量对酸奶品质的影响,通过正交试验确定最佳配方,并评价该产品的感官指标.[结果] 正交试验结果表明,混合果浆添加量对感官评定的影响最大,其次为奶粉用量、蔗糖的添加量和接种量的影响.该酸奶的最佳配方为:西瓜汁与火龙果的比例为7:1,混合果浆添加量为40%,蔗糖添加量为17%,奶粉用量为25%,接种量为16%,在43℃发酵4.5h,所得酸奶品质最佳.[结论] 该产品色泽均匀一致,呈浅红色,凝乳均匀细腻,无气泡,有发酵乳味与西瓜、火龙果混合果浆味,且酸甜适口.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the optimum formula for preparing the composite solidified yoghurt with watermelon and pitaya. [ Method] The watermelon juice,pitaya plasma and whole milk powder were taken as the main raw materials to prepare the compound solidified yogurt with the watermelon and pitaya,the effects of the mixed fruit pulp,sugar and milk dosage,and the inoculation amount on the yogurt quality were studied, the optimum formula was confirmed through the orthogonal experiment and the sensory index of the product was evaluated. [Result] The orthogonal experiment results showed that,the adding amount of the mixed fruit pulp had the greatest influence on the sensory evaluation,followed by that of sugar,milk and dosage,and the inoculation amount. The optimum formula for preparing the yoghurt was as follows: the ratio of watermelon juice to pitaya was 7:1 ,the adding amount of the mixed fruit pulp was 40% ,the sugar dosage was 17% ,the milk dosage was 25% ,the inoculation amount was 16% ,and when they were fermented at 43 ℃ for 4.5 h the quality of the produced yoghurt was best. [Conclusion] The product showed

  6. Stability and color changes of thermally treated betanin, phyllocactin, and hylocerenin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbach, Kirsten M; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-01-25

    Thermal degradation of betanin, phyllocactin (malonyl-betanin), and hylocerenin (3' '-hydroxy-3' '-methyl-glutaryl-betanin) solutions isolated from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) was monitored by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analyses. For betanin and phyllocactin solutions, the color shift upon thermal treatment was found to be nearly identical, while hylocerenin samples exhibited an intelligibly higher chromatic steadiness. Betanin proved to be the most stable individual pigment structure, while the enhanced tinctorial stability of the integral phyllocactin and especially hylocerenin solutions was due to the formation of red degradation products exhibiting improved color retention as opposed to their respective genuine pigments. Individual structure-related stability characteristics can exclusively be assessed by HPLC-DAD analyses and may not be noticed by mere spectrophotometric assessment of color and tinctorial strength.

  7. Digestibilidad del polen de cactáceas columnares en los murciélagos glosofaginos Glossophaga longirostris y Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Muñoz-Romo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la asimilación protoplasmática de los granos de polen de cactáceas columnares en dos especies de murciélagos glosofaginos, determinamos el porcentaje de granos de polen vacíos (digeridos en muestras fecales de Glossophaga longirostris y Leptonycteris curasoae , capturados en una zona árida de Venezuela. Para determinar el porcentaje de granos de polen digeridos por los murciélagos, aplicamos un colorante sobre las muestras fecales que permite diferenciar sin dificultad el polen vacio del polen lleno. Después de cuantificar los granos de polen de ambas categorías en las muestras fecales, los valores fueron corregidos tomando en cuenta el porcentaje de polen vacío (previo a la antesis en las flores maduras de las especies de cactáceas columnares (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus y Pilosocereus tillianus . G. longirostris asimila el 64.2% de los granos de polen que ingiere y L. curasoae asimila el 71.3%. Estos elevados porcentajes confirman la importancia del polen en la dieta de estos murciélagos, dado su alto contenido de nitrógenoDigestibility of columnar cacti pollen grains in the glosophagine bats Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L

  8. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  9. Vivipary in coastal cacti: a potential reproductive strategy in halophytic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Reyes-Olivas, Alvaro; Sánchez-Soto, Bardo

    2007-09-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds within the fruit prior to abscission from the maternal plant, is an important event in plants. Two main types of vivipary are known in vascular plants: true vivipary and pseudovivipary. In crop grasses, pseudovivipary is an undesirable character as it results in lower yields. To date, vivipary in the Cactaceae has been reported for less than 20 species, most of which are cultivated. Here, we report viviparous (cryptoviviparous-a subcategory of true vivipary) cacti in nature in members of the tribes Cacteae and Pachycereeae (subfamily Cactoideae). We present four species inhabiting coastal plains in areas subject to periodic flooding, namely, Ferocactus herrerae, Stenocereus alamosensis, S. thurberi, and Pachycereus schottii. These species from localities in northwestern Mexico had viviparous fruits and offspring in different stages of development. A potential trend in the data indicates that the overall proportion of viviparous plants is higher in coastal flooding areas relative to halophytic, nonflooding areas. In our view, vivipary is a reproductive strategy that has evolved to provide a more efficient mechanism favoring germination and new avenues for survival by contributing to population maintenance and short-distance dispersal on halophytic substrates.

  10. New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Kazutaka; Baba, Masaki; Ito, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Kunio

    2012-07-15

    The research in our laboratory focuses on the isolation of saponins from cactus. In this study, we report five new triterpenoid saponins, dumortierinoside A methyl ester (1), pachanoside I1 (2), pachanoside D1 (3), gummososide A (4), and gummososide A methyl ester (5). Compounds 1-3 isolated from Isolatocereus dumortieri Backbg., and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from Stenocereus alamosensis A. C. Gibson & K. E. Horak. Compound 2 possessed a new pachanane-type triterpene skeleton, pachanol I, in its aglycon. The aglycon of 3 was pachanol D, while those of 4 and 5 were both gummosogenin, which we have previously reported, but this is the first report of pachanol D and gummosogenin in their aglycon forms. Additionally, we evaluated the anti-type I allergy activity of the saponins with RBL-2H3 (Rat basophilic leukemia) cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase release inhibitory activity. As a result of these studies, gummososide A methyl ester (5) was found to show activity (IC(50)=99.5 μM) and thurberoside A exhibited mild activity (IC(50)=166.9 μM).

  11. Apical meristem organization and lack of establishment of the quiescent center in Cactaceae roots with determinate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Fernando; Shishkova, Svetlana; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2003-10-01

    Some species of Cactaceae from the Sonoran Desert are characterized by a determinate growth pattern of the primary root, which is important for rapid lateral-root formation and seedling establishment. An analysis of the determinate root growth can be helpful for understanding the mechanism of meristem maintenance in plants in general. Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson & Horak and Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose are characterized by an open type of root apical meristem. Immunohistochemical analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into S. gummosus showed that the percentage of cells passing through the S-phase in a 24-h period is the same within the zone where a population of relatively slowly proliferating cells could be established and above this zone in the meristem. This indicated the absence of the quiescent center (QC) in S. gummosus. During the second and the third days of growth, in the distal meristem portion of P. pringlei roots, a compact group of cells that had a cell cycle longer than in the proximal meristem was found, indicating the presence of the QC. However, later in development, the QC could not be detected in this species. These data suggest that during post-germination the absence of the establishment of the QC within the apical meristem and limited proliferative activity of initial cells are the main components of a determinate developmental program and that establishment of the QC is required for maintenance of the meristem and indeterminate root growth in plants.

  12. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  13. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  14. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  15. Occurrence of Belonolaimus in Sinaloa, Northwestern Mexico: A New Report on Distribution and Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Baldwin, J. G.; Pereira, T. J.; Camacho-Baez, J. R.; Armenta-Bojorquez, A. D.; Camacho-Haro, M.; Becker, J. O.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports the occurrence of the genus Belonolaimus in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, associated with native plants (i.e., Ziziphus amole and Stenocereus alamosensis) in a natural coastal ecosystem. Both morphological and molecular approaches were employed to characterize the Sinaloa population. Notwithstanding of some morphological and morphometric variation between Belonolaimus from Sinaloa and other valid species, the characterization indicates that this population might belong to the Belonolaimus longicaudatus species complex. Molecular analyses based on the 28S gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) identified four major clades within Belonolaimus; however, none of the species including B. longicaudatus, B. gracilis, and B. euthychilus were supported as monophyletic; yet monophyly is argued to be a basic requirement of species status. Sequence divergence among different Belonolaimus populations and species varied according to the rRNA dataset (i.e., ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 > 28S > 18S) used, thus showing the importance of using genes with different rates of evolution to estimate species relationships. The fact that Belonolaimus has not been found in other cultivated (including on suitable hosts) areas in Sinaloa and that this population is relatively distant from the common B. longicaudatus groups (i.e., clades A and B) suggests that its appearance was not due to a recent introduction associated with the local agriculture. PMID:28512382

  16. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics.

  17. Serpúlidos (Polychaeta: Serpulidae del Caribe noroccidental con claves para la región del Gran Caribe: Salmacina, Ficopomatus, Pomatoceros, Pomatostegus, Protula, Pseudovermilia, Spirobranchus y Vermiliopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rolando Bastida-Zavala

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión de más de 1 250 ejemplares de serpúlidos, 15 especies de la región del Gran Caribe fueron identificadas y caracterizadas. Trece especies fueron recolectadas en las costas de la Península de Yucatán y ocho fueron encontradas en otras localidades en el Golfo de México, otras siete son de Cuba y se incluyeron comentarios sobre el material tipo de dos especies más. Se realizaron tres análisis morfométricos para evaluar algunos caracteres. El primero sobre Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard y especies y subespecies relacionadas: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P. macrosoma Schmarda, P. s. fruticosa Mörch, P. s. pentapoma Mörch y P. s. tetrapoma Mörch, indicando que estas son con-específicas. Otro fue sobre las especies de Spirobranchus de Blainville: S. dendropoma Mörch, S. giganteus (Pallas, S. polycerus (Schmarda y S. polycerus augeneri ten Hove; se demostró que S. giganteus es diferente de los otros tres táxones. El tercer análisis fue realizado sobre Vermiliopsis annulata (Schmarda s.l., y permitió reconocer tres formas diferentes. Asimismo, varios ejemplares incompletos probablemente pertenecen a un género indescrito. Se incluye una clave de identificación para todas las especies registradas en la región del Gran Caribe.From the revision of more than 1 250 serpulids, 15 species from the Grand Caribbean Region were identified and characterized. Thirteen species were collected along the shores of the Yucatan Peninsula and eight were found in other localities in the Gulf of Mexico, seven others are from Cuba and comments on type specimens of two species are also included. Three morphometric analyses were made to evaluate some characters. The first on Pomatostegus stellatus (Abildgaard, and related species and subspecies: P. brachysoma Schmarda, P. macrosoma Schmarda, P. s. fruticosa Mörch, P. s. pentapoma Mörch and P. s. tetrapoma Mörch, indicated that they are conspecific. Another one on Spirobranchus de

  18. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cleithenes herzenstein and its phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhang; Wenping, Song; Kefeng, Liu; Debin, Zheng; Chao, Ma; Guangxia, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Stewartia sinensis was obtained with long PCR approach. Amplification primers were designed according to mitogenome sequences of some other fish species. PCR reactions were according to Kong et al. ( 2009 ). The complete mitochondria sequence of Cleithenes herzenstein was deposited in GenBank under the accession number KT223828. Structural and evolutionary analyses were also performed. The length of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence was 17 175 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. Other than D-loop, another non-coding region named ''OL'' region was found ( Table 1 ). The ''OL'' region (CTTTTTCCCGCCTAGTTTAACCAGTAAAAGGCGGGAA) is 38 bp and has the potential to fold into a stem-loop secondary structure. Most of the genes were encoded on the heavy strand (H strand) except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes ( Table 1 ). The base composition and gene arrangement of C. herzenstein mitogenome was identical to typical vertebrate. For sequence alignment, the mitogenome sequence of C. herzenstein was 96% and 95% similar to that of Platichthys stellatus and Verasper moseri, respectively.

  20. Primary species recognition and phylogeny of Chondrus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) using 18S rDNA sequence data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zimin; ZENG Xiaoqi; ALAN T. Critchley; STEVE L. Morrell; DUAN Delin

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA) of 16 isolates of Chondrus from 8 countries were sequenced. A total of 1796 nucleotides were obtained and aligned with the phylogenetic analysis conducted. The results suggest that the entity from Dalian, China, regarded as C. sp1 is C. pinnulatus. The C. sp2 previously depicted as C. yendoi or Mazzaella japonica may belong to genus Chondrus. So, 4 Chondrus species, i.e.C.ocellatus, C. nipponicus, C. armatus, and C. pinnulatus are distributed in China. However, the entity from Connemara,Ireland, named C. crispus, is not a Chondrus species but that of Mastocarpus stellatus, although it is morphologically similar to C. crispus. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete 18S rDNA sequence data shows that genus Chondrus includes 3 main lineages: the Northern Pacific lineage, containing C. ocellatus, C. yendoi, and C. nipponicus; C.armatus, and C. pinnulatus form the sub-North Pacific lineage; and the Northern Atlantic Ocean lineage, comprising samples of C. crispus from Canada, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and France. The phylogenetic relationships indicate that genus Chondrus might have a North Pacific ancestral origin, radiated to North Atlantic area, and then formed the species C. crispus.

  1. Parasitic worms and their histopathological effects in four sturgeon species from the southwest shores of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to provide the status of parasite communities of four sturgeon species viz. Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. nudiventris, and Huso huso in the southwest of the Caspian Sea and their histopathological effects on the examined fishes. For this purpose a total of 93 individuals of four sturgeon species were caught in two fisheries regions from the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province, Iran from March 2010 to May 2011. The histological slides of the infested tissues of the examined fishes were prepared for study of the histopathological effects of the parasites. Classical epidemiological variables, including mean intensity, prevalence, abundance and dominance were calculated for overall samples, grouped by season, geographical region, and sex. Five worm species, including two nematodes (Cucullanus   sphaerocephalus and Eustrongylides excisus larvae, one cestode (Bothrimonus fallax, one acanthocephalans (Leptorhynchoide plagicephalus and one digenean trematode (Skrjabinopsolus   semiarmatus were found in examined sturgeons and their histopathological effects on the fish tissues were assessed. Based on the results, the diversity of the parasites (including freshwater ones in the southern part of the Caspian Sea have decreased since the time of the first study in 1972. This may be related to unfavorable conditions in freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Population Studies and Carrageenan Properties in Eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta from Western Coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight carrageenophytes, representing seven genera and three families of Gigartinales (Florideophyceae, were studied for 15 months. The reproductive status, dry weight, and carrageenan content have been followed by a monthly random sampling. The highest carrageenan yields were found in Chondracanthus acicularis (61.1%, Gigartina pistillata (59.7%, and Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (58.0%. Species of Cystocloniaceae family produces predominantly iota-carrageenans; Gigartinaceae family produces hybrid kappa-iota carrageenans (gametophytic plants and lambda-family carrageenans (sporophytic plants; Phyllophoraceae family produces kappa-iota-hybrid carrageenans. Quadrate destructive sampling method was used to determine the biomass and line transect. Quadrate nondestructive sampling method, applied along a perpendicular transect to the shoreline, was used to calculate the carrageenophytes cover in two periods: autumn/winter and spring/summer. The highest cover and biomass were found in Chondrus crispus (3.75%–570 g/m2, Chondracanthus acicularis (3.45%–99 g/m2, Chondracanthus teedei var. lusitanicus (2.45%–207.5 g/m2, and Mastocarpus stellatus (2.02%–520 g/m2.

  3. A MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ACROCHAETE AND OTHER ENDOPHYTIC GREEN ALGAE (ULVALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Barbara E; Hayes, Paul; Gueidan, Cécile; Brodie, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    A molecular phylogeny was reconstructed from a culture collection of >150 isolates of epi-endophytic and endophytic green algae, based on nucleotide sequences of the plastid tufA and nuclear ITS2 loci. The cultures were isolated from a variety of algal hosts, notably the red algae Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Osmundea species, and the brown algae Chorda filum and Fucus serratus. The phylogeny revealed that in the Ulvales the majority of isolates fell into Acrochaete (Ulvellaceae), Ulva (Ulvaceae), Bolbocoleon (Bolbocoleaceae), and at least two unknown genera provisionally assigned to the Kornmanniaceae. Acrochaete was monophyletic. The genus was also more specious than previously described with 12 species, including up to six new species awaiting formal description. Isolates identified as Acrochaete repens, the type species of the genus, were polyphyletic. The remainder of the isolates were placed in the Ulotrichales. The results confirm that the endophytic habit supports a broad diversity of algal taxa and suggest that blade formation is a relatively recent innovation within the green algae.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA physical maps of two species of snappers(Lutjanus) from South China Sea%两种笛鲷线粒体DNA物理图谱的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中铎; 刘楚吾; 郭昱嵩

    2006-01-01

    取星点笛鲷(白星笛鲷Lutjanus stellatus Akuzaki)和千年笛鲷(L.sebae Cuvier et Valenciennes)肝脏组织,分离纯化其线粒体DNA(mtDNA),用限制性内切酶分析构建了两个种mtDNA的物理图谱,进行了限制性片段长度多态性分析,得到两个种的分歧时间大约为5.1Ma(取序列进化率为每百万年1.5%),发现4种内切酶(BglⅠ、MluⅠ、KpnⅠ、SalⅠ)酶切位点在两种间存在明显差异.这些差异为区分两个种提供了遗传标记,同时也为笛鲷类进化遗传学的研究和育种提供了资料.

  5. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  6. Integrated U-Pb zircon and palynological/palaeofloristic age determinations of a Bashkirian palaeofjord fill, Quebrada Grande (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Buso, Victoria; di Pasquo, Mercedes; Milana, Juan Pablo; Kneller, Benjamin; Fallgatter, Claus; Junior, Farid Chemale; Gomes Paim, Paulo Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a new age framework for the main Bashkirian glacio-eustatic transgression in Argentina, including the first absolute age for the Jejenes Formation, San Juan Province, based on radiometric dating of a crystal-rich tuff, supported by palynological and palaeofloristic studies, and presented within a revised palaeogeographic setting. The Jejenes Formation represents the glacial to postglacial fill of the Quebrada Grande palaeofjord carved in the Eastern Precordillera. The succession has been subdivided into five stages, the youngest of which suggests a previously unrecognised glacial event for this locality. Six productive levels for palynology were found within proglacial strata, and in the base and top of the succeeding interglacial stage. Palynoassemblages are characterized by poorly preserved trilete spores and monosaccate pollen grains along with a large amount of terrestrial phytoclasts. Main species indicating the Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata SubZone (DMa SZ) are Vallatisporites ciliaris, Cristatisporites rollerii, C. stellatus, C. chacoparanensis, C. inconstans and monosaccates such as Circumplicatipollis plicatus. This DMa SZ is estimated as Serpukhovian/Bashkirian and characterizes the glacial-related Guandacol Formation and equivalents units of the western Paganzo Basin. A tuffaceous level in the proglacial unit, bearing platyspermic seeds, plant remains and palynomorphs, yielded first-cycle volcanic zircons that were analysed by SHRIMP. An absolute age of 321.3 ± 5.3 Ma confirms a Bashkirian age for the main postglacial transgression in the Paganzo Basin, and offers a novel calibration for the palynoassemblages of DMa SZ that occurs elsewhere in Western Argentina.

  7. Integration of an invasive consumer into an estuarine food web: direct and indirect effects of the New Zealand mud snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Valance E F; Sih, Andrew; de Rivera, Catherine E

    2011-09-01

    Introduced species interact both directly and indirectly with native species. We examine interactions between the introduced New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and native estuarine invertebrates and predators through experiments and field studies. A widely held management concern is that when P. antipodarum, which has low nutritional value, becomes abundant, it replaces nutritious prey in fish diets. We tested two key components of this view: (1) that fish consume, but get little direct nutritional value from P. antipodarum; and (2) that P. antipodarum has an indirect negative effect on fish by reducing the energy derived from native prey. We also examined predation by the native signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Laboratory feeding trials showed that both crayfish and fish consume P. antipodarum, a direct effect. Crayfish consumed and successfully digested higher numbers of snails than did fish [Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), three spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and juvenile starry flounder (Platicthys stellatus)]. P. antipodarum occurred at low frequencies in the stomachs of wild-caught fish. More interesting were the indirect effects of this invader, which ran counter to predictions. P. antipodarum presence was associated with no change or an increase in the amount of energy derived from native prey by predators. The presence of P. antipodarum also led to increased consumption of and preference for the native amphipod Americorophium salmonis over the native isopod Gnorimosphaeroma insulare. This is an example of short-term, asymmetric, apparent competition, in which the presence of one prey species (snails) increases predation on another prey species (the amphipod).

  8. Population genetic structure of Venezuelan chiropterophilous columnar cacti (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Jafet M; Hamrick, J L; Fleming, Theodore H

    2003-11-01

    We conducted allozyme surveys of three Venezuelan self-incompatible chiropterophilous columnar cacti: two diploid species, Stenocereus griseus and Cereus repandus, and one tetraploid, Pilosocereus lanuginosus. The three cacti are pollinated by bats, and both bats and birds disperse seeds. Population sampling comprised two spatial scales: all Venezuelan arid zones (macrogeographic) and two arid regions in northwestern Venezuela (regional). Ten to 15 populations and 17-23 loci were analyzed per species. Estimates of genetic diversity were compared with those of other allozyme surveys in the Cactaceae to examine how bat-mediated gene dispersal affects the population genetic attributes of the three cacti. Genetic diversity was high for both diploid (P(s) = 94.1-100, P(p) = 56.7-72.3, H(s) = 0.182-0.242, H(p) = 0.161-0.205) and tetraploid (P(s) = 93.1, P(p) = 76.1, H(s) = 0.274, H(p) = 0.253) species. Within-population heterozygote deficit was detected in the three cacti at macrogeographic (F(IS) = 0.145-0.182) and regional (F(IS) = 0.057-0.174) levels. Low genetic differentiation was detected at both macrogeographic (G(ST) = 0.043-0.126) and regional (G(ST) = 0.009-0.061) levels for the three species, suggesting substantial gene flow among populations. Gene exchange among populations seems to be regulated by distance among populations. Our results support the hypothesis that bat-mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three columnar cacti, a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations.

  9. Effects of natural and artificial selection on survival of columnar cacti seedlings: the role of adaptation to xeric and mesic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Susana; Terrazas, Teresa; Casas, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe, and Stenocereus pruinosus are species of Mexican columnar cacti that are economically important because of their edible fruits. These species are managed by gathering fruits from the wild, silvicultural management in agroforestry systems, and cultivation in home gardens. Previous studies reported that artificial selection favored individuals that produced larger fruits, which indirectly led to the production of larger seeds and seedlings, with possible effects on survival. We hypothesized that seedlings from managed populations would be larger but more susceptible to xeric conditions than those from wild populations. We evaluated the effects of artificial and natural selection on seedling survival of the three species in wild and managed populations, which were managed with low and high intensity, respectively. We tested seedling performance in gradients of shade (0, 40, and 80%) and humidity (low and high). A GLM of seedling survival showed significant differences among species, shade, and humidity treatments, with each species having environmental requirements associated with their particular adaptations. High humidity decreased seedling survival of all species, and high solar radiation decreased survival of S. pruinosus and P. chichipe. The effect of management type was significant only in S. pruinosus. Significant differences in the initial growth of seedlings among species were detected with ANOVA. In optimal conditions, the hypocotyl and the cotyledons decreased in size and the epicotyl grew, whereas under stress, these structures remained unchanged. The optimum conditions of shade and humidity varied among species and management types. The seedlings of S. pruinosus were the largest and the most susceptible, but in all species, seedlings from managed populations were more susceptible to environmental conditions. Thus, artificial selection influenced the susceptibility of these cacti to xeric environments.

  10. Low-temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Reduced uptake by the chlorenchyma cells of cacti of a stain (neutral red) was used as an indicator of low-temperature damage resulting from cooling stems in the laboratory. Necrosis set in a few degrees below the temperature at which the fraction of cells accumulating stain was reduced by 50%. Coryphantha vivipara, Opuntia polyacantha, and Pediocactus simpsonii, which range to over 300 m altitude in southern Wyoming, were quite cold tolerant. Relationships among tissue cold sensitivity, morphological features which protect the stems from low temperatures, and the occurrence of species in progressively colder regions were investigated. Differences in tissue cold sensitivity accounted for the approx. = 600 m higher elevational limit of Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea compared to the morphologically similar var. deserti in southern Nevada. In contrast, morphological differences alone could adequately explain the relative northern limits of the columnar cacti Carnegiea gigantea vs Stenocereus gummosus and the barrel cacti Ferocactus acanthodes vs. F. wislizenii in the southwestern United States, as previously indicated using a computer model. Cold hardening in response to decreasing day/night air temperatures was observed for 10 species. A decrease from 50/sup 0//40/sup 0/ to 10/sup 0//0/sup 0/ lowered by 4/sup 0/ the temperature at which the fraction of the chlorenchyma cells taking up stain was reduced 50% for both D. rhodacantha and T. candicans, with a half-time for the shift of approx. = 3 d. The tolerance of subzero temperatures and the ability to cold harden allow cacti to range into regions with considerable wintertime freezing.

  11. Low temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Reduced uptake by the chlorenchyma cells of cacti of a stain (neutral red) was used as an indicator of low-temperature damage resulting from cooling stems in the laboratory. Necrosis set in a few degrees below the temperature at which the fraction of cells accumulating stain was reduced by 50%. Coryphantha vivipara, Opuntia polyacantha, and Pediocactus simpsonii, which range to over 3000 m altitude in southern Wyoming, were quite cold tolerant (50% inhibition of staining occurred from -17/sup 0/ to -20/sup 0/C), while O. bigelovii and O. ramosissima, which are restricted to much warmer habitats, were not very cold tolerant (50% inhibition from -4/sup 0/ to -7/sup 0/). Relationships among tissue cold sensitivity, morphological features which protect the stems from low temperatures, and the occurrence of species in progressively colder regions were investigated. Differences in tissue cold sensitivity accounted for the =600 m higher elevational limit of Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea compared to the morphologically similar var. deserti in southern Nevada. In contrast, morphological differences alone could adequately explain the relative northern limits of the columnar cacti Carnegiea gigantea vs. Stenocereus gummosus and the barrel cacti Ferocactus acanthodes vs. F. wislizenii in the southwestern United States, as previously indicated using a computer model. Differences in both morphology and tissue cold sensitivity apparently influenced the relative northern ranges of Lophocereus schottii with respect to the other columnar cacti and F. covillei with respect to the other barrel cacti, as well as the relative elevational range of Denmoza rhodacantha with respect to Trichocereus candicans in northcentral Argentina. Cold hardening in response to decreasing day/night air temperatures was observed for 10 species.

  12. Genomics of Ecological Adaptation in Cactophilic Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Rius, Núria; Delprat, Alejandra; Williford, Anna; Muyas, Francesc; Puig, Marta; Casillas, Sònia; Ràmia, Miquel; Egea, Raquel; Negre, Barbara; Mir, Gisela; Camps, Jordi; Moncunill, Valentí; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Cabrero, Josefa; de Lima, Leonardo G.; Dias, Guilherme B.; Ruiz, Jeronimo C.; Kapusta, Aurélie; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo G.; Torrents, David; Camacho, Juan P.; Kuhn, Gustavo C.S.; Feschotte, Cédric; Clark, Andrew G.; Betrán, Esther; Barbadilla, Antonio; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cactophilic Drosophila species provide a valuable model to study gene–environment interactions and ecological adaptation. Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila mojavensis are two cactophilic species that belong to the repleta group, but have very different geographical distributions and primary host plants. To investigate the genomic basis of ecological adaptation, we sequenced the genome and developmental transcriptome of D. buzzatii and compared its gene content with that of D. mojavensis and two other noncactophilic Drosophila species in the same subgenus. The newly sequenced D. buzzatii genome (161.5 Mb) comprises 826 scaffolds (>3 kb) and contains 13,657 annotated protein-coding genes. Using RNA sequencing data of five life-stages we found expression of 15,026 genes, 80% protein-coding genes, and 20% noncoding RNA genes. In total, we detected 1,294 genes putatively under positive selection. Interestingly, among genes under positive selection in the D. mojavensis lineage, there is an excess of genes involved in metabolism of heterocyclic compounds that are abundant in Stenocereus cacti and toxic to nonresident Drosophila species. We found 117 orphan genes in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage. In addition, gene duplication analysis identified lineage-specific expanded families with functional annotations associated with proteolysis, zinc ion binding, chitin binding, sensory perception, ethanol tolerance, immunity, physiology, and reproduction. In summary, we identified genetic signatures of adaptation in the shared D. buzzatii–D. mojavensis lineage, and in the two separate D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis lineages. Many of the novel lineage-specific genomic features are promising candidates for explaining the adaptation of these species to their distinct ecological niches. PMID:25552534

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qingzhu; Zhou, Qianjun; Gan, Susheng; Wu, Jingyu; Chen, Canbin; Li, Jiaqiang; Ye, Yaoxiong; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level. PMID:27690004

  14. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yien Yien; Tan, Wen Siang; Rosfarizan, Mohamad; Chan, Eng Seng; Tey, Beng Ti

    2012-10-01

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans. Current research revealed the use of biochemical analyses and molecular approaches to identify the microbial population particularly lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes

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    Qingzhu Hua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  16. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

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    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  17. Identification of heat-induced degradation products from purified betanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbach, Kirsten M; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Betanin, phyllocactin (malonylbetanin) and hylocerenin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylbetanin) were isolated from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton and Rose) juice, and their degradation products generated by heating at 85 degrees C were subsequently monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Thermal degradation of phyllocactin and hylocerenin in purified solution excluding the alleged protective effects by the juice matrix is reported for the first time. Betanin was predominantly degraded by hydrolytic cleavage, while decarboxylation and dehydrogenation were of minor relevance. In contrast, hylocerenin showed a strong tendency to decarboxylation and dehydrogenation, hydrolytic cleavage of the aldimine bond occurring secondarily. Phyllocactin degradation was most complex because of additional decarboxylation of the malonic acid moiety as well as generation and subsequent degradation of betanin due to phyllocactin demalonylation. Upon prolonged heating, all betacyanins under observation formed degradation products characterized by an additional double bond at C2-C3. Hydrolytic cleavage of the aldimine bond of phyllocactin and hylocerenin yielded previously unknown acylated cyclo-dopa derivatives traceable by positive ionization, while application of ESI(-) facilitated the detection of a glycosylated aminopropanal derivative and dopamine, which have never been described before as betanin degradation products.

  18. 大丘园仙蜜果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    火龙果(亦称仙蜜果,Pitaya)原产于墨西哥等中美洲地区。火龙果除红皮白肉种外,还有红皮红肉、黄皮白肉等不同种,红黄果肉香甜,白色果肉清甜。其产期集中在每年的7-11月。火龙果中所含的物质以碳水化合物为主,真正的营养物质都藏在种子中,种仁合有RNA、DNA及各种酶、丰富的不饱和脂肪酸及抗氧化物质,果实中含有丰富的维他命A、B1、B2、B3、B12、C及钙、磷、铁等矿物质。火龙果有预防便秘、促进眼睛保健、增加骨质密度、帮助细胞膜形成、预防贫

  19. Structural investigations on betacyanin pigments by LC NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian C; Conrad, Jürgen; Klaiber, Iris; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold

    2004-02-01

    Four betacyanin pigments were analysed by LC NMR and subjected to extensive NMR characterisation after isolation. Previously, low pH values were applied for NMR investigations of betalains resulting in rapid degradation of the purified substances thus preventing extensive NMR studies. Consequently, up to now only one single (13)C NMR spectrum of a betalain pigment, namely that of neobetanin (=14,15-dehydrobetanin), was available. Because of its sufficient stability under highly acidic conditions otherwise detrimental for betacyanins, this pigment remained an exemption. Since betalains are most stable in the pH range of 5-7, a new solvent system has been developed allowing improved data acquisition through improved pigment stability at near neutral pH. Thus, not only (1)H, but for the first time also partial (13)C data of betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin isolated from red-purple pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, Cactaceae] could be indirectly obtained by gHSQC- and gHMQC-NMR experiments.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qingzhu; Zhou, Qianjun; Gan, Susheng; Wu, Jingyu; Chen, Canbin; Li, Jiaqiang; Ye, Yaoxiong; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Guibing; Qin, Yonghua

    2016-09-28

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", "tyrosine metabolism", "flavonoid biosynthesis", "ascorbate and aldarate metabolism", "betalains biosynthesis" and "anthocyanin biosynthesis". In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level.

  1. Variation in community structure across vertical intertidal stress gradients: how does it compare with horizontal variation at different scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Valdivia

    Full Text Available In rocky intertidal habitats, the pronounced increase in environmental stress from low to high elevations greatly affects community structure, that is, the combined measure of species identity and their relative abundance. Recent studies have shown that ecological variation also occurs along the coastline at a variety of spatial scales. Little is known, however, on how vertical variation compares with horizontal variation measured at increasing spatial scales (in terms of sampling interval. Because broad-scale processes can generate geographical patterns in community structure, we tested the hypothesis that vertical ecological variation is higher than fine-scale horizontal variation but lower than broad-scale horizontal variation. To test this prediction, we compared the variation in community structure across intertidal elevations on rocky shores of Helgoland Island with independent estimates of horizontal variation measured at the scale of patches (quadrats separated by 10s of cm, sites (quadrats separated by a few m, and shores (quadrats separated by 100s to 1000s of m. The multivariate analyses done on community structure supported our prediction. Specifically, vertical variation was significantly higher than patch- and site-scale horizontal variation but lower than shore-scale horizontal variation. Similar patterns were found for the variation in abundance of foundation taxa such as Fucus spp. and Mastocarpus stellatus, suggesting that the effects of these canopy-forming algae, known to function as ecosystem engineers, may explain part of the observed variability in community structure. Our findings suggest that broad-scale processes affecting species performance increase ecological variability relative to the pervasive fine-scale patchiness already described for marine coasts and the well known variation caused by vertical stress gradients. Our results also indicate that experimental research aiming to understand community structure on

  2. Concentrations of trace elements in muscle of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Aubrey, David G

    2004-11-01

    Concentrations of 21 trace elements were determined in muscle of beluga (Huso huso), Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), ship sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) and stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) collected from coastal regions of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, surrounding the Caspian Sea during 2000-2001. Concentrations of Mn, Co, Cu, Mo, Sn, Hg, Pb and Bi in the muscle were apparently different among the five species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga showed the highest concentrations of Hg, Pb and Mn in all the five species. In addition, more than half of the individuals of beluga exceeded the guideline level (0.3 microg/g wet wt.) of Hg for food in UK. However, V, Cr, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr and Ba concentrations were similar among five sturgeons. Growth-dependent increase in Hg in beluga, Cu in Persian sturgeon, and Zn in Russian sturgeon were observed, whereas V, Mn, Co, Cu, Ga, Sr, Mo, Sn, Hg and Bi concentrations in Persian sturgeon, Pb in ship sturgeon, and Cr, Mn, and Rb in stellate sturgeon were negatively correlated with body length. All species of sturgeon in Azerbaijan showed the highest concentration of Sr and the lowest concentration of Rb, while the five sturgeons from Iran showed opposite trends. Concentration of V, which is present in oil, in sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was considerably lower than that of fish from Kuwait, but was comparable to that of Cambodia and the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. To our knowledge, this study provides the first extensive data on multielemental accumulation in sturgeons of the Caspian Sea.

  3. A physicochemical study of Al(+3) interactions with edible seaweed biomass in acidic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; López-García, Marta; Herrero, Luz; Barriada, José L; Herrero, Roberto; Cremades, Javier; Bárbara, Ignacio; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2012-09-01

    In this article, a study of the Al(+3) interactions in acidic waters with biomass of different edible seaweeds: brown (Fucus vesiculosus, Saccorhiza polyschides), red (Mastocarpus stellatus, Gelidium sesquipedale, Chondrus crispus), and green (Ulva rigida, Codium tomentosum), has been performed. The influence of both, the initial concentration of metal and the solution pH, on the Al-uptake capacity of the biomass has been analyzed. From preliminary tests, species Fucus vesiculosus and Gelidium sesquipedale have been selected for a more exhaustive analysis. Sorption kinetic studies demonstrated that 60 min are enough to reach equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion model has been used to describe kinetic data. Equilibrium studies have been carried out at pH values of 1, 2.5, and 4. Langmuir isotherms showed that the best uptake values, obtained at pH 4, were 33 mg/g for F. vesiculosus and 9.2 mg/g for G. sesquipedale. These edible seaweeds have been found particularly effective in binding aluminum metal ions for most of the conditions tested. Physicochemical data reported at these low pH values could be of interest, not only in modeling aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the stomach (pH values 1 to 3) but in remediation studies in acidic waters. Aluminum is thought to be linked to neurological disruptions such as Alzheimer's disease. In this article, the adsorption ability of different types of edible seaweeds toward aluminum has been studied. The choice of low pH values is due to the fact that stomach region is acidic with a pH value between 1 and 3 as a consequence of hydrochloric secretion; so physicochemical data reported in this study could be of interest in modeling drug-food interactions, in particular those referring to aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Patterns of benthic assemblages invaded and non-invaded by Grateloupia turuturu across rocky intertidal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cristiano; Araújo, Rita; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2016-09-01

    Intertidal benthic assemblages invaded and non-invaded by the introduced Asian red alga Grateloupia turuturu were compared at a rocky shore along the NW coast of Portugal. The structure of whole assemblages, the total richness of taxa and the abundance of individual taxa were examined as response variables in two different habitats (rock pools and emergent rock), two shore levels (low and mid intertidal) and two dates of sampling (June 2013 and June 2014). Invaded and non-invaded assemblages differed consistently across habitats and shore levels. Such differences were driven by 13 (with the green alga genus Ulva, the red alga Chondrus crispus and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis driving the total dissimilarity) out of the total 37 taxa identified. Individual taxa revealed idiosyncratic patterns, in several cases (C. crispus, M. galloprovincialis, articulated coralline algae of the genus Corallina and the crustose sporophyte of the red alga Mastocarpus stellatus) there were differences in the abundance of a taxon between invaded and non-invaded assemblages varying with levels of some other experimental factors. The total number of taxa was higher in invaded compared to non-invaded assemblages for each combination of habitat and shore level. Patterns of invasion by G. turuturu along the Portuguese continental coast were recently described in terms of its temporal and spatial distribution, but never examined in terms of differences between invaded and non-invaded assemblages. Such information is very limited for other geographic areas where this species is recorded out of its native range of distribution. Therefore, the present study provides a new contribution to the understanding of modifications of native assemblages associated with the invasion of G. turuturu, opening avenues of research aimed at specifically examining the factors and processes likely responsible for the invasion dynamics and success of this species.

  5. UNSTABLE CRITICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX STRUCTURED POPULATION OF STURGEON

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    V. A. Dubrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the consequences of the existence of special conditions that determine the character of the rapid further development of population processes. The most probable connection of these critical conditions deals with the optimal number of subpopulation groups. These groups are formed by the evolutionary adaptation of the form of restricted access to resources for reproduction. We have proposed a model of population processes, which formalizes the influence of uneven growth rate for two different groups of reproductive sturgeon mortality of migratory fish in the juvenile period of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii development. In the computing environment was investigated the hybrid system, which simulates the effects of the existence of the situation for the population of migrating juvenile disproportionate reduction in the river. Such cases are established by us according to the rapid decline in sturgeon spawning the Volga. For the exploited population threshold effect after the unstable equilibrium with the minimum necessary for the well being of the form number is the count in the implementation of the «collapse». The phenomenon of collapse detached among all scenarios the most valuable long-term degradation of the reproductive group. In addition to the apparent sharp reduction in reproductive performance, threshold effect is reflected in the adverse events previously dominated evolutionary trend for the survival of certain forms of the life cycle of fish in terms of reorganization of the fishery. Informative, that the Volga stellate sturgeon Acipencer stellatus observed some form of non-linearity in the efficiency of spawning and require a different kind of fish-specific mathematical model.

  6. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

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    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  7. Changes in the macrozoobenthos of the intertidal zone at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): a survey of 1984 repeated in 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich

    2006-09-01

    Changes in the presence and absence of invertebrates as well as in species conspicuousness were documented in a rocky intertidal community based on surveys in 1984 and 2002. In 2002 six vertically and/or morphologically different stations of an intertidal platform were sampled. Five of these six habitats had already been surveyed in 1984. Replicating precisely the method of the first assessment, presence/absence changes as well as changes in species conspicuousness of 83 invertebrate species were documented, indicating that this intertidal community changed considerably during the 18-year interval. Compared with the study in 1984, 27 species newly appeared, whereas 32 species disappeared. Furthermore, 16 species increased in conspicuousness, whereas eight invertebrates decreased. The total number of species in 2002 was 154 versus 158 in 1984. Although algal species were not recorded as thoroughly as invertebrates, a massive decline in cover of Halidrys siliquosa was noted. Conversely, two invasive algal species became established after 1984, Sargassum muticum (since 1988), a cosmopolitan fucoid alga that prefers shallow subtidal areas for colonization, and Mastocarpus stellatus (introduction in the 1980s) that particularly colonized areas in the mid intertidal. In 1984 the mid intertidal zone was dominated by the brown alga Fucus serratus, whereas in 2002 the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the periwinkle Littorina littorea were the most conspicuous organisms. Annual mean sea surface temperature (BAH measurements) warmed by 1.1°C over the past four decades. Range-related community shifts, introductions of non-indigenous species and the input of pollutants, are considered to explain long-term ecological changes in the invertebrate community at Helgoland.

  8. Distribution and composition pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different tissues of sturgeons collected from Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=16), and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=7) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March and April 2011. The distribution and composition pattern of PAHs in the different tissues of sturgeons, and the effects of lipid content in sturgeon tissues and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of PAHs congeners on them were analyzed. The levels of total PAHs in the various tissues of Persian sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon ranged from 2.095 to 6.587 and 1.942 to 6.206 μg g(-1)dw, respectively. Stellate sturgeon showed significantly higher levels of heavy PAHs (⩾ 4-rings) than Persian sturgeon. The analysis has revealed a high degree of differential accumulation of the studied PAHs in the tissues of the both species. Low molecular weight PAHs predominated in the sturgeons, accounting for 81.89% of the total PAHs. Among the sixteen tested PAHs, naphthalene was the most dominant congener, followed by phenanthrene and fluorene. The PAHs levels and distribution in the tissues of sturgeons are dependent on both the Kow of PAH congeners and the lipid content in these tissues. There was a significant positive relationship (r=0.868, p<0.005) between lipid content and PAHs levels. The statistically significant negative relationships (p<0.01) were found between log Kow and log-transformed PAHs levels for muscle tissues of both sturgeon species.

  9. Competitive relationship between members of the Gobiidae family and other fish species of waters of Pridneprovye region

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    V. V. Khobot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the species’ composition of Gobiidae, their quantitative and qualitative parameters in the coastal zone of the Pridneproovye water bodies. The structural and functional features of organization of coastal Gobies groups in the explored territory have been investigated, as well as characteristics of spatial arrangement of Gobiidae family representatives in water bodies and rivers and their role in the coastal groups of fishes. In the waters of Dnipropetrovsk region there were recorded 8 species of the Gobies family: round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814, big-headed goby N. kessleri (Gunter, 1861, monkey goby N. fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, goad goby N. gymnotrachelus (Kessler, 1857, toad goby Mesogobius batrachocephalus (Pallas, 1814, tube-nosed goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas, 1814, starry goby Benthophilus stellatus (Sauvage, 1874, Brauner’s tadpole goby Benthophiloides brauneri (Beling et Iljin, 1927. The gobies are quickly settled in various water bodies. The highest numbers of Gobiidae were registered in Dneprovsky water basin – 113.8 specimens/100 m2. The dominant among the Gobiidae is monkey goby, and subdominant is round goby. The main food competitor of monkey goby are juveniles of commercial fish. In Samara river the index of trophic niche overlap between goby and roach reaches 0.95, between goby and silver bream – 0.91, between goby and crucian carp – 0.88, between goby and rudd – 0.87, between goby and common bream – 0.62. The number and biomass indicators in Samara river have fallen due to trophic competition between new aggressive fish species – pumpkinseed and Gobiidae. In the Ingulets river the total overlap of trophic niches is observed between N. fluviatilis and black-striped pipefish (1.0, almost complete overlap is recorded between monkey goby and pumpkinseed (0.97. It is found that native species of Dnipropetrovsk region (including commercial species undergo intense trophic

  10. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  11. [Spatial and temporal variation in diet composition of invertivore fishes in a tropical stream, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaz, Mario; Martín, Ricardo; López-Ordaz, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Invertivores fishes are an important component of neotropical streams and they represent a link between aquatic invertebrates and piscivorous species. This study evaluated the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap of nine invertivores fish species during three consecutive hydrological phases: falling (December/07, January/08, February/08 and March/08), low (April/08) and rising waters (June/08), in two sections of a Venezuelan neotropical stream, which were located at different elevation, high watershed (HW) and low watershed (LW). The fishes were collected with a beach seine (5mm mesh) between 8:00 and 11:00 hours. The diet of each species was evaluated using an index of relative importance (IRI), which includes as variables the number, weight and occurrence frequency of food items consumed. The Levin' index (B ) and Morisita (IM) were used to estimate the breadth diet and interspecific food overlap, respectively. All estimations were made using the numeric proportion of preys. Nine fish species were captured, eight Characiformes, of which three were captured in HW (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari and C. melasma) and five in LW (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus and Aphyocharax alburnus), and one Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata), which was also found in HW. In HW aquatic insects were the main resource consumed by fishes while plant material and terrestrial arthropods were secondary resources. In LW the fishes ingested all of these items in addition to zooplankton (Copepoda, Cladocera and larval stages of Decapoda). However, there was a temporal replacement with a predominance of zooplankton in falling and low water. In general, the breadth diet decreased during the falling water in both sections and increased in rising water. However, the average breadth diet was higher in HW. The interspecific food overlap was high in HW while low values were more frequent in LW and its temporal

  12. ESTRUCTURA DE LA VEGETACIÓN DEL CANÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA, 500-1200 M; SANTANDERCOLOMBIA: UNA HERRAMIENTA PARA LA CONSERVACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En la vegetación de la cuenca media del cañón del río Chicamocha entre los 500y los 1170 m de altitud, en los municipios de Cepitá y Piedecuesta (Inspección dePolicía de Pescadero, en Santander-Colombia, el tipo fisionómico dominante es elmatorral, aunque se encuentran algunos tipos de vegetación boscosa cerca de loscursos de agua. La distribución en clases de frecuencia de los parámetros altura,cobertura y diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, muestra que la mayoría de losindividuos se agrupan en las clases inferiores. La mayor parte de los elementos delestrato herbáceo miden entre 60 cm y 1 m y los del estrato arbustivo entre 1,9 y2,1 m. La mayoría de los individuos del estrato arbustivo cubre entre 0,3 y 1,44m2. Son muy escasos los elementos con DAP superior a 8 cm. Las especies másimportantes en la vegetación regional según el Índice de Valor de Importancia (IVIson: Stenocereus griseus (79, Lippia origanoides (76 y Prosopis juliflora (75. Lariqueza florística del área está representada por 69 familias de plantas vasculares, con173 géneros y 220 especies. Las familias con mayor número de géneros y especiesson: Asteraceae (15 géneros/16 especies, Euphorbiaceae (9/16, Fabaceae (11/12,Poaceae (11/12 y Cactaceae (6/7. Entre el periodo de 1960-1990 se presentaroncambios en la cobertura vegetal debido principalmente al sobrepastoreo extensivoe incontrolado de ganado caprino y en menor proporción, a la extracción de leñay/o a la construcción de obras civiles como vías de comunicación y viviendas. ElÍndice de Deforestación durante los últimos 30 años en la cuenca media de la regiónsemiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha es del 7%.

  13. Stem biomechanics of three columnar cacti from the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Freaner, F; Tinoco-Ojanguren, C; Niklas, K

    1998-08-01

    The allometric relationship of stem length L with respect to mean stem diameter D was determined for 80 shoots of each of three columnar cactus species (Stenocereus thurberi, Lophocereus schottii, and S. gummosus) to determine whether this relationship accords with that predicted by each of three contending models purporting to describe the mechanical architecture of vertical shoots (i.e., geometric, stress, and elastic similitude, which predict L proportional to D(alpha), with alpha = 1/1, 1/2, and 2/3, respectively). In addition, anatomical, physical, and biomechanical stem properties were measured to determine how the stems of these three species maintain their elastic stability as they increase in size. Reduced major axis regression of L with respect to D showed that alpha = 2.82 ± 0.14 for S. thurberi, 2.32 ± 0.19 for L. schottii, and 4.21 ± 0.31 for S. gummosus. Thus, the scaling exponents for the allometry of L differed significantly from that predicted by each of the three biomechanical models. In contrast, these exponents were similar to that for the allometry previously reported for saguaro. Analyses of biomechanical data derived from bending tests performed on 30 stems selected from each of the three species indicated that the bulk stem tissue stiffness was roughly proportional to L2, while stem flexural rigidity (i.e., the ability to resist a bending force) scaled roughly as L3. Stem length was significantly and positively correlated with the volume fraction of wood, while regression analysis of the pooled data from the three species (i.e., 90 stems) indicated that bulk tissue stiffness scaled roughly as the 5/3-power of the volume fraction of wood in stems. These data were interpreted to indicate that wood served as the major stiffening agent in stems and that this tissue accumulates at a sufficient rate to afford unusually high scaling exponents tot stem length with respect to stem diameter (i.e., disproportionately large increments of stem length

  14. Study on Performance of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Using Natural Dyes as Sensitizers%天然染料敏化太阳能电池的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 庄全超; 王洪涛; 方亮; 强颖怀

    2012-01-01

    Eight natural dyes were extracted from pitaya pericarp, xinlimei, purple cabbage, leaf of holly, fruit of radix ophiopogonics, mangosteen pericarp, leaf of camphortree and fruit of camphortree with water and ethanol. UV-vis absorption spectra of these natural dyes were tested. TiO2 film electrodes were prepared by hydrothermal method, the crystallization and microstructure of the TiO2 film were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. Eight natural dyes were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The photo electrochemical performance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the DSSCs based on these dyes were tested.%用水溶液榨取和无水乙醇萃取的方法分别从火龙果皮、心里美、紫甘蓝、冬青叶、麦冬果实、山竹皮、樟树叶和樟树果实8种天然植物中提取染料,测试了它们的紫外-可见光(UV-vis)吸收光谱.采用水热法制备了TiO2薄膜电极,利用X射线衍射(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对其物相和表面形貌进行了表征.制备了8种天然染料敏化的太阳能电池(DSSCs),测试了电池的光电性能和电化学阻抗谱(EIS).

  15. Effects of temperature on transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon expression in ecologically differentiated populations of desert Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia C; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies. Enriched, functionally related groups of genes whose expression changed at high temperatures included heat response genes, as well as genes affecting chromatin structure. Gene expression differences between mainland and peninsular populations included genes involved in metabolism of secondary compounds, mitochondrial activity, and tRNA synthases. Flies reared on the ancestral host plant, pitaya agria cactus, showed upregulation of genes involved in metabolism, while flies reared on organ pipe cactus had higher expression of DNA repair and chromatin remodeling genes. Population × environment (G × E) interactions had widespread effects on the transcriptome where population × temperature interactions affected the expression of >5,000 orthologs, and there were >4,000 orthologs that showed temperature × host plant interactions. Adults exposed to 35°C had lower amounts of most cuticular hydrocarbons than those exposed to 15 or 25°C, including abundant unsaturated alkadienes. For insects adapted to different host plants and climatic regimes, our results suggest that temperature shifts associated with climate change have large and significant effects on transcriptomes of genetically differentiated natural populations.

  16. Organic fertilizer and Lithothamnium on the cultivation of red pitaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red pitaya is a fruit cactus native from the rainforests of Mexico, Central America and South America that has shown great potential in domestic and foreign markets, due to its hardiness and exotic appearance. The work was carried out to evaluate the influence of organic fertilizers and the application of Lithothamnium (calcified seaweed on production and fruit quality of red pitaia [Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Britton & Rose]. The experimental design was a randomized block with eight treatments: control (no fertilization, cattle manure (CaM, chicken manure (ChM, calcified seaweed (CS, cattle manure + chicken manure, cattle manure + calcified seaweed, chicken manure + calcified seaweed and cattle manure + chicken manure + calcified seaweed. The fertilizers were applied every three months since September 2008, with three blocks, and the experimental unit consisted of four plants. The analyzes done were: yield , number of fruits per plant, fruit mass, pulp yield, transverse diameter, longitudinal diameter, peel thickness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH and SS/TA ratio. The highest productivities were obtained in treatments containing CaM + ChM + CS (7.16 t ha-1 and CaM + ChM (6.90 t ha-1 in 2011, and the first treatment also showed higher productivity in 2012 (9.40 t ha-1. Greater number of fruits per plant was obtained when fertilization was carried out with CaM + ChM + CS in the two years evaluated. There were no significant differences among the chemical characteristics of red pitaia fruits with different fertilizations.

  17. Advance agriculture in the desert:the Israeli case story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raanan Katzir

    2015-01-01

    The Israeli Desert constitutes 60%of the country's total area. Regional annual precipitation is 100–200 mm and evapora-tion reaches 2,500 mm. Traditional desert agriculture of rain fed wheat and sheep, goat and camels grazing is common. Despite the harsh climate conditions, advance agriculture is concentrated in foci where water resources exist. Desert ag-riculture takes advantage of the winter (October–April) due to a mild climate season for growing vegetables, flowers, herbs and fruit which are mostly exported to European countries. The key factor is the sustainable management of the local natural resources. The regional research and development (R&D) system is generating adequate local knowledge and technologies. The most important key factor is developing water resources, and using irrigation saving water systems such as drip irrigation. Technologies of protected agriculture such as greenhouses and plastic tunnels are used. The unfit desert soil is substitute by sand and artificial growing media. For gaining market purposes, introduction of botanical species was implemented for various flowers and vegetable varieties, avocado, pitaya, and jojoba. Controlled drip irrigation and drainage helps to solve salinity problems. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is used to overcome plant protection issues. Advance raising of milking cows was developed by using reduction heat stress methods. Tilapia are raised in open ponds and greenhouse ponds, and ostriches adapted to desert conditions were introduced. On the southern Judean hills where precipitation is 250 mm, through soil conservation and rain harvesting, significant afforestation is changing the desert scenery. The human factor on this process such as farmers, agricultural extension agents and research scientists is the leading factor.

  18. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with traits involved with reproductive isolation and revealed previously

  19. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died

  20. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches

  1. Comparative study of mtDNA 16S rRNA gene fragments among six Lutjanus fishes%6种笛鲷属鱼类线粒体16SrRNA基因片段的序列比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周发林; 江世贵; 苏天凤; 吕俊霖

    2004-01-01

    对笛鲷属(Lutjanus)的紫红笛鲷(Lutjanus argentimaculatus)、白星笛鲷(Lutjanus stellatus)、千年笛鲷(Lutjanus sebae)、勒氏笛鲷(Lutjanus russellii)、红鳍笛鲷(Lutjanus erythropterus)线粒体DNA 16S rRNA 基因片段进行了PCR 扩增和测序,得到长度约418 bp的序列.结合GenBank中斜带笛鲷(Lutjanus decussatus)该区段的16S rRNA序列,用Clustal_X排序软件进行16S rRNA序列的对位排列.通过Mega 2.1软件对所得线粒体16S rRNA片段序列进行比较,共检测53个碱基存在变异,其中包括21个简约信息位点,并用"Pairwise distance"计算了各属间的相对遗传距离,结果表明,其序列差异(转换+颠换)在0.027~0.083,其中勒氏笛鲷与斜带笛鲷的序列差异最小, 红鳍笛鲷与勒氏笛鲷的序列差异最大.以高体四长棘鲷(Argyrops spinifer)为外类群,采用Mega 2.1软件中的"Neighbore-Joining"法得到唯一1个分子系统树,系统树各分支的置信度由"Bootstrap"1000 循环检验.结果表明,6种笛鲷鱼类聚成明显的3个分支,第1个分支,包括勒氏笛鲷、斜带笛鲷和白星笛鲷;第2个分支,包括紫红笛鲷;第3个分支,包括红鳍笛鲷和千年笛鲷.

  2. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Goff Gilbert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group. Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia

  3. Revising Australian Pristomerus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cremastinae): species with a tooth on the hind femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfstein, Seraina

    2016-09-15

    The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol. Five species have been reported from Australia, all of them endemic, but many more undescribed species are present in various collections.        I here revise Australian Pristomerus, focussing on the species that bear a tooth on the ventral side of the hind femur. Twenty-two species are recorded, 19 of which are described as new: Pristomerus australiensis n. sp., P. bertschmanni n. sp., P. callitrinus n. sp., P. dundeei n. sp., P. flavicephalus n. sp., P. fourecksensis n. sp., P. gracilis n. sp., P. kakaduensis n. sp., P. laetus n. sp., P. luculentus n. sp., P. lunatus n. sp., P. mangiferus n. sp., P. merus n. sp., P. nedkellyi n. sp., P. pellicius n. sp., P. periculosus n. sp., P. stellatus n. sp., P. tenebrosus n. sp., and P. venustus n. sp. A dichotomous key and an online interactive key to the known Australian species with a tooth on the hind femur are provided, including photographs of all the species.        The origin of the considerable number of Australian Pristomerus species remains unclear. They might represent Southern relict elements with affinities to South American taxa, or their ancestors might have immigrated from the Paleotropics in more recent times; this question can only be solved with a dated phylogeny of the genus. However, support for a Palaeotropic origin of at least a good portion of the taxa comes from their current distribution, as the Australian Pristomerus are found to be most

  4. Phantom spiders: notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. Here we discuss about 50 of these cases, declare some names as nomina dubia and establish the following new or re-confirmed synonymies: Agelena mengeella Strand, 1942 = Allagelena gracilens (C. L. Koch, 1841 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura (Sundevall, 1831 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura Lebert, 1877 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus stellatus C. L. Koch, 1836 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus islandicus (Strand, 1906 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus minimus Simon, 1929 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus subviridis (Franganillo, 1913 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Centromerus unctus (L. Koch, 1870 = Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851 syn. nov.; Clubiona caliginosa Simon, 1932 = Clubiona germanica Thorell, 1871 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos anomalus Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos silvestris Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes obesus Simon, 1875 = Pireneitega pyrenaea (Simon, 1870 syn. conf.; Coelotes simoni Strand, 1907 = Coelotes solitarius (L. Koch, 1868 syn. nov.; Diplocephalus semiglobosus (Westring, 1861 nomen oblitum = Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 syn. nov.; Drassodes voigti (Bösenberg, 1899 = Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871 syn. conf.; Erigone decens Thorell, 1871 = Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830 syn. nov.; Liocranoeca striata gracilior (Kulczynski, 1898 = Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882 syn. conf.; Phlegra rogenhoferi (Simon, 1868 = Phlegra cinereofasciata

  5. 5种笛鲷属鱼类的遗传多样性及分子标记%Genetic Diversity and Molecular Markers of 5 Species of Snappers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 刘楚吾

    2006-01-01

    运用RAPD及SSR技术对笛鲷属的画眉笛鲷(Lutjanus vita)、金带笛鲷(L.fulvus)、金焰笛鲷(L.fulviflamma)、千年笛鲷(L.sebae)和星点笛鲷(L. stellatus)等5种鱼的遗传多样性及其分子标记进行了研究.RAPD研究结果表明,5种鱼的平均多态性位点比率(P)依次为89.30%、86.70%、92.11%、86.47%和86.00%;种内两个体间平均遗传距离(D)分别为0.3431,0.2130,0.3121,0.1825和0.1775;平均遗传多样性指数(Hi)分别为0.1634、0.1095、0.1353、0.1022和0.1024.引物OPA8和OPP10的扩增产物中得到9个RAPD标记,分别为OPA8-413bp、OPA8-140bp、OPP10-418bp、OPA8-697bp、OPP10-526bp、OPA8-361bp、OPP10-449bp、OPA8-311bp和OPP10-599b,可鉴别5种鱼.SSR研究结果显示,5种鱼的有效等位基因数依次为1.9610、3.3793、3.2957、1.7893和3.6591;群体的杂合度(H)分别为0.332、0.462、0.593、0.367和0.676;多态信息含量(PIC)分别为0.302、0.438、0.554、0.332和0.641.在11个微卫星位点上得到6个微卫星标记,分别为13 Prs229-115bp、4 Lca43-212bp、4 Lca43-240bp、13 Prs229-288bp、19 Prs275-156bp和7Lca91-118bp可用于鉴别5种鱼.

  6. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  7. Histological Studies on the Development of Digestive System In Larval and Juvenile Starry Flounder%星斑川鲽仔稚鱼消化系统发育的组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方华华; 王波

    2011-01-01

    A histological examination was made on the development of digestive system in larval and juvenile starry flounder Platichtbys stellatus Pallas from 1 day to 35 days.In 3 days, the digestive tract in the larvae was formed but no food was intaken when the starry flounder was in endogenous nutrition.In 3-5 days , the mixotrophic stage which was the transition from endogenous nutrition to exogenous nutrition, the yolk was absorbed fairly well and disappeared, while the digestive tract was differentiated into six portions:buccopharynnx, oesophagus , stomach, anterior- middle intestine, posterior intestine and anus.The larval digestive system was morphologically ready to be absorbed to food at this time.Then, these digestive tract and associated glands became mature gradually with the development.Gastric glands were observed in 16 days ,which indicated it was a kind of fish with faster development.%使用石蜡切片技术对1~35日龄星斑川鲽的仔稚鱼消化系统进行组织学观察和研究.结果表明,星斑川鲽消化系统的发育主要分成3个阶段:从初孵到3日龄是卵黄阶段,其消化道为一细长的管道;从3日龄到5日龄是后卵黄阶段(混合营养阶段),卵黄被逐渐吸收,是卵黄阶段转向外源性营养阶段的过渡,消化道明显分化成口咽腔、食道、胃、前中肠、后肠和肛门,仔鱼消化系统具备了摄食和消化外源性食物的能力.此后,随着鱼体的生长,粘膜层的褶皱增加,消化道上皮细胞进一步分化,消化系统从功能和结构上逐步完善.16日龄,胃腺出现,标志着稚鱼期的开始,也表明星斑川鲽是一种发育较快的鱼类.

  8. Variación espacial y temporal en la composición de la dieta de peces invertívoros en un río neotropical, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ortaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La ictiofauna invertívora es un componente importante en los ríos neotropicales y representa un enlace entre los invertebrados acuáticos y los piscívoros. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta de nueve especies de peces invertívoros durante tres fases hidrológicas consecutivas: descenso (diciembre/07, enero/08, febrero/08, marzo/08, aguas bajas (abril/08 y ascenso de aguas (junio/08 en dos secciones de un río venezolano ubicadas a distinta altitud (subcuenca alta, SA y subcuenca baja, SB. Los peces se recolectaron con una red de cerco (0.5cm entrenudos entre las 8:00 y 11:00 horas. La dieta de cada especie se evaluó usando un índice de importancia relativa (IIR que incluyó el número, peso y frecuencia de ocurrencia de los items consumidos. Para estimar la amplitud y sobreposición interespecífica de dieta se emplearon los índices de Levín (Bi y Morisita (IM, respectivamente. Todas las estimaciones se realizaron con la frecuencia numérica de las presas consumidas. Se capturaron nueve especies, ocho Characiformes, tres en SA (Knodus deuteronoides, Creagrutus bolivari y C. melasma y cinco en SB (Thoracocharax stellatus, Moenkhausia lepidura, Cheirodon pulcher, Ctenobrycon spilurus y Aphyocharax alburnus y un Cyprinodontiformes (Poecilia reticulata, capturada en SA. En SA el principal recurso consumido fueron insectos acuáticos mientras que el material vegetal y los artrópodos terrestres fueron recursos secundarios. En SB, las especies consumieron estos items además de zooplancton (Copepoda, Cladocera y estadios larvales de crustáceos Decapoda, pero hubo una sustitución temporal con un predominio de zooplancton en descenso y aguas bajas. En general, la amplitud de la dieta disminuyó en descenso de aguas en ambas secciones e incrementó en ascenso de aguas. Sin embargo, la amplitud promedio fue mayor en SA. La sobreposición interespecífica de dieta fue alta en SA mientras que

  9. Avifauna de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Birds of the Biosphere Reserve Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2010-08-01

    types were: submontane shrubland with 113 species, tropical deciduous forest with 97, Juniperus forest with 96, and crasicaule shrubland with Stenocereus dumortieri dominance with 91. The best represented gremials were: insectivorous (235 species, frugivorous (88, and granivorous (85. We found 17 species under some risk category according with the Mexican law, and 32 species possesses some endemic degree. In the reserve inhabit near of the 60% of the birds of the Hidalgo state and 27% of the Mexican birds. This region should be considered as an Important Bird Area in Mexico.

  10. Microbial degradation of a metal organic biocide in soils; Mikrobieller Abbau eines im Holzschutz verwendeten metallorganischen Biozids im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, Desiree

    2010-06-17

    -fingerprinting technique. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by correspondence analysis to explore the effect of WP and incubation time on the microbial community patterns. Bacterial and eukaryotic community structure differed significant between samples with Cu-Amine treated samples and Cu-HDO treated samples. To identify abundant eukaryotic community members a cloning and sequencing approach was carried out. Only few fungal sequences were obtained of the eukaryotic sequence diversity in the interface of wood and soil, which were affiliated to pronounced shifts in the eukaryotic community structure along the incubation time. One of these was the white-rotter Sphaerobolus stellatus (basidiomycota) and the mold-rotter Lecytophora multabilis (ascomycota). The dominant eukaryotic community members were affiliated to the phyla Alveolata, Disicicrista, Amoebozoa, Arthropoda or Nematoda. However, the majority of these phyla are known to have a bacteriovorious lifestyle and are not able to degrade or metabolize wood, WP or WP ingredients. This finding suggests that the majority of eukaryotes grazes on the bacterial population and is rarely involved in Cu-HDO degradation. In conclusion, a defined bacterial population is involved in Cu-HDO degradation and both the bacterial and eukaryotic community was significantly directly and indirectly affected by the presence of Cu-HDO. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of low-salinity adaptability and morphological development during the early life history of five pleuronectid flatfishes, and implications for migration and recruitment to their nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Aritaki, Masato; Yamashita, Yoh; Tanaka, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    The nursery habitats of flatfishes range from offshore areas to rivers, with salinity conditions varying significantly between the habitats selected by larvae and juveniles. Morphological characteristics of larvae also contribute to the successful recruitment to specific nursery areas. In the present study, ontogenetic developments of low-salinity tolerance and morphology of five pleuronectid flatfishes were examined, and compared with their previously described ontogenetic migrations. Species examined were starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus, spotted halibut Verasper variegatus, marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and slime flounder Microstomus achne. The first three were categorised as 'cross-shelf species', marbled flounder as 'demersal-egg species' and slime flounder as 'offshore species'. Their typical nurseries were rivers, estuaries, tidal flats, coastal areas and offshore areas, respectively. Low-salinity tolerance from hatching to juvenile stage was examined by survival 48 h after transfer (A to I stage) and seven days after transfer (I stage) from seawater to various salinities (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppt). High survival in 4 ppt was found in all yolk-sac larvae, but decreased in mid-larval development. During metamorphosis, starry flounder, stone flounder and spotted halibut developed strong low-salinity tolerance and juveniles were able to survive in 0, 1 and 2 ppt, respectively. In contrast, marbled flounder and slime flounder did not show these clear developments and juveniles could only survive in 4 and 8 ppt, respectively. In the morphological development, differences in standard length (SL) and relative body depth (BD) to SL (%BD/SL, an indicator of locomotive adaptation of flatfish larvae showing tilt swimming behaviour during the eye translocation) increased with larval development, and the greatest SL and %BD/SL were observed at the metamorphic climax H stage in the order of slime flounder

  12. The Leakage of Water and Soil in the Karst Peak Cluster Depression and Its Prevention and Treatment%岩溶峰丛洼地水土漏失及防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠诚; 罗为群; 邓艳; 曹建华; 覃星铭; 李衍青; 杨奇勇

    2014-01-01

    中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所岩溶生态研究团队在国家科技支撑计划和广西科技攻关项目联合资助下,自21世纪以来一直从事西南岩溶山区水土漏失创新性研究。2013年取得了一系列进展,阐明了水土漏失的概念、过程和数学模型;运用野外监测和先进的同位素技术,首次系统揭示了岩溶峰丛洼地不同地貌部位和不同生态环境的水土漏失定量差异和原因,建立了适宜岩溶区特点的水土流失强度分级标准和土壤侵蚀回归模型,创建了生物措施与工程措施有机结合的岩溶峰丛洼地水土保持模式和技术规程,开辟了岩溶石漠化环境生态效益与经济效益俱佳的火龙果生态产业,为西南岩溶地区石漠化综合治理和水土保持提供了技术支撑和示范样板。%A karst ecological research team from the Institute of Karst Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences in Guilin has been going in for the creative study of the leakage of water and soil in the karst mountain areas of Southwest China since the beginning of the 21th century. A series of progresses in the study of leakage of water and soil were achieved in 2013. The concept, processes and mathematic model of the leakage of water and soil were expounded. By using the site monitoring and advanced isotopic techniques, the team firstly and systemically revealed the quantitative differences and causes of the leakage of water and soil in different geomorphologic positions and different ecological environments of the karst peak cluster depression, built the grade classification standards and the regression model of the soil erosion in the karst areas, created some new water and soil preservation models which combined the biological methods with the engineering and technological rules, and formed the pitaya ecological production industry with good ecological and economic benefits in the karst rocky desertification environment