WorldWideScience

Sample records for pit viper envenomation

  1. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  2. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

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    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  3. Bites by Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii siamensis) in Myanmar: effect of the snake's length and recent feeding on venom antigenaemia and severity of envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun-Pe; Ba-Aye; Aye-Aye-Myint; Tin-Nu-Swe; Warrell, D A

    1991-01-01

    An improved enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) was used in the diagnosis of 311 suspected Russell's viper bite cases in Myanmar [Burma], 181 of whom (58%) had systemic envenoming. Russell's viper venom was detected in the sera of 175 (56.3%), cobra or green pit viper venoms in 4 (1.3%), and no venom in the remaining 132 (42.4). Among 175 of these patients who failed to bring the dead snake, EIA achieved a specific diagnosis of Russell's viper envenoming in 101 (58%). The serum venom antigen concentration was higher in patients with systemic envenoming than in those with local or no envenoming and it increased with the development of coagulopathy. Stomach contents were examined in 101 Russell's vipers responsible for bites. The presence of prey, usually a rodent, in the snake's stomach, indicating that it had eaten recently, did not influence the severity of envenoming, the initial venom level, or the percentage circumference increase and the extent of local swelling in the bitten limb. One hundred and fifty-five Russell's vipers responsible for bites showed a bimodal distribution of total lengths. The smaller snakes had probably been born that year. Longer snakes were responsible for more severe envenoming, a shorter interval between the bite and the detection of incoagulable blood, and more extensive local swelling with a greater percentage circumference increase of the bitten limb; but their bites were not associated with higher initial venom antigenaemia or a greater risk of developing acute renal failure.

  4. Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Yudhishdran, Jevon; Navinan, Rayno; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-01-01

    Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming by Hypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom.

  5. Distribution and abundance of pit vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae along the Western Ghats of Goa, India

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    N.S. Sawant

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of pit vipers in the Western Ghats namely Trimeresurus gramineus (Bamboo Pit Viper, T. malabaricus (Malabar Pit Viper and Hypnale hypnale (Hump-nosed Pit Viper was investigated in five wildlife sanctuaries of Goa from 2005 to 2009. Seasonal day-night data was collected based on band transect methods. All the pit viper species showed specific habitat preferences and their abundance changed with season. They were most abundant during monsoon. H. hypnale extended its range to the adjoining cashew plantations during the post monsoon and winter.

  6. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  7. Venomics of New World pit vipers: genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E; Fry, Bryan G; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H Lisle; Sovic, Michael G; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-01-16

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across Agkistrodon and a ground for

  8. Envenomation by the horned viper (Vipera ammodytes L.).

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    Radonić, V; Budimir, D; Bradarić, N; Luksić, B; Sapunar, D; Vilović, K

    1997-03-01

    Snake venom poisoning is a medical emergency that requires urgent therapeutic procedures. The treatment of venomous snakebites is still controversial because of unclear therapeutic modalities. Choice of treatment is dictated in part by regional characteristics with regard to patient population and types of venomous snakes. The purpose of the study presented here was to report regional experience with venomous snakebites and to describe first-aid, pre-hospital, and hospital therapeutic procedures for horned viper bite. During a 16-year period, from 1980 to 1996, at the Clinical Hospital Split (Croatia) we collected data on 389 victims of horned viper bite. Incidence of the local and general complications is presented. We also reviewed therapeutic modalities and outcome with special attention to compartment syndromes and the indications for fasciotomy.

  9. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  10. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke following Russell′s viper envenomation

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    Siddalingana Gouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke following viper bite is rare. We report a case of posterior circulation ischemic infarction following viper bite in a previously healthy woman. Soon after being bitten by the snake on the left leg, she developed local redness, echymosis and one hour later became drowsy. On examination she had skew deviation of eyes and down gaze preference, generalized hypotonia. A CT scan of brain showed infarcts in cerebellar hemispheres and occipital lobes on both sides and that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging of brain. Her coagulation profile was deranged. Most common and serious central nervous system complication following snake bite is intracranial hemorrhage. Ischemic stroke commonly involves anterior circulation. Bilateral cerebellar and occipital infraction is not yet reported in literature. Exact cause for the development of infarction is not clear. The possible mechanisms of infarction in this scenario are discussed. Patient was treated with anti-snake venom and showed a good recovery. Early imaging and early treatment with anti-snake venom is important for a favorable outcome.

  11. Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria: e767

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isa S Abubakar; Saidu B Abubakar; Abdulrazaq G Habib; Abdulsalam Nasidi; Nandul Durfa; Peter O Yusuf; Solomon Larnyang; John Garnvwa; Elijah Sokomba; Lateef Salako; R David G Theakston; Ed Juszczak; Nicola Alder; David A Warrell; Nigeria-UK EchiTab Study Group

    2010-01-01

      Background In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom...

  12. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abubakar, Isa S; Abubakar, Saidu B; Habib, Abdulrazaq G; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Durfa, Nandul; Yusuf, Peter O; Larnyang, Solomon; Garnvwa, John; Sokomba, Elijah; Salako, Lateef; Theakston, R David G; Juszczak, Ed; Alder, Nicola; Warrell, David A

    2010-01-01

    In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358...

  13. Venomics of Tropidolaemus wagleri, the sexually dimorphic temple pit viper: Unveiling a deeply conserved atypical toxin arsenal.

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    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong

    2017-02-27

    Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56-0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3-5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes.

  14. Detection of venom after antivenom is not associated with persistent coagulopathy in a prospective cohort of Russell's viper (Daboia russelii envenomings.

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    Kalana Maduwage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venom recurrence or persistence in the circulation after antivenom treatment has been documented many times in viper envenoming. However, it has not been associated with clinical recurrence for many snakes, including Russell's viper (Daboia spp.. We compare the recovery of coagulopathy to the recurrence or persistence of venom in patients with Russell's viper envenoming.The study included patients with Russell's viper (D. russelii envenoming presenting over a 30 month period who had Russell's viper venom detected by enzyme immunoassay. Demographics, information on the snake bite, and clinical effects were collected for all patients. All patients had serum collected for venom specific enzyme immunoassay and citrate plasma to measure fibrinogen levels and prothrombin time (international normalised ratio; INR. Patients with venom recurrence/persistence were compared to those with no detectable recurrence of venom. There were 55 patients with confirmed Russell's viper envenoming and coagulopathy with low fibrinogen concentrations: 31 with venom recurrence/persistence, and 24 with no venom detected post-antivenom. Fibrinogen concentrations increased and INR decreased after antivenom in both the recurrence and non-recurrence patients. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, antivenom dose and length of hospital were similar for both groups. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations were higher in patients with venom recurrence/persistence with a median venom concentration of 385 ng/mL (16-1521 ng/mL compared to 128 ng/mL (14-1492 ng/mL; p = 0.008.Recurrence of Russell's viper venom was not associated with a recurrence of coagulopathy and length of hospital stay. Further work is required to determine if the detection of venom recurrence is due to the venom specific enzyme immunoassay detecting both venom-antivenom complexes as well as free venom.

  15. Comparative in-vivo toxicity of venoms from South Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Hypnale

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    Silva Anjana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenoming by south Asian hump-nosed pit vipers (Genus: Hypnale is a significant health issue in Sri Lanka and in peninsular India. Bites by these snakes frequently lead to local envenoming, coagulopathy and acute renal failure even resulting in death. Recently the genus was revised and the existence of three species viz H. hypnale, H. nepa and H. zara were recognized. There is, however, a paucity of information on the toxicity of the venoms of these species. Hence, we compared the toxic effects of the three Hypnale venoms using BALB/c mice. Findings Intraperitoneal median lethal doses (LD50 for H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa venoms were 1.6, 6.0 and 9.5 μg protein/g respectively. Minimum haemorrhagic doses for venoms of H. hypnale, H. zara and H. nepa were 3.4, 11.0 and 16.6 μg protein/mouse respectively. The minimum necrotic doses for the same venoms were 15.0, 55.1 and 68.2 μg protein/mouse respectively. Severe congestion and petecheal haemorrhages were observed in lungs, kidneys, liver and the alimentary tract. Histopathogical examination of kidneys revealed proximal tubular cell injury and acute tubular necrosis with intact basement membrane indicating possible direct nephrotoxicity. Hypnale venoms caused pulmonary oedema, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, focal neuronal degeneration in brain and extramedullary haemopoiesis in spleen. H. hypnale venom caused all above histopathological alterations at lower doses compared to the other two. Conclusion Hypnale venoms cause similar pathological changes with marked differences in the severity of the toxic effects in vivo. Therefore, differences in the severity of the clinical manifestations could possibly be seen among bite victims of the three Hypnale species.

  16. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... 1Clinical Microscopy Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of ... At a concentration of 10 µg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility ... in human victims of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit.

  17. Reptile envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D B; Curry, S C; Vance, M V; Ryan, P J

    Venomous reptiles are distributed in select habitats in temperate and tropical areas of the world with few geographical exceptions, and have adapted to not only terrestial existence, but to arboreal and aquatic environments as well. Venomous snakes are found in the families Colubridae (fixed and rear fanged snakes), Elapidae (fixed and front fang snakes), Hydrophiidae (sea snakes), Viperidae (Old World vipers) and Crotalidae (pit vipers). Venomous lizards are found in the United States and Mexico, and comprise the family Helodermatidae. Venom delivery systems and venom components show diversity, and greater appreciation of interspecies clinical effect is apparent in modern literature. First aid care for the bitten individual remains controversial, but most authorities now tend to minimize field procedures, especially those endeavors which may potentially damage tissue. The weight of evidence in the area of definitive therapy lies with the use of antivenin, although proponents of primary surgical intervention in crotalid envenomations have followings, particularly in the United States. Recent developments in "purification" of existing antivenins are promising, and attention to species-specific antivenin production, especially to the venoms of the crotalid species of the New World, is encouraged. Due to a growing international traffic in venomous animals for the purposes of research and supply of zoos and private reptile collections, knowledge of resources for assistance in bites of non-indigenous reptiles is a growing consideration.

  18. Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: first case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management.

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    Antonypillai, C N; Wass, J A H; Warrell, D A; Rajaratnam, H N

    2011-02-01

    Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii and D. siamensis) inhabit 10 South and South East Asian countries. People envenomed by these snakes suffer coagulopathy, bleeding, shock, neurotoxicity, acute kidney injury and local tissue damage leading to severe morbidity and mortality. An unusual complication of Russell's viper bite envenoming in Burma (D. siamensis) and southern India (D. russelii) is hypopituitarism but until now it has not been reported elsewhere. Here, we describe the first case of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka, review the literature on this subject and make recommendations for endocrine investigation and management. A 49-year-old man was bitten and seriously envenomed by D. russelii in 2005. He was treated with antivenom but although he recovered from the acute effects he remained feeling unwell. Hypopituitarism, with deficiencies of gonadal, steroid and thyroid axes, was diagnosed 3 years later. He showed marked improvement after replacement of anterior pituitary hormones. We attribute his hypopituitarism to D. russelii envenoming. Russell's viper bite is known to cause acute and chronic hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, perhaps through deposition of fibrin microthrombi and haemorrhage in the pituitary gland resulting from the action of venom procoagulant enzymes and haemorrhagins. Forty nine cases of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite have been described in the English language literature. Patients with acute hypopituitarism may present with hypoglycaemia and hypotension during the acute phase of envenoming. Those with chronic hypopituitarism seem to have recovered from envenoming but present later with features of hypopituitarism. Over 85% of these patients had suffered acute kidney injury immediately after the bite. Steroid replacement in acute hypopituitarism is life saving. All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone

  19. Rhodoaggregin:a novel multimeric platelet agonist from the venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan Pit Viper)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By means of Superdex 75 gel filtration and Mono Q ion exchange chromatography, we have isolated a novel platelet aggregation inducer, termed rhodoaggregin, from the crude venom of Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper). The native molecular mass of rhodoaggregin (as estimated by gel filtration chromatography) was 66 kDa while its isoelectric point (pI) was determined to be 3.45. Under reducing conditions of SDS-PAGE, rhodoaggregin exhibited two distinctive bands with molecular masses of 18 kDa (α subunit) and 15 kDa (β subunit). In the absence of reducing agents, however, two bands were also observed, but with apparent molecular masses of 28 (major) and 52 (minor) kDa, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometric analysis also showed that rhodoaggregin had a molecular mass of 30155.39±3.25. These molecular weight data suggest that rhodoaggregin probably exists as a tetrameric structure consisting of two disulfide-linked heterodimers. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that the two subunits of rhodoaggregin exhibit a high degree of homology with each other and with those of the C-type lectin related proteins (CLPs) from other snake venoms. Functional platelet assays showed that rhodoaggregin induced platelet aggregation in rabbit and human whole blood, platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and washed platelets with a lag period and in an all-or-none manner. The concentration of rhodoaggregin that induced maximal aggregation is estimated at about 0.04 μg/ml (or 0.7 nM).

  20. Serious envenomation after a snakebite by a Western bush viper (Atheris chlorechis) in the Netherlands : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, LJ; Tulleken, JE; Ligtenberg, JJM; van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are a rarity in the Netherlands. In this report we describe the case of a 26-year-old male amateur snakekeeper who was bitten in his left index finger by a Western bush viper (Atheris chlorechis). His clinical condition deteriorated rapidly with acute renal failure and considerab

  1. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

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    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  2. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria.

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    Isa S Abubakar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, "EchiTAb Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to "EchiTAb G" (ET-G ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials. Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. FINDINGS: Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0% of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7% of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P = 0.05. ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8% and 39/206 (18.9% respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P = 0.06. These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8% and 11 (5.3% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: At these doses, ET-Plus was

  3. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

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    Khimani, Amina; Mcnierney, Afton; Surani, Sara; Surani, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite. PMID:24083047

  4. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  5. Complex longitudinal diversification across South China and Vietnam in Stejneger's pit viper, Viridovipera stejnegeri (Schmidt, 1925) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Zhong, Guang H; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Che, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Ziegler, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Q; Burbrink, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Viridovipera stejnegeri is one of the most common pit vipers in Asia, with a wide distribution in southern China and Vietnam. We investigated historical demography and explored how the environment and climatic factors have shaped genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this venomous snake. A total of 171 samples from 47 localities were sequenced and analysed for two mitochondrial gene fragments and three nuclear genes. Gene trees reveal the existence of two well-supported clades (Southwest China and Southeast China) with seven distinct and strongly supported, geographically structured subclades within V. stejnegeri. Estimation of divergence time and ancestral area suggests that V. stejnegeri originated at ~6.0 Ma in the late Miocene on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The estimated date of origin and divergence of the island populations of Taiwan and Hainan closely matches the geological origin of the both islands. The mtDNA gene tree reveals the presence of west-east diversification in V. stejnegeri populations. Complex orogenesis and heterogeneous habitats, as well as climate-mediated habitat differentiation including glacial cycles, all have influenced population structure and the distribution of this taxon. The validity of V. stejnegeri chenbihuii is questionable, and this subspecies most probably represents an invalid taxon.

  6. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  7. Efficacy of North American Crotalid Antivenom Against the African Viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon Viper)

    OpenAIRE

    Meggs, William J.; Wiley, Christopher N.; Brewer, Kori L; Hack, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Envenomations by exotic snakes occur from zoological collections and private individual collectors. Antivenoms to these snakes may not be readily available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of North American crotalid antivenin in treating mice envenomated with venom of the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). The subjects of the study were Swiss Webster mice weighing approximately 30 g. The study was conducted in the University research laboratory. B. gabonica ...

  8. Isolation of a galactose-binding lectin from the venom of the snake Bothrops godmani (Godmann's pit viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, B; Rojas, G; Gutiérrez, J M; Ramírez, G

    1990-01-01

    A galactose-binding lectin, isolated from the venom of B. godmani by affinity chromatography, is an acidic protein (pI 4.9) with a subunit mol. wt of about 14,000, occurring mostly as a disulfide-linked dimer of 28,000. A small proportion of lectin appears as a monomer and as a tetramer. The lectin agglutinates erythrocytes from mice, rabbit, cow and human (all ABO types, either Rh positive or negative), but does not agglutinate horse, sheep, goat and snake (Oxybelis aeneus, Colubridae) erythrocytes. The agglutinating activity is inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. The lectin is devoid of lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. It is not mitogenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The only effect observed was a moderate induction of edema in the footpad of mice, with a minimal edema-forming dose of 22 micrograms. This effect developed rapidly, and was significantly inhibited by i.p. administration of cyproheptadine, a histamine and serotonin antagonist, before injection of the lectin. Despite the edema-forming activity observed, the low concentration of lectin in crude venom, together with its relatively low potency, suggest that this lectin is not a key component in the development of edema following envenomations by B. godmani.

  9. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) venom: age-related variation and composition-activity correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; He, Ying; Qu, Yan-Fu; Lin, Long-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2014-06-13

    We conducted an in-depth analysis of the proteomic and biochemical profiles of the venom of neonate and adult short-tailed pit vipers (Gloydius brevicaudus). Identified proteins were assigned to a few main toxin families. Disintegrin, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), serine proteinase, cysteine-rich secretory protein, C-type lectin-like protein, l-amino acid oxidase and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) were detected in both venoms, while 5'-nucleotidase was detected only in the adult venom. SVMP was the predominant protein family in both venoms (neonate: 65.7%; adult: 64.4%), followed by PLA2 (neonate: 13.4%; adult: 25.0%). Antivenomic analysis revealed that commercial G. brevicaudus antivenom almost neutralized the chromatographic peaks with medium and high molecular masses in both venoms, but did not completely recognize peaks with low molecular mass. Toxicological and enzymatic activities show remarkable age-related variation in G. brevicaudus venom, probably resulting from variation in venom composition. Our data demonstrate age-related variation across venomics, antivenomics and biochemical profiles of G. brevicaudus venom, and have implications for the management of G. brevicaudus bites, including improving antivenom preparation by combining both venoms. This study investigates the composition and biochemical activity of neonate and adult Gloydius brevicaudus venoms. We found remarkable age-related variation in venom biological activity, likely the result of variation in venom composition. Antivenomics analysis was used to explore difference in neonate and adult G. brevicaudus venoms. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of G. brevicaudus bites, and the design of venom mixtures that will increase the efficacy of commercial antivenom. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures.

  11. Efficacy of North American crotalid antivenom against the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggs, William J; Wiley, Christopher N; Brewer, Kori L; Hack, Jason B

    2010-03-01

    Envenomations by exotic snakes occur from zoological collections and private individual collectors. Antivenoms to these snakes may not be readily available. The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of North American crotalid antivenin in treating mice envenomated with venom of the African viper Bitis gabonica (Gaboon viper). The subjects of the study were Swiss Webster mice weighing approximately 30 g. The study was conducted in the University research laboratory. B. gabonica venom was obtained from Venom Supplies Pty Ltd (Tanunda, South Australia) and reconstituted in sterile water. North American Crotalid Fab2 antivenin (Anavyp, Instituto Bioclon, Mexico) was donated by the manufacturer. The experimental groups were: Group I received two times an intraperitoneal LD(50) dose of venom, 2.58 mg/kg. Group II received the same dose after incubation for 1 h with 10 mg of antivenin. Time to onset of toxicity defined as respiratory rate Mexico) demonstrated efficacy in increasing time to onset of distress in mice poisoned with B. gabonica (Gaboon viper) venom. Based on this result, treatment of humans envenomated with B. gabonica with North American Croatlid antivenin could be considered for severe envenomations if specific B. gabonica antivenin is unavailable.

  12. Cerebellar infarct with neurogenic pulmonary edema following viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli bites are well known to cause bleeding complications. However, thrombotic complications are rare. We present the case details of a female who was bitten by a Russell′s viper (Daboia russelli in her village. She then developed features of envenomation in the form of hemorrhagic episodes. She received 27 vials of polyvalent anti-snake venom to which the hemorrhagic complications responded. After about 48 h of the bite she developed features of cerebellar infarct along with pulmonary edema which was in all probability neurogenic in origin. She was managed with mechanical ventilation and extra ventricular drainage with good recovery. We discuss the likely pathogenesis of the infarct and pulmonary edema occurring in a patient with viper bite and other features of envenomation.

  13. Surgery in management of snake envenomation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohawiriyakamol, Suppawat; Sangkhathat, Surasak; Chiengkriwate, Piyawan; Patrapinyokul, Sakda

    2011-11-01

    Snakebite is common in children especially in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine the role of surgery in the treatment of venomous snake bite in pediatric patients. The clinical data of 58 pediatric patients aged 0-16 years who had been treated for venomous snakebite from January 1999 to December 2008 were analyzed. Of the 58 patients, 43 (74.6%) were male. Peak age incidence was around 2-3 years (28.8%). The majority of envenomations occurred in the summer and rainy seasons, especially in the latter, during flooding. The bites occurred during 6 pm to 12 pm in 27 patients (49.0%). The main bite site was the lower extremities in 49 patients (83.9%). The main species of the snake were Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) in 28 patients (47.5%) and cobra (Ophiophagus hunnah or Naja spp.) in 21 patients (35.6%). Soft tissue necrosis occurred more in cobra bites (47.6%) than viper bites (3.6%). The most common organism identified in necrotic tissue was Morganella morgagnii. Four patients with cobra bite had respiratory failure that required ventilatory support. Compartment syndrome was suspected in 2 patients. Surgical intervention was necessary in 13 patients. Most procedures involved serial wound debridement, followed by skin grafting. One case needed a toe amputation because of necrosis. The average length of hospital stay in patients who needed surgical management was 18.8 days (range: 12.1-25.5 days). There were no mortalities. Surgery plays an important role in the management of snakebite patients, especially for those with cobra bite with tissue necrosis.

  14. Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariaratnam, Christeine A; Sheriff, Mohamed H Rezvi; Arambepola, Carukshi; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

    2009-10-01

    Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H. hypnale was the most widely distributed. Fifty-one (6%) were misidentified by hospital staff, causing inappropriate antivenom treatment of 13 patients. Distinctive clinical syndromes were identified to aid species diagnosis in most cases of snake bite in Sri Lanka where the biting species is unknown. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these syndromes for envenoming were 78% and 96% by Naja naja, 66% and 100% by Bungarus caeruleus, 14% and 100% by Daboia russelii, and 10% and 97% by Hypnale hypnale, respectively. Although only polyspecific antivenoms are used in Sri Lanka, species diagnosis remains important to anticipate life-threatening complications such as local necrosis, hemorrhage and renal and respiratory failure and to identify likely victims of envenoming by H. hypnale who will not benefit from existing antivenoms. The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna.

  15. Snake venomics of the Lesser Antillean pit vipers Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus: correlation with toxicological activities and immunoreactivity of a heterologous antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Escolano, José; Fernández, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Warrell, David A; Calvete, Juan J

    2008-10-01

    The venom proteomes of the snakes Bothrops caribbaeus and Bothrops lanceolatus, endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands of Saint Lucia and Martinique, respectively, were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation, followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venoms contain proteins belonging to seven ( B. caribbaeus) and five ( B. lanceolatus) types of toxins. B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms contain phospholipases A 2, serine proteinases, l-amino acid oxidases and zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, whereas a long disintegrin, DC-fragments and a CRISP molecule were present only in the venom of B. caribbaeus, and a C-type lectin-like molecule was characterized in the venom of B. lanceolatus. Compositional differences between venoms among closely related species from different geographic regions may be due to evolutionary environmental pressure acting on isolated populations. The venoms of these two species differed in the composition and the relative abundance of their component toxins, but they exhibited similar toxicological and enzymatic profiles in mice, characterized by lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, phospholipase A 2 and proteolytic activities. The venoms of B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus are devoid of coagulant and defibrinogenating effects and induce only mild local myotoxicity in mice. The characteristic thrombotic effect described in human envenomings by these species was not reproduced in the mouse model. The toxicological profile observed is consistent with the abundance of metalloproteinases, PLA 2s and serine proteinases in the venoms. A polyvalent (Crotalinae) antivenom produced in Costa Rica was able to immunodeplete approximately 80% of the proteins from both B. caribbaeus and B. lanceolatus venoms, and was effective in neutralizing the lethal, hemorrhagic, phospholipase

  16. Viper Plague Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    a private herpetological collection infested with ticks (Kiel et al, 2006). Viper Plague presented signs and symptoms in the reptiles that were...1. Introduction The term Viper Plague was coined for a lethal disease state seen in snakes belonging to a private herpetological collection...Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). This was performed because this particular species of rattlesnake was present in the original herpetological collection

  17. Unusual neurotoxic envenomations by Vipera aspis aspis snakes in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, L; Robbe-Vincent, A; Saliou, B; Valli, M; Bon, C; Choumet, V

    2002-03-01

    Vipera aspis aspis (V.a.a.) is the most dangerous poisonous snake in South-Eastern France. The clinical symptoms observed after V.a.a. envenomations involve mostly local signs (pain, edema) associated in the more severe cases with systemic symptoms (gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular manifestations). Since 1992, several unusual cases of moderate and severe 'neurotoxic' envenomations by V.a.a. snakes have been reported in a very localized area in South-Eastern France. Most of the human patients mainly suffered neurological signs owing to cephalic muscle paralysis. Drowsiness and dyspnea were observed for the most severe cases. Envenomed animals suffered respiratory distress and paralysis. The local signs were never as severe as observed after envenomations by vipers in other French regions. Human patients with moderate or severe clinical features received two intravenous injections of Viperfav antivenom, the first dose inducing the decrease of the neurological signs and the second reducing significantly the edema. Neurotoxic components immunologically cross-reacting with toxins from V. ammodytes ammodytes venom from Eastern Europe were detected in the blood of all patients suffering neurological symptoms after a V.a.a. bite. The protective efficacy of various antivenoms was evaluated in mice. The existence of geographical variations in the composition of V.a.a. venom emphasizes on the use of polyvalent antivenom in the treatment of viper envenomations in France.

  18. Alleviation of viper venom induced platelet apoptosis by crocin (Crocus sativus): implications for thrombocytopenia in viper bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Thushara, R M; Hemshekhar, M; Sunitha, K; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-11-01

    Viper envenomations are characterized by prominent local and systemic manifestations including hematological alterations. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of hemorrhage by targeting/altering the platelets function which may result in thrombocytopenia. Platelets undergo the classic events of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway due to augmented endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The observed anticoagulant effects during viper envenomations could be due to exacerbated platelet apoptosis and thrombocytopenia. Moreover, antivenin treatments are ineffective against the venom-induced oxidative stress; therefore, it necessitates an auxiliary therapy involving antioxidants which can effectively scavenge the endothelium-generated/endogenous ROS and protect the platelets. The present study explored the effects of viper venom on platelet apoptosis and its amelioration by a phytochemical crocin. The study evaluated the Vipera russelli venom-induced apoptotic events including endogenous ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation and phosphatidylserine externalization which were effectively mitigated when the venom was pre-treated with crocin. The study highlights one of the less studied features of venom-induced secondary complications i.e. platelet apoptosis and sheds light on the underlying basis for venom-induced thrombocytopenia, systemic hemorrhage and in vivo anticoagulant effect.

  19. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  20. Cardiomyopathy Following Latrodectus Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latrodectus envenomations are common throughout the United States and the world. While many envenomations can result in catecholamine release with resultant hypertension and tachycardia, myocarditis is very rare. We describe a case of a 22- year-old male who sustained a Latrodectus envenomation complicated by cardiomyopathy. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:521-523.

  1. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  2. The North–South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vivek; Thakur, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ‘big four’ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel's viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India. PMID:27904261

  3. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vivek; Thakur, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the 'big four' that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel's viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel's viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  4. Chronic Pituitary Failure Resembling Sheehan's Syndrome Following a Bite of Russell's Viper. A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K G; Srividya, S; Usha Nandhini, K P; Ramprabananth, S

    2010-03-01

    Hypopituitarism can be the sequela of a variety of causes like postpartum pituitary necrosis or Sheehan's syndrome, lymphocytic hypophysitis, trauma and encephalitis. A very rare cause is envenomation by a bite of a Russell's viper. Very few cases with documented imaging findings of chronic pituitary failure resulting from snake bite have been reported. We describe a case of hypopituitarism with clinical, endocrine and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies occurring as a delayed complication of snake bite.

  5. Antivenom for European Vipera species envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Thomas; de Haro, Luc; Lonati, Davide; Brvar, Miran; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-07-01

    European viper bite is relatively uncommon but can cause serious envenoming, particularly swelling and hemorrhage spreading from limb to trunk that can cause long term disability. Systemic features are relatively mild compared to many other venomous species. Moderate-to-severe envenoming requires antivenom, which is given many hundreds of times each year across the continent. Several Vipera spp antivenoms are produced in Europe, but there is little comparative information available for the antivenoms and none is licensed with the European Medicines Agency. We aimed to collect descriptive data on European viper antivenoms and assess their relative effectiveness. A systematic review of articles relating to antivenom in Europe was performed using the Medline medical database. The following keywords "Europ*" or the individual names of each European country and "antiven*" or "immun*" or "envenom*" and "snake" or "viper*" or "adder" were used. Articles published between 1 January 1996 and 11 March 2016 pertaining to clinical outcome, including case reports, were selected. Referenced articles in the indexed articles were explored for suitability and included if they met any of the criteria: specific antivenom used, route of antivenom administration, adverse reactions to antivenom therapy and length of hospital admission. All accepted abstracts from EAPCCT conferences since 2000 were searched and abstracts relating to Vipera spp envenoming were assessed for suitability. We extracted data on study type, safety and effectiveness. We sought information on antivenoms from manufacturers and individual patient data from authors of publications. Since individual patient data were only rarely available, we compared median length of stay between case series reporting each antivenom. We identified 40 papers and six published abstracts, and one unpublished paper that reported clinical cases and case series of envenomed patients treated with antivenom. No publication reported

  6. Hump nosed viper bite inSri Lanka-descriptive observational study of 1543 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wijewantha HS; Sellahewa KH

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify the clinical manifestations of hump nosed viper envenomation and to recognize the available treatment methods to prevent complications.Methods: Descriptive observational study involving a series of1 543 patients admitted with hump nosed viper bite to 5 major hospitals in Sri Lanka was conducted. Data collection was done consecutively during February1990 and February2008. ExceptHypnale, identification of the biting snake was made by the corresponding author after visual examination of the dead or live snakes, which were brought to hospital.Results: Sixty seven(4.34%) patients developed systemic effects and two (0.1%) patients died due to effects of envenomation or complications of treatment. Systemic effects varied from coagulopathy, nephropathy to some neurological manifestations. Fifty nine (3.8%) patients had only coagulopathy and they received either, intravenous isotonic saline to ensure adequate urine out put i.e.0.5 mL/kg /hour or15 mL/kg of fresh frozen plasma(FFP). None of the patients that had coagulopathy developed renal failure. Contamination of the sample by mildly venomous species ofHypnale may have contributed to the low incidence of systemic complications.Conclusions: It is likely that early hydration with normal saline orFFP can prevent acute renal failure. FFP showed a tendency for early correction of coagulopathy. Role of FFP in hump nosed viper envenomation is worth studying in randomized double blind controlled clinical trials.

  7. Viper. [Design modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. E. Paul; Berry, Cassie; Lamborn, Dana; Murphy, Jack; Okelly, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A Viper aircraft was redesigned with a new airfoil and engine to verify if improvements can be made to the baseline configuration. The two major redesigning processes were: replacing the baseline aircraft's NACA 652-415 airfoil with an NLF 0414 Natural Laminar Flow airfoil, and the baseline aircraft's Lycoming 0-235 engine with a Teledyne Continental GR-36 rotary combustion engine. As a result of these changes: (1) the Viper aircraft becomes smaller in most respects (gross weight, wing platform area, and horizontal tail area); (2) overall drag of the aircraft decreased (due to reduction in area and the reduced drug of the new airfoil); (3) cruise velocity, the maximum rate of climb at sea level, and takeoff distance (but not landing distance) decreased; and (4) cost increased. Although the overall drag decreased, the performance remained about the same due to the reduced horsepower available from the Teledyne Continental engine.

  8. Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  9. Transient distal renal tubular acidosis following hump nosed viper bite: Two cases from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga M Weerakkody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hump-nosed viper (Hypnale hypnale; HNV is one of the six major snake species in Sri Lanka that cause envenomation. Nephrotoxicity, coagulopathy, and neurotoxicity are wellrecognized features of its envenomation. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA4 has only once been described previously in this condition, and we report two further cases. Two patients aged 53 and 51 presented following HNV bites with acute kidney injury and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Both underwent multiple cycles of hemodialysis until the polyuric phase was reached. Despite polyuria, both patients developed resistant hyperkalemia that needed further hemodialysis. The urinary pH, arterial pH, delta ratio, and transtubular potassium gradient confirmed RTA4. HNV venom has been shown to damage the proximal convoluted tubules in animal studies, but not the distal convoluted tubule, and hence the mechanism of our observation in these two patients is unclear. Unexplained hyperkalemia in recovery phase of HNV bite should raise suspicions of RTA4.

  10. [Epidemiology and management of snake envenomations in the Dano health district, Ioba province (Burkina Faso) from 1981 to 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, N; Poda, J N; Guissou, I P

    2002-08-01

    A series of investigations concerning snakebites and management of envenomations was carried out from 1981 to 2000 in the medical District of Dano, Province of loba in Burkina Faso. Viper bites were more frequent than Elapid ones. The seasonal distribution of the envenomations reflected the cycle of field work and other specific activities. Care seeking within the Traditional System of Health Care (STSS) was more frequent than within the Conventional System of Health Care (SCSS). Lethality was higher at STSS level in cases of viper bites and, conversely, higher in SCSS in the cases of Elapid envenomations. This highlighted the interest in medicinal plants for treating snakebites particularly in case of neurotoxic envenomation. We classified several dozens medicinal plants within an inventory. Some of them have been studied and deemed worthy of interest. Others are used for the treatment of other types of poisoning (pesticides, plants toxic) and/or used in traditional rites. We hope to follow the Côte d'Ivoire experience such that African snake venom, neutralised by modern antivenom, might also be neutralised by the African natural resources.

  11. Recurrent dermatitis from jellyfish envenomation.

    OpenAIRE

    Menahem, S; Shvartzman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation can cause an immediate local skin reaction, which is usually a painful linear vesiculourticarial eruption. Persistent, delayed, or recurrent dermatitis is less common. Because jellyfish sting reactions and their management are unfamiliar to family physicians, we describe a case of recurrent local dermatitis after jellyfish envenomation and suggest appropriate treatment.

  12. Antitoxin use and pediatric intensive care for viper bites in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, M; Pisani, M; Stoppa, F; Di Nardo, M; Pirozzi, N; Luca, E; Pulitanò, S; Conti, G; Marzano, L; De Luca, D; Valentini, P; Pietrini, D; Piastra, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy viper bites represent an uncommon event, though envenomation can cause severe complications, more in children than adults, because of dose/body size ratio. We present a case series within a selected population: 10 Italian cases (from Rome surroundings) of viperbites requiring PICU admission, over a 5-year interval. Five children showed a systemic involvement, whereas the remaining patients showed a damage. All were managed and closely monitored in an ICU setting. Relevant clinical findings and therapeutic approach, ICU course and complications have been recorded. Age range was 3-15 years with mean age of 6,9 (SD±4,58) years; 2 patients needed respiratory support beyond oxygen supplementation. Most patients underwent fluid loading, while hemodynamic support was given to4/10. Median PICU stay was 60 hours (IQR=24.0-75.5). No mortality was reported. Indications and precautions for administration of antivenom in the last years have been reviewed: early treatment seems to reduce mortality/morbidity, though representing a threat for children. Current recommendations for the treatment of viper envenomation have been described, based on a literature's review and the application of these knowledges to clinical reality of our PICUs. Therefore, paediatric patients with systemic or rapidly evolving symptoms should be monitored carefully for the development of bite-related complications in an ICU setting mostly in younger children.

  13. Atrax robustus envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Carr, G A; McGuinness, R; Warden, J C

    1980-11-01

    Two patients who developed massive pulmonary oedema, profound vasoconstriction and hypertension followed by hypotension after Atrax Robustus envenomation are described. The pulmonary oedema is due to increased pulmonary capillary membrane permeability which may be due to neurogenic or toxic causes. Use of artificial ventilation with high level PEEP, isoprenaline and high dose steroids allowed support of the patients during volume replacement with albumin. When the circulation was stable and airway frothing ceased, conventional dehydration therapy further improved lung function. Both patients were discharged well.

  14. Antibiotics after rattlesnake envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVecchio, Frank; Klemens, Jane; Welch, Sharon; Rodriguez, Ron

    2002-11-01

    To record the outcome, with regard to infection rate, of patients with rattlesnake bites (RSBs) who do not receive prophylactic antibiotics, a prospective observational study was performed of patients with RSBs treated at our institution during a consecutive 18-month period. The inclusion criteria were RSBs envenomation. Fifty-six consecutive patients (Median age: 32.8 years [range 4-67 years]) were enrolled. One patient was excluded because of presentation 38 h after envenomation and two patients failed to complete the required follow-up. One patient received a dose of antibiotics before transfer. Antibiotics were discontinued upon arrival. Of the total 56 RSB patients, 34 (61%) RSBs involved the upper extremity and 22 (39%) involved the lower extremity. Six patients (11%) applied ice and two (4%) used a tourniquet before evaluation. The mean arrival time was 2.7 h (Range antibiotics from their primary care physicians at 7-10 day follow-up, with no cases (0%) of documented infection. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in patients with rattlesnake bites.

  15. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper venom reagent is a device used to determine the cause of an...

  16. Immunological cross-reactivity and neutralisation of European viper venoms with the monospecific Vipera berus antivenom ViperaTAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Smith, David; Coxon, Ruth; Landon, John

    2014-08-19

    Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei), or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes), the monospecific V. ammodytes "Zagreb antivenom", which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent.

  17. Immunological Cross-Reactivity and Neutralisation of European Viper Venoms with the Monospecific Vipera berus Antivenom ViperaTAb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Casewell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Medically important cases of snakebite in Europe are predominately caused by European vipers of the genus Vipera. The mainstay of snakebite therapy is polyclonal antibody therapy, referred to as antivenom. Here we investigate the capability of the monospecific V. berus antivenom, ViperaTAb®, to cross-react with, and neutralise lethality induced by, a variety of European vipers. Using ELISA and immunoblotting, we find that ViperaTAb® antibodies recognise and bind to the majority of toxic components found in the venoms of the Vipera species tested at comparably high levels to those observed with V. berus. Using in vivo pre-clinical efficacy studies, we demonstrate that ViperaTAb® effectively neutralises lethality induced by V. berus, V. aspis, V. ammodytes and V. latastei venoms and at much higher levels than those outlined by regulatory pharmacopoeial guidelines. Notably, venom neutralisation was found to be superior to (V. berus, V. aspis and V. latastei, or as equally effective as (V. ammodytes, the monospecific V. ammodytes “Zagreb antivenom”, which has long been successfully used for treating European snake envenomings. This study suggests that ViperaTAb® may be a valuable therapeutic product for treating snakebite by a variety of European vipers found throughout the continent.

  18. [Viper (Vipera berus) snake bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, J; Kornalík, F

    2000-07-19

    Cases of snake bites (Vipera berus) have as compared with past years a rising trend in the Czech Republic. This ensues among other factors from a higher prevalence of snakes due to the improving ecological situation. The morbidity of snake bites is of no epidemiological importance, the frequency of snake bites amounts to several tens per year and in some clinically manifest intoxication does not develop. Nevertheless in individual cases, in children weakened subjects, a viper bite may be manifested by a serious and in exceptional instances fatal affection. Within the framework of first aid the authors do not recommend application of a tourniquet or dissecting of the wound because of undesirable potentiation of tissue traumatization. Non-specific treatment involves the administration of corticoids and antihistaminics. Specific immunotherapy, administration of horse antiserum (Ipser Europe, Pasteur Mérieux, France) is indicated only in case of systemic or very severe local symptoms and is associated with the risk of a severe allergic reaction. In case of severe systemic symptoms, symptomatic treatment in a health institution of the appropriate type is of fundamental importance. In all cases observation of the affected subject is recommended to rule out intoxication or the development of possible complications.

  19. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Tobias; Colayori, Samantha E; Westhoff, Guido; Bakken, George S; Young, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membrane's neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.

  20. The Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    8 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a pit chain on the lower, northern flank of the giant martian volcano, Arsia Mons. Pits such as these commonly form as a result of collapse of surface materials into a subsurface void, possibly along a fault or into an old lava tube. The layered material, exposed near the top of several of the pits, is shedding house-sized boulders which can be seen resting on the sloping sidewalls and floors of many of the pits. Location near: 6.7oS, 120.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  1. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Masaru; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese. Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking. The patient was a healthy 33-year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender. The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation.

  2. Rapid and selective detection of experimental snake envenomation - Use of gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawade, Balasaheb S; Salvi, Nitin C; Shaikh, Innus K; Waghmare, Arun B; Jadhav, Nitin D; Wagh, Vishal B; Pawade, Abhilasha S; Waykar, Indrasen G; Potnis-Lele, Mugdha

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we have developed a gold nanoparticle based simple, rapid lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Indian Cobra venom (CV) and Russell's viper venom (RV). Presently, there is no rapid, reliable, and field diagnostic test available in India, where snake bite cases are rampant. Therefore, this test has an immense potential from the public health point of view. The test is based on the principle of the paper immunochromatography assay for detection of two snake venom species using polyvalent antisnake venom antibodies (ASVA) raised in equines and species-specific antibodies (SSAbs) against venoms raised in rabbits for conjugation and impregnation respectively. The developed, snake envenomation detection immunoassay (SEDIA) was rapid, selective, and sensitive to detect venom concentrations up to 0.1 ng/ml. The functionality of SEDIA strips was confirmed by experimental envenomation in mice and the results obtained were specific for the corresponding venom. The SEDIA has a potential to be a field diagnostic test to detect snake envenomation and assist in saving lives of snakebite victims.

  3. Compartmental syndrome due to viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigasio, A; Battiston, B; De Filippo, G; Brunelli, G; Calabrese, S

    1991-01-01

    The case is reported of a young girl who was bitten on the hand by a viper and developed compartment syndrome of the intrinsic muscles more than 24 h later. Multiple dorsal and volar fasciotomies resolved the acute episode with complete restitutio ad integrum. The clinical case is discussed in detail and the literature on these rare complications of snake bites in European countries reviewed.

  4. Clinical update on scorpion envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cupo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Scorpion stings are currently the leading cause of venom-related injury to humans in Brazil and are a significant public health problem globally. Only scorpions of the Tityus genus are of medical importance in Brazil, and Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most serious envenomations and deaths. The toxic effects of scorpion envenomation are due to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters; the severity is related to cardiac and hemodynamic changes, with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema contributing to the main causes of death. The pathophysiology of cardiac involvement has been discussed for decades and has been attributed to adrenergic discharge and a possible toxic effect of venom on the myocardium, while acute pulmonary edema may have a cardiogenic and/or non-cardiogenic origin. Currently, the clinical data point to catecholamine excess as the cause for reversible scorpion cardiomyopathy . These data include electrocardiographic changes, profiling of cardiac enzymes and troponin I, echocardiographic data with global or regional left ventricle dysfunction, and myocardial perfusion alterations compatible with spasm in the coronary microcirculation. Furthermore, recent data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings, which are similar to those observed for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, have also been linked to catecholamine excess. The efficiency of antivenom serum treatment is controversial in the literature. Our experience in Brazil is that the management of patients with systemic manifestations of scorpion stings is based on three approaches, all of which are extremely important. These include symptomatic treatment, antivenom serum, and cardiorespiratory support.

  5. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans.

  6. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS): First Release of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Marchetti, A; Scodeggio, M

    2014-01-01

    We release the spectra for the more than 57000 objects presented in the First VIPERS Data Release. For each object we distribute the observed, wavelength and flux calibrated spectrum, as well as cleaned spectra, where artifacts due to fringing are removed. We also provide the sky and noise spectrum and the 2D spectrum. Data can be downloaded from http://vipers.inaf.it.

  7. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  9. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents.

  10. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence of VIPER retrotransposon domestication in trypanosomatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Adriana; Krieger, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER) in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found. We hypothesise that the domestication event occurred more than 50 mya and the conservation of this gene suggests it might perform some function in the host species. PMID:27849219

  11. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence of VIPER retrotransposon domestication in trypanosomatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ludwig

    Full Text Available Transposable elements are important residents of eukaryotic genomes and eventually the host can domesticate them to serve cellular functions. We reported here a possible domestication event of the vestigial interposed retroelement (VIPER in trypanosomatids. We found a large gene in a syntenic location in Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, Leptomanas pyrrhocoris, and Crithidia fasciculata whose products share similarity in the C-terminal portion with the third protein of VIPER. No remnants of other VIPER regions surrounding the gene sequence were found. We hypothesise that the domestication event occurred more than 50 mya and the conservation of this gene suggests it might perform some function in the host species.

  12. 双价抗蛇毒鸡卵黄抗体制备与生物活性研究%Preparation anti biological activity of bivalent IgY against cobra anti viper venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁俊华; 孔天翰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To prepare the bivalent immunoglobulin yolk (lgY) against eobra and viper venom and to detect its activities as the foundation for production and application of polyvalent . Methods The venom of Naja atra Cantor and Daboia russellii siamensis injected alternately into the leghorn hen. Biva-lent lgY was extraeted by water dilution. The biological activity of bivalent lgY were deteeted in several as-pects, sueh as the potency ( by indireet ELISA assay), the cross immunity ( by double immunodiffusion), the membrane lysis activity ( by experiments of vitelline membrane lysis) and 50% lethal activity ( LD50 ). Results Bivalent IgY was extracted from eggs yolk in 28-42 days after the first immunization. The titers of bivalent lgY against cobra and viper venom were 1:12 800 and 1: 6400. The cross immunologic reactions of bivalent IgY were found obviously with six kinds of snake venoms from Elapinae and Viperinae. There were not immunologic precipitation lines between bivalent IgY and four kinds of snake venoms from Crotalinae. Bi- valent lgY obviously deereased the vitelline membrane lysis activity of cobra and viper venom and prolonged the average survival time of mice with cobra or viper envenomation (P < 0.05). Moreover, with the same dose of bivalent IgY, the survival rate of mice with cobra venom envenomation was higher than those with vi-per venom envenomation. Conclusion Bivalent lgY could signifieantly neutralize biologieal activities of co-bra and viper venom, protect animals with cobra or viper envenomation.%目的 通过双价抗蛇毒鸡卵黄抗体(bivalent anti-snake venom immunoglobulin yolk,双价IgY)的制备及其相关特性研究,为多价抗蛇毒IgY的制备和应用奠定基础.方法 两种单一抗原(舟山眼镜蛇、圆斑蝰泰国亚种)按顺序依次交替注入单只鸡体内,水稀释法制备双价IgY;测定双价IgY效价(间接ELISA法)、交叉免疫特性(双向免疫扩散试验)及对溶膜活性(溶膜试验)、半数

  13. Molecular basis of cardiotoxicity upon cobra envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, C D N; Armugam, A; Zhu, Y Z; Jeyaseelan, K

    2005-01-01

    Various clinical manifestations leading to death have been documented in most cases of bites caused by venomous snakes. Cobra envenomation is an extremely variable process and known to cause profound neurological abnormalities. The complexity of cobra venom can induce multiple-organ failure, leading to death in case of severe envenomation. Intramuscular administration of Malayan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) crude venom at 1 microg/g dose caused death in mice in approximately 3 h. Analysis of gene expression profiles in the heart, brain, kidney, liver and lung revealed 203 genes whose expression was altered by at least 3-fold in response to venom treatment. Of these, 50% were differentially expressed in the heart and included genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, ion transport and energy metabolism. Electrocardiogram recordings and serum troponin T measurements indicated declining cardiac function and myocardial damage. This not only sheds light on the cardiotoxicity of cobra venom but also reveals the molecular networks affected during envenomation.

  14. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite. On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetan...

  15. Vipera palaestinae snake envenomations: experience in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, G; Ben-Abraham, R; Ezra, D; Shrem, D; Eshel, G; Vardi, A; Winkler, E; Barzilay, Z

    1997-11-01

    In Israel, Vipera palaestinae (V. palaestinae) is the most common venomous snake, accounting for 100-300 reported cases of envenomation every year. However, V. palaestinae snakebites in children have not been extensively investigated. The demographic features, treatment and outcome of V. palaestinae envenomation in 37 children treated in two medical centers over a 9 year period were retrospectively reviewed. The victims age ranged from 2-18 years with a mean age of 8.9 years. Twenty-nine children were males and eight were females. Twenty-one patients resided in rural areas, and 16 children were living in urban areas. Twenty-three (63%) of the patients were bitten on the lower limb; Twelve (33%) on the upper limb, and two on the head or neck (4%). Using a grading scale of one to three from minimal to severe envenomation, 15 (40.5%), 15 (40.5%) and 7 (19%) patients had mild, moderate and severe envenomation, respectively. Major complications of envenomation that were manifested after arrival consisted of compartment syndrome (two patients) and respiratory dysfunction (two patients). Specific monovalent antiserum for the treatment of V. palaestinae bite was given to 16 children (43%) of whom, four patients were in the severe group, seven and five in the moderate and mild groups respectively. No patient suffered a significant infection, tissue loss, permanent disability or death. We conclude that early ICU admission along with close monitoring and antivenom therapy is important in reducing morbidity and mortality in children systemically envenomed by V. palaestinae.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa.We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs included in the model were Antivipmyn, FAV Afrique, EchiTab-G and EchiTab-Plus. We derived inputs from the literature which included: type of snakes causing bites (carpet viper (Echis species/non-carpet viper, AV effectiveness against death, mortality without AV, probability of Early Adverse Reactions (EAR, likelihood of death from EAR, average age at envenomation in years, anticipated remaining life span and likelihood of amputation. Costs incurred by the victims include: costs of confirming and evaluating envenomation, AV acquisition, routine care, AV transportation logistics, hospital admission and related transportation costs, management of AV EAR compared to the alternative of free snakebite care with ineffective or no AV. Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs were assessed as the cost per death averted and the cost per Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALY averted. Probabilistic Sensitivity Analyses (PSA using Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain 95% Confidence Intervals of ICERs.The cost/death averted for the 16 countries of interest ranged from $1,997 in Guinea Bissau to $6,205 for Liberia and Sierra Leone. The cost/DALY averted ranged from $83 (95% Confidence Interval: $36-$240 for Benin Republic to $281 ($159-457 for Sierra-Leone. In all cases, the base-case cost/DALY averted estimate fell below the commonly accepted threshold of one time per capita GDP, suggesting that AV is highly cost-effective for the treatment of snakebite in all 16 WA countries. The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1-way sensitivity analyses. In addition, the PSA showed that

  17. Venomics of Vipera berus berus to explain differences in pathology elicited by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes envenomation: Therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinović, Zorica; Leonardi, Adrijana; Šribar, Jernej; Sajevic, Tamara; Žužek, Monika C; Frangež, Robert; Halassy, Beata; Trampuš-Bakija, Alenka; Pungerčar, Jože; Križaj, Igor

    2016-09-02

    Vipera berus berus (Vbb) is the most widely distributed and Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa) the most venomous viper in Europe. In particular areas of the Old continent their toxic bites constitute a considerable public health problem. To make the current envenomation therapy more effective we have analysed the proteome of Vbb venom and compared it with that of Vaa. We found the proteome of Vbb to be much less complex and to contain smaller levels of particularly snaclecs and sPLA2s. Snaclecs are probably responsible for thrombocytopenia. The neurotoxic sPLA2s, ammodytoxins, are responsible for the most specific feature of the Vaa venom poisoning - induction of signs of neurotoxicity in patients. These molecules were not found in Vbb venom. Both venoms induce haemorrhage and coagulopathy in man. As Vaa and Vbb venoms possess homologous P-III snake venom metalloproteinases, the main haemorrhagic factors, the severity of the haemorrhage is dictated by concentration and specific activity of these molecules. The much greater anticoagulant effect of Vaa venom than that of Vbb venom lies in its higher extrinsic pathway coagulation factor-proteolysing activity and content of ammodytoxins which block the prothrombinase complex formation. Envenomations by venomous snakes constitute a considerable public health problem worldwide, and also in Europe. In the submitted work we analysed the venom proteome of Vipera berus berus (Vbb), the most widely distributed venomous snake in Europe and compared it with the venom proteome of the most venomous viper in Europe, Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa). We have offered a possible explanation, at the molecular level, for the differences in clinical pictures inflicted by the Vbb and Vaa venoms. We have provided an explanation for the effectiveness of treatment of Vbb envenomation by Vaa antiserum and explained why full protection of Vaa venom poisoning by Vbb antiserum should not be always expected, especially not in cases of severe

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab'2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii Bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available There is limited information on antivenom pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an Indian snake antivenom in humans with Russell's viper bites.Patient data and serial blood samples were collected from patients with Russell's viper (Daboia russelii envenoming in Sri Lanka. All patients received Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Ltd. Antivenom concentrations were measured with sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Timed antivenom concentrations were analysed using MONOLIXvs4.2. One, two and three compartment models with zero order input and first order elimination kinetics were assessed. Models were parameterized with clearance (CL, intercompartmental clearance (Q, central compartment volume (V and peripheral compartment volume (VP. Between-subject-variability (BSV on relative bioavailability (F was included to account for dose variations. Covariates effects (age, sex, weight, antivenom batch, pre-antivenom concentrations were explored by visual inspection and in model building. There were 75 patients, median age 57 years (40-70 y and 64 (85% were male. 411 antivenom concentration data points were analysed. A two compartment model with zero order input, linear elimination kinetics and a combined error model best described the data. Inclusion of BSV on F and weight as a covariate on V improved the model. Inclusion of pre-antivenom concentrations or different batches on BSV of F did not. Final model parameter estimates were CL,0.078 L h(-1, V,2.2L, Q,0.178 L h(-1 and VP,8.33L. The median half-life of distribution was 4.6 h (10-90%iles:2.6-7.1 h and half-life of elimination, 140 h (10th-90th percentilesx:95-223h.Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom displayed biexponential disposition pharmacokinetics, with a rapid distribution half-life and more prolonged elimination half-life.

  19. Neutralization of haemorrhagic activity of viper venoms by 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Kabburalli; Hemshekhar, Mahadevappa; Gaonkar, Santosh Laxman; Sebastin Santhosh, Martin; Suresh Kumar, Muthuvel; Basappa; Priya, Babu Shubha; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda; Nanjunda Swamy, Shivananju; Girish, Kesturu Subbaiah

    2011-10-01

    Viper envenomation undeniably induces brutal local manifestations such as haemorrhage, oedema and necrosis involving massive degradation of extracellular matrix at the bitten region and many a times results in dangerous systemic haemorrhage including pulmonary shock. Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are being considered to be the primary culprits for the venom-induced haemorrhage. As a consequence, the venom researchers and medical practitioners are in deliberate quest of SVMP inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (DFD) on viper venom-induced haemorrhagic and PLA(2) activities. DFD effectively neutralized the haemorrhagic activity of the medically important viper venoms such as Echis carinatus, Echis ocelatus, Echis carinatus sochureki, Echis carinatus leakeyi and Crotalus atrox in a dose-dependent manner. The histological examinations revealed that the compound DFD effectively neutralizes the basement membrane degradation, and accumulation of inflammatory leucocytes at the site of Echis carinatus venom injection further confirms the inhibition of haemorrhagic activity. In addition, DFD dose dependently inhibited the PLA(2) activities of Crotalus atrox and E. c. leakeyi venoms. According to the docking studies, DFD binds to hydrophobic pocket of SVMP with the ki of 19.26 × 10(-9) (kcal/mol) without chelating Zn(2+) in the active site. It is concluded that the clinically approved inhibitors of haemorrhagins could be used as a potent first-aid agent in snakebite management. Furthermore, a high degree of structural and functional homology between SVMPs and their relatives, the MMPs, suggests that DFD analogues may find immense value in the regulation of multifactorial pathological conditions like inflammation, cancer and wound healing.

  20. Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor is reviewed. The VIPER microprocessor was designed by RSRE, Malvern, England, for safety critical computing applications (e.g., aircraft, reactor control, medical instruments, armaments). The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics. The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed.

  1. Neurotoxicity of ammodytoxin a in the envenoming bites of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logonder, Uros; Krizaj, Igor; Rowan, Edward G; Harris, John B

    2008-10-01

    Envenoming bites by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (the long-nosed viper) can cause life-threatening neurotoxicity, particularly in children. We investigated the mechanisms of the neurotoxicity of ammodytoxin A, the principal toxin in the venom of these snakes, in isolated nerve-muscle preparations from mice. The toxin was bound selectively to the neuromuscular junction, and at concentrations similar to those likely to be found in the circulation of young bite victims, it blocked the response of the muscle to indirect but not direct stimulation. Electron microscopy showed that the toxin induced a small but insignificant depletion of synaptic vesicles from motor nerve terminals; nerve terminal mitochondria were swollen and damaged, but plasma membranes of terminal boutons were undamaged. Exposure to the toxin did not affect postjunctional acetylcholine receptors or cause structural damage to preterminal motor axons or muscle fibers. Spontaneous transmitter release was similarly unaffected. Taken together, these results indicate that ammodytoxin A is the principal agent involved in the neurotoxic activity of the venom of V ammodytes ammodytes and that the underlying cause of the failure of transmission may be the deenergization of the nerve terminal resulting from mitochondrial degeneration and subsequent impairment of coupling between the action-potential-induced depolarization of the nerve terminal and the evoked transmitter release.

  2. [Venomous and poisonous animals. V. Envenomations by venomous marine invertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; de Haro, L

    2007-06-01

    Epidemiological information about marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical countries where this type of injury is more severe and the need for medical attention is more frequent. For this reason use of the regional poison control centers in the areas where envenomation occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by poisonous marine invertebrates (cephalopods, sea urchins, cone shells, jellyfish, anemones, star-fish, corals, and worms). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  3. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  4. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  5. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  6. Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R Allen; Morgan, Shannon S

    2004-02-15

    In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention.

  7. Lance-headed viper (Bothrops moojeni bite wounding the eye Acidente botrópico (Bothrops moojeni com ferimento ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Otaviano Brandão

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl was bitten in her left eye by a lance-headed viper identified as Bothrops moojeni, measuring 115 cm of length. There was severe facial swelling and left exophthalmus, and enucleation of the eye was necessary. The patient apparently had mild systemic envenoming, but local inflammatory signs and histological evidence of necrosis suggest that both the mechanical trauma and the local action of the venom had a role in the genesis of the eye lesion. It is arguable if the loss of the eye could be prevented even if the antivenom was administered earlier.Uma menina de 5 anos de idade foi picada no olho esquerdo por uma serpente da espécie Bothrops moojeni, que media 115 cm de comprimento. Houve intenso edema facial e ex-oftalmia; enucleação do olho foi necessária. A paciente aparentemente apresentou um envenenamento sistêmico leve, mas os sinais inflamatórios locais e a evidência histológica de necrose sugerem que tanto o traumatismo mecânico como a ação local do veneno tiveram um papel na gênese da lesão ocular. É questionável se o prognóstico da lesão ocular teria sido diferente se o antiveneno tivesse sido administrado em dose adequada mais precocemente.

  8. Protein C activity in dogs envenomed by Vipera palaestinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Gil; Kelmer, Efrat; Segev, Gilad; Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar

    2014-09-01

    Vipera palaestinae is responsible for most envenomations in humans and domestic animal in Israel. Its venom has pro- and anticoagulant properties. Protein C is a major natural anticoagulant, preventing excess clotting and thrombosis. This study investigated protein C activity and its prognostic value, as well as several other hemostatic analytes in dogs (Canis familiaris) accidently envenomed by V. palaestinae. Protein C activity was compared between envenomed dogs and 33 healthy control dogs. Mean protein C was lower in dogs envenomed by V. palaestinae compared to controls (12.9% vs. 22.9%, respectively; P Dogs diagnosed with consumptive coagulopathy (14%) tended to have lower protein C activity compared to others; however, their mortality did differ from that of other dogs. This is the first study assessing protein C activity in V. palaestinae victims. Decreased protein C activity in such dogs may play a role in formation of thrombosis and hemostatic derangement as well as inflammation in V. palaestinae envenomations.

  9. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Debono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  10. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  11. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Jordan; Cochran, Chip; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Nouwens, Amanda; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Kawasaki, Minami; Wood, Kelly; Dobson, James; Baumann, Kate; Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Jackson, Timothy N W; Koludarov, Ivan; Low, Dolyce; Ali, Syed A; Smith, A Ian; Barnes, Andrew; Fry, Bryan G

    2016-07-08

    Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  12. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  13. A case study for the real-time experimental evaluation of the VIPER microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Angellatta, Rob K.

    1991-09-01

    An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the Verifiable Integrated Processor for Enhanced Reliability (VIPER) microprocessor to real time control is described. The VIPER microprocessor was invented by the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), U.K., and is an example of the use of formal mathematical methods for developing electronic digital systems with a high degree of assurance on the system design and implementation correctness. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs. The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a 737 aircraft. The mechanisms for interfacing the VIPER Single Board Computer to the VAX host are described. Results include run time experiences, performance evaluation, and comparison of VIPER and FORTRAN yaw damper algorithm output for accuracy estimation.

  14. Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Lockwood

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK. Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Increases in skin surface pH, hyperhidrosis, and prolonged occlusion allow these bacteria to proliferate. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment generally consists of a combination of hygienic measures, correcting plantar hyperhidrosis and topical antimicrobials.

  15. Reversible Myocarditis after Black Widow Spider Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Dendane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Black widow spiders can cause variable clinical scenarios from local damage to very serious conditions including death. Acute myocardial damage is rarely observed and its prognostic significance is not known. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old man who developed an acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. The patient was previously healthy. The clinical course was associated with systemic and cardiovascular complaints. His electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation with T-wave amplitude. The plasma concentrations of cardiac enzymes were elevated. His first echocardiography showed hypokinesis of the left ventricle (left ventricle ejection fraction 48%. Magnetic resonance imaging showed also focal myocardial injury of the LV. There was progressive improvement in cardiac traces, biochemical and echocardiographical values (second left ventricle ejection fraction increased to 50%. Myocardial involvement after a spider bite is rare and can cause death. The exact mechanism of this myocarditis is unknown. We report a rare case of acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. We objectively documented progressive clinical and electrical improvement.

  16. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  17. Clinical features and management of Hadronyche envenomation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M K; Whyte, I M; White, J; Keir, P M

    2000-03-01

    Using case reports and a review of the literature, the clinical features of envenomation by the genus of Australian funnel web spiders known as Hadronyche, are characterised. Five cases are reported here, including the first life-threatening envenomation by Hadronyche species 14 (the Port Macquarie funnel web). Two severe envenomations by Hadronyche cerberea (the Southern Tree funnel web) and one each by Hadronyche formidabilis (the Northern Tree funnel web) and Hadronyche infensa (the Darling Downs funnel web) are also described. The clinical experience of the authors' provided the five cases described in detail one of which has previously been reported in brief. Eight cases of Hadronyche envenomation from the literature (Medline 1966-1998 and Embase 1980-1998) were analysed in order to draw comparisons between this syndrome and the well described envenomation syndrome of Atrax robustus (the Sydney funnel web). Reports of funnel web spider antivenom use to Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) between 1995 and June 1998 were also examined. The biology of these dangerous spiders, their geographic distribution, venom characteristics and management issues are addressed. It is concluded that bites from at least six Hadronyche species have produced a life-threatening envenomation syndrome clinically indistinguishable from that of Atrax robustus. Atrax robustus derived antivenom is effective although antivenom requirements may be greater than for Atrax envenomation. Antivenom supplies are limited and sufficient stocks to treat a severe envenomation are unlikely to be found in any one institution. Pressure-immobilisation first aid is effective in delaying onset of envenomation, may enhance local inactivation of venom and early removal can result in rapid clinical deterioration.

  18. [Venomous and poisonous animals. IV. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; De Haro, L

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish (lion fish, stone fish, and catfish), cartilaginous fish (stingrays and poisonous sharks), or other venomous aquatic vertebrates (moray-eels and marine snakes). Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years.

  19. [2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

    2014-02-01

    French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species.

  20. [Venomous and poisonous animals. III. Elapidae snake envenomation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P

    2007-02-01

    Envenomation by Elapidae snakes is less frequent than by Viperidae snakes but represents a true medical emergency due to rapid progression of cobra syndrome. Elapidae venom contains neurotoxins that paralyze striated muscles especially in the thoracic cavity. Respiratory paralysis can occur within a few hours and is preceded by neurological symptoms (local paresthesia and paresis progressing to the cranial nerves). When cobra envenomation is suspected, antivenom administration by the direct venous route must be undertaken as quickly as possible to stop the envenomation process. Artificial ventilation is necessary in case of dyspnea.

  1. Measuring the VIPERS galaxy power spectrum at z∼1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Stefano; Bel, Julien; Granett, Ben; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey [VIPERS, Guzzo et al. 2014] is using the VIMOS spectrograph at the ESO VLT to measure redshifts for ~ 100,000 galaxies with IAB < 22.5 and 0.5 < z < 1.2, over an area of 24 deg2 (split over the W1 and W4 fields of CFHTLS). VIPERS currently provides, at such redshifts, the best compromise between volume, number of galaxies and dense spatial sampling. We present here the first estimate of the power spectrum of the galaxy distribution, P(k), at redshifts z ~ 0.75 and z ~ 1, obtained from the ~ 55,000 redshifts of the PDR-1 data release. We discuss first constraints on cosmological quantities, as the matter density and the baryonic fraction, obtained for the first time at an epoch when the Universe was about half its current age.

  2. Two cases of viper bite: still an important health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Hajra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Viper venoms act mainly as hemotoxic. Manifestations of snakebites depend on specific toxins that constitute the venom. The local and systemic snake bite related symptoms are directly linked to the toxicity of the venom. Edema, ecchymoses, hematoma, and gangrenous lesions are reported to occur as local symptoms. Systemic symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, delirium, jaundice, circulatory collapse, convulsions, and coma. Death from secondary infections, neurotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, intracranial hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are the well-known facts. For reduction of morbidity and mortality, it is important that antiserum is administered at the appropriate dose as early as possible after snake bite. There are several case reports about various complications of viperid bite. Here we are discussing two cases of viper bite. These cases are unique because of the extensive tissue necrosis. One of them succumbed to septicemia after acute pancreatitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1274-1277

  3. Formal verification of a microcoded VIPER microprocessor using HOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Karl; Arora, Tejkumar; Leung, Tony; Kalvala, Sara; Schubert, E. Thomas; Windley, Philip; Heckman, Mark; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) and members of the Hardware Verification Group at Cambridge University conducted a joint effort to prove the correspondence between the electronic block model and the top level specification of Viper. Unfortunately, the proof became too complex and unmanageable within the given time and funding constraints, and is thus incomplete as of the date of this report. This report describes an independent attempt to use the HOL (Cambridge Higher Order Logic) mechanical verifier to verify Viper. Deriving from recent results in hardware verification research at UC Davis, the approach has been to redesign the electronic block model to make it microcoded and to structure the proof in a series of decreasingly abstract interpreter levels, the lowest being the electronic block level. The highest level is the RSRE Viper instruction set. Owing to the new approach and some results on the proof of generic interpreters as applied to simple microprocessors, this attempt required an effort approximately an order of magnitude less than the previous one.

  4. Black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) envenomation in a term pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman; Groll; Gonzalez; Aerts

    2000-07-01

    Description of a black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) envenomation in a term pregnancy.Case report conducted at an Air Force tertiary care hospital of a 27-year-old primigravida at 38 1/7 weeks pregnancy.Latrodectus mactans antivenin can be given to treat symptoms of black widow envenomation.Black widow envenomations can cause symptoms associated with acute intra-abdominal processes. In pregnancy, envenomations can result in symptoms and signs similar to those seen in preeclampsia (abdominal pain, headache, hypertension, and proteinuria). Latrodectism should be considered in patients complaining of these symptoms in association with a spider bite. If latrodectism is considered to be the underlying origin for these symptoms, appropriate treatment should be administered. In cases of pregnancy, treatment should include L. mactans antivenin if believed to be clinically indicated. There is no current evidence that this antivenin is contraindicated in pregnancy. (Curr Surg 57:346-348)

  5. Tears of Venom: Hydrodynamics of Reptilian Envenomation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A.; Herzog, Florian; Friedel, Paul; Rammensee, Sebastian; Bausch, Andreas; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2011-05-01

    In the majority of venomous snakes, and in many other reptiles, venom is conveyed from the animal’s gland to the prey’s tissue through an open groove on the surface of the teeth and not through a tubular fang. Here we focus on two key aspects of the grooved delivery system: the hydrodynamics of venom as it interacts with the groove geometry, and the efficiency of the tooth-groove-venom complex as the tooth penetrates the prey’s tissue. We show that the surface tension of the venom is the driving force underlying the envenomation dynamics. In so doing, we explain not only the efficacy of the open groove, but also the prevalence of this mechanism among reptiles.

  6. Delayed psychological morbidity associated with snakebite envenoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan S Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The psychological impact of snakebite on its victims, especially possible late effects, has not been systematically studied.To assess delayed somatic symptoms, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and impairment in functioning, among snakebite victims.The study had qualitative and quantitative arms. In the quantitative arm, 88 persons who had systemic envenoming following snakebite from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka were randomly identified from an established research database and interviewed 12 to 48 months (mean 30 after the incident. Persons with no history of snakebite, matched for age, sex, geograpical location and occupation, acted as controls. A modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, Hopkins Somatic Symptoms Checklist, Sheehan Disability Inventory and a structured questionnaire were administered. In the qualitative arm, focus group discussions among snakebite victims explored common somatic symptoms attributed to envenoming.Previous snakebite victims (cases had more symptoms than controls as measured by the modified Beck Depression Scale (mean 19.1 Vs 14.4; p<0.001 and Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (38.9 vs. 28.2; p<0.001. 48 (54% cases met criteria for depressive disorder compared to 13 (15% controls. 19 (21.6% cases also met criteria for PTSD. 24 (27% claimed that the snakebite caused a negative change in their employment; nine (10.2% had stopped working and 15 (17% claimed residual physical disability. The themes identified in the qualitative arm included blindness, tooth decay, body aches, headaches, tiredness and weakness.Snakebite causes significant ongoing psychological morbidity, a complication not previously documented. The economic and social impacts of this problem need further investigation.

  7. Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul M; Little, Mark; Jelinek, George A; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2003-01-06

    Interest in envenoming syndromes caused by Australian jellyfish has been intense since the deaths in early 2002 of two tourists in Queensland, attributed to the Irukandji syndrome. We review current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome. Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote.

  8. Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Aymeric; Soerensen, Christoffer; Op den Brouw, Bianca; Lister, Callum; Dashevsky, Daniel; Arbuckle, Kevin; Gloria, Alexandra; Zdenek, Christina N; Casewell, Nicholas R; Gutiérrez, José María; Wüster, Wolfgang; Ali, Syed A; Masci, Paul; Rowley, Paul; Frank, Nathaniel; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-10-05

    Saw-scaled vipers (genus Echis) are one of the leading causes of snakebite morbidity and mortality in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and vast regions of Asia, constituting a public health burden exceeding that of almost any other snake genus globally. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy, owing to the action of potent procoagulant toxins, is one of the most relevant clinical manifestations of envenomings by Echis spp. Clinical experience and prior studies examining a limited range of venoms and restricted antivenoms have demonstrated for some antivenoms an extreme lack of antivenom cross-reactivity between different species of this genus, sometimes resulting in catastrophic treatment failure. This study undertook the most comprehensive testing of Echis venom effects upon the coagulation of human plasma, and also the broadest examination of antivenom potency and cross-reactivity, to-date. 10 Echis species/populations and four antivenoms (two African, two Asian) were studied. The results indicate that the venoms are, in general, potently procoagulant but that the relative dependence on calcium or phospholipid cofactors is highly variable. Additionally, three out of the four antivenoms tested demonstrated only a very narrow taxonomic range of effectiveness in preventing coagulopathy, with only the SAIMR antivenom displaying significant levels of cross-reactivity. These results were in conflict with previous studies using prolonged preincubation of antivenom with venom to suggest effective cross-reactivity levels for the ICP Echi-Tab antivenom. These findings both inform upon potential clinical effects of envenomation in humans and highlight the extreme limitations of available treatment. It is hoped that this will spur efforts into the development of antivenoms with more comprehensive coverage for bites not only from wild snakes but also from specimens widely kept in zoological collections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  10. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  11. Red-back spider (Latrodectus mactans hasselti) envenomation in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, G C; Pemberton, P J

    A case of red-back spider (Latrodectus mactans hasselti) envenomation in a neonate is presented. The signs of envenomation in a neonate are discussed, together with the dose of antivenom necessary for the successful treatment of envenomation. In episodes of untractable crying in neonates, the possibility that the baby has been bitten by a red-back spider should be considered.

  12. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  13. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  14. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  15. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  16. [Fifteen years' experience in scorpion envenomation control in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguedda, A C; Laraba-Djébari, F; Ouahdi, M; Hellal, H; Griene, L; Guerenik, M; Laid, Y

    2002-08-01

    In Algeria, scorpion envenomation is real public health problem. Since the creation of the National Committee of Control of Scorpion envenomations (CNLES), several steps have been taken to deal with this problem. After a brief historical introduction, we present the main elements of the action carried out both in terms of treatment and of prevention of scorpion proliferation. The epidemiological situation is presented by stressing the difficulties involved in collecting reliable data. We also address the question of citizen and stakeholder awareness since public participation is crucial in all prevention programmes. Training for healthcare providers is also one of the principal axes of the Committee's programme which includes national, regional, and even local seminars. We describe the improvement of production and research on venoms carried out by the Institute Pasteur of Algeria. We conclude by discussing the action plan for 2001 and prospects for an enhanced strategy in the fight against the scorpion envenomation.

  17. Ethics of snakebite envenoming in agrarian landscapes of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenoming is an accidental, non-infectious, non-contagious disease, caused by the effects of snake venoms. This disease is a relevant worldwide public health problem in tropical countries. Agricultural workers are highly exposed and therefore, commonly affected. The occurrence of snake envenoming involves some ethics concerns. In this assay, the moral significance of venomous snakes under anthropocentric and biocentric perspectives is discussed. Occupational risk and vulnerability of agricultural workers are also addressed. The ethical roles of government, agricultural enterprises and consumers in the occurrence of the disease are analyzed to try to explain why snakebite envenoming is a neglected disease. Finally, the role of the emerging social epidemiology as the contributor factor to gain involvement of stakeholders ‒which should be responsible for mitigation, prevention, treatment and control of snakebite envenoming‒ is discussed.

  18. Injury trends from envenoming in Australia, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R E; Williams, D J; Liew, D

    2017-02-01

    Accidental injury is a major public health problem in developed countries with 20 years elapsed since a national overview of venomous bites undertaken in Australia. Provide the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography nationally in Australia in the period 2000-2013. An analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data was undertaken to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. Over the study period, deaths occurred due to an anaphylactic event (0.16 per 100 000), snake envenoming (0.13 per 100 000) or box jellyfish envenoming (0.01 per 100 000). Only 44% of cases involving anaphylaxis reached medical care prior to death, compared to 74% of those envenomed by snakes. Over half of all deaths (52%) occurred at home, and 64% of these occurred within a major city or inner regional area, with 48% of work-related anaphylaxis deaths. Hospital admission rates of 199 per 100 000 persons over the 11 years were caused by contact with wasps or bees (31%), spiders (30%) and snakes (15%), with a predominant age range of 30-44 years. The greatest burden of injury due to envenoming was caused by arthropods and snakes. Causes of death were led by anaphylaxis subsequent to an arthropod bite or sting, followed by death from snake envenoming. Over half the incidents resulting in death occurred at home, in areas where healthcare is accessible. Operational data routinely collected are informative, with variations of injury incidence between the States and Territories, indicating a need for a more localised approach to the management of this injury. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  20. First report of hepatic hematoma after presumed Bothrops envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn Latin America, Bothrops envenomation is responsible for the majority of accidents caused by venomous snakes. Patients usually present local edema, bleeding and coagulopathy. Visceral hemorrhage is extremely rare and considered a challenge for diagnosis and management. We report the first case of hepatic hematoma owing to the bothropic envenomation in a 66-year-old man who was bitten in the left leg. He presented local edema, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. Radiological findings suggested hepatic hematoma, with a volume of almost 3 liters. The hepatic hematoma was gradually absorbed without the need for surgical intervention with complete resolution in 8 months.

  1. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  2. From Fangs to Pharmacology: The Future of Snakebite Envenoming Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Engmark, Mikael; Milbo, Christina

    2016-01-01

    therapies for snakebite envenomings. In this review, current state-of-the-art in biopharmaceutical antitoxin development is presented together with an overview of available bioinformatics and structural data on snake venom toxins. This growing body of scientific and technological tools could define...

  3. Neuroradiologic findings in brown snake envenomation: Computed tomography demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midyett, F.A. [Townsville General Hospital, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    A case of fatal brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation is presented. The CT examinations show rapid development and progression of atypical bilateral intracerebral haematomas (ICH) which produce a fatal outcome despite correction of the underlying coagulopathy. The striking CT appearance suggests coagulopathy and is predictive of increased mortality. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Cardiogenic Shock due to Scorpion Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of severe scorpion envenomation in an adult patient, with the presence of very rapid sustained ventricular tachycardia followed by cardiogenic shock, which was reversed by scorpion antivenom administration. Scorpion venom causes cardiac changes that can lead to an environment favoring arrhythmogenesis.

  5. Snakebite envenomation turns again into a neglected tropical disease!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    On June 9(th), 2017 WHO categorized snakebite envenomation into the Category A of the Neglected Tropical Diseases. This new situation will allow access to new funding, paving the way for wider and deeper researches. It should also expand the accessibility of antivenoms. Let us hope that it also leads to cooperation among stakeholders, aiming at improving the management of snakebites in developing countries.

  6. Centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758 envenomation in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGUEZ-ACOSTA Alexis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758 envenomation in a newborn is reported. When first examined, approximately 6 hours after the bite, the 28-day-old girl was irritable, with uncontrollable cry and intense local pain, oedema, local hyperthermia, and blood clots at punctures. Uncontrollable crying in neonates should rise the possibility of an insect or arachnid sting.

  7. Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

    CERN Document Server

    Scottez, V; Granett, B R; Moutard, T; Kilbinger, M; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Coupon, J; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moscardini, L

    2016-01-01

    We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by M\\'enard et al. (2013) when applied to VIPERS and CFHTLS real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clus- tering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state of the art spectroscopic measurements with iAB 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based red- shift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean color-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the one of reference and we give an estimate of the color-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large redshift surveys which suffer from the need of a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

  8. Improved correction of VIPERS angular selection effects in clustering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, A.; Granett, B. R.; Bel, J.; Guzzo, L.; de la Torre, S.; Aff004

    2016-10-01

    Clustering estimates in galaxy redshift surveys need to account and correct for the way targets are selected from the general population, as to avoid biasing the measured values of cosmological parameters. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is no exception to this, involving slit collisions and masking effects. Pushed by the increasing precision of the measurements, e.g. of the growth rate f, we have been re-assessing these effects in detail. We present here an improved correction for the two-point correlation function, capable to recover the amplitude of the monopole of the two-point correlation function ξ(r) above 1 h-1 Mpc to better than 2.

  9. Struan Sutherland--Doyen of envenomation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James

    2006-12-01

    Struan Sutherland (1936-2002) was the doyen of medical research in the field of envenomation and the ultimate authority on the medical management of envenomated victims in Australia for almost 3 decades. In 1981 as Head of Immunology Research of Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL), he produced an antivenom against the Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus)-an accomplishment that had defied numerous previous attempts. Struan also invented the pressure-immobilisation technique of first-aid for snake bite. This ingenious, simple but safe and effective technique revolutionised first-aid management of snake bite and of some other types of envenomation. It made redundant the use of tourniquets and other dangerous first-aid treatments. Similarly, he helped to develop a snake venom detection kit, which enables doctors working at a victim's bedside to ascertain which snake was responsible and which antivenom should be administered. He had a very wide range of research interests and was a prodigious researcher publishing over 200 scientific and medical articles, numerous chapters in books and the standard Australian medical textbook on the management of envenomation, Australian Animal Toxins. He made major contributions to the understanding of the venoms of Australia's remarkable range of fauna including snakes, spiders, Blue-ringed octopus, ants, jellyfish and stinging fish. Struan served the medical fraternity and the public selflessly. He was always available to doctors, or to anybody, to give advice at any hour of the day or night, on management of envenomated victims. Members of the Australian Venom Research Unit, which he founded in 1994 at The University of Melbourne, now continue this 24-h advisory service.

  10. [Envenomation and poisoning by venomous or poisonous animals. VII: arachnidism in the New World].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P; Alagón, A

    2008-06-01

    The incidence of scorpion stings and spider bites is high in Latin America. This is particularly true for Mexico, part of Amazonia, and southern and eastern Brazil. Centruroides and Tityus scorpion stings present a real danger for humans, especially children. Envenomation results in intense pain, neurological signs, and cardiorespiratory manifestations that can lead to death by acute pulmonary edema or heart failure. In the event of confirmed envenomation, antivenin must be administered as soon as possible in association with symptomatic treatment and, if necessary, cardiorespiratory resuscitation. Spider bites are a less frequent and severe. Envenomation by Loxosceles is extremely painful and necrotizing. Severe visceral complications can develop. An effective antivenim has recently become available for local and systemic envenomation. Envenomation by Latrodectus leads to neurological symptoms that can also be treated with antivenom. Envenomation by other spiders is less frequent and generally harmless.

  11. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  12. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  13. RRH: envenoming syndrome due to 200 stings from Africanized honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming syndrome from Africanized bee stings is a toxic syndrome caused by the inoculation of large amounts of venom from multiple bee stings, generally more than five hundred. The incidence of severe toxicity from Africanized bee stings is rare but deadly. This report reveals that because of the small volume of distribution, having fewer stings does not exempt a patient from experiencing an unfavorable outcome, particularly in children, elderly people or underweight people.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Full spectroscopic data and auxiliary information release (PDR-2)

    CERN Document Server

    Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Févre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marchetti, A; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moutard, T; Peacock, J A; Zamorani, G; Burden, A; Fumana, M; Jullo, E; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Percival, W J

    2016-01-01

    We present the full public data release (PDR-2) of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), performed at the ESO VLT. We release redshifts, spectra, CFHTLS magnitudes and ancillary information (as masks and weights) for a complete sample of 86,775 galaxies (plus 4,732 other objects, including stars and serendipitous galaxies); we also include their full photometrically-selected parent catalogue. The sample is magnitude limited to i_AB = 2 are shown to have a confidence level of 96% or larger and make up 88% of all measured galaxy redshifts (76,552 out of 86,775), constituting the VIPERS prime catalogue for statistical investigations. For this sample the rms redshift error, estimated using repeated measurements of about 3,000 galaxies, is found to be sigma_z = 0.00054(1+z). All data are available at http://vipers.inaf.it and on the ESO Archive.

  15. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottez, V.; Mellier, Y.; Granett, B. R.; Moutard, T.; Kilbinger, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by Ménard et al. when applied to VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clustering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements with iAB 0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean colour-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the reference and we give an estimate of the colour-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large-redshift surveys which require a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

  17. Antiphospholipid syndrome: analysis of dilute Russell's viper venom time titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan P; Cunningham, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the characteristic features of the dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT) titer in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The medical record of 3660 consecutive patients with DRVVT orders between 2006 and 2015 were examined for criteria satisfying the diagnosis of APS. DRVVT titer was studied as a function of titer distribution, titer stability, and clinicopathologic features. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with APS based on a persistently positive DRVVT and a history of arterial or venous thrombosis. DRVVT titer was mostly of low magnitude (65-77% of patients), was of similar value between initial and repeat testing (mean DRVVT titer 1.40 vs. 1.38; P = 0.858; mean time interval 216 days), and was positively associated with anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG and IgM) and antibeta-2-glycoprotein I antibodies (IgG and IgM) (P antiphospholipid antibody profile in 0 and 62% of patients, respectively (P antiphospholipid antibody profiles.

  18. Clinical manifestations and managements in jellyfish envenomation A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Taheri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phylum Cnidarians have over nine thousand species that approximately, one hundred species are dangerous for humans. Annually, a large number of deaths were reported due to jellyfish stings. The manifestations depend on their species and kind of venoms, and include the local and systemic manifestations. A number of methods and compounds were used and under investigation for management of injuries with jellyfishes. Due to the lack of an integrated systematic review, the current study was done. Materials and Methods: The PubMed data bank was searched for the term “Jellyfish”. A total of 1677 papers were found. These papers were divided into three categories: medical, biomedical and biotechnological fields. The medical category was further divided into three subcategories comprising systemic manifestations, cutaneous manifestations and treatments for the stings of jellyfishes. The biomedical category was further subdivided into genomics, proteomics, and biology of venoms, mechanisms of actions and products of biomedical significance. In this part of systematic review, the medical aspects of injuries with jellyfishes were evaluated. Results: The clinical manifestations in jellyfish envenomation depend on their species and the nature of venoms. The most common clinical manifestations of jellyfish stings are cutaneous presentations like urticasia, erythema, swelling, vesicles and severe dermonectoric manifestations. Systemic manifestations were seen in the stings of box jellyfishes, Portuguese man-of-war and in Irukandji syndrome. The most common recommendations for jellyfish envenomation managements include decreasing the local effects of venom, prevention of the venomous nematocysts release, and Controlling of systemic reactions. Application of commercial vinegar (4 - 6% acetic acid, hot water immersion (HWI (42 ° C for 20 minutes, ice packs, sea water rinsing for inactivating nematocysts, administration of topical and parenteral

  19. Cross-recognition of a pit viper (Crotalinae) polyspecific antivenom explored through high-density peptide microarray epitope mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-01

    -throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays. By combining data on antibody-peptide interactions with multiple sequence alignments of homologous toxin sequences and protein modelling, we have determined linear elements of antibody binding sites for snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs...... at the catalytic active site responsible for toxicity, but instead at other sites, of which some are known for allosteric inhibition or for interaction with the tissue target. Antibody recognition was found to be preserved for several minor variations in the protein sequences, although the antibody...

  20. Individual Growth Rates of Nikolsky’s Viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Squamata, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Z. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capture-mark-recapture data was used to infer growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper, Vipera berus nikolskii (Vedmederja, Grubant et Rudaeva, 1986, in the Eastern Ukraine. We have found that growth rate is negatively correlated with age. The difference in growth rates before maturation is not significant between different sexes. Growth rates decrease rapidly after maturation in males and females, however adult males retain significantly higher average growth rates. There is large dispersion of growth rates in the group of adult females, which is caused, probably, by alteration of complete arrest of growth in the years with reproduction and more intensive growth in the years without it. Asymptotic snout-ventral length estimated after Von Bertalanffy model was 680 mm in females and 630 mm in males. Females mature after fifth and males mature after fourth hibernation. The larger females in vipers can not be the result of higher growth rates in females, but are the outcome of a combination of other factors including different maturation time and size (older and being larger, and, perhaps, longer life span due to lower mortality. Growth rates of the Nikolsky’s viper in the nature are higher than in other species in the group of small Eurasian vipers.

  1. Stonefish envenomation of hand with impending compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Terence Khai Wei; Chan, Han Zhe; Ahmad, Tunku Sara Tunku; Teh, Kok Kheng; Low, Tze Hau; Wahab, Nuraliza Ab

    2016-01-01

    Marine stings and envenomation are fairly common in Malaysia. Possible contact to various marine life occurs during diving, fishing and food handling. Even though majority of fish stings are benign, there are several venomous species such as puffer fish, scorpion fish, lionfish, stingray and stonefish that require urgent medical treatment. Stonefish is one of the most venomous fish in the world with potential fatal local and systemic toxicity effects to human. We reported a case of stonefish sting complicated with impending compartment syndrome. Medical staff should be alert about the possibility of this potential emergency in standard management of stonefish stings.

  2. STUDY OF CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND COMPLICATIONS OF HAEMOTOXIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Snake bites are of major public health importance in many communities as causes of haemorrhage, other morbidity and mortality. 1 Of the 3000 species of snakes, about 500 belong to the 3 families of venomous snakes, Atr actaspididae, Elapidae and Viperidae. Estimated 15000 – 20000 people die each year from snake bite in India. 2 In tropical countries snake bite is occupational disease of farmers, plantation workers and hunters. In India after snake bite clinical manifestati ons are pain, oedema, bleeding at bite site. 3 The inpatient complaints are hypovolemic shock, bleeding diathesis, renal failure, sepsis. 4,5 The only specific treatment is Anti Snake Venom (A. S. V. In India most cases of renal injuries are caused by Rus sell’s viper and Saw scaled viper. 6,7 METHODS: Patients with history of snake bite with or without bite marks, bleeding diathesis or with prolonged clotting time or both. And observed for oliguria and high coloured urine to see renal injury. Period to b rought to hospital ( B elow 4 hours is ideal time early or late, tourniquet application and level of consciousness, and did the simple bed side test is 20 minute blood clot test and prothrombin time, platelet count. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases 35 cases are males and 15 cases are females, so common in males. Common symptoms are nausea, vomits, pain, swelling and paresthesia. Common signs are bleeding from bleeding site, gum bleeding, epistaxis, haemetemesis, malena. CONCLUSION: It is found more common in males. Common symptoms nausea, vomit, pain, swelling. Common sign are bleeding at bite site, gum bleeding, epistax i s, haemetemesis, malena, decreased urine output, giddiness and vertigo.

  3. Compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, F; De Capitani, E M; Hyslop, S; Mello, S M; Fernandes, C B; Bergo, F; Nascimento, F B P

    2014-07-01

    In order to report the outcome of a patient who developed compartment syndrome after South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation, confirmed by subfascial pressure measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 63-year-old male was admitted 1 h after being bitten on the right elbow by a "large" snake, which was not brought for identification. Physical and laboratory features upon admission revealed two fang marks, local tense swelling, paresthesia, intense local pain, hypertension, coagulopathy, and CK = 1530 U/L (RV bite revealed generalized myalgia, muscle weakness, palpebral ptosis, and severe rhabdomyolysis (CK = 126,160 U/L) compatible with envenoming by C. d. terrificus. The patient was then treated with crotalic antivenom (200 mL, intravenously), fluid replacement, and urine alkalinization. Twenty-four-hour post-bite MRI showed marked muscular edema in the anterior compartment of the right forearm, with a high subfascial pressure (40 mmHg) being detected 1 h later. ELISA of a blood sample obtained upon admission, before antivenom infusion, revealed a high serum concentration of C. d. terrificus venom. No fasciotomy was performed and the patient was discharged seven days later without sequelae. Snakebite by C. d. terrificus with subfascial venom injection may lead to increased intracompartmental pressure.

  4. Elevated compartment pressures from copperhead envenomation successfully treated with antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Boutsikaris, Amy; Clancy, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Copperhead envenomation causes local soft tissue effects; however, associated compartment syndrome is rare. We report a case of a 17-month-old with significantly elevated compartment pressures successfully treated with antivenin and supportive care. A 17-month-old girl sustained a copperhead bite to the foot and presented with circumferential edema, erythema, and ecchymosis of the foot and distal ankle. The patient had palpable pulses and was neurologically intact. Four vials of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab was initiated and additional doses were administered in an attempt to achieve local control. Within 10 h of presentation, the patient's edema extended to the groin, although sensation was maintained and pulses were documented by Doppler. Lower-extremity compartment pressures were measured and were most notable for an anterior pressure of 85 mm Hg, despite having received 12 vials of antivenin. Fasciotomy was deferred and the patient received two additional six-vial doses of antivenin to achieve local control. Compartment pressures improved with a 2.2-cm mean decrease in limb diameter within 48 h. Maintenance dosing was initiated and the patient ultimately received a total of 26 vials of antivenin. The patient did not develop significant coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. Swelling continued to improve with return of limb function. In this case, early and aggressive treatment with antivenin may have avoided invasive fasciotomy, and its use should be considered in patients with copperhead envenomation and significantly elevated compartment pressures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Delayed antivenom treatment for a patient after envenomation by Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P B; Leiva, J I; Ross, C P

    2000-01-01

    Bites by the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) are the most common cause of envenomation in Texas. We describe a patient who had delayed administration of antivenom after envenomation by C atrox. Because of an initial adverse response to a test dose, the patient had been unwilling to receive antivenom therapy. When compartment syndrome developed 52 hours after envenomation, however, the patient consented to antivenom therapy as an alternative to fasciotomy. We documented a decrease in compartment pressures and resolution of thrombocytopenia that was concomitant with antivenom administration.

  6. Acute renal failure following Bull ant mass envenomation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, L A; Hinkley, C J; Tatarczuch, L; Holloway, S A

    2004-01-01

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in a German Short Haired Pointer bitch and a Kelpie cross-bred dog following envenomation by Bull ants. Both dogs had been tethered over a Bull ant nest and had experienced mass envenomation. There was local reaction at the envenomation sites and each dog had experienced vomiting that was poorly controlled by symptomatic therapy. Intensive treatment of renal failure was successful in the German Short Haired Pointer and the bitch remains well 19 months after envenomation. The Kelpie cross-bred deteriorated despite intensive treatment and was euthanased 36 hours after presentation. Necropsy examination revealed haemorrhage and necrosis of the small intestine and myocardium, bilateral nephrosis with tubular necrosis, and patchy haemorrhage of the lung alveoli, pancreas and adrenal cortices. Electron microscopy revealed necrosis of the small intestine and hydropic swelling of proximal renal tubules with necrosis of medullary tubules.

  7. Serious envenomation by the Northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Callanan, V I; Hartwick, R F

    1980-01-12

    Serious envenomation of an adult pregnant woman by a box-jellyfish (Chironex flecteri) in North Queensland is reported. Quick thinking and resuscitation by bystanders which was followed by early hospital treatment resulted in a successful outcome both for mother and for fetus. A brief review of the historic background of box-jellyfish envenomation is given, and some specific problems concerning the management and prevention of envenomation from this unique animal are described. On-the-spot resuscitation takes absolute priority, and the advent of specific antivenom is a major advance. Avoidance of fetal stings in the future is possible by simple preventive measures. The role of the Surf Life Saving Association of Australia in the prevention and treatment of such problems is highlighted, and, as a result of recent research, possible changes in the management of box-jellyfish envenomations are predicted.

  8. Near fatal envenomation from the funnel-web spider in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, G J

    1997-08-01

    Children with significant envenomation require early first aid, resuscitation, and the administration of antivenom at the earliest possible time to survive. The case of a nine-month-old infant with life-threatening massive envenomation from the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) is presented. The infant was administered life-saving first aid (pressure immobilization bandage) and resuscitation measures prior to and during the administration of funnel-web-specific antivenom. The infant was discharged two days after the initial envenomation, without sequelae from the envenomation or antivenom. The survival of this infant is attributed to the immediate use of first aid, together with aggressive supportive measures and the administration of repeated doses of specific antivenom.

  9. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation.

  10. Management of respiratory failure in severe neuroparalytic snake envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen patients with severe neuroparalytic snake envenomation, resulting in acute type II respiratory failure, admitted to respiratory critical care unit for mechanical ventilation during one year period, were studied. Ventilatory requirements, amount of anti snake venom (ASV infused, period of neurological recovery and hospital survival were evaluated. All patients had severe manifestations such as ptosis, extraocular muscle paresis and limb weakness along with dyspnoea. Seven patients (50% had additional complaints of dysphagia and dysphonia. ASV was administered to all, with a median requirement of 900 ml. Mechanical ventilation was required for a median duration of 17 hours and all except one patient, who had suffered irreversible hypoxic cerebral injury prior to resuscitation, survived with complete neurological recovery. We conclude, that the timely institution of ventilatory support and anti-venom therapy in such patients, is associated with an excellent outcome.

  11. From Fangs to Pharmacology: The Future of Snakebite Envenoming Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Engmark, Mikael; Milbo, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    immunization procedures, and therefore present a number of drawbacks. Technological advances within biopharmaceutical development and medicinal chemistry could pave the way for rational drug design approaches against snake toxins. This could minimize the use of animals and bring forward more effective......The snake is the symbol of medicine due to its association with Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine, and so with good reasons. More than 725 species of venomous snakes have toxins specifically evolved to exert potent bioactivity in prey or victims, and snakebites constitute a public health hazard...... of high impact in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and parts of Oceania. Parenteral administration of antivenoms is the mainstay in snakebite envenoming therapy. However, despite well-demonstrated efficacy and safety of many antivenoms worldwide, they are still being produced by traditional animal...

  12. Neuromodulation of neuropathic pain syndrome induced by elapidae (cobra) envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretanski, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives.  This study aims to demonstrate the utility of spinal cord stimulation in a neuropathic pain syndrome and overall decline in health and functional independence following elapid envenomation in a morbidly obese, insulin-dependent diabetic. Materials and Methods.  A two-lead, 16-electrode constant-current, independently controlled system is placed in the mid-cervical spine. Results.  Noted were a improvement in overall health status with better glycemic control and return to work status in response to adequate pain control. Conclusions.  The case serves as a model for other orphan pain cases with a seemingly esoteric etiology and adds to the existing body of literature that spinal cord stimulation and neuromodulation, in general, has a wide-ranging applicability peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes.

  13. On the issue of taxonomical status of steppe viper (Vipera renardi in Right-bank Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Baybuz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on morphologic variability of the steppe viper in the Kirovograd region (Right-bank Ukraine are given firstly. Tentative estimation of the similaritylevel of the local population and the populations from the Left-bank Ukraine and the Crimea was carried out using methods of the multivariate statistics. Morphological data in line with the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis show that the population in the Kirovograd region belongs to widespread Eurasian species Vipera renardiand morphologically most close to the original populations of the lowland Crimea, Sivash and Forest-Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine. This could indicate the complicated history of the Right-bank Ukraine colonization by the steppe viper and possible influence of environmental conditions on the vipers’ morphology

  14. Probing the accelerating Universe with redshift-space distortions in VIPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the growth rate of structure at z=0.8. It has been obtained from the redshift-space distortions observed in the galaxy clustering pattern in the VIMOS Public Redshift survey (VIPERS) first data release. VIPERS is a large galaxy redshift survey probing the large-scale structure at 0.5 Universe, which has been poorly explored until now. We obtain σ8 = 0.47 +/- 0.08 at z = 0.8 that is consistent with the predictions of standard cosmological models based on Einstein gravity. This measurement alone is however not accurate enough to allow the detection of possible deviations from standard gravity.

  15. Lethal herpesvirosis in 16 captive horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): pathological and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoi, C; Gal, A F; Taulescu, M A; Palmieri, C; Catoi, A F

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Snake envenomations in northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Tinoco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of envenoming in Northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000 was evaluated. Reports from the Municipal Secretariat of Health of these counties were used. The results demonstrated that, from 1997 to 1999, there was a shortage of notification, and 40 cases of envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were registered. These cases were more common from February to October, and the lower limbs of male peasants were the mainly affected areas.

  17. Surgical vacuum-assisted closure for treatment of dramatic case of stonefish envenomation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandru Nistor; Olivier Giè; Paul Biegger; Cesare Fusetti; Stefano Lucchina

    2010-01-01

    Skin necrosis of the foot, oedema and lymphangitis from stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa) sting are complications well known for a long time and with potential long-term sequelae. Literature reports of stonefish envenomation give no specific reference on soft tissue management and surgical reconstruction. This is the first report describing a case of foot stonefish envenomation treated by vacuum-assisted closure therapy as an easy to use,accessible and simple adjuvant tool for management of large soft tissue necrosis.

  18. The Treatment of Black Widow Spider Envenomation with Antivenin Latrodectus Mactans: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Steven R. Offerman; Daubert, G. Patrick; Clark, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans) are found throughout the US. Though bites are relatively uncommon, they pose a significant health problem with over 2500 reported to American poison control centers annually. Black widow spider bites cause a characteristic envenomation syndrome consisting of severe pain, muscle cramping, abdominal pain, and back pain. The significant pain associated with envenomation is often refractory to traditional analgesics. Antivenom (Antivenin Latrodectus macta...

  19. Acute myocardial injury caused by Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, G K; Warner, G

    2003-12-01

    A 67-year-old female suffered envenoming by a Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), complicated by ST elevation and elevated troponin levels consistent with an acute myocardial injury. She was treated primarily with funnel-web spider antivenom, admission to intensive care and initial respiratory support for acute pulmonary oedema. The mechanism by which funnel-web spider envenomation caused myocardial injury is unclear but follow-up nuclear studies in the patient demonstrated that she had minimal atherosclerotic disease.

  20. ViPEr: A Lexicon-Grammar of European Portuguese Verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the current state of ViPEr, the Lexicon-Grammar of European Portuguese verbs, a database with distributional, syntactic and semantic properties of the most frequently occurring verbs. The classification follows the theoretical framework of the Lexicon-Grammar. The paper presents the main linguistic criteria that were adopted in the classification of 5052 frequently occurring verbs, which yield 6,059 different constructions or word senses. The paper ...

  1. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  2. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  3. Experimental Bothrops atrox envenomation: Efficacy of antivenom therapy and the combination of Bothrops antivenom with dexamethasone

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Isabelle Valle; Chalkidis, Hipocrates de Menezes; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Sano-Martins, Ida Sigueko; Gonçalves, Luis Roberto de Camargo

    2017-01-01

    Bothrops atrox snakes are the leading cause of snake bites in Northern Brazil. The venom of this snake is not included in the antigen pool used to obtain the Bothrops antivenom. There are discrepancies in reports on the effectiveness of this antivenom to treat victims bitten by B. atrox snakes. However, these studies were performed using a pre-incubation of the venom with the antivenom and, thus, did not simulate a true case of envenomation treatment. In addition, the local lesions induced by Bothrops venoms are not well resolved by antivenom therapy. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the Bothrops antivenom in treating the signs and symptoms caused by B. atrox venom in mice and evaluated whether the combination of dexamethasone and antivenom therapy enhanced the healing of local lesions induced by this envenomation. In animals that were administered the antivenom 10 minutes after the envenomation, we observed an important reduction of edema, dermonecrosis, and myonecrosis. When the antivenom was given 45 minutes after the envenomation, the edema and myonecrosis were reduced, and the fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were restored. The groups treated with the combination of antivenom and dexamethasone had an enhanced decrease in edema and a faster recovery of the damaged skeletal muscle. Our results show that Bothrops antivenom effectively treats the envenomation caused by Bothrops atrox and that the use of dexamethasone as an adjunct to the antivenom therapy could be useful to improve the treatment of local symptoms observed in envenomation caused by Bothrops snakes. PMID:28306718

  4. The emerging syndrome of envenoming by the New Guinea small-eyed snake Micropechis ikaheka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, D A; Hudson, B J; Lalloo, D G; Trevett, A J; Whitehead, P; Bamler, P R; Ranaivoson, M; Wiyono, A; Richie, T L; Fryauff, D J; O'Shea, M T; Richards, A M; Theakston, R D

    1996-07-01

    The New Guinea small-eyed or ikaheka snake, Micropechis ikaheka, which occurs throughout New Guinea and some adjacent islands, is feared by the indigenes. The first proven human fatality was in the 1950s and this species has since been implicated in many other cases of severe and fatal envenoming. Reliable attribution of envenoming to this species in victims unable to capture or kill the snake recently became possible by the use of enzyme immunoassay. Eleven cases of proven envenoming by M. ikaheka, with two fatalities, were identified in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya. Five patients showed no clinical signs of envenoming. The other six patients showed symptoms typical of envenoming by other Australasian elapids: mild local swelling, local lymphadenopathy, neurotoxicity, generalized myalgia, spontaneous systemic bleeding, incoagulable blood and passage of dark urine (haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria). Two patients developed hypotension and two died of respiratory paralysis 19 and 38 h after being bitten. In vitro studies indicate that the venom is rich in phospholipase A2, is indirectly haemolytic, anticoagulant and inhibits platelets, but is not procoagulant or fibrinolytic. It shows predominantly post-synaptic neurotoxic and myotoxic activity. Anecdotally, Commonwealth Serum Laboratories' (CSL) death adder antivenom has proved ineffective whereas CSL polyvalent antivenom may be beneficial. Anticholinesterase drugs might prove effective in improving neuromuscular transmission and should be tested in patients with neurotoxic envenoming.

  5. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  6. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF MEDICALLY IMPORTANT VIPERS OF PAKISTAN INFERRED FROM CYTOCHROME B SEQUENCES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Feroze, S.A. Malik and W. C. Kilpatrick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study principally comprises the phylogenetic comparison of the three medically important vipers (Echis carinatus sochureki, Daboia russelii russelii and Eristicophis macmahoni based on their molecular studies. In Pakistan, No comprehensive phylogenetic studies have so far been undertaken to collect molecular information by deciphering the cytochrome b gene (complete or partial for the three species of interest. Keeping in mind the significance and nuisance of these deadly vipers of Pakistan, a molecular phylogeny was elaborated by successfully translating the cytochrome b gene sequence data for the three taxa of interest. Snakes for the said studies were collected through extensive field surveys conducted in Central Punjab and Chagai Desert of Pakistan from 2004 to 2006. The genetic data obtained werefurther elucidated statistically through maximum parsimony and bootstrap analysis for knowing the probable relationships among the species of interest. A comprehensive resolution of their phylogeny should be brought about for medical reasons as these lethal vipers are significant sources of snakebite accidents in many urban and rural areas of Pakistan

  7. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  8. VIPER: a visualisation tool for exploring inheritance inconsistencies in genotyped pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pedigree genotype datasets are used for analysing genetic inheritance and to map genetic markers and traits. Such datasets consist of hundreds of related animals genotyped for thousands of genetic markers and invariably contain multiple errors in both the pedigree structure and in the associated individual genotype data. These errors manifest as apparent inheritance inconsistencies in the pedigree, and invalidate analyses of marker inheritance patterns across the dataset. Cleaning raw datasets of bad data points (incorrect pedigree relationships, unreliable marker assays, suspect samples, bad genotype results etc.) requires expert exploration of the patterns of exposed inconsistencies in the context of the inheritance pedigree. In order to assist this process we are developing VIPER (Visual Pedigree Explorer), a software tool that integrates an inheritance-checking algorithm with a novel space-efficient pedigree visualisation, so that reported inheritance inconsistencies are overlaid on an interactive, navigable representation of the pedigree structure. Methods and results This paper describes an evaluation of how VIPER displays the different scales and types of dataset that occur experimentally, with a description of how VIPER's display interface and functionality meet the challenges presented by such data. We examine a range of possible error types found in real and simulated pedigree genotype datasets, demonstrating how these errors are exposed and explored using the VIPER interface and we evaluate the utility and usability of the interface to the domain expert. Evaluation was performed as a two stage process with the assistance of domain experts (geneticists). The initial evaluation drove the iterative implementation of further features in the software prototype, as required by the users, prior to a final functional evaluation of the pedigree display for exploring the various error types, data scales and structures. Conclusions The VIPER display was

  9. Investigations on the role of insulin and scorpion antivenom in scorpion envenoming syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radha Krishna Murthy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardiopathy in alloxan treated experimental dogs and rabbits was induced by subcutaneous (SQ injection of scorpion venom from Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Envenoming resulted in an initial transient hypertension (180-320 mm Hg. followed by hypotension. Simultaneous administration of venom and species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV prevented hypertension and hypotension. Hypotension did not occur when SAV was given 60 min after envenoming. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, platelet count, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG, and glutathione levels were increased 60 and 90 min after envenoming. Total white blood cell (WBC count was reduced 60 min and increased 90 min after envenoming. Simultaneous administration of venom and SAV did not alter Hb, MCHC, and packed cell volume (PCV levels, or ECG, and cardiovascular, biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal changes. Hematological parameters were reversed when SAV was given 30 and 60 min after envenoming. PCV, Hb, and MCHC values returned to normal 120 min after SAV. Alloxan-treated dogs showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon, cortisol levels; reduced glycogen content of liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles; and reduced insulin levels and insulin/ glucagon ratio (I/G ratio. Envenoming in the alloxan pre-treated dogs further increased these levels and reduced tissue glycogen content, insulin levels, and I/G ratio. Administration of 4 U of insulin to alloxan pre-treated envenomed rabbits caused a biochemical and clinical improvement and increased glycogen content of all tissues in comparison with the values from those administered with SAV to alloxan pre-treated envenomed animals. SAV administration to envenomed alloxan pre-treated rabbits did not cause clinical or

  10. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  11. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  12. Development of VIPER: a simulator for assessing vision performance of warfighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Jide; Thompson, Roger; Moyer, Steve; Mueller, Gregory; Williams, Tim; Nguyen, Hung-Quang; Espinola, Richard L.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Rivers, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    Background: When evaluating vision, it is important to assess not just the ability to read letters on a vision chart, but also how well one sees in real life scenarios. As part of the Warfighter Refractive Eye Surgery Program (WRESP), visual outcomes are assessed before and after refractive surgery. A Warfighter's ability to read signs and detect and identify objects is crucial, not only when deployed in a military setting, but also in their civilian lives. Objective: VIPER, a VIsion PERformance simulator was envisioned as actual video-based simulated driving to test warfighters' functional vision under realistic conditions. Designed to use interactive video image controlled environments at daytime, dusk, night, and with thermal imaging vision, it simulates the experience of viewing and identifying road signs and other objects while driving. We hypothesize that VIPER will facilitate efficient and quantifiable assessment of changes in vision and measurement of functional military performance. Study Design: Video images were recorded on an isolated 1.1 mile stretch of road with separate target sets of six simulated road signs and six objects of military interest, separately. The video footage were integrated with customdesigned C++ based software that presented the simulated drive to an observer on a computer monitor at 10, 20 or 30 miles/hour. VIPER permits the observer to indicate when a target is seen and when it is identified. Distances at which the observer recognizes and identifies targets are automatically logged. Errors in recognition and identification are also recorded. This first report describes VIPER's development and a preliminary study to establish a baseline for its performance. In the study, nine soldiers viewed simulations at 10 miles/hour and 30 miles/hour, run in randomized order for each participant seated at 36 inches from the monitor. Relevance: Ultimately, patients are interested in how their vision will affect their ability to perform daily

  13. ENZYMATIC CHANGES IN SNAKE ENVENOMATION- AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Kapoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Snakes are the most feared and the most worshipped living creatures on the earth. Snakes are called venomous when envenomation or human fatalities after their bite are known. Snakebite is an acute medical emergency faced by temperate and tropical regions with heavy rainfall and humid climate. The specific therapy for snakebite in India is still polyvalent ASV and clinical practice ASV is not recommended until the victim of snakebite presents either with the evidence of bite by a poisonous snake such as definite fang marks, swelling or pain at the bite site or with clinical or laboratory evidence of envenomation such as local and systemic bleeding. In some cases, institution of ASV may also be initiated on the identification of offending snake brought by the patient or attendants, but most of these are subjective matters and subject to fallacies. Also, that out of polyvalent and monovalent ASV available, since it is monovalent ASV, which is desirable due to its less side effects and more effectiveness, but its use warrants the identification of snake, which is practically not possible in every case and/or on the objective evidence of peripheral neurological signs and symptoms and haematological alterations, which may not be dependable in many cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Snake envenomation is in fact a multifactorial stress phenomenon, which produces altered physiological states including death and one of the consequences of the stress phenomenon is generation of several lysosomal enzymes and formation of free radicals. Extensive data search on Medline has failed to show study of this type in any part of the world, so this study being taken up as a preliminary attempt to evaluate the pattern of enzymatic changes in snake envenomation. RESULTS The patients included in the study were be those coming to the Emergency Department of Government Medical College, Jammu, bitten by poisonous snakes during the period May 2003 to April 2004. The

  14. New first-aid measures for envenomation: with special reference to bites by the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, S K; Duncan, A W

    1980-04-19

    The advantages of the pressure/immobilization technique as the first-aid measure for envenomation are discussed. The use of arterial tourniquets is no longer recommended in the management of any type of envenomation in Australia.

  15. Retrospective study of snake envenomation in 155 dogs from the Onderstepoort area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, signalment, haematological and biochemical changes, therapy, and outcome of dogs presented to the Outpatients section of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for confirmed snake envenomation. Three hundred and seventy-six records of dogs presented for snake envenomation from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed and 155 were selected on the basis of there being a positively identified snake. The 2 most commonly encountered snake envenomations in dogs were puff-adders (Bitis arietans and snouted cobras (Naja annulifera annulifera. The majority of cases (56 % occurred in the autumn (March to May, with most being bitten by puff-adders. Dogs were 3 to 168 months old with a median of 36 months.No sex predilection was identified. Ten per cent of cases died because of the snake envenomation. Fifty-seven per cent and 43 % of snakebites were puff-adders and cobras, respectively. There was no difference in mortality between the 2 groups of snakes. Of the cobras 60%were the snouted cobra, 14 % Mozambique spitting cobra, and 24 % rhinkals. Swelling in the area of the bite, usually the face and forequarters, was the primary clinical abnormality. Significant haematological findings were leukocytosis (median 17.3 × 109/ℓ ; range 0.4-44, neutrophilia (median 13.6×109/ℓ ; range 0.3-39.9, band neutrophilia (median 0.4×109/ℓ ; range 0-5.32, and thrombocytopaenia (median 124 × 109/ℓ ; range 3-555. Dogs envenomated by a puff-adder and Mozambique spitting cobra had a greater degree of thrombocytopaenia: median of 68 and 66, respectively, versus 243 for the cobra group. The most commonly used treatments were intravenous fluids, antibiotics and glucocorticoids. Thirty-eight dogs were treated with polyvalent antiserum: 9 for puff-adder envenomation and 29 for cobra envenomation. Only 2 of the dogs that received antisera died, both of them of cobra envenomation. The study concluded

  16. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to severe wasp envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyachen, Abraham M; Abdulla, Shanavas; Anwarsha, Rifzana Fathima; Kumar, Bhavya S

    2015-01-01

    Wasp sting is not an uncommon incident. Around 56% to 94% of the population is stung at least once in their lifetime by a member of the order Hymenoptera which includes wasps, bees, and ants. The response to a wasp sting may vary from mild local reaction to severe systemic and anaphylactic reactions. The clinical picture and mortality rate tend to be more severe in adults compared to children. We present a 32-year-old agricultural worker who was bitten by multiple wasps while on a coconut tree. In spite of the heavy load of venom due to the multiple bites, the patient did not develop anaphylaxis. However, a delayed reaction did occur within 48 h in the form of severe multi-organ dysfunction. There was significant improvement by around 2 weeks; but it took another 6 months for the serum creatinine to normalize. This case highlights the occupational risk of Hymenoptera envenomation, the life-threatening complications that may follow and which may even be delayed as was the case with this patient, and the value of emergency care and intensive management which can result in a favorable clinical outcome.

  17. A pilot study of occupational envenomations in North American zoos and aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Rais; Clark, Rick; Shah, Nilofar

    2008-11-01

    To characterize occupational envenomations from exotic and native creatures, we surveyed North American zoos and aquaria. Survey questionnaires were mailed to curators at 216 zoos/aquaria which are accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) and listed on the AZA website. Reptile curators were asked to complete the zoo surveys. The questions addressed the number and types of bites, availability of antivenom (AV) on the premises, and sources of general information about envenoming. Responses were kept anonymous. A total of 216 surveys were mailed. The response rate was 58% for this pilot research project. Twenty-six (21%) of responding institutions replied that they had at least one incident of bite from a venomous species in the last 10 years. Species of animals included a variety of native and exotic terrestrial and marine species. There were no deaths or serious outcomes reported as complications of these incidents. Less than one-third of responding institutions reported having AVs on-site for medical use in case of envenomations. A variety of information sources, including internally developed protocols and poison center resources, were reported as sources of envenoming information for respondents. Clinicians and toxicologists should be prepared to care for cases of envenomations from exotic zoo or aquarium species such as the ones identified in this survey in their practice regions.

  18. Appropriate antivenom doses for six types of envenomations caused by snakes in taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Chieh-Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six of the 15 species of venomous snakes found in Taiwan are responsible for most of the clinically significant envenomations in the country. These species are: Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, Naja atra, Bungarus multicinctus, Deinagkistrodon acutus and Daboia russelii siamensis, which together can be subdivided into three groups based on their venom effects. Primary treatment consists of rapid administration of appropriate antivenoms. The present study aimed to identify a proper dose of antivenom for each snake group as well as to describe hemorrhagic, neurotoxic, and mixed effects of their venoms. A retrospective chart review identified 72 snakebite cases referred to an emergency department. Data on epidemiology, examination findings, snake identification, treatment, antivenom dose and complications were collected. After excluding 14 patients, data from 58 victims were analyzed. Most studied cases were male (86%. Significantly higher doses of antivenom were administered against neurotoxic envenomations (mean dose: three vials compared with the other two (p < 0.05. Moreover, patients affected by neurotoxic bites were more likely to develop blurred vision and other complications (p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that neurotoxic envenomation was a risk factor for complications (OR: 8.84, 95% CI: 1.06-73.73. Neurotoxic envenomations and complication occurrence were positively correlated with antivenom dosage. In conclusion, patients affected by neurotoxic envenomations received higher doses of antivenom than others whereas incidence of complications was associated with higher antivenom doses.

  19. Sixteen years of severe Tiger snake (Notechis) envenoming in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scop, J; Little, M; Jelinek, G A; Daly, F F S

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to describe the characteristics, clinical course, management and outcome of patients presenting to Perth teaching hospitals after envenoming by Tiger snakes. We undertook a chart review from six Perth teaching hospitals over a 16 year period from 1990 to 2005. Data were collected by a trained investigator using a preformatted data abstraction tool. We included patients bitten in the appropriate geographical area, with defibrination coagulopathy and positive Venom Detection Kit result for Tiger snake or response to specific antivenom. Of 381 charts reviewed, 23 patients were envenomed by a Tiger snake. The mean age was 36 years, 83% were male and all were bitten on a limb. First aid was applied poorly and all patients were symptomatic on presentation. Six patients developed rhabdomyolysis, one renal failure, four clinical bleeding, three neurotoxicity, one non-fatal respiratory arrest and one fatal cardiac arrest. All patients received antivenom, 13 received adrenaline premedication, with two mild allergic reactions developing in non-premedicated patients. The average dose of antivenom was four ampoules. Mean hospital stay was 2.6 days. This is the largest series of Tiger snake envenoming reported in Australia. Only one patient of 23 (4%) died, despite all patients being significantly envenomed. With rapid antivenom treatment and modem emergency and intensive care management, most patients envenomed by Tiger snakes survive.

  20. Serological, biochemical and enzymatic alterations in rodents after experimental envenomation with Hadruroides lunatus scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costal-Oliveira, F; Guerra-Duarte, C; Castro, K L P; Tintaya, B; Bonilla, C; Silva, W; Yarlequé, A; Fujiwara, R; Melo, M M; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-09-01

    Toxic effects of Peruvian Hadruroides lunatus scorpion venom on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum of Wistar rats and Swiss mice were determined after experimental envenomation. An increase in enzymatic activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and levels of serum protein and albumin were observed while a decrease in creatinine level in serum was perceived after 30 min of envenomation. No alterations in urea levels and in kidney histology were detected in the envenomed rats. The global leukocytes count was diminished, with decrease in lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils levels in the bloodstream, while no alterations were found in hematological parameters of red series in rats injected with H. lunatus venom. IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, INF-γ, TNF, IL-17A and IL-10 levels were evaluated 0.5, 3 and 6 h after experimental envenomation of mice with H. lunatus venom. From all the analyzed cytokines, only IL-6 showed an increase in serum levels. Taken together, these results point out that envenomation by H. lunatus can impair hematological and immunological parameters and therefore might be monitored in accidents involving this species.

  1. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular do...

  2. VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The distinct build-up of dense and normal massive passive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, A; Scodeggio, M; Krywult, J; De Lucia, G; Guzzo, L; Garilli, B; Grannet, B R; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Haines, C; Hawken, A; Iovino, A; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Zamorani, G; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L

    2016-01-01

    We use the final data from the VIPERS redshift survey to extract an unparalleled sample of more than 2000 massive M > 10^11 M_sun passive galaxies (MPGs) at redshift 0.5 2000 M_sun pc^-2) MPGs show a constant comoving number density over this redshift range, whilst this increases by a factor ~ 4 for the least dense objects, defined as having Sigma 10^11 M_sun objects). Such systems observed at z ~ 1 in VIPERS, therefore, represent the most plausible progenitors of the subsequent emerging class of larger MPGs.

  3. Psychosis in secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Ratnakaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism can present with psychiatric symptoms. We report a unique case of psychosis in clear consciousness in a case of hypopituitarism due to the secondary empty sella syndrome following a Russell's viper bite which was untreated and presented with psychotic symptoms for past 13 years following the snake bite. After the diagnosis of psychosis due to hypopituitarism was made, the patient was treated with levothyroxine and prednisolone supplements and his psychotic symptoms subsided without any psychotropic drugs. Vasculotoxic snake bites can cause hypopituitarism and can present with psychosis. Further research will be needed into the prevalence of this phenomenon.

  4. Herpes labialis in patients with Russell's viper bite and acute kidney injury: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikhom, Rajesh; Sapam, Ranjeeta; Patil, Krishna; Jadhav, Jaya Prada; Sircar, Dipankar; Roychowdhury, Arpita; Dasgupta, Sanjay; Pandey, Rajendra

    2011-06-01

    Snake bite is an important health hazard in tropical countries and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes labialis is a common ailment caused by the Herpes simplex virus. There is no published data showing any association between the snake bite and development of Herpes labialis. Here, we present a series of patients who developed Herpes labialis after Russell's viper bite and had acute kidney injury. We attempted to find whether snake bite is an immunosuppressed state and whether it could have pre-disposed the patients to the development of these lesions.

  5. Infant death after nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) bite in Croatia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšić, Boris; Culić, Viktor; Stričević, Luka; Brizić, Ivica; Poljak, Nikola K; Tadić, Zoran

    2010-12-01

    A case of a 45-day-old male infant, bitten on the neck by nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes), is reported. This episode occurred while the baby was on a picnic with his parents in a hill near a town in southern Croatia. In spite of immediate arrival at hospital, where antivenom was administrated and all the necessary treatment measures were carried out, the infant died 6 h following the bite. The cause of death was severe and progressive hyperkalaemia, massive intravascular haemolysis, severe coagulopathy and myocardial dysfunction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An outbreak of Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis - Linnaeus, 1758 envenoming in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis (Linnaeus, 1758, are cnidarians capable of discharging intracellular organelles filled with venom, resulting in severe envenomation in humans. Methods We report the clinical and therapeutic aspects of 331 accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war in an outbreak on the coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results The clinical manifestations of envenomation were rare and mild and mostly local, systemic reactions; there was a low rate of late complications. Conclusions The consequences of envenomation were of moderate severity, and first aid measures were effective in controlling the pain. Outbreaks of accidents involving Portuguese man-of-war occur periodically in the area without a clear explanation.

  7. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  8. The treatment of black widow spider envenomation with antivenin latrodectus mactans: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Steven R; Daubert, G Patrick; Clark, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans) are found throughout the US. Though bites are relatively uncommon, they pose a significant health problem with over 2500 reported to American poison control centers annually. Black widow spider bites cause a characteristic envenomation syndrome consisting of severe pain, muscle cramping, abdominal pain, and back pain. The significant pain associated with envenomation is often refractory to traditional analgesics. Antivenom (Antivenin Latrodectus mactans) is available and effective, but is often withheld because of a fear of acute hypersensitivity reactions. We report four cases of symptomatic black widow spider envenomation. One of the reported cases was managed without antivenom, and, in contrast, three were treated successfully with Antivenin Latrodectus mactans. We believe that these cases demonstrate safe and effective use of black widow antivenom. This article presents the rationale for use of antivenom in these cases, and a nonsystematic review of the pertinent literature.

  9. The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jamie; Carrette, Teresa; Cullen, Paul; Little, Mark; Mulcahy, Richard F; Pereira, Peter L

    2002-10-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate whether the application of pressure results in additional release of venom from naturally discharged, vinegar soaked nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. The results show that large quantities of venom are expressed with the application of pressures similar to that applied by compression immobilization bandages. The volume of venom expressed by this pressure was similar to the quantity expressed upon initial natural discharge of the nematocysts. The current recommended practice of applying PIB to cubozoan stings might worsen the envenomation. As the existing data now show that PIB may be detrimental to victims envenomed by cubozoans, we suggest that the current practice of the use of PIB in cubozoan envenomings be discarded until there is direct experimental evidence to support its use.

  10. When snakes bite: the management of North American Crotalinae snake envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Jenny; Baker, Stephanie N; Weant, Kyle A

    2011-01-01

    There are more than 120 species of snakes indigenous to the United States, 25 of which are venomous. Although snake envenomation carries a relatively low risk of mortality in the United States, it can result in significant morbidity if left untreated. The venom of Crotalinae snakes contains a complex mixture of enzymatic proteins with various clinical implications. Of these complications, the most significant are consumptive coagulopathy, compartment syndrome, and hypovolemic shock. The development of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenin (CroFab) has greatly changed the approach to snake envenomation. Nevertheless, multiple factors complicate its use and the overall management of this clinical presentation. The intent of this review is to discuss relevant management issues associated with Crotalinae envenomation in the emergency department.

  11. Death adder envenoming causes neurotoxicity not reversed by antivenom--Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I Johnston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Death adders (Acanthophis spp are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Definite death adder bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project (ASP as defined by expert identification or detection of death adder venom in blood. Clinical effects and laboratory results were collected prospectively, including the time course of neurotoxicity and response to treatment. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure venom concentrations. Twenty nine patients had definite death adder bites; median age 45 yr (5-74 yr; 25 were male. Envenoming occurred in 14 patients. Two further patients had allergic reactions without envenoming, both snake handlers with previous death adder bites. Of 14 envenomed patients, 12 developed neurotoxicity characterised by ptosis (12, diplopia (9, bulbar weakness (7, intercostal muscle weakness (2 and limb weakness (2. Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for two patients for 17 and 83 hours. The median time to onset of neurotoxicity was 4 hours (0.5-15.5 hr. One patient bitten by a northern death adder developed myotoxicity and one patient only developed systemic symptoms without neurotoxicity. No patient developed venom induced consumption coagulopathy. Antivenom was administered to 13 patients, all receiving one vial initially. The median time for resolution of neurotoxicity post-antivenom was 21 hours (5-168. The median peak venom concentration in 13 envenomed patients with blood samples was 22 ng/mL (4.4-245 ng/mL. In eight patients where post-antivenom bloods were available, no venom was detected after one vial of antivenom. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Death adder envenoming is characterised by neurotoxicity, which is mild in most cases. One vial of death adder antivenom was sufficient to bind all circulating venom

  12. Death Adder Envenoming Causes Neurotoxicity Not Reversed by Antivenom - Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher I.; O'Leary, Margaret A.; Brown, Simon G. A.; Currie, Bart J.; Halkidis, Lambros; Whitaker, Richard; Close, Benjamin; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Death adders (Acanthophis spp) are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings Definite death adder bites were recruited from the Australian Snakebite Project (ASP) as defined by expert identification or detection of death adder venom in blood. Clinical effects and laboratory results were collected prospectively, including the time course of neurotoxicity and response to treatment. Enzyme immunoassay was used to measure venom concentrations. Twenty nine patients had definite death adder bites; median age 45 yr (5–74 yr); 25 were male. Envenoming occurred in 14 patients. Two further patients had allergic reactions without envenoming, both snake handlers with previous death adder bites. Of 14 envenomed patients, 12 developed neurotoxicity characterised by ptosis (12), diplopia (9), bulbar weakness (7), intercostal muscle weakness (2) and limb weakness (2). Intubation and mechanical ventilation were required for two patients for 17 and 83 hours. The median time to onset of neurotoxicity was 4 hours (0.5–15.5 hr). One patient bitten by a northern death adder developed myotoxicity and one patient only developed systemic symptoms without neurotoxicity. No patient developed venom induced consumption coagulopathy. Antivenom was administered to 13 patients, all receiving one vial initially. The median time for resolution of neurotoxicity post-antivenom was 21 hours (5–168). The median peak venom concentration in 13 envenomed patients with blood samples was 22 ng/mL (4.4–245 ng/mL). In eight patients where post-antivenom bloods were available, no venom was detected after one vial of antivenom. Conclusions/Significance Death adder envenoming is characterised by neurotoxicity, which is mild in most cases. One vial of death adder antivenom was sufficient to bind all circulating venom. The

  13. Pediatric electrocardiograph abnormalities following Centruroides limpidus tecomanus scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, P; Chowell, G; Ceja, G; D'Auria, T C; Lloyd, R C; Castillo-Chavez, C

    2005-01-01

    Scorpionism is an endemic public health problem in Mexico [Hoffmann, C.C., 1936. La distribucion geografica de los alacranes peligrosos en la Republica Mexicana. Bol. Inst. Hygiene Mex. 2, 321; Hoffmann, C.C., Nieto, D.R., 1939. Segunda contribucion al conocimiento de los alacranes mexicanos. Anal. Inst. Biol. 10, 83-92; Mazzoti, L., Bravo-Becherelle, M.A., 1963. Scorpionism in the Mexican Republic. In: Keegan, H.L., McFarlane, W.V. (Eds.), Venomous and Poissonous Animals and Noxious Plants of the Pacific Area. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 119-131; Monroy-Velasco, J., 1961. Alacranes venenosos de Mexico. Rev. Mex. Cien. Med. Biol., Mex. 1, 1-23; Diaz-Najera, A., 1975. Listas y datos de distribucion geografica de los alacranes de Mexico. Rev. Inv. Salud. Publica. (Mex.) 35, 1; Velasco-Castrejon, O., Lara-Aguilera, R., Alatorre, H., 1976. Aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos de la picadura de alacran en una area hiperendemica. Rev. Inv. Salud Publica. (Mex.) 36, 93-103; Dehesa-Davila, M., Possani, L.D., 1994. Scorpionism and serotherapy in Mexico. Toxicon 32 (9), 1015-1018]. In this prospective study, we assess cardiovascular disorders in children via electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings following envenomation by scorpion species Centruroides limpidus tecomanus found in the state of Colima, Mexico. We analyzed 113 cases between the ages of 5 and 14 years. Among the most frequent symptoms presented included local pain (99.1%) and paresthesia (75.2%), pruritus (36.3%), sialorrhoea (35.4%), and nystagmus (24.8%). Cardiovascular disorders were observed in 39.8% of cases, 71% of which were rhythm abnormalities. We find a significant association between the frequency of ECG alterations and age, whereby 8-9-year-old children are more likely to experience ECG alterations when compared with other tested age groups.

  14. Toxicity of venoms from vipers of Pelias group to crickets Gryllus assimilis and its relation to snake entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2007-06-01

    The existing data indicate that snake venom is most toxic towards the natural vertebrate preys. Several species of snake include arthropods in their food. However, there is no available data on the toxicity of venom from entomophagous snakes towards their prey. We have studied the toxicity of venom from vipers of Pelias group towards crickets Gryllus assimilis. The Pelias group includes several closely related viper species inhabiting mainly the South European part of Russia, and they differ in their feeding preferences. Snakes from the Vipera renardi, Vipera lotievi, Vipera kaznakovi, and Vipera orlovi species feed on wide range of animals including insects, whereas snakes from Vipera berus and Vipera nikolskii species do not include insects in their diet. We have found that the venom from vipers that include insects in their diet possesses greater toxicity towards crickets. The greatest toxicity was observed for the venom from V. lotievi, which displays a preference for insects in its diet. Therefore, based on our data, we suggest that the viper entomophagy is not a result of behavior plasticity, but is probably determined at a genetic level.

  15. Structural and Pharmacological Comparison of Daboiatoxin from Badoia russelli siamensis with Viperotoxing F and Vipoxin from Other Vipers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopolan,G.; Thwin, M.; Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Swaminathan, K.

    2007-01-01

    Russell's viper (Vipera russelli, also known as Daboia russelli) is one of the major causes of fatal snakebites. To date, five Daboia russelli subspecies have been recognized. Daboiatoxin (DbTx) is the main lethal phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) toxin in the venom of D. russelli siamensis (Myanmar viper) and has strong neurotoxic, myotoxic and cytotoxic activities. DbTx and its homologous neurotoxins viperotoxin F from D. russelli formosensis (Taiwan viper) and vipoxin from the Bulgarian sand viper V. ammodytes meridionalis consist of complexes between a nontoxic acidic PLA2 protein and an enzymatically active basic PLA2. DbTx and viperotoxin F are presynaptic toxins, while vipoxin is postsynaptic. The two chains of DbTx have been separated and their PLA2 enzymatic activity has been measured using the secretory PLA2 assay kit. The enzymatic activity of DbTx chain B is reduced by 30% of its original activity by chain A in a unimolar ratio, thus indicating that DbTx chain A acts as an inhibitor. The lethal activity of the two chains has also been studied in male albino mice and chain A is less lethal than chain B. The crystal structure of DbTx has also been determined and its structural details are compared with those of the two homologues. Furthermore, an attempt is made to correlate the sequence and structural determinants of these toxins with their enzymatic activities and their pharmacological effects.

  16. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A Support Vector Machine classification of galaxies, stars and AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, K; Pollo, A; Fritz, A; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Iovino, A; Granett, B R; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; De Lucia, G; de la Torre, S; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Paioro, L; Polletta, M; Schlagenhaufer, H; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Burden, A; Di Porto, C; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Nichol, R C; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and we apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u*, g', r', i') and NIR data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier for identifying stars, AGNs and galaxies improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM for classifying stars, AGNs and galaxies, and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We train the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown a 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97 for stars, and 95 for AGNs ...

  17. Evolutionary trajectories of snake genes and genomes revealed by comparative analyses of five-pacer viper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Wang, Zong-ji; Li, Qi-ye; Lian, Jin-ming; Zhou, Yang; Lu, Bing-zheng; Jin, Li-jun; Qiu, Peng-xin; Zhang, Pei; Zhu, Wen-bo; Wen, Bo; Huang, Yi-jun; Lin, Zhi-long; Qiu, Bi-tao; Su, Xing-wen; Yang, Huan-ming; Zhang, Guo-jie; Yan, Guang-mei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper, Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes. We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements (TEs), developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes. We detect signatures of adaptive evolution in olfactory, venom and thermal-sensing genes and also functional degeneration of genes associated with vision and hearing. Lineage-specific relaxation of functional constraints on respective Hox and Tbx limb-patterning genes supports fossil evidence for a successive loss of forelimbs then hindlimbs during snake evolution. Finally, we infer that the ZW sex chromosome pair had undergone at least three recombination suppression events in the ancestor of advanced snakes. These results altogether forge a framework for our deep understanding into snakes' history of molecular evolution. PMID:27708285

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Siudek, M; Scodeggio, M; Garilli, B; Pollo, A; Haines, C P; Fritz, A; Bolzonella, M; de la Torre, S; Granett, B R; Guzzo, L; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Marchetti, A; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Ilbert, O; Gargiulo, A; Moscardini, L; Takeuchi, T T; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We extracted from the VIPERS survey a sample of passive galaxies in the redshift range 0.4

  19. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...

  20. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). A support vector machine classification of galaxies, stars, and AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, K.; Solarz, A.; Pollo, A.; Fritz, A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Iovino, A.; Granett, B. R.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive method for classifying sources in large sky surveys and to apply the techniques to the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Using the optical (u∗,g',r',i') and near-infrared (NIR) data (z', Ks), we develop a classifier, based on broad-band photometry, for identifying stars, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies, thereby improving the purity of the VIPERS sample. Methods: Support vector machine (SVM) supervised learning algorithms allow the automatic classification of objects into two or more classes based on a multidimensional parameter space. In this work, we tailored the SVM to classifying stars, AGNs, and galaxies and applied this classification to the VIPERS data. We trained the SVM using spectroscopically confirmed sources from the VIPERS and VVDS surveys. Results: We tested two SVM classifiers and concluded that including NIR data can significantly improve the efficiency of the classifier. The self-check of the best optical + NIR classifier has shown 97% accuracy in the classification of galaxies, 97% for stars, and 95% for AGNs in the 5-dimensional colour space. In the test of VIPERS sources with 99% redshift confidence, the classifier gives an accuracy equal to 94% for galaxies, 93% for stars, and 82% for AGNs. The method was applied to sources with low-quality spectra to verify their classification, hence increasing the security of measurements for almost 4900 objects. Conclusions: We conclude that the SVM algorithm trained on a carefully selected sample of galaxies, AGNs, and stars outperforms simple colour-colour selection methods and can be regarded as a very efficient classification method particularly suitable for modern large surveys. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programme 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint

  2. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  3. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  4. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  5. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). PCA-based automatic cleaning and reconstruction of survey spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Identifying spurious reduction artefacts in galaxy spectra is a challenge for large surveys. Aims: We present an algorithm for identifying and repairing spurious residual features in sky-subtracted galaxy spectra by using data from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as a test case. Methods: The algorithm uses principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the galaxy spectra in the observed frame to identify sky line residuals imprinted at characteristic wavelengths. We further model the galaxy spectra in the rest-frame using PCA to estimate the most probable continuum in the corrupted spectral regions, which are then repaired. Results: We apply the method to 90 000 spectra from the VIPERS survey and compare the results with a subset for which careful editing was performed by hand. We find that the automatic technique reproduces the time-consuming manual cleaning in a uniform and objective manner across a large data sample. The mask data products produced in this work are released together with the VIPERS second public data release (PDR-2). based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), that is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which is a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/.

  6. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  7. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  8. Funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) antivenom in the treatment of human envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, L J; Sutherland, S K

    Envenomation by the Sydney funnel-web spider may lead to serious illness or death. After an antivenom which had been raised in rabbits was proven to reverse the signs of envenomation in animals, a trial was conducted in patients. Nine patients (aged 3-82 years) with severe envenomation by funnel-web spiders received treatment with an antivenom to the venom of Atrax robustus. Concomitant diseases in the victims included rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, complete heart block, pyrexia of unknown origin, and carcinoma of the ovary, which were being treated with appropriate drugs. Because of the introduction of the antivenom, the syndrome which previously caused either death or a hazardous illness which required two to three weeks of hospital care now became an illness lasting one to three days. So far there have been no definite adverse reactions to the antivenom. There have been no deaths since the antivenom has been used, and it is hoped that human fatalities as a result of funnel-web spider envenomation will become a thing of the past.

  9. Biochemical and hematological profiles of a wild population of the nose-horned viper Vipera ammodytes (Serpentes: Viperidae) during autumn, with a morphological assessment of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Benković, Vesna; Horvat Knežević, Anica; Oršolić, Nada; Tadić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    .... In order to determine baseline ranges for the nose-horned viper Vipera ammodytes, we determined the blood cell morphology and measured 20 hematological and 5 biochemical variables from the blood samples taken from 31...

  10. Development of Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS; a Severity Index for Widow Spider Bite: Initial Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Monzavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to describe the patients and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for widow spider envenomation, investigators require a reliable assessment tool. In this paper, the development of a clinical index for measuring the widow spider bite severity, Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS, is described. Methods: According to the valid methods for index development, a Delphi group process was applied. A panel of 13 experienced medical toxicologists and physician experts in treatment of black widow spider bites was assembled in December 2013. The participants were asked to score clinical manifestations of Latrodectus envenomation based on their importance on the severity and patients’ prognosis. Hence, an initial draft of the severity index was developed and in the second phase of study, the draft was discussed in a focus group of experts to finally comment on each variable and vote about the final scores. Results: The proposed version of LESS comprises of 34 clinical items categorized in 8 organ systems. The index includes definition of each clinical variable to help users of the index how to ascertain or rule out the clinical finding. The maximum theoretical score according to LESS is 87. Acute renal failure, myocarditis, pulmonary edema and ileus received the highest scores in this index. Conclusion: The LESS is a new assessment tool that is designed to more objectively evaluate the severity and progression of envenomation in victims of widow spider bite. The prognostic-ability, reliability and sensitivity to change of the index should be investigated in future studies.   How to cite this article: Monzavi SM, Afshari R. Development of Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS; a Severity Index for Widow Spider Bite: Initial Step. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:18-22.

  11. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Star formation history of passive red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, M.; Małek, K.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Pollo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Fritz, A.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; De Lucia, G.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Marchetti, A.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Ilbert, O.; Gargiulo, A.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We trace the evolution and the star formation history of passive red galaxies, using a subset of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The detailed spectral analysis of stellar populations of intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies allows the build up of their stellar content to be followed over the last 8 billion years. Methods: We extracted a sample of passive red galaxies in the redshift range 0.4 relation for intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies. Results: We find that at z 1 stellar populations in low-mass passive red galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive red galaxies, similar to what is observed at the present epoch. Over the full analyzed redshift range 0.4 relations of D4000 and HδA with stellar mass has not changed significantly with redshift. Assuming a single burst formation, this implies that high-mass passive red galaxies formed their stars at zform 1.7, while low-mass galaxies formed their main stellar populations more recently, at zform 1. The consistency of these results, which were obtained using two independent estimators of the formation redshift (D4000 and HδA), further strengthens a scenario in which star formation proceeds from higher to lower mass systems as time passes, i.e., what has become known as the downsizing picture. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

  12. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  13. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  14. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Davies, G S; Evans, J J; Guzowski, P; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Holin, A; Huang, J; Kreymer, A; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Marshak, M L; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J; Miller, W; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Nichol, R J; Patterson, R B; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Proga, M; Radovic, A; Sanchez, M C; Schreiner, S; Soldner-Rembold, S; Sousa, A; Thomas, J; Vahle, P; Wendt, C; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  15. Measuring Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 1 with the VIPERS galaxy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5 properties and the relation of the latter to large-scale structure. This paper presents an overview of the galaxy clustering results obtained so far, together with their cosmological implications. Most of these are based on the ~ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1). As of January 2015, observations and data reduction are complete and the final data set of more than 90,000 redshifts is being validated and made ready for the final investigations.

  16. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  17. Design of a new therapy to treat snake envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar L

    2014-06-01

    become immobilized, and are eliminated from the poisoned patient blood. Detoxification resuscitation is expected to take 2–3 hours, when the titers of venom antigens in the blood reach harmless levels, as confirmed by sampling of the blood and appropriate serological evaluations. If conventional antivenoms do not cover the entire spectrum of venom antigens in blood, rehabilitation would be a matter of a longer period; whilst the PVAC covers the widest range of antibodies to remove the broadest range of venom antigens, the rehabilitation period would be shorter since venom antigens have been removed from the body in a few hours duration. PVACs are to be biotechnologically engineered against a wide spectra of antigens present in the venoms of the dominant poisonous snakes for a defined geographical zone; ie, a country, part of a continent, or an entire continent. As a polyvalent column, the PVAC bears a sufficient amount of venom antibodies of all snakes that pose a threat in the region. PVAC treatment would have high applicability in cases where the patient is unconscious and/or the snake identity is not clear for administration of related antivenom medication. For opportune administration, research on the use of PVACs in emergency ambulances should receive special attention. Starting in situ detoxification, such ambulances would provide more efficient resuscitations to envenomed patients.Keywords: venom, toxin, intoxication, detoxification, blood, polyvalent antibody

  18. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by alginate coated multicomponent polyvalent antivenom administered by the oral route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P P; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-08-01

    Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra venom. Further research in this direction can strategize to

  19. Viper and Cobra Venom Neutralization by Alginate Coated Multicomponent Polyvalent Antivenom Administered by the Oral Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P. P.; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Conclusions/Significance Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra

  20. Geotechnical analysis of construction pit in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Grega

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis the design calculations were made for the excavation, which is located in Ljubljana between Glonarjeva street and railway track Ljubljana – Novo mesto. The depth of the excavation pit is approximately 6 m. The excavation pit is supported with bored pile wall and prestressed geotechnical anchors. For the calculation of lateral earth pressure the Rankine's theory was used. Three different profiles were analysed. Piles and anchors were dimensioned. The global stability was checked.

  1. Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, G K; White, J; Currie, B J; O'Leary, M A; Brown, S G A

    2011-12-01

    There is limited information on envenoming by snakes of the genus Hoplocephalus from Eastern Australia. We investigated the clinical and laboratory features of patients with definite Hoplocephalus spp. bites including antivenom treatment, recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project. There were 15 definite Hoplocephalus spp. bites based on expert identification including eight by Hoplocephalus stephensi (Stephen's banded snakes), four by Hoplocephalus bungaroides (broad-headed snake) and three by H. bitorquatus (pale-headed snake). Envenoming occurred in 13 patients and was similar for the three species with venom induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC) in all envenomings. Seven patients had an INR >12 and partial VICC, with only incomplete fibrinogen consumption, occurred in three patients. Systemic symptoms occurred in eight patients. Myotoxicity and neurotoxicity did not occur. H. stephensi venom was detected in all three H. stephensi envenomings (1.1, 44 and 81 ng/mL) for whom pre-antivenom blood samples were available, and not detected in one without envenoming. In two cases with post-antivenom blood samples, venom was not detected after tiger snake antivenom (TSAV) was given. In vitro binding studies demonstrated that TSAV concentrations of 50mU/mL are sufficient to bind the majority of free H. stephensi venom components at concentrations above those detected in envenomed patients (100 ng/mL). Eleven patients received antivenom, median dose 2 vials (Range: 1 to 5 vials), which was TSAV in all but one case, where polyvalent antivenom was used. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions occurred in six cases including one case of anaphylaxis. Envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. causes VICC and systemic symptoms, making it clinically similar to brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient.

  2. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  3. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Hierarchical scaling and biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappi, A.; Marulli, F.; Bel, J.; Cucciati, O.; Branchini, E.; de la Torre, S.; Moscardini, L.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Schimd, C.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Building on the two-point correlation function analyses of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), we investigate the higher-order correlation properties of the same galaxy samples to test the hierarchical scaling hypothesis at z ~ 1 and the dependence on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, and redshift. With this work we also aim to assess possible deviations from the linearity of galaxy bias independently from a previously performed analysis of our survey. Methods: We have measured the count probability distribution function in spherical cells of varying radii (3 ≤ R ≤ 10 h-1 Mpc), deriving σ8g (the galaxy rms at 8 h-1 Mpc), the volume-averaged two-, three-, and four-point correlation functions and the normalized skewness S3g and kurtosis S4g for different volume-limited subsamples, covering the following ranges: -19.5 ≤ MB(z = 1.1) - 5log (h) ≤ -21.0 in absolute magnitude, 9.0 ≤ log (M∗/M⊙h-2) ≤ 11.0 in stellar mass, and 0.5 ≤ zfollowing. 1) The hierarchical scaling between the volume-averaged two- and three-point and two- and four-point correlation functions holds throughout the whole range of scale and redshift we could test. 2) We do not find a significant dependence of S3g on luminosity (below z = 0.9 the value of S3g decreases with luminosity, but only at 1σ-level). 3) We do not detect a significant dependence of S3g and S4g on scale, except beyond z ~ 0.9, where S3g and S4g have higher values on large scales (R ≥ 10 h-1 Mpc): this increase is mainly due to one of the two CFHTLS Wide Fields observed by VIPERS and can be explained as a consequence of sample variance, consistently with our analysis of mock catalogs. 4) We do not detect a significant evolution of S3g and S4g with redshift (apart from the increase of their values with scale in the last redshift bin). 5) σ8g increases with luminosity, but does not show significant evolution with redshift. As a consequence, the linear bias factor b = σ8g/σ8m, where σ8

  4. Using geographical information systems to identify populations in need of improved accessibility to antivenom treatment for snakebite envenoming in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hansson

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snakebite accidents are an important health problem in rural areas of tropical countries worldwide, including Costa Rica, where most bites are caused by the pit-viper Bothrops asper. The treatment of these potentially fatal accidents is based on the timely administration of specific antivenom. In many regions of the world, insufficient health care systems and lack of antivenom in remote and poor areas where snakebites are common, means that efficient treatment is unavailable for many snakebite victims, leading to unnecessary mortality and morbidity. In this study, geographical information systems (GIS were used to identify populations in Costa Rica with a need of improved access to antivenom treatment: those living in areas with a high risk of snakebites and long time to reach antivenom treatment. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Populations living in areas with high risk of snakebites were identified using two approaches: one based on the district-level reported incidence, and another based on mapping environmental factors favoring B. asper presence. Time to reach treatment using ambulance was estimated using cost surface analysis, thereby enabling adjustment of transportation speed by road availability and quality, topography and land use. By mapping populations in high risk of snakebites and the estimated time to treatment, populations with need of improved treatment access were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the usefulness of GIS for improving treatment of snakebites. By mapping reported incidence, risk factors, location of existing treatment resources, and the time estimated to reach these for at-risk populations, rational allocation of treatment resources is facilitated.

  5. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): Galaxy segregation inside filaments at $z \\simeq 0.7$

    CERN Document Server

    Malavasi, N; Vibert, D; de la Torre, S; Moutard, T; Pichon, C; Davidzon, I; Kraljic, K; Bolzonella, M; Guzzo, L; Garilli, B; Scodeggio, M; Granett, B R; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Branchini, E; Coupon, J; De Lucia, G; Dubois, Y; Hawken, A; Ilbert, O; Laigle, C; Moscardini, L; Sousbie, T; Treyer, M; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the first quantitative detection of large-scale filamentary structure at $z \\simeq 0.7$ in the large cosmological volume probed by the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). We use simulations to show the capability of VIPERS to recover robust topological features in the galaxy distribution, in particular the filamentary network. We then investigate how galaxies with different stellar masses and stellar activities are distributed around the filaments and find a significant segregation, with the most massive or quiescent galaxies being closer to the filament axis than less massive or active galaxies. The signal persists even after down-weighting the contribution of peak regions. Our results suggest that massive and quiescent galaxies assemble their stellar mass through successive mergers during their migration along filaments towards the nodes of the cosmic web. On the other hand, low-mass star-forming galaxies prefer the outer edge of filaments, a vorticity rich region dominated by sm...

  6. THE USE OF THE ANTI-VENOM SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES ISOLATED FROM DUCK EGGS FOR INACTIVATION OF THE VIPER VENOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CRISTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of specific anti-venom can be demonstrated using protection test in laboratory mice. Our study aimed to emphasize the possibility of viper venom inactivation by the antibodies produced and isolated from duck eggs and also to the activation concentration of these antibodies. The venom used for inoculation was harvested from two viper species (Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus. The immunoglobulin extract had a better activity on the venom from Vipera berus compared to the venom from Vipera ammodytes. This could be the result of a better immunological response, as consequence of the immunization with this type of venom, compared to the response recorded when the Vipera ammodytes venom was used. Besides the advantages of low cost, high productivity and reduced risk of anaphylactic shock, the duck eggs also have high activity up to dilutions of 1/16, 1/32, respectively, with specific activity and 100 surviving in individuals which received 3 x DL50.

  7. VIPERS: An Unprecedented View of Galaxies and Large-Scale Structure Halfway Back in the Life of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Guzzo, L; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Branchini, E; Burden, A; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; de la Torre, S; De Lucia, G; Di Porto, C; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; Guennou, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Marulli, F; McCracken, H J; Mellier, Y; Moscardini, L; Nichol, R C; Paioro, L; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Schlagenhaufer, H; Scodeggio, M; Solarz, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G; Zanichelli, A

    2013-01-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is an ongoing ESO Large Programme to map in detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies at 0.5 < z <1.2. With a combination of volume and sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, it focuses on measuring galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities as part of the grand challenge of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. VIPERS has also been designed to guarantee a broader legacy, allowing detailed investigations of the properties and evolutionary trends of z~1 galaxies. The survey strategy exploits the specific advantages of the VIMOS spectrograph at the VLT, aiming at a final sample of nearly 100,000 galaxy redshifts to iAB = 22.5 mag, which represents the largest redshift survey ever performed with ESO telescopes. In this introductory article we describe the survey construction, together with early results based on a first sample of ~55,000 galaxies.

  8. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). On the recovery of the count-in-cell probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Di Porto, C.; Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Iovino, A.; de la Torre, S.; Marinoni, C.; Guzzo, L.; Moscardini, L.; Cappi, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2016-04-01

    We compare three methods to measure the count-in-cell probability density function of galaxies in a spectroscopic redshift survey. From this comparison we found that, when the sampling is low (the average number of object per cell is around unity), it is necessary to use a parametric method to model the galaxy distribution. We used a set of mock catalogues of VIPERS to verify if we were able to reconstruct the cell-count probability distribution once the observational strategy is applied. We find that, in the simulated catalogues, the probability distribution of galaxies is better represented by a Gamma expansion than a skewed log-normal distribution. Finally, we correct the cell-count probability distribution function from the angular selection effect of the VIMOS instrument and study the redshift and absolute magnitude dependency of the underlying galaxy density function in VIPERS from redshift 0.5 to 1.1. We found a very weak evolution of the probability density distribution function and that it is well approximated by a Gamma distribution, independently of the chosen tracers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  9. Detection and differentiation of herpes simplex viruses by use of the viper platform: advantages, limitations, and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amanda L S; Roberts, Catherine; Mazzulli, Tony; Hatchette, Todd F; LeBlanc, Jason J

    2014-06-01

    The Viper HSV-Q(x) assay was evaluated for the detection of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in specimens from oral, anogenital, and other miscellaneous sites. The HSV-Q(x) assay was found to be highly sensitive and accurate; however, a gray zone may be required for specimens with values falling between 50 and 800 maximum relative fluorescence units.

  10. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Stuani Floriano; Rosa Maria Barilli Nogueira; Michiko Sakate; Cecília Braga Laposy; Yudney Pereira da Motta; Fabíola Sangiorgio; Heloísa Costa David; João Marcelo Nabas

    2009-01-01

    Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into thre...

  11. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  13. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  14. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth de Araújo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports two cases of human envenoming by colubrid snakes of Philodryas, considered as not poisonous, showing evidence of the clinical aspects and the evolution of the symptoms of envenoming. The similarity of these cases with those caused by Bothrops suggests a more careful evaluation on the victims considering the medical treatment to be adopted.O presente trabalho é um relato de dois casos de acidentes com colubrídeos (Philodryas olfersii e P. patagoniensis considerados não peçonhentos, que destaca as manifestações clínicas e as suas evoluções. A semelhança de tais acidentes com aqueles causados por serpentes Bothrops indica a necessidade de uma melhor avaliação dos pacientes quanto à terapêutica a ser adotada.

  15. Evaluation of renal impairment in dogs after envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Mari; Raekallio, Marja; Vainionpää, Mari; Lahtinen, Heini; Vainio, Outi

    2013-12-01

    Envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus) causes clinical renal injury in dogs. In this study, serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, total protein and urea were measured in 32 dogs bitten by adders. Urinary creatinine, protein, and retinol binding protein 4 concentrations, and the activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were measured in 32 affected dogs and 23 healthy controls. Clinical assessment was conducted with a grading scale and a renal function score was applied to classify dogs based on laboratory findings. Urinary protein:creatinine, GGT:creatinine and ALP:creatinine ratios appear to be useful in evaluating renal impairment in dogs with adder envenomation. Increasing kidney function score was correlated with increased urinary ALP:creatinine and GGT:creatinine ratios.

  16. [Scorpion envenomation in Morocco: scorpions of the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumaâd, B; Iba, N; Dersi, N

    2014-02-01

    Around the world and especially in summer, the scorpion envenomation is a real public health problem. In Morocco, its gravity is due to the diversity of genera of the Buthidae family whose their venom is potentially lethal, mainly the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota. The areas most affected by this problematic are the central and southern of Morocco. The lethality of scorpion's venom primarily affects children. It is rich in neurotoxic polypeptides that have targeted ion channel membrane Na(+), K(+) activated or not by Ca(++). The toxins polymorphism causes pathophysiological disorders. The diversity of symptomatic treatment in the absence of immunotherapy is due to variability in clinical pictures, which depends on the species involved and the patient at risk. The objective of this review is to highlight the magnitude of the scorpion envenomation by describing its epidemiological characteristics, elucidate the pathophysiological effects of the venom of the most dangerous scorpions in Morocco the genus Androctonus, Buthus and Hottentota, and their therapeutic treatment.

  17. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Christie L; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2016-04-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes.

  18. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie L. Wilcox

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s. However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes.

  19. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  20. VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER): H I photoionization rate at z<0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Khaire, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a parallel code called "VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER)" for automatically fitting the H I Ly-$\\alpha$ forest seen in the spectra of QSOs. We obtained the H I column density distribution function (CDDF) and line width ($b$) parameter distribution for $z < 0.45$ using spectra of 82 QSOs obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and VIPER. Consistency of these with the existing measurements in the literature validate our code. By comparing this CDDF with those obtained from hydrodynamical simulation, we constrain the H I photoionization rate ($\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$) at $z < 0.45$ in four redshift bins. The VIPER, together with the Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE) we have developed for GADGET-2, allows us to explore parameter space and perform $\\chi^2$ minimization to obtain $\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$. We notice that the $b$ parameters from the simulations are smaller than what are derived from the observations. We show the observed $b$ parameter distribution and...

  1. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey - I: UV and NIR Observations, multi-color catalogs and photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Moutard, T; Ilbert, O; Coupon, J; Hudelot, P; Vibert, D; Comte, V; Conseil, S; Davidzon, I; Guzzo, L; Llebaria, A; Martin, C; McCracken, H J; Milliard, B; Morrison, G E; Schiminovich, D; Treyer, M; Van Werbaeke, L

    2016-01-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet (UV) with the GALEX satellite (far and near UV channels) and the near infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera ($K_s$-band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg$^2$, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimized to measure the physical properties (e.g., SFR, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions and the build-up of the multi-color catalogs. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-{\\chi}^2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the $K_s$-band photometry, while the T0007 u-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches $NUV_{AB}$~25 (at 5{\\sigma})...

  2. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  3. A STUDY ON COAGULATION PROFILE AND ITS PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE IN PATIENTS WITH SNAKE ENVENOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenomation is a treatable occupational hazard in India which can present mainly as haemotoxicity or neurotoxicity. Haemotoxicity includes bleeding manifestations, capillary leak syndrome or disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. Coagulation abnormalities like prolonged whole blood clotting time/prothrombin (PT/activated partial thromboplastin (APTT can determine the prognosis in these patients and is also essential to triage such patients for regular monitoring and follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 snakebite cases admitted with systemic envenomation in the form of haemotoxicity (prolonged whole blood clotting time/PT/APTT to VIMS Hospital, Bellary, during the period January 2012 to June 2013 were studied to determine the coagulation profile in relation to prognosis of patients. RESULTS: In this study, out of 50 patients, 35 were males and 15 were females. Age group between 20 to 40 years had higher number of systemic envenomation following snakebite. 26 patients had hematocrit >40%, of which 7 had PT/APTT of more than 1 minute. Out of 8 patients with clotting time more than 30 minutes, 7 patients had PT/APTT more than one minute. Out of 40 patients with prolonged PT/ APTT, 8 patients developed capillary leakage syndrome. Also, 6 developed early onset hypotension (24 hours. Complications included hypotension, acute renal failure, multi organ failure and DIC. Six patients died of complications secondary to snake envenomation of which, three patients died of multi organ failure, one died of sudden onset cardiorespiratory arrest and two patients died of acute renal failure. CONCLUSION: We have found a significant correlation of prolonged PT/APTT, clotting time >30 minutes and raised hematocrit with morbidity and mortality in hemotoxic snake bite and treating physicians should monitor such patients meticulously to prevent complications associated with it.

  4. Two Sri Lankan cases of identified sea snake bites, without envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Manouri P; Ariaratnam, C Ariaranee; Abeywickrema, Sudath; Belligaswatte, Ashanka

    2005-06-01

    Sea snakes are among the most venomous creatures encountered around coasts and reefs, in estuaries, rivers and at sea. Their venoms are more toxic than those of land snakes. However, they are rarely aggressive or menacing. Bites have become unusual with the advent of modern fishing methods but the two encounters we report, in the Indian Ocean off the shores of Sri Lanka, emphasise that sea snake bites may not result in envenoming.

  5. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P

    1987-01-01

    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  6. Envenomation by a benthic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria): the case of Nemalecium lighti (Haleciidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Antonio Carlos; Haddad, Vidal; Esteves Migotto, Alvaro

    2002-02-01

    A case of envenomation caused by the Nemalecium lighti is described. The hydrozoan species lives in many kinds of substrates, being quite common in tropical shallow water. The patient, a marine biologist, had contact with the animal in two different opportunities while snorkeling. Both contacts produced erythematous and highly pruriginous papules in exposed areas of the body. The signs and symptoms persisted for a week and healed without sequellae.

  7. RESPIRATORY REHABILITATION IN ACUTE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH NEUROPARALYTIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION: CASE SERIES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxic envenomations have the potency to cause a broad spectrum of presentations starting from ptosis and ophthalmoplegia to respiratory arrest. These patients require ventilatory assistance in addition to administration of anti-snake venom (ASV) and other supportive measures. Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for retained secretions due to endotracheal intubation disrupting mu...

  8. Envenomation caused by Latrodectus geometricus in São Paulo state, Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramb Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp., also known as "black widows", have a worldwide distribution and can cause latrodectism. To the best of our knowledge, in Brazil, only one case of Latrodectus geometricus (Koch, 1841 envenomation in a human has been reported. The aim of the present report is to describe a spider bite caused by Latrodectus geometricus in a patient who lives in Paranapanema, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  9. Assessment of myocardial perfusion and function in victims of scorpion envenomation using gated-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Alexandre Baldini de; Cupo, Palmira; Pintya, Antonio O.; Caligaris, Fabio; Marin-Neto, Jose A; Hering, Sylvia E.; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius, E-mail: simoesmv@yahoo.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2010-04-15

    Background: cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema are the major causes of death of patients with scorpion envenomation, whose pathophysiological mechanism remains controversial. Objective: to investigate the correlation between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and left ventricular contractile function in victims of scorpion envenomation. Methods: fifteen patients underwent ECG-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (gated SPECT) within 72 hours of, and 15 days after scorpion envenomation. Images were analyzed by means of a semi-quantitative visual perfusion score (0 = normal, 4 = absent) and motion score (0 = normal, 4 akinesia), using the 17-segment model. Summed perfusion (SPS) and summed motion (SMS) scores were calculated for each patient. Ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by a commercially available software. Results: at baseline, 12 out of the 15 patients presented abnormal myocardial perfusion and contractility. Mean values of SPS, SMS and LVEF were 12.5 +- 7.3, 17.0 +- 12.8, and 44.6 +- 16.0%, respectively. A positive correlation between SPS and SMS (r = 0.68; p = 0.005) and negative correlation between SPS and LVEF (r -0.75; p = 0.0021) were found. The follow-up studies showed recovery of global contractility (LVEF of 68.9 +- 9.5, p = 0.0002), segmental contractility (SMS of 2.6 +- 3.1, p = 0.0009) and perfusion (SPS of 3.7 +- 3.3, p = 0.0003). Improvement of LVEF correlated positively with improvement of SPS (r = 0.72; p = 0.0035). Conclusions: myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in scorpion envenomation and correlate topographically with the contractile dysfunction. Recovery of contractility correlates with reversibility of perfusion defects. These findings suggest the participation of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the pathophysiology of this form of acute ventricular failure. (author)

  10. Acute management of serious envenomation by box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Le Ray, L E; Wohlfahrt, M; Fenner, P J

    Two cases of serious envenomation by the northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) are reported. The first-aid measures and the subsequent management and follow-up of patients are discussed. In addition to its known life-saving effects, the early administration of the specific antivenom appears to be the best treatment for the savage pain of the sting, and may also result in a reduction of subsequent skin scarring.

  11. A Case of Upper Limb Compartment Syndrome following Snake Envenomation: Measure Twice, Cut Once.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D K; Budhoo, E J; Mencia, M M; Ali, T F; Santana, D

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 16-year old male patient who sustained a poisonous bite from a mapepire balsain snake on the dorsum of his left hand. The subject presented within one hour of envenomation and subsequently developed clinical features of acute compartment syndrome in the involved upper limb. Early diagnosis and emergency fasciotomy effectively treated his condition. Aggressive physiotherapy coupled with this ensured best functional outcome.

  12. A Case of Upper Limb Compartment Syndrome following Snake Envenomation Measure Twice, Cut Once

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, DK; Budhoo, EJ; Mencia, MM; Ali, TF; Santana, D

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 16-year old male patient who sustained a poisonous bite from a mapepire balsain snake on the dorsum of his left hand. The subject presented within one hour of envenomation and subsequently developed clinical features of acute compartment syndrome in the involved upper limb. Early diagnosis and emergency fasciotomy effectively treated his condition. Aggressive physiotherapy coupled with this ensured best functional outcome. PMID:25429488

  13. Jellyfish Envenomation Resulting In Vascular Insufficiency And Neurogenic Injury of Upper Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong CYL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a week after a jellyfish sting, a young man presented with regional cyanosis and threat of distal gangrene secondary to vascular spasm in the forearm. The patient also suffered from transient paresis and numbness of the affected upper limb. Contrasted imaging revealed unopacified vessels in the distal forearm and worsening swelling warranted emergency surgical fasciotomy for impending compartment syndrome. This case highlights the occurrence of jellyfish envenomation and the need for early treatment.

  14. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Montgomery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42–45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  15. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Louise; Seys, Jan; Mees, Jan

    2016-07-08

    There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42-45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  16. Unilateral Optic Neuropathy and Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma following Snake Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Okan Olcaysu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to describe a unique case in which a patient developed unilateral optic neuritis and angle-closure glaucoma as a result of snake envenomation. Case Report. Approximately 18 hours after envenomation, a 67-year-old female patient described visual impairment and severe pain in her left eye (LE. The patient’s best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the RE and hand motion in the LE. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of neuropathy in the left optic nerve. In the LE, corneal haziness, closure of the iridocorneal angle, and mild mydriasis were observed and pupillary light reflex was absent. Intraocular pressure was 25 mmHg and 57 mmHg in the RE and LE, respectively. The patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma in the LE. Optic neuropathy was treated with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone. Left intraocular pressure was within normal range starting on the fourth day. One month after the incident, there was no sign of optic neuropathy; relative afferent pupillary defect and optic nerve swelling disappeared. Conclusions. Patients with severe headache and visual loss after snake envenomation must be carefully examined for possible optic neuropathy and angle-closure glaucoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of these cases are necessary to prevent permanent damage to optic nerves.

  17. Effectiveness of two common antivenoms for North, Central, and South American Micrurus envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Paniagua-Solis, Jorge F; Dolab, Jorge A; Estévez-Ramiréz, Judith; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Litwin, Silvana; Dokmetjian, José C; Alagón, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    Micrurus snakes (coral snakes) may produce severe envenomation that can lead to death by peripheral respiratory paralysis. Only few laboratories produce specific antivenoms, and despite the cross-reactivity found in some Micrurus species venoms, the treatment is not always effective. To test two therapeutic antivenoms against the venom of four species of Micrurus from Southern America, North of South America, Central America, and North America, the determination of the lethal potency of the venoms, the study of some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics, and the determination of the neutralizing activity of both antivenoms were studied. North American and South American antivenoms neutralized well venoms from Micrurus species of the corresponding hemisphere but displayed lower effectiveness against venoms of species from different hemispheres. It was concluded that the neutralization of Micrurus venoms by regional antivenoms could be useful to treat the envenomation by some Micrurus snakes but is necessary to evaluate carefully the antivenoms to be used with the venoms from the snakes of the region. Also, considering the difficulties for coral snake antivenom production, the development of a polyvalent antivenom is useful to treat the envenomation by coral snakes from different regions is necessary.

  18. Cardiac involvement and its complications about three cases of severe scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumaâd, B; Tiger, A; Khattabi, A; Soulaymani, R; Lahssaini, M; Benhassain, S M; Iba, N

    2014-02-01

    For several decades, Morocco is confronted to medico-social problem of scorpion stings and envenomations. In 2009, epidemiological data established by the Poison Control Center recorded 29,816 stung patients, with an incidence of 1.1‰ and a fatality rate of 0.18%. The neurotoxins from scorpion venom are potent activators of the autonomic nervous system resulting a physiopathological disorder of vital systems. The most serious clinical manifestations are neurotoxic effects, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular distress. This present work reports the cases of three children (4 years and 6 months, 8 months and 15 days, 4 years), hospitalized in intensive care for an envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus (the most fatal scorpion specie). The children presented cardiac dysfunction where pulmonary edema and state of shock were complications resultants. Two cases survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment based on dobutamine as primordial treatment in cardiovascular and pulmonary correction and other drugs. The third case died. The objective of this work was to detect the limit of the effectiveness of symptomatic treatment during a severe scorpion envenomation.

  19. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  20. Red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in the dog: Diagnosis and treatment of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-07-01

    The clinical signs, biochemical changes and serum and urine venom concentrations for a series of nine cases of Red bellied black snake [RBBS] (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation in eight dogs seen in a regional Australian veterinary hospital are described. Although the resulting envenomation syndrome was, in most cases, relatively mild and responded rapidly to intravenous administration of a novel bivalent caprylic acid purified whole IgG equine antivenom for tiger (Notechis scutatus) and brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis), one fatality prior to antivenom treatment was recorded. The latter case occurred within 1 h of envenomation prior to receiving antivenom treatment. Intravascular haemolysis, pigmenturia, bite site swelling, lethargy, and generally mild coagulopathy were present in most cases. Detectable RBBS venom specific components were found in serum, bite site swab or urine using a standard sandwich ELISA approach. Serum levels fell within the range previously reported for human RBBS envenomation cases (6-79 ng/ml) whilst bite site and urine samples varied more markedly (8.2 to >5000 ng/ml and 2.2-1300 ng/ml respectively). No venom was detected from serum after antivenom treatment. The envenomation syndrome in dogs is similar to what is described for humans, with the exception of the presence of potentially severe venom induced consumption coagulopathy in one case (aPTT > 300 s and fibrinogen < 0.43 g/L) and potential for fatal outcomes. This series represents the largest and most detailed examination of RBBS envenomation in animals yet reported. It reinforces the emerging view that the potential severity of this envenomation has been underappreciated by veterinary practitioners and highlights the possibility of severe venom induced consumption coagulopathy in canine cases.

  1. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...... Relations across the Kattegat in the Middle Neolithic”. Stable isotope analysis of food residues on pottery show what the pottery was used for on different types of sites and which resources were exploited. In contrast to human bones, the food residues provide a snapshot of the food prepared at one point...

  2. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  3. Study of severe scorpion envenoming following subcutaneous venom injection into dogs: Hemodynamic and concentration/effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatrous, Souheil; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Ben Sik-Ali, Habiba; Hamouda, Zineb; BenAbdallah, Saoussen; Tilouche, Nejla; Jalloul, Faten; Fkih-Hassen, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Ouanes, Islem; Abroug, Fekri

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the dose-effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom injected subcutaneously on hemodynamics and neurohormonal secretions, 10 anesthetized and ventilated mongrel dogs, were split in two groups (n = 5/group). Subcutaneous injection was done with either 0.2 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/kg of the purified G50 scorpion toxic fraction. Hemodynamic parameters using right heart catheter were recorded and plasma concentrations of catecholamine, troponin, and serum toxic fraction were measured sequentially from baseline to 120 min. We identified the dose of toxic fraction evoking characteristic hemodynamic perturbation of severe envenomation, the time-lapse to envenomation, and the associated plasma level. The injection of 0.125 mg/kg toxic fraction was not associated with significant variations in hemodynamic parameters, whereas the 0.2 mg/kg dose caused envenomation characterized by significant increase in plasma catecholamines, increased pulmonary artery occluded pressure, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.05), in association with sustained decline in cardiac output (p < 0.001). Envenomation occurred by the 30th minute, and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction was 1.14 ng/ml. The current experiment allowed the identification of the sub-lethal dose (0.2 mg/kg) of the toxic fraction of Aah administered by the subcutaneous route. Two parameters with potential clinical relevance were also uncovered: the time-lapse to envenomation and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction.

  4. Climate change and peripheral populations: predictions for a relict Mediterranean viper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological niche-based models were developed in peripheral populations of Vipera latastei North Africa to: 1 identify environmental factors related to species occurrence; 2 identify present suitable areas; 3 estimate future areas according to forecasted scenarios of climate change; and 4 quantify habitat suitability changes between present and future climatic scenarios. Field observations were combined with environmental factors to derive an ensemble of predictions of species occurrence. The resulting models were projected to the future North African environmental scenarios. Species occurrence was most related to precipitation variation. Present suitable habitats were fragmented and ranged from coastal to mountain habitats, and the overall fragmented range suggests a relict distribution from wider past ranges. Future projections suggest a progressive decrease in suitable areas. The relationship with precipitation supports the current unsuitability of most North Africa for the species and predicts future increased extinction risk. Monitoring of population trends and full protection of mountain forests are key-targets for long-term conservation of African populations of this viper. Predicted trends may give indications about other peripheral populations of Palearctic vertebrates in North Africa which should be assessed in detail.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan tripolyphosphate nanoparticles and its encapsulation efficiency containing Russell's viper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C; Vimal, S; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan Tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) nanoparticle is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide, used as a carrier for drug delivery. The morphology and particle-size measurements of the nanoparticles were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). This study aims to evaluate the impact of Russell's viper venom encapsulation on various factors and loading capacity, in addition to explore the physicochemical structure of nanoparticles. FTIR confirmed that tripolyphosphoric groups of TPP linked with ammonium groups of CS in the nanoparticles. Our results showed that CS can react with TPP to form stable cationic nanoparticles. The results also showed that encapsulation efficiency of venom at different concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 500, and 1000 µg/mL were achieved for CS/TPP nanoparticles at different concentrations of 1.5, 2, and 3 mg/mL. The cytotoxicity of CS/TPP nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT (-3 (4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) assay.

  6. The life and viper of Dr Patrick Russell MD FRS (1727-1805): physician and naturalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawgood, B J

    1994-11-01

    It is nearly two hundred years since the publication in 1796 of An Account of Indian Serpents collected on the Coast of Coromandel by Patrick Russell. Within the folio is a drawing and description of the venomous snake called Katuka Rekula Poda in the local Telugu language, whose venom was shown experimentally by Dr Russell to be nearly as lethal as that of Cobra de Capello. The snake is now known as Vipera russelli or Russell's viper. Dr Russell was representative of the naturalistic tendency of British medicine in the late 18th century. He was a keen observer and skilled doctor in clinical practice, particularly in Aleppo, Syria, during an outbreak of the plague, and indefatigable in his study of plant and animal life both in Aleppo and later in the Madras Province of India. As a physician as well as Naturalist to the East India Company in the Carnatic he was concerned with the problem of snakebite. His first aim was to find a means whereby the non-specialist could distinguish between poisonous and harmless snakes and so combat the terrible notion that all bites were mortal. His writing, encompassing social and natural histories and climaxed by a study of snakes, has left a rich legacy. Dr Patrick Russell was a man of the highest integrity and ability, a physician and naturalist par excellence.

  7. Measuring dabigatran with the dilute Russell viper venom confirm assay in an anticoagulation clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, David L; Fritsma, George A

    2016-01-01

    The dabigatran dose-response is predictable; however, it is necessary to measure plasma levels in a variety of clinical conditions. We evaluated a novel dabigatran measure - the 'dilute Russell viper venom confirm (DRVVC) assay' - against current developmental assays and a reference method. We measured plasma dabigatran and compared results from the Stago Sta-Clot DRVVC assay, Stago Ecarin Chromogenic Assay, Biophen Hemoclot Thrombin Inhibitor, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We obtained dabigatran calibrators and controls from Biophen, and performed the coagulation assays using a Stago STA-R Evolution coagulometer. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method specimens were performed on an AB Sciex instrument at LabCorp. We enrolled 97 anticoagulation clinic patients (mean age 76 years) who were taking 150 mg dabigatran twice daily. All had creatinine clearances above 30 ml/min; patients were not excluded for concurrent medications or health issues. Citrated blood specimens were processed immediately, and stored at -70°C. We did not correlate collection time with medication time. We employed descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the Bland-Altman difference plot to assess the data. The range for all assays was 11.6-917 ng/ml. Analysis of variance generated a P value of 0.1 and Bland-Altman differences were all below 4.0% compared with DRVVC. The DRVVC measures dabigatran with validity comparable to other methods.

  8. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  9. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...

  10. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  11. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  12. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  13. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... holes were used for the analysis. ... retrieval and analysis, using Surpac software. .... economic and technical parameters were used to produce a set of nested pits. Fig. 4 depicts a summarised flow chart for the pit optimisation.

  14. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  15. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  16. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DEEP FOUNDATION PIT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN WUHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Xuan Loi, Wu Li*, Nguyen Khanh Tung

    2016-01-01

    Deep foundation pit construction project is one of hot and difficult problems in rock soil engineering. How to control the deformation of the pits effectively and economically is what we all want. Retaining structure deformation of foundation pit is an important factor on the deformation of foundation pit. Reference of domestic and foreign research and the experience of similar projects, combined with the characteristics of Wuhan project, calculation, analyses and compared two design options ...

  17. Methodology Using Inverse Methods for Pit Characterization in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Concordia, Michael; Judd, David R.; Lindgren, Eric; Knopp, Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology incorporating ultrasonic and eddy current data and NDE models to characterize pits in first and second layers. Approaches such as equivalent pit dimensions, approximate probe models, and iterative inversion schemes were designed to improve the reliability and speed of inverse methods for second layer pit characterization. A novel clutter removal algorithm was developed to compensate for coherent background noise. Validation was achieved using artificial and real pitting corrosion samples.

  18. Presentation and treatment of venomous snakebites at a northern academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Robert A; Colletti, Lisa M

    2003-05-01

    Poisonous snakebites are relatively rare in the United States. The incidence of venomous snakebites is comparatively high in the southern states compared with the northern states and reports of these accidents from northern states is particularly uncommon. We report the experience with treatment of venomous snakebites at the University of Michigan over a 25-year period from 1976 to 2001. Six cases were identified and are described in detail. All patients were male and all were bitten in the upper extremity by pit vipers. One patient suffered a moderate envenomation and was treated with antivenin. Four other cases of mild envenomation occurred and two of these cases required antivenin therapy. One case was considered to represent a "dry" bite and required only 24-hour observation. There were no severe envenomations and no mortalities. On short-term follow-up all patients recovered without sequelae. This report demonstrates that venomous snakebites can be treated effectively at low-volume centers.

  19. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  20. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  1. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Measuring non-linear galaxy bias at z ~ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Porto, C.; Branchini, E.; Bel, J.; Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Moscardini, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Martizzi, D.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Viel, M.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We use the first release of the VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey of galaxies (VIPERS) of ~50 000 objects to measure the biasing relation between galaxies and mass in the redshift range z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We estimate the 1-point distribution function [PDF] of VIPERS galaxies from counts in cells and, assuming a model for the mass PDF, we infer their mean bias relation. The reconstruction of the bias relation is performed through a novel method that accounts for Poisson noise, redshift distortions, inhomogeneous sky coverage. and other selection effects. With this procedure we constrain galaxy bias and its deviations from linearity down to scales as small as 4 h-1 Mpc and out to z = 1.1. Results: We detect small (up to 2%) but statistically significant (up to 3σ) deviations from linear bias. The mean biasing function is close to linear in regions above the mean density. The mean slope of the biasing relation is a proxy to the linear bias parameter. This slope increases with luminosity, which is in agreement with results of previous analyses. We detect a strong bias evolution only for z> 0.9, which is in agreement with some, but not all, previous studies. We also detect a significant increase of the bias with the scale, from 4 to 8 h-1 Mpc , now seen for the first time out to z = 1. The amplitude of non-linearity depends on redshift, luminosity, and scale, but no clear trend is detected. Owing to the large cosmic volume probed by VIPERS, we find that the mismatch between the previous estimates of bias at z ~ 1 from zCOSMOS and VVDS-Deep galaxy samples is fully accounted for by cosmic variance. Conclusions: The results of our work confirm the importance of going beyond the over-simplistic linear bias hypothesis showing that non-linearities can be accurately measured through the applications of the appropriate statistical tools to existing datasets like VIPERS. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile

  2. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

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    MCL Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  3. Polyamines as Snake Toxins and Their Probable Pharmacological Functions in Envenomation

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    Steven D. Aird

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid for spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Most venoms contained all four polyamines, although some in essentially trace quantities. Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g; however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine and cadaverine than spermine, but still at levels that are likely to be biologically insignificant. As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey envenomation, prey immobilization via hypotension and paralysis. Most venoms probably do not contain sufficient quantities of polyamines to induce systemic effects in prey; however, local effects seem probable. A review of the pharmacological literature suggests that spermine could contribute to prey hypotension and paralysis by interacting with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors, blood platelets, ryanodine receptors, and Ca2+-ATPase. It also blocks many types of cation-permeable channels by interacting with negatively charged amino acid residues in the channel mouths. The site of envenomation probably determines which physiological targets assume the greatest importance; however, venom-induced liberation of endogenous, intracellular stores of polyamines could potentially have systemic implications and may contribute significantly to envenomation sequelae.

  4. Polyamines as Snake Toxins and Their Probable Pharmacological Functions in Envenomation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Steven D.; Villar Briones, Alejandro; Roy, Michael C.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    While decades of research have focused on snake venom proteins, far less attention has been paid to small organic venom constituents. Using mostly pooled samples, we surveyed 31 venoms (six elapid, six viperid, and 19 crotalid) for spermine, spermidine, putrescine, and cadaverine. Most venoms contained all four polyamines, although some in essentially trace quantities. Spermine is a potentially significant component of many viperid and crotalid venoms (≤0.16% by mass, or 7.9 µmol/g); however, it is almost completely absent from elapid venoms assayed. All elapid venoms contained larger molar quantities of putrescine and cadaverine than spermine, but still at levels that are likely to be biologically insignificant. As with venom purines, polyamines impact numerous physiological targets in ways that are consistent with the objectives of prey envenomation, prey immobilization via hypotension and paralysis. Most venoms probably do not contain sufficient quantities of polyamines to induce systemic effects in prey; however, local effects seem probable. A review of the pharmacological literature suggests that spermine could contribute to prey hypotension and paralysis by interacting with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, blood platelets, ryanodine receptors, and Ca2+-ATPase. It also blocks many types of cation-permeable channels by interacting with negatively charged amino acid residues in the channel mouths. The site of envenomation probably determines which physiological targets assume the greatest importance; however, venom-induced liberation of endogenous, intracellular stores of polyamines could potentially have systemic implications and may contribute significantly to envenomation sequelae. PMID:27681740

  5. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  6. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Karine M; Alves, André F; Barbaro, Katia C; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering bleeding manifestations in severely-envenomed patients.

  7. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  8. Target organ identification of jellyfish envenomation using systemic and integrative analyses in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Cha, Mijin; Sohn, Eun-Tae; Jung, Eun-Sun; Song, Chiyoun; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Hee Chun; Kim, Jong-Shu; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    Proper treatment of jellyfish envenomed patients can be successfully achieved only from an understanding of the overall functional changes and alterations in physiological parameters under its envenomation. The majority of previous investigations on jellyfish venoms have covered only a couple of parameters at a time. Unlike most other fragmentary jellyfish studies, we employed an integrative toxicological approach, including hemodynamics, clinical chemistry and hematology analyses, using N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) in dogs. After the baseline measurements for mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR), NnV was intravenously administered to the dogs at doses of 0.1 or 0.3mg/kg body weight. The dogs showed significant decreases in MAP (-27.4±3.7 and -48.1±9.9 mmHg), CO (-1.1±0.1 L/min and -1.0±0.2 L/min), and HR (-4.5±0.3 and -9.9±3.1 beats/min) comparing with the respective baseline controls. The onset of systemic hypotension and bradycardia occurred within 1 min of NnV injection and they lasted for 1-35 min, depending on the NnV doses. Interestingly, serum biochemical analyses of envenomed dogs exhibited dramatic increases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), indicating its possible target organs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated simultaneously, for the first time, the multiple organ toxicities (cardiotoxic, myotoxic and hepatotoxic) of a scyphozoan jellyfish venom. Based on these results, an integrative toxinological approach using dogs appears to be effective in predicting jellyfish venom toxicities and designing their therapeutic strategies. We expect this method can be applied to other jellyfish venom research as well.

  9. [Temporal and geographical analysis of snakebite envenoming in Veracruz, Mexico (2003-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Arenas, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Through the period 2003-2012, a temporal and geographical analysis was performed to characterize the snakebite envenoming in the state of Veracruz. Bite records were obtained during this decade and the incidence rate per year was estimated in order to evaluate its spatial and temporal distribution. Furthermore, a smoothed rate of snakebites was calculated per municipality. Snakebite rates have remained constant over time, in spite of fluctuations, which suggest that better prevention strategies are necessary to reduce this phenomenon. Municipalities with the highest smoothed rate are located in the northern portion of the state.

  10. Severe anaphylactic reaction to mediterranean jellyfish (Ropilhema nomadica envenomation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Friedel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 15-year-old female patient with an anaphylactic reaction to a jellyfish sting, sustained while surfing in the Mediterranean Sea. She experienced immediate difficulty in breathing, hoarseness and itching and was taken by ambulance to the emergency department, receiving intramuscular adrenaline on the way. She presented with periorbital swelling and facial edema and improved with systemic steroids and antihistamines. She was discharged 2 days later with allergy service follow up at our institution. This is the first case report documenting anaphylaxis due to Mediterranean jellyfish envenomation.

  11. Proteomic and functional analyses of the venom of Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii (Lansberg's hognose viper) from the Atlantic Department of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Charris, Eliécer; Montealegre-Sanchez, Leonel; Solano-Redondo, Luis; Mora-Obando, Diana; Camacho, Erika; Castro-Herrera, Fernando; Fierro-Pérez, Leonardo; Lomonte, Bruno

    2015-01-30

    The venom of the Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, a species found in the northern region of Colombia, is poorly known. Aiming to increase knowledge on Porthidium species venoms, its proteomic analysis and functional evaluation of in vitro and in vivo activities relevant to its toxicity were undertaken. Out of 51 protein components resolved by a combination of RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, 47 were assigned to 12 known protein families. In similarity with two previously characterized venoms from species within this genus, Porthidium nasutum and Porthidium ophryomegas, that of P. lansbergii lansbergii was dominated by metalloproteinases, although in lower proportion. A common feature of the three Porthidium venoms appears to be a high content of disintegrins. Proteins not previously observed in Porthidium venoms belong to the vascular endothelium growth factor, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B families. P. lansbergii lansbergii venom showed relatively weak lethal activity to mice, and induced a moderate local myotoxicity, but considerable hemorrhage. Its isolated VEGF component showed potent edema-inducing activity in the mouse footpad assay. Significant thrombocytopenia, but no other major hematological changes, were observed in envenomed mice. In vitro, this venom lacked coagulant effect on human plasma, and induced a potent inhibition of platelet aggregation which was reproduced by its purified disintegrin components. Phospholipase A2 and proteolytic activities were also demonstrated. Overall, the compositional and functional data herein described for the venom of P. lansbergii lansbergii may contribute to a better understanding of envenomings by this pitviper species, for which specific clinical information is lacking. Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii is estimated to be responsible for nearly 20% of snakebite envenoming cases at the Atlantic Department of Colombia, but the identity and functional properties of its venom components are

  12. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  13. The VIPERS Multi-Lambda Survey. I. UV and near-IR observations, multi-colour catalogues, and photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutard, T.; Arnouts, S.; Ilbert, O.; Coupon, J.; Hudelot, P.; Vibert, D.; Comte, V.; Conseil, S.; Davidzon, I.; Guzzo, L.; Llebaria, A.; Martin, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Milliard, B.; Morrison, G.; Schiminovich, D.; Treyer, M.; Van Werbaeke, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations collected in the CFHTLS-VIPERS region in the ultraviolet with the GALEX satellite (far- and near-ultraviolet channels) and in the near-infrared with the CFHT/WIRCam camera (Ks band) over an area of 22 and 27 deg2, respectively. The depth of the photometry was optimised to measure the physical properties (e.g., star formation rate, stellar masses) of all the galaxies in the VIPERS spectroscopic survey. The large volume explored by VIPERS will enable a unique investigation of the relationship between the galaxy properties and their environment (density field and cosmic web) at high redshift (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.2). In this paper, we present the observations, the data reductions, and the build-up of the multi-colour catalogues. The CFHTLS-T0007 (gri-χ2) images are used as reference to detect and measure the Ks-band photometry, while the T0007 u∗-selected sources are used as priors to perform the GALEX photometry based on a dedicated software (EMphot). Our final sample reaches NUVAB ~ 25 (at 5σ) and KAB ~ 22 (at 3σ). The large spectroscopic sample (~51 000 spectroscopic redshifts) allows us to highlight the robustness of our star/galaxy separation and the reliability of our photometric redshifts with a typical accuracy of σz ≤ 0.04 and a fraction of catastrophic failures η ≤ 2% down to i ~ 23. We present various tests on the Ks-band completeness and photometric redshift accuracy by comparing our results with existing overlapping deep photometric catalogues. Finally, we discuss the BzK sample of passive and active galaxies at high redshift and the evolution of galaxy morphology in the (NUV-r) vs. (r-Ks) diagram at low redshift (z ≤ 0.25) based on the high image quality of the CFHTLS. The catalogue is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A102The images, catalogues, and photometric redshifts for 1.5 million sources (down to NUV

  14. Novel role of antiplatelet agents (aspirin plus clopidogrel in an incoagulable blood of a victim of russell's viper snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Bawaskar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake antivenom is a specific antidote to the venom action, neutralizing the circulating venom. However, it fails to neutralize the venom fixed to target organs such as platelets, renal tubules, etc. Russell's viper venom initiates rapid coagulation in a victim by activating blood platelets, factors V, X, and anticoagulant cofactors. Activation of thrombin, resulting in formation of micro-thrombi, fibrinolysis, and a vicious cascade, sets in. Inhibition of activated platelets by aspirin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor and clopidogrel (ADP receptor inhibitor helps to break this vicious circle induced by Russell's venom and may initiate the natural physiological clotting mechanism. They can be utilized as an adjuvant treatment.

  15. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  16. A retrospective study of snake bite envenomation in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

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    Arul Murugan

    2015-09-01

    Results: A Total of 82 cases were studied in our hospital. Out of these 82 Poisonous bites, 42 (51.22% cases were viper bites, 20 (24.39% cases were unidentified poisonous bites, 16 (19.51% cases were Krait, and 4 (4.88% cases were Cobra. Coagulopathy, cellulitis, wound infection, renal failure and respiratory paralysis were the common complications. Average dose of ASV administered range from 8.57 (+/- 0.98 to 20.78 (+/- 4.18 Vials. An increase in mortality, ASV dose and complications were directly proportional to the Bite to ASV Administration time. Conclusions: Delay in hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis and increased mortality rate due to complications. There is an emergent need of awareness among the community for avoidance of traditional form of treatment and delay in early medical interventions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2419-2424

  17. Distribution, formation mechanisms, and significance of lunar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert V.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images reveal the presence of steep-walled pits in mare basalt (n = 8), impact melt deposits (n = 221), and highland terrain (n = 2). Pits represent evidence of subsurface voids of unknown extents. By analogy with terrestrial counterparts, the voids associated with mare pits may extend for hundreds of meters to kilometers in length, thereby providing extensive potential habitats and access to subsurface geology. Because of their small sizes relative to the local equilibrium crater diameters, the mare pits are likely to be post-flow features rather than volcanic skylights. The impact melt pits are indirect evidence both of extensive subsurface movement of impact melt and of exploitable sublunarean voids. Due to the small sizes of pits (mare, highland, and impact melt) and the absolute ages of their host materials, it is likely that most pits formed as secondary features.

  18. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  19. Azemiopsin from Azemiops feae Viper Venom, a Novel Polypeptide Ligand of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Yuri N.; Weise, Christoph; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Andreeva, Tatyana V.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Zhmak, Maxim N.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Hoang, Ngoc Anh; Bertrand, Daniel; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Thompson, Andrew J.; Lummis, Sarah C. R.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2012-01-01

    Azemiopsin, a novel polypeptide, was isolated from the Azemiops feae viper venom by combination of gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Its amino acid sequence (DNWWPKPPHQGPRPPRPRPKP) was determined by means of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. It consists of 21 residues and, unlike similar venom isolates, does not contain cysteine residues. According to circular dichroism measurements, this peptide adopts a β-structure. Peptide synthesis was used to verify the determined sequence and to prepare peptide in sufficient amounts to study its biological activity. Azemiopsin efficiently competed with α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (IC50 0.18 ± 0.03 μm) and with lower efficiency to human α7 nAChR (IC50 22 ± 2 μm). It dose-dependently blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing human muscle-type nAChR and was more potent against the adult form (α1β1ϵδ) than the fetal form (α1β1γδ), EC50 being 0.44 ± 0.1 μm and 1.56 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The peptide had no effect on GABAA (α1β3γ2 or α2β3γ2) receptors at a concentration up to 100 μm or on 5-HT3 receptors at a concentration up to 10 μm. Ala scanning showed that amino acid residues at positions 3–6, 8–11, and 13–14 are essential for binding to Torpedo nAChR. In biological activity azemiopsin resembles waglerin, a disulfide-containing peptide from the Tropidechis wagleri venom, shares with it a homologous C-terminal hexapeptide, but is the first natural toxin that blocks nAChRs and does not possess disulfide bridges. PMID:22613724

  20. Azemiopsin from Azemiops feae viper venom, a novel polypeptide ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Yuri N; Weise, Christoph; Kasheverov, Igor E; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Kryukova, Elena V; Zhmak, Maxim N; Starkov, Vladislav G; Hoang, Ngoc Anh; Bertrand, Daniel; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Sieghart, Werner; Thompson, Andrew J; Lummis, Sarah C R; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2012-08-03

    Azemiopsin, a novel polypeptide, was isolated from the Azemiops feae viper venom by combination of gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Its amino acid sequence (DNWWPKPPHQGPRPPRPRPKP) was determined by means of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. It consists of 21 residues and, unlike similar venom isolates, does not contain cysteine residues. According to circular dichroism measurements, this peptide adopts a β-structure. Peptide synthesis was used to verify the determined sequence and to prepare peptide in sufficient amounts to study its biological activity. Azemiopsin efficiently competed with α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (IC(50) 0.18 ± 0.03 μm) and with lower efficiency to human α7 nAChR (IC(50) 22 ± 2 μm). It dose-dependently blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes heterologously expressing human muscle-type nAChR and was more potent against the adult form (α1β1εδ) than the fetal form (α1β1γδ), EC(50) being 0.44 ± 0.1 μm and 1.56 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The peptide had no effect on GABA(A) (α1β3γ2 or α2β3γ2) receptors at a concentration up to 100 μm or on 5-HT(3) receptors at a concentration up to 10 μm. Ala scanning showed that amino acid residues at positions 3-6, 8-11, and 13-14 are essential for binding to Torpedo nAChR. In biological activity azemiopsin resembles waglerin, a disulfide-containing peptide from the Tropidechis wagleri venom, shares with it a homologous C-terminal hexapeptide, but is the first natural toxin that blocks nAChRs and does not possess disulfide bridges.

  1. Upward Altitudinal Shifts in Habitat Suitability of Mountain Vipers since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Nourani, Elham; Behrooz, Roozbeh; Rajabizadeh, Mehdi; Geniez, Philippe; Kaboli, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of past and future climate changes on the distribution of the Montivipera raddei species complex (MRC) that contains rare and endangered viper species limited to Iran, Turkey and Armenia. We also investigated the current distribution of MRC to locate unidentified isolated populations as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the current network of protected areas for their conservation. Present distribution of MRC was modeled based on ecological variables and model performance was evaluated by field visits. Some individuals at the newly identified populations showed uncommon morphological characteristics. The distribution map of MRC derived through modeling was then compared with the distribution of protected areas in the region. We estimated the effectiveness of the current protected area network to be 10%, which would be sufficient for conserving this group of species, provided adequate management policies and practices are employed. We further modeled the distribution of MRC in the past (21,000 years ago) and under two scenarios in the future (to 2070). These models indicated that climatic changes probably have been responsible for an upward shift in suitable habitats of MRC since the Last Glacial Maximum, leading to isolation of allopatric populations. Distribution will probably become much more restricted in the future as a result of the current rate of global warming. We conclude that climate change most likely played a major role in determining the distribution pattern of MRC, restricting allopatric populations to mountaintops due to habitat alterations. This long-term isolation has facilitated unique local adaptations among MRC populations, which requires further investigation. The suitable habitat patches identified through modeling constitute optimized solutions for inclusion in the network of protected areas in the region. PMID:26367126

  2. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  3. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  4. Do snakes represent the principal predatory threat to callitrichids? Fatal attack of a viper (Bothrops leucurus) on a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the Atlantic Forest of the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone

    2011-07-01

    A juvenile common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was attacked by a whitetail lancehead viper (Bothrops leucurus) while playing with other group members close to the ground at a site in northeastern Brazil. The attack was almost immediately fatal, but the viper was unable to ingest the body of the marmoset. After approximately 10 min, during which it attempted to swallow the marmoset a number of times, the viper moved away, abandoning the body. While raptors are the principal predators of callitrichids, this record reinforces the relative vulnerability of these primates to snakes in comparison with other platyrrhines, although the small number of recorded events precludes a more definitive analysis of the phenomenon.

  5. Non-Native (Exotic Snake Envenomations in the U.S., 2005–2011

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    Brandon J. Warrick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-native (exotic snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.. We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33–40. Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The average age was 33 years with 16% less than 20 years old. 70% of bites occurred in a private residence and 86% were treated at a healthcare facility. 35% of cases received antivenom and 10% were given antibiotics. This study is compared to our previous study (1994–2004 in which there was a substantial coding error rate. Software modifications significantly reduced coding errors. Identification and acquisition of appropriate antivenoms pose a number of logistical difficulties in the management of these envenomations. In the U.S., poison centers have valuable systems and clinical roles in the provision of expert consultation and in the management of these cases.

  6. Non-Native (Exotic) Snake Envenomations in the U.S., 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Brandon J.; Boyer, Leslie V.; Seifert, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native (exotic) snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.). We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33–40). Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The average age was 33 years with 16% less than 20 years old. 70% of bites occurred in a private residence and 86% were treated at a healthcare facility. 35% of cases received antivenom and 10% were given antibiotics. This study is compared to our previous study (1994–2004) in which there was a substantial coding error rate. Software modifications significantly reduced coding errors. Identification and acquisition of appropriate antivenoms pose a number of logistical difficulties in the management of these envenomations. In the U.S., poison centers have valuable systems and clinical roles in the provision of expert consultation and in the management of these cases. PMID:25268980

  7. Indian common krait envenomation presenting as fulminant myocarditis and coma: a case report

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    Vijay Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fulminant myocarditis is an unusual manifestation of cardiotoxicity with severe elapid snake envenoming and is meagrely reported with snake bite due to Indian common krait. We report a 12-year-old boy who was admitted in complete locked-in state and hemodynamic instability after severe neurotoxic snake envenoming by Bungarus caeruleus (Indian common krait. His hospital course was complicated with recurrent episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia requiring defibrillation; and cardiogenic shock requiring inotropes, vasopressors and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation. Severe heart failure features secondary to fulminant toxic myocarditis persisted even after full neurological recovery requiring prolonged standard medical heart failure therapy. Patient subsequently achieved full clinical recovery and regained normal left ventricular systolic function. We also reviewed the literature on cardiac manifestations, possible mechanisms and treatment of patients with cardiotoxicity due to elapid snake bites. The importance of anticipating severe cardiovascular complications is highlighted to help formulate appropriate therapeutic strategy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1713-1717

  8. A multicomponent strategy to improve the availability of antivenom for treating snakebite envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, José María; Burnouf, Thierry; Harrison, Robert A; Calvete, Juan J; Kuch, Ulrich; Warrell, David A; Williams, David J

    2014-07-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a common but neglected public health problem, particularly in impoverished rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. The only validated treatment for this condition is passive immunotherapy with safe and effective animal-derived antivenoms. However, there is a long-lasting crisis in the availability of these life-saving medications, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We herein advocate a multicomponent strategy to substantially improve the availability of safe and effective antivenoms at the global level. This strategy is based on: (i) preparing validated collections of representative venom pools from the most medically dangerous snakes in high-risk regions of the world; (ii) strengthening the capacity of national antivenom manufacturing and quality control laboratories and their regulatory authorities and establishing new facilities in developing countries through technology transfer, as an integral part of efforts to develop their biological products industry; (iii) getting established laboratories to generate antivenoms for various regions of the world; and (iv) getting governments and relevant organizations to give snakebite envenoming due recognition within national and international public health policy frameworks. These ways of making antivenom available should be complemented by actions to improve health information systems, the accessibility of antivenoms, the training of medical and nursing staff, and community-based education. Such a multicomponent strategy involving stakeholders on many levels could help consolidate sustainable improvements in antivenom availability worldwide.

  9. Behavioral, histopathological and biochemical impairments observed in mice envenomed by the scorpion: Hottentota gentili (Pallary, 1924).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Chait, Abderrahman; Eddine Hafid, Jamal; Boumezzough, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Hottentota gentili is a black scorpion which has been considered as dangerous specie by many authors. However there are no data regarding minimal lethal dose and effects of the scorpion venom till now. We therefore aimed, by the present investigation, to assess on the one hand, the LD50 of H. gentili venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. On the other hand, the possible neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3 h, 6 h and 12 h following envenomation. The LD50 of H. gentili scorpion venom was found to be 0.46 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom produced focal fragmentation of myocardial fibers, while lungs showed rupture of the alveolar structure. Intestines showed selective histopathological changes. Concomitantly, there was a significant rise in the serum enzymes levels, as well as hyperkalemia and a high level of plasma albumine and creatine. Proteinuria was also observed. The observed behavioral effects were a hypoactivity in the both experiments 30 min and 3 h after injection. The envenomation produced an increased immobility time only 30 min and 3 h post injection in the tail suspension test (TST).

  10. Fatal envenomation by Chironex fleckeri, the north Australian box jellyfish: the continuing search for lethal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, J; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Burnett, J W; Colquhoun, D M

    1988-05-16

    A child with severe envenomation by Chironex fleckeri presented in cardiac arrest at a hospital between 15 and 20 min after the sting was sustained. Resuscitation was not successful. Objective confirmation of C. fleckeri as the cause of death is described. Four metres of tentacle contact in this case represents the smallest-measured fatal C. fleckeri sting that has been recorded so far. The mechanism of this death was toxic and not allergic. The available clinical information suggests direct myocardial interference, but does not exclude a respiratory hypoxic element. A more widespread venom-induced functional disruption of the cell membrane is postulated, with a resultant dysfunction in several vital organ systems that were acting in concert. Early, vigorous and sustained resuscitation that is performed as a first-aid measure offers the best hope of prehospital survival after a massive C. fleckeri sting, which is the most explosive envenomation process that is presently known to humans. In-hospital resuscitation from unresponsive circulatory arrest should now involve intravenously-administered verapamil (or its equivalent) and additional box-jellyfish antivenom, while the patient is being monitored.

  11. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death.The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals.Level IV, Case report.This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia.

  12. Mortality following snake bite envenomation by Bitis arietans in an HIV positive child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Gregory B.; Street, Matthew; Ramguthy, Yammesh; Doedens, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children. A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken. We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation. The patient presented late with a wide area of necrotic skin on the arm requiring extensive debridement. The underlying muscle was not necrotic. Polyvalent antivenom (South African Institute of Medical Research Polyvalent Snakebite Antiserum) administration was delayed by 4 days after the snake bite. The patient was also diagnosed with HIV and a persistent thrombocytopenia possibly due to both HIV infection and the snake bite venom. Lower respiratory tract infections with subsequent overwhelming sepsis ultimately resulted in the child's death. The case highlights the challenge of treating a snake bite in a young child with HIV and the detrimental outcome of delayed treatment. A protocol is essential in the management of snake bites in all hospitals. Level IV, Case report. This case highlights the interaction of snake bite envenomation and HIV infection on thrombocytopenia. PMID:27399076

  13. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  14. Anuric renal failure in a dog after red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, J; Bosward, K L; Hodgson, D R; Pottie, R

    2006-05-01

    A case of Red-bellied Black snake envenomation resulting in intravascular haemolytic anaemia, rhabdomyolysis and anuric renal failure is described in the dog. A 12-year-old female desexed Golden Retriever was presented with a 15 hour history of profuse salivation, progressive lethargy, obtundence, inappetence and collapse. Significant findings on clinical examination were pallor, icterus, tachypnoea and dyspnoea with increased respiratory sounds and crackles in all lung fields. Generalised abdominal and muscular pain was apparent and dark red-brown urine was present around the perineal region. A diagnosis of Red-bellied Black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenomation was made and the dog was treated with intravenous fluid therapy, Tiger/Brown snake antivenom, packed red cell transfusions and Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation. Continued clinical deterioration occurred and a diagnosis of acute renal failure secondary to myohaemoglobinuric pigmenturia was made 12 hours after admission. Intensive treatment was attempted with diuresis and volume expansion. Oliguria and subsequent anuria ensued and the dog was euthanased due to a grave prognosis and lack of clinical response to treatment. Necropsy examination revealed muscular necrosis, accumulation of fluid in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities, and marked renal tubular necrosis with intraluminal occlusion secondary to pigmentary casts.

  15. Commissioned article: management of exotic snakebites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, D A

    2009-09-01

    Exotic (foreign or non-native) snakes, including venomous species, are becoming increasingly popular pets in Western countries. Some of them are kept illegally (as defined by the UK Dangerous Wild Animals Act of 1976). There is a large international market for such animals, with contraventions of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). In the UK, several other European countries and the USA the reported numbers of bites by venomous exotic snakes, although small, are increasing but still underestimate the occurrence of these occasionally fatal events because of the victims' reluctance to seek medical care. Victims are predominantly young men who have been drinking alcohol. Bites may be intentionally provoked. In Europe, the species most often involved are cobras, green mambas, American pit vipers particularly rattlesnakes, African adders, vipers and Asian green pit vipers. To illustrate the special problems involved, case histories are presented of bites by exotic species in the UK and of bites abroad, where patients were repatriated for treatment. In view of the relative rarity and diversity of these cases, expert advice must usually be sought. These requests should include information about the species thought to have been responsible and the history and timing of the evolution of envenoming. Sources of advice and antivenom are discussed together with recommendations for appropriate first aid and emergency treatment while this is being awaited. Respiratory and cardiovascular resuscitation may be required and when systemic or severe local envenoming develops, specific (equine or ovine) antivenom is indicated.

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components

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    Sergey I. Kovalchuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A2, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14% in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5% in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12% in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8% in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the “kaznakovi” complex.

  17. Live-birth in vipers (Viperidae) is a key innovation and adaptation to global cooling during the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Vincent J

    2009-09-01

    The identification of adaptations and key innovations has long interested biologists because they confer on organisms the ability to exploit previously unavailable ecological resources and respond to novel selective pressures. Although it can be extremely difficult to test for the effects of a character on the rate of lineage diversification, the convergent evolution of a character in multiple lineages provides an excellent opportunity to test for the effect of that character on lineage diversification. Here, I examine the effect of parity mode on the diversification of vipers, which have independently evolved viviparity in at least 13 lineages. I find strong statistical evidence that viviparous species diversify at a greater rate than oviparous species and correlate major decreases in the diversification rate of oviparous species with periods of global cooling, such as the Oligocene. These results suggest that the evolution of viviparity buffered live-bearing species against the negative effects of global climate change during the Cenozoic, and was a key innovation in the evolution and diversification of live-bearing vipers.

  18. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Sergey I.; Ziganshin, Rustam H.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Utkin, Yuri N.

    2016-01-01

    Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii) inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A2, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14%) in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5%) in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12%) in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8%) in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the “kaznakovi” complex. PMID:27077884

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Venoms from Russian Vipers of Pelias Group: Phospholipases A₂ are the Main Venom Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Starkov, Vladislav G; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2016-04-12

    Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species (V. kaznakovi, V. renardi, V. orlovi and V. nikolskii) inhabiting different regions of Russia. In all these species, the main components were phospholipases A₂, their content ranging from 24% in V. orlovi to 65% in V. nikolskii. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. nikolskii reached ~85%. Among the non-enzymatic proteins, the most abundant were disintegrins (14%) in the V. renardi venom, C-type lectin like (12.5%) in V. kaznakovi, cysteine-rich venom proteins (12%) in V. orlovi and venom endothelial growth factors (8%) in V. nikolskii. In total, 210 proteins and 512 endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously. However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Compositions of V. kaznakovi and V. orlovi venoms were described for the first time and showed the greatest similarity among the four venoms studied, which probably reflected close relationship between these species within the "kaznakovi" complex.

  20. One strategy for arthroscopic suture fixation of tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using the Meniscal Viper Repair System

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    Ochiai Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Principles for the treatment of tibial intercondylar eminence fracture are early reduction and stable fixation. Numerous ways to treatment of this fracture have been invented. We designed a simple, low-invasive, and arthroscopic surgical strategy for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture utilizing the Meniscal Viper Repair System used for arthroscopic meniscal suture. Methods We studied 5 patients, who underwent arthroscopic suture fixation that we modified. The present technique utilized the Meniscal Viper Repair System for arthroscopic suture of the meniscus. With one handling, a high-strength ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE suture can be passed through the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the loops for suture retrieval placed at both sides of ACL. Surgical results were evaluated by the presence or absence of bone union on plain radiographs, postoperative range of motion of the knee joint, the side-to-side differences measured by Telos SE, and Lysholm scores. Results The reduced position achieved after surgery was maintained and good function was obtained in all cases. The mean distance of tibia anterior displacement and assessment by Lysholm score showed good surgical results. Conclusion This method simplified the conventional arthroscopic suture fixation and increased its precision, and was applicable to Type II fractures that could be reduced, as well as surgically indicated Types III and IV. The present series suggested that our surgical approach was a useful surgical intervention for tibial intercondylar eminence fracture.

  1. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

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    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  2. Retrospective evaluation of cats with elapid snake envenomation associated neurotoxicity requiring mechanical ventilation: 12 cases (2005-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Mei; Kelers, Kylie; Hughes, Dez; Boller, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    To retrospectively determine the population and outcome characteristics of a cohort of Australian elapid snake envenomed cats requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). Retrospective observational study (2005-2014). Academic veterinary emergency and critical care service. Twelve cats undergoing MV for elapid snake envenomation. None. The medical records were searched to identify cats requiring MV as part of treatment for elapid snake envenomation. Signalment, the indication for, duration of and complications associated with MV, duration of hospitalization, and survival to hospital discharge were recorded for each of the enrolled cases. Seven cats (58.3%) underwent MV because of presumed unsustainable respiratory effort and 5 cats (41.7%) for respiratory arrest. Eleven cats (91.7%) were successfully weaned from MV and survived to hospital discharge. No cats developed ventilator associated pneumonia or pneumothorax. The median duration of MV was 19.5 hours for the survivors (range 7.0-37.0 hours) and median duration of hospitalization was 3.5 days (range 2.4-14.9 days). Cats requiring MV for elapid snake envenomation have a favorable outcome and require a relatively short period of MV. Complications encountered are unlikely to influence outcome. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  3. Viperid Envenomation Wound Exudate Contributes to Increased Vascular Permeability via a DAMPs/TLR-4 Mediated Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Nicolau, Carolina A.; Escalante, Teresa; Kim, Junho; Herrera, Cristina; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis. Moreover, significant differences in the amounts of cytokines/chemokines and DAMPs were detected between exudates collected 1 h and 24 h after envenomation, thus highlighting a complex temporal dynamic in the composition of exudate. Pretreatment of mice with Eritoran, an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), significantly reduced the exudate-induced increase in vascular permeability, thus suggesting that DAMPs might be acting through this receptor. It is hypothesized that an “Envenomation-induced DAMPs cycle of tissue damage” may be operating in viperid snakebite envenomation through which venom-induced tissue damage generates a variety of DAMPs which may further expand tissue alterations. PMID:27886127

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0 = 0.274 ± 0.017, which

  5. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The decline of cosmic star formation: quenching, mass, and environment connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Granett, B. R.; De Lucia, G.; Branchini, E.; Zamorani, G.; Iovino, A.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Bel, J.; Blaizot, J.; Coupon, J.; Hawken, A.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Gargiulo, A.

    2017-06-01

    We use the final data of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to investigate the effect of the environment on the evolution of galaxies between z = 0.5 and z = 0.9. We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the fifth nearest neighbour. This is performed by using a volume-limited sub-sample of galaxies complete up to z = 0.9, but allows us to attach a value of local density to all galaxies in the full VIPERS magnitude-limited sample to i reside in higher-density environments over the full redshift range explored. Defining star-forming and passive galaxies through their (NUV-r) vs. (r-K) colours, we then quantify the fraction of star-forming over passive galaxies, fap, as a function of environment at fixed stellar mass. fap is higher in low-density regions for galaxies with masses ranging from log (ℳ/ℳ⊙) = 10.38 (the lowest value explored) to at least log (ℳ/ℳ⊙) 11.3, although with decreasing significance going from lower to higher masses. This is the first time that environmental effects on high-mass galaxies are clearly detected at redshifts as high as z 0.9. We compared these results to VIPERS-like galaxy mock catalogues based on a widely used galaxy formation model. The model correctly reproduces fap in low-density environments, but underpredicts it at high densities. The discrepancy is particularly strong for the lowest-mass bins. We find that this discrepancy is driven by an excess of low-mass passive satellite galaxies in the model. In high-density regions, we obtain a better (although not perfect) agreement of the model fap with observations by studying the accretion history of these model galaxies (that is, the times when they become satellites), by assuming either that a non-negligible fraction of satellites is destroyed, or that their quenching timescale is longer than 2 Gyr. Based on observations collected at the

  6. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  7. Parturition Pit: The Bony Imprint of Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. Results 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (pbirths. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (pbirth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. PMID:27270921

  8. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  9. Mortality and antibody responses of mice to three successive episodes of experimental scorpion (Centruroides limpidus limpidus) envenomation and immunological rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Alejandro; Govezensky, Tzipe; Possani, Lourival D; Larralde, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    Mortality rates of mice and their levels of anti-venom and anti-F(ab')2 antibodies were assessed after three episodes of subcutaneous envenomations with or without treatment with horse F(ab')2. Soluble venom from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides limpidus limpidus was used for these experiments. Repetition of episodes did not induce different mortality rates in untreated mice. F(ab')2 rescued about 85% of the mice in the first two episodes and 66% in the third, without distinction of gender or ostensible side-effects: a suggestion of selection of the most resistant mice. Surviving mice produced in vitro neutralizing antibodies to the scorpion venom and also antibodies to F(ab')2, when injected alone but more so if combined: a possible immunological adjuvant or alarm effect of the venom or of the cascading physiopathology of envenomation. In the few surviving mice, both anti-venom and anti-F(ab')2 antibodies increased significantly after the first envenomation but not thereafter, showing no correlation with mortality rates: a suggestion of their clinical irrelevance, the few hard-to kill mice appeared to resist envenomation by mechanisms other than antibody response. Injection of F(ab')2 alone induced production of detectable anti-venom antibodies in a few mice and injection of venom alone induced that of anti-F(ab')2 antibodies, perhaps due to trace amounts of venom in the high affinity fraction of F(ab')2 and to anti-idiotypic antibodies or polyclonal activity in the envenomation episode, respectively.

  10. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.

    2004-06-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional

  11. RESPIRATORY REHABILITATION IN ACUTE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH NEUROPARALYTIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION: CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Sikka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxic envenomations have the potency to cause a broad spectrum of presentations starting from ptosis and ophthalmoplegia to respiratory arrest. These patients require ventilatory assistance in addition to administration of anti-snake venom (ASV and other supportive measures. Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for retained secretions due to endotracheal intubation disrupting mucociliary escalator, relative immobility of mechanically patient confined to bed can lead to postoperative atelectasis, impaired cough, and retained secretions and thereby physical therapy may be indicated for patients in the intensive care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty four consecutive patients ranging in age from 25-45 years, who required, mechanical ventilation for respiratory muscle paralysis, secondary to snake envenomation, seen during three months period, recruited from various ICU’s were included in the study. All the patients included were mechanically ventilated on Hamilton Evita ventilator, on volume control (CMV mode with PEEP<10 cmH2O and had stable hemodynamics with heart rate = 60-100 beats/min; MABP = 70-110mm Hg. Patients received chest physiotherapy intervention twice in a day. Effects of physiotherapy treatment were studied on static lung compliance (CST, oxygenation ratio (PaO2:FiO2 ratio, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2 , cologarithm of activity of dissolved hydrogen ions in arterial blood (pH and chest X-rays. Measurements of dependent variables were recorded (PRE before commencement of treatment, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after treatment. Physiotherapy intervention included bronchial hygiene therapy and manual hyperinflation using Mapleson-C circuit. Results: Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant improvement in CST mean values (p<0.01 and significant improvement

  12. Space-time principles of reducing stripping in furrow pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The lower slope of furrow pits has following special features: small extent of weathering destruction, short time of production blasting damage, good arching effect of lower slope with small curvature radius, and good bottom effect ofa pit end for transferring and bearing initial horizontal stresses in lower slope. The new principles provided theoretical basis for convex slope in furrow pits to reduce stripping. Similar phenomena and examples are supplied simultaneously.

  13. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  14. EKA hoonelt rebiti maha kaunistav pits / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Ehituskulude vähendamiseks muudeti Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone projekti. Maja välisfassaadilt eemaldati kaunistav pits ja loobuti spiraalsest aatriumist. Ehitusplatsile hakatakse rajama metallist sulundseina

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krywult, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Pollo, A.; Vergani, D.; Bolzonella, M.; Davidzon, I.; Iovino, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Haines, C. P.; Scodeggio, M.; Guzzo, L.; Zamorani, G.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Tojeiro, R.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Moscardini, L.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The study of the separation of galaxy types into different classes that share the same characteristics, and of the evolution of the specific parameters used in the classification are fundamental for understanding galaxy evolution. Aims: We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours combining high-quality imaging data from the CFHT Legacy Survey with the large number of redshifts and extended photometry from the VIPERS survey. Methods: Galaxy structural parameters were combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts in order to trace evolution in a multi-parameter space. Using a new method we analysed the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity-redshift space. Results: We find that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane and the Sérsic index distributions are well fitted by a sum of two Gaussians, with a remarkable consistency of red-spheroidal and blue-disky galaxy populations, over the explored redshift (0.5 statistical description of the structure of galaxies and their evolution. Additionally, the proposed method provides a robust way to split galaxies into early and late types. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS

  16. Animal-related fatalities--part II: characteristic autopsy findings and variable causes of death associated with envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Langlois, Neil; Byard, Roger W

    2012-03-01

    In addition to blunt and sharp trauma, animal-related fatalities may result from envenomation, poisoning, anaphylaxis, asphyxiation, and sepsis. Although the majority of envenomation deaths are caused by hornets, bees, and wasps, the mechanism of death is most often anaphylaxis. Envenomation resulting from the injection of a poison or toxin into a victim occurs with snakes, spiders, and scorpions on land. Marine animal envenomation may result from stings and bites from jellyfish, octopus, stonefish, cone fish, stingrays, and sea snakes. At autopsy, the findings may be extremely subtle, and so a history of exposure is required. Poisoning may also occur from ingesting certain fish, with three main forms of neurotoxin poisoning involving ciguatera, tetrodotoxin ingestion, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Asphyxiation may follow upper airway occlusion or neck/chest compression by animals, and sepsis may follow bites. Autopsy analysis of cases requires extensive toxinological, toxicological, and biochemical analyses of body fluids.

  17. Histopathological evaluation in experimental envenomation of dogs with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sangiorgio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated histopathological aspects in experimental envenomation of dogs with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Twenty-eight mixed breed adult dogs were divided into three groups of seven animals each: Group I - only venom; Group II - venom + 50ml antiophidic serum + fluid therapy; Group III - venom + 50ml antiophidic serum + fluid therapy + urine alkalization. Lyophilized venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus was reconstituted in saline solution and inoculated subcutaneously at the dose of 1mg/kg body weight. Three animals of each group were subjected to euthanasia, and their muscular tissue, brain, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestines, and popliteal lymph node fragments were collected for histopathological evaluation. There was myonecrosis in the inoculated limb, renal tubular degeneration, lymphoid hyperplasia of spleen, and unspecific reactive hepatitis. These results show the antigenicity and action of the venom on the immune system.

  18. Tissue damage caused by Bothrops sp envenoming evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, M.G. [Faculdade do Norte Paulista, Bebedouro, SP (Brazil); Matias, M.R.C. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Hospital Universitario. Unidade de Ressonancia Magnetica; Yamashita, S.; Morceli, J. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Barraviera, B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Venenosos (CEVAP)]. E-mail: marilucefonseca@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate local tissue damage caused by Bothrops sp envenoming in relation to lesion type and damaged tissues using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients bitten by Bothrops snakes were treated at the Emergency Unit of the Tropical Diseases Unit at the University Hospital, Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After receiving specific sero therapy, the patients were submitted to MR of the bite site. T 1 spin-echo MRI were obtained revealing the following lesions: edema (n=9), edema associated with hemorrhage (n=5), and hemorrhage (n=1). Peri muscular areas (n=6) and subcutaneous tissues (n=5) were the most affected, followed by muscular tissues (n=4). It is important to mention that MRI did not show myonecrosis of the bite site, a widely reported finding in anatomical and histopathological experimental studies. (author)

  19. [Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaud, G; Epelboin, L; Henn, A; Perignon, A; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of box-jellyfish related envenomation in a 40 year old tourist that occurred in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, in the Gulf of Thailand. Symptoms that appeared within a few minutes associated intense pain, hand edema and large edematous and erythematous flagellations in the stung skin areas. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were delivered. Inflammatory signs and skin lesions disappeared within 15 days followed by crusts then scars. Jellyfish at risk for humans are generally found in tropical seas and their geographic distribution seems to spread. As it is difficult to prevent this kind of accident, travelers should be aware of the first acts to perform, such as appropriate cleaning of the wound, the interest of vinegar usage, the administration of analgesics and corticosteroids in case of significant inflammatory signs.

  20. Peripheral locked in syndrome following snake envenomation – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Kumari Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite is a terror in the Terai regions of Nepal. It is estimated that at least 20,000 snake bites occur each year with about 1000 deaths in hospitals, mainly in the Terai region. About 25% of the total snake bite cases constitute children in the endemic regions of snakes. Majority of children (85% following snakebite envenomation develop local or systemic complications. They present in varied ways, from a stable patient with no symptoms to a completely paralyzed child with all features of brain death present, although for a brief time. This has been termed locked in syndrome in snake bite. The locked in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively differenced, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. If not detected early, it is not uncommon for children presenting with locked in syndrome being put to funeral pyre or buried alive. Sometimes there might not be bite mark making the diagnosis even more challenging. A two year old boy presented with restlessness and quadriparesis following neurotoxic snake envenomation. Later he developed complete paralysis with most features of brain death present like absent dolls eye, absent corneal reflexes and a dilated and fixed pupil only two hours following the bite. He was treated with a standard regimen of anti-snake venom (ASV along with other supportive measures. His remarkable recovery with the above treatment points towards the necessity of recognizing this syndrome in children following snake bite and continuing all supportive therapies till they regain their reflexes and powers.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 32-34

  1. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.M.; Laing, G.D.; Theakston, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsi

  2. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, R.A.; Hasson, S.S.; Harmsen, M.M.; Laing, G.D.; Theakston, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsi

  3. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  4. Pit initiation on nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Bruce G

    2017-08-21

    Inclusions appear to play a crucial role in the initiation of pitting on nitinol, but the reason remains unclear. Furthermore, it has not been established whether the type of inclusion is a central factor. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization together with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to provide more insight into the initiation of pits on electropolished nitinol wire. Corrosion was limited to a single primary pit on each of the few wire samples that exhibited breakdown. The pit contained numerous Ti2 NiOx inclusions, but secondary pits that developed within the primary pit provided evidence that these inclusions were the sites of pit initiation. Although several theories have been proposed to account for pit initiation at inclusions in mechanically polished and electropolished nitinol, titanium depletion in the adjacent alloy matrix appears to provide the most viable explanation. The key factor appears to be the size of the inclusion and therefore the extent of titanium depletion in the alloy matrix. The type of inclusion evidently plays a secondary role at most. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water tabl

  6. [Spontaneous disappearance of herniation pit on the femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerais, J M; Jacob, D; Thibaud, J C; Fourrer, C; Cercueil, J P; Krause, D; Laredo, J D; Baudrillard, J C

    1995-09-01

    The authors present a case of a 39 years old patient who had a herniation pit of the left femoral neck, 5 years ago. This lesion disappeared spontaneously. To our knowledge, no report of healing of a herniation pit has been previously described.

  7. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  8. EXPERIMENTAL AND FIELD STUDY ON MINING-PIT MIGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ali Akbar Salehi NEYSHABOURI; Ali FARHADZADEH; Ata AMINI

    2002-01-01

    Rivers are one of the most essential sources of sand and gravel supply for civil works. However,undesirable effects of irregular in-stream mining have been reported on natural sources, environment and infrastructures close to rivers. Therefore, it is necessary to find the effects of mining on rivers in more details. This research concentrates on mining-pit migration phenomenon and its effects on the channel bed.This paper reports an experimental study on the migration of rectangular mining pits and variation of longitudinal profile in the channel bed composed of rather uniform sediments. Different values of widths and lengths were used for pit while pit depths and flow variables were kept constant. The results show that the migration speed changes with the length/width ratio of the pit. The migration speed in convection period is higher than that in diffusion period. In addition, by increasing the length or width, filling rate of pit increases, where the effect of width is more important than the effect of the length. Also is reported in this paper a field study on the changes of three pits excavated at different locations of a river. Some similarities between the pit migration in the straight reach of the river and that of the experimental work is realized and presented.

  9. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  10. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  11. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  12. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane strain, the pressure predicted by the model

  13. Effective equine immunization protocol for production of potent poly-specific antisera against Calloselasma rhodostoma, Cryptelytrops albolabris and Daboia siamensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sapsutthipas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Snake envenomation has been estimated to affect 1.8 million people annually with about 94,000 deaths mostly in poor tropical countries. Specific antivenoms are the only rational and effective therapy for these cases. Efforts are being made to produce effective, affordable and sufficient antivenoms for these victims. The immunization process, which has rarely been described in detail, is one step that needs to be rigorously studied and improved especially with regard to the production of polyspecific antisera. The polyspecific nature of therapeutic antivenom could obviate the need to identify the culprit snake species. The aim of this study was to produce potent polyspecific antisera against 3 medically important vipers of Thailand and its neighboring countries, namely Cryptelytrops albolabris "White lipped pit viper" (CA, Calleoselasma rhodostoma "Malayan pit viper" (CR, and Daboia siamensis "Russell's viper" (DS. Four horses were immunized with a mixture of the 3 viper venoms using the 'low dose, low volume multi-site' immunization protocol. The antisera showed rapid rise in ELISA titers against the 3 venoms and reached plateau at about the 8th week post-immunization. The in vivo neutralization potency (P of the antisera against CA, CR and DS venoms was 10.40, 2.42 and 0.76 mg/ml, respectively and was much higher than the minimal potency limits set by Queen Soavabha Memorial Institute (QSMI. The corresponding potency values for the QSMI monospecific antisera against CA, CR and DS venoms were 7.28, 3.12 and 1.50 mg/ml, respectively. The polyspecific antisera also effectively neutralized the procoagulant, hemorrhagic, necrotic and nephrotoxic activities of the viper venoms. This effective immunization protocol should be useful in the production of potent polyspecific antisera against snake venoms, and equine antisera against tetanus, diphtheria or rabies.

  14. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  15. Resin Material Dependence of Pit Shape in Thermal Direct Mastering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshihiko; Shimo, Masanori; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Akira

    2007-06-01

    We report the resin material dependence of the shape of pits obtained by thermal direct mastering (TDM), which is a heat-mode mastering method utilizing the thermal decomposition of resins. By applying suitable resins, both circular and crescent pits can be obtained by TDM. This difference in shape was considered to originate from the temperature difference between the glass transition temperature and the thermal decomposition temperature of the resins. The resin with a relatively small temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the circular pits and random patterns, and the resin with a large temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the crescent pits and monotone patterns with high linear density. By using a deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser mastering system with a wavelength of 257 nm and a numerical aperture of 0.90, a monotone pattern of 40-nm-length pits was fabricated by applying a novolak-type resin with a relatively large temperature difference.

  16. Experimental Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation: age- and sex-related differences in symptoms and mortality in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucca MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods for evaluating animal venom toxicity, the calculation of the median lethal dose (LD50 is the most widely used. Although different protocols can be used to calculate the LD50, the source of the venom and the method of extraction, as well as the strain, age, and sex of the animal model employed, should be taken into consideration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sex and age on the toxicity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in Swiss mice. Although the symptoms of envenomation were similar in male and female animals, female mice proved to be more resistant to the venom. In females, age had no impact on the susceptibility to scorpion envenomation. Male mice were more sensitive to T. serrulatus venom. Moreover, in males, age was an important parameter since sensitivity to the venom increased with age.

  17. Outline of an Anthropological Contribution to the Study of Snake Venom Variability: The Case of Echis sp. Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Musch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the variability of snake venom composition is of high relevance for adequate treatment of snakebites. Clinical observations of bite victims are considered as a first step in the study of venom variability. The present paper suggests the study of local clinical observations made by healers as an anthropological contribution to the interdisci-plinary research of venom variability on a species and subspecies level. Such an anthropological contribution will take into account cultural particularities of a region. In order to illustrate his approach, the author describes his ethnozoological and ethnomedical fieldwork among Zarma and Tuareg in western Niger where he studied envenomation by Echis leucogaster. This species is of particular interest, as no medical descriptions of envenomation resulting from its bites seem to exist.

  18. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, .... quantify the effect of natural degradation and dehydration of pit latrine ... through the toilet pedestal.

  19. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  20. [Molecular cloning and analysis of cDNA sequences encoding serine proteinase and Kunitz type inhibitor in venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, A S; Fil'kin, S Iu; Starkov, V G; Utkin, Iu N

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteinases and Kunitz type inhibitors are widely represented in venoms of snakes from different genera. During the study of the venoms from snakes inhabiting Russia we have cloned cDNAs encoding new proteins belonging to these protein families. Thus, a new serine proteinase called nikobin was identified in the venom gland of Vipera nikolskii viper. By amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence, nikobin differs from serine proteinases identified in other snake species. Nikobin amino acid sequence contains 15 unique substitutions. This is the first serine proteinase of viper from Vipera genus for which a complete amino acid sequence established. The cDNA encoding Kunitz type inhibitor was also cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of inhibitor is homologous to those of other proteins from that snakes of Vipera genus. However there are several unusual amino acid substitutions that might result in the change of biological activity of inhibitor.

  1. VIPERS: Unveiling the Combined Evolution of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure at 0.5≤z ≤1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, A.; Vipers Team

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5≤ z ≤1.2. With a combination of volume and sampling density that is unique for these redshifts, VIPERS allows statistical measurements of galaxy clustering and related cosmological quantities to be obtained on an equal footing with classic results from local redshift surveys. At the same time, the broad selection function and ancillary photometric data provide detailed information on the physical properties of the galaxy population and their relation to large-scale structure. This talk presents an overview of the results obtained so far, mostly based on the ˜ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1).

  2. Amino acid and cDNA sequences of a neutral phospholipase A2 from the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizaj, I; Liang, N S; Pungercar, J; Strukelj, B; Ritonja, A; Gubensek, F

    1992-03-15

    The amino acid sequence of a non-toxic phospholipase A2, ammodytin I2, from the venom of the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) and its cDNA sequence have been determined. The protein sequence was elucidated by sequencing the peptides generated by CNBr cleavage, mild acid hydrolysis and tryptic digestion of maleylated and non-maleylated protein. Sequencing of the cDNA showed that the protein is synthesized as an 137-amino-acid-residue precursor molecule consisting of a 16-residue signal peptide, followed by a 121-residue mature enzyme. Ammodytin I2 cDNA shows 73% nucleotide and 59% amino acid identities in the mature protein region in comparison to that of ammodytoxin A, the most presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from the long-nosed viper. Identities in the signal-peptide region are considerably higher, 96% and 100%, respectively.

  3. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  4. Elucidation of the molecular envenomation strategy of the cone snail Conus geographus through transcriptome sequencing of its venom duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Hao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish-hunting cone snail, Conus geographus, is the deadliest snail on earth. In the absence of medical intervention, 70% of human stinging cases are fatal. Although, its venom is known to consist of a cocktail of small peptides targeting different ion-channels and receptors, the bulk of its venom constituents, their sites of manufacture, relative abundances and how they function collectively in envenomation has remained unknown. Results We have used transcriptome sequencing to systematically elucidate the contents the C. geographus venom duct, dividing it into four segments in order to investigate each segment’s mRNA contents. Three different types of calcium channel (each targeted by unrelated, entirely distinct venom peptides and at least two different nicotinic receptors appear to be targeted by the venom. Moreover, the most highly expressed venom component is not paralytic, but causes sensory disorientation and is expressed in a different segment of the venom duct from venoms believed to cause sensory disruption. We have also identified several new toxins of interest for pharmaceutical and neuroscience research. Conclusions Conus geographus is believed to prey on fish hiding in reef crevices at night. Our data suggest that disorientation of prey is central to its envenomation strategy. Furthermore, venom expression profiles also suggest a sophisticated layering of venom-expression patterns within the venom duct, with disorientating and paralytic venoms expressed in different regions. Thus, our transcriptome analysis provides a new physiological framework for understanding the molecular envenomation strategy of this deadly snail.

  5. Early Treatment with Intranasal Neostigmine Reduces Mortality in a Mouse Model of Naja naja (Indian Cobra Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Lewin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Most snakebite deaths occur prior to hospital arrival; yet inexpensive, effective, and easy to administer out-of-hospital treatments do not exist. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be therapeutic in neurotoxic envenomations when administered intravenously, but nasally delivered drugs could facilitate prehospital therapy for these patients. We tested the feasibility of this idea in experimentally envenomed mice. Methods. Mice received intraperitoneal injections of Naja naja venom 2.5 to 10 times the estimated LD50 and then received 5 μL neostigmine (0.5 mg/mL or 5 μL normal saline by nasal administration. Animals were observed up to 12 hours and survivors were euthanized. Results. 100% of control mice died. Untreated mice injected with 2.5× LD50 Naja naja died at average 193 minutes after injection, while 10 of 15 (67% of treated mice survived and were behaviorally normal by 6 hours (P<0.02. In the 5× LD50 group, survival was prolonged from 45 minutes to 196 minutes (P=0.01 and for 10× LD50 mice, survival increased from 30 to 175 minutes (P<0.02. Conclusion. This pilot suggests that intranasal drugs can improve survival and is the first direct demonstration that such an approach is plausible, suggesting means by which treatment could be initiated before reaching the hospital. Further investigation of this approach to neurotoxic and other types of envenomation is warranted.

  6. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (ppiperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  7. Heterodimeric neurotoxic phospholipases A2--the first proteins from venom of recently established species Vipera nikolskii: implication of venom composition in viper systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, Anna S; Zavada, Larisa L; Starkov, Vladislav G; Kovyazina, Irina V; Subbotina, Tatyana F; Kostyukhina, Ekaterina E; Dementieva, Irina N; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Utkin, Yuri N

    2008-03-15

    For the first time the venom of recently established viper species Vipera nikolskii was fractionated and two heterodimeric phospholipases A(2) (HDP-1 and HDP-2) were isolated. Isolation of HDP-1 and HDP-2 is the first indication of the presence of two heterodimeric phospholipases A(2) in the venom of one viper species. When tested on the frog neuromuscular junction, isolated proteins affected neuromuscular transmission acting presynaptically. Using RP-HPLC, each heterodimer was separated into two monomeric subunits: basic phospholipase A(2) (HDP-1P and HDP-2P) and acidic component without enzymatic activity (HDP-In). The complete primary structures of subunits were deduced from corresponding sequences of cDNAs. The determined amino acid sequences were homologous to those of vipoxin from Vipera ammodytes and vaspin from Vipera aspis. Similar proteins were not found earlier in the well-studied venom of Vipera berus, the species from which V. nikolskii was recently separated. Our finding supports at the biochemical level the correctness of the establishment of V. nikolskii as an independent species. The finding of similar proteins (HDPs and vipoxin) in geographically remote species (V. nikolskii and V. ammodytes) corroborates the hypothesis about the pre-existence of genes encoding these proteins in all true viper species and their expression under certain conditions.

  8. Snakebite Envenoming – A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groneberg, David A.; Geier, Victoria; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t). During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1) 13,015 publications (p) were identified. In the following period (2008–2016 = t2) 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1) respectively 121 countries (t2), with the USA (p = 3518), Brazil (p = 1100) and Japan (p = 961) being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087), Brazil (p = 991) and China (p = 378) in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1). Comparing the country’s publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR) mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900–2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8), Switzerland (CR = 23), Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22). From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1), Spain (CR = 16.7), Costa Rica (CR = 14.9) and Netherlands (CR = 14). Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5). In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map

  9. Snakebite Envenoming - A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Geier, Victoria; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander; Kuch, Ulrich; Kloft, Beatrix

    2016-11-01

    Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t). During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1) 13,015 publications (p) were identified. In the following period (2008-2016 = t2) 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1) respectively 121 countries (t2), with the USA (p = 3518), Brazil (p = 1100) and Japan (p = 961) being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087), Brazil (p = 991) and China (p = 378) in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1). Comparing the country's publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR) mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900-2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8), Switzerland (CR = 23), Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22). From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1), Spain (CR = 16.7), Costa Rica (CR = 14.9) and Netherlands (CR = 14). Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5). In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map projection

  10. Stingray envenomation: a retrospective review of clinical presentation and treatment in 119 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard F; Girard, Robyn Heister; Rao, Daniel; Ly, Binh T; Davis, Daniel P

    2007-07-01

    Stingray stings are common along coastal regions of this country and the world. The tail of the stingray contains a barbed stinger attached to a venom gland and contained within an integumentary sheath. During a sting, the stinger and sheath can become embedded in the soft tissue of the victim, and venom is injected into the wound. Stingray venom most often causes severe pain on contact, although the exact mechanism of toxicity is not certain. Hot water immersion of the stung extremity has been reported to be effective in relieving pain associated with the envenomation, but large studies of this therapy have not been performed. We retrospectively reviewed stingray stings presenting to our Emergency Department (ED) over an 8-year period. Cases were divided into acute (group 1, within 24 h of the sting) and subacute (group 2, 24 h or more after the sting) presentations. Charts were abstracted for information concerning the victim's history, physical examination, treatment, diagnostic imaging, and outcome, including the effectiveness of hot water immersion as analgesia, and use of antimicrobials. A total of 119 cases were identified and abstracted, 100 in group 1 and 19 in group 2. Of the group 1 patients initially treated with hot water immersion alone, 88% had complete relief of pain within 30 min without administration of any other analgesic. In the patients who initially received a dose of analgesic along with hot water immersion, none required a second dose of analgesics and all had complete pain relief before discharge. There were no adverse effects (such as thermal burns) with this therapy. Analysis of infectious complications in group 1 patients demonstrated a significant number of patients returning to the ED with wound infections when prophylactic antibiotics were not administered at initial presentation. Our findings suggest that hot water immersion was effective in decreasing or eliminating the pain associated with stingray envenomation in our series. Due

  11. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy on Bothrops moojeni snake-envenomed gastrocnemius of mice using enzymatic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Doroty Mesquita; Matias, Rosemary; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; da Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato; de Araujo Isaias Muller, Jéssica; Vieira, Willians Fernando; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2017-08-01

    Bothropic venom contains a range of biologically active substances capable of causing severe local and systemic envenoming symptomatology within its victims. The snake anti-venom is effective against systemic effects but has no neutralizing effect against the fast developing local effects. Herein, mice gastrocnemius injected with Bothrops moojeni venom (40 μg/kg) or saline solution were irradiated with HeNe (632.8 nm) and GaAs (904 nm) lasers (daily energy density of 4 J/cm(2); 0.03/0.21 power density; 0.07/0.16 spot size; 1.2/0.04 total energy, 1 cm off contact, for HeNe and GaAs lasers, respectively) and euthanized in periods ranging from 3 h to 21 days. Blood biochemistry for creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (AP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and myoglobin and histopathological analysis, for assessing the degree of myonecrosis and regeneration of gastrocnemius, were done at every time interval. GaAs laser promoted faster photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) effects, and the GaAs group exhibited a better clinical outcome than the HeNe group. Within the GaAs group, the serum levels of CK, LDH, AP, AST, and myoglobin, which were increased by the physiological effects of the venom, were reduced to initial baseline before snake envenomation in less time than those irradiated by the HeNe laser. However, the group receiving irradiation from the HeNe laser returned the levels of ALP activity to baseline faster than those of the GaAs group. Histopathological analysis revealed enhanced muscle regeneration in mice groups treated with both lasers. PBM promoted by GaAs and HeNe showed well-developed centrally nucleate regenerating cells and an increased number of newly formed blood vessels when compared to unirradiated muscle. We therefore suggest that GaAs had the best outcomes likely derived from a deeper penetrating longer wavelength. We conclude that PMBT is a promising, non-invasive approach to be

  12. Snakebite Envenoming - A Combined Density Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Analysis of the Publication History.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Groneberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimates suggest that more than 25,000 to 125,000 people die annually from snakebite envenomation worldwide. In contrast to this major disease burden, thorough bibliometric studies do not exist so far that illustrate the overall research activity over a long time span. Therefore, the NewQIS-platform conducted an analysis on snakebite envenoming using the Thomson Reuters database Web of Science. To determine and assess changes regarding the scientific activities and to specifically address the more recent situation we analyzed two time intervals (t. During the first time interval from 1900 to 2007 (t1 13,015 publications (p were identified. In the following period (2008-2016 = t2 4,982 publications were identified by the same search strategy. They originate from 114 (t1 respectively 121 countries (t2, with the USA (p = 3518, Brazil (p = 1100 and Japan (p = 961 being most productive in the first period, and the USA (p = 1087, Brazil (p = 991 and China (p = 378 in the second period, respectively. Setting the publication numbers in relation to GDP/capita, Brazil leads with 92 publications per 10,000 Int$GDP/capita, followed by India with 79 publications per 10000 Int$GDP/capita (t1. Comparing the country's publication activity with the Human Development Index level indicates that the majority of the publications is published by highly developed countries. When calculating the average citation rates (citations per published item = CR mainly European countries show the highest ranks: From 1900-2007 Sweden ranks first with a CR = 27, followed by the Netherlands (CR = 24.8, Switzerland (CR = 23, Spain, Austria and the USA (CR = 22. From 2008 to 2016 the highest rate achieves Switzerland with a value of 24.6, followed by Belgium (CR = 18.1, Spain (CR = 16.7, Costa Rica (CR = 14.9 and Netherlands (CR = 14. Compared with this, the USA was placed at rank 13 (CR = 9,5. In summary, the present study represents the first density-equalizing map projection and

  13. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  14. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas de Oliveira, P.C.; Madruga, R.A.; Barbosa, N.P.U. [Uberaba School of Veterinary Medicine (UNIUBE), MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrolucaso@uol.com.br; Sakate, M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry

    2007-07-01

    Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca) venom, natural and irradiated from a {sup 60}Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5 mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transferase; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom. (author)

  15. Biochemical and hematological study of goats envenomed with natural and 60Co-irradiated bothropic venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Lucas de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Venoms from snakes of the Bothrops genus are proteolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic and nephrotoxic, causing edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and intense pain at the bite site, besides systemic alterations. Many adjuvants have been added to the venom used in the sensitization of antiserum-producer animals to increase antigenic induction and reduce the envenomation pathological effects. Gamma radiation from 60Co has been used as an attenuating agent of the venoms toxic properties. The main objective was to study, comparatively, clinical and laboratory aspects of goats inoculated with bothropic (Bothrops jararaca venom, natural and irradiated from a 60Co source. Twelve goats were divided into two groups of six animals: GINV, inoculated with 0.5mg/kg of natural venom; and GIIV, inoculated with 0.5mg/kg of irradiated venom. Blood samples were collected immediately before and one, two, seven, and thirty days after venom injection. Local lesions were daily evaluated. The following exams were carried out: blood tests; biochemical tests of urea, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate amino-transferase (AST and alanine amino-transferase (ALT; clotting time; platelets count; and total serum immunoglobulin measurement. In the conditions of the present experiment, irradiated venom was less aggressive and more immunogenic than natural venom.

  16. Variations in Loxosceles spider venom composition and toxicity contribute to the severity of envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kátia C; Gonçalves de Andrade, Rute M; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Jorge M C; van den Berg, C W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2005-03-15

    Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders causes two main clinical manifestations: cutaneous and systemic loxoscelism. The factors contributing to the severity of loxoscelism are not fully understood. We have analysed biochemical and toxicity variations in venom of L. laeta and L. intermedia, with the aim to find a correlation with the seriousness of loxoscelism. Differences in expression of proteins, glycoproteins and sphingomyelinase activity were observed between venom from male and female spiders and between venom from the two species. These differences were reflected in the toxicity of the venoms including the capacity to induce complement-dependent haemolysis, dermonecrosis and lethality. Comparative analysis of gender and species, showed that these biological activities were more prominent in venom from female spiders, especially from L. laeta. Antiserum raised against venom from females L. laeta spiders had the highest efficacy in neutralizing venoms of males and females of both species. These results indicate that the severity of loxoscelism depends, at least partially, on the species and sex of the spider and suggest that for accidents involving L. laeta an specific serum therapy is necessary. Furthermore, it emphasizes the efficacy of the antiserum produced against L. laeta female venom in neutralizing Loxosceles venoms from different species and gender.

  17. Specific Antivenom Ability in Neutralizing Hepatic and Renal Changes 24 Hours after Latrodectus dahli Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latrodectism, a syndrome caused by Latrodectus genus, is one of the clinical problems that occur predominantly in north east of Iran. Nowadays antivenom therapy has become the most useful treatment for animal bites; however there is still a controversy about route and time of antivenom administration in spider bite. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of specific antivenom in neutralizing hepatic and renal symptoms 24 h after Latrodectus dahli envenomation.Methods: We selected a group of male New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 2±0.3 kg. The L. dahli venom (0.5 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously. Specific antivenom (2.5 ml, I.V was injected 24 h following venom injection. Blood sampling was performed before and 24 h after venom injection, as well within 24, 48 and 72 h after antivenom administration. Serum levels of (aspartate amino transferase (AST alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, urea, bilirubin, creatinine and albumin were determined in all the sam.Results: Latrodectus dahli venom caused significant increase (P< 0.05 in all foresaid serum parameters. Antivenom reversed the AST, ALP, creatinine, urea and bilirubin to normal levels, but failed about ALT level, also non-significant decrease was observed in albumin levels.Conclusion: Antivenom administration 24 h after venom injection can greatly reverse symptoms caused by venom. Future studies in human beings should be conducted to assess the protection against the specific-Latrodectus antivenom.

  18. Detection of microvasculature alterations by synchrotron radiation in murine with delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Huo, Hua; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Yuanlin; Xiao, Liang; Ren, Yuqi; Zhang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Using the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, we have previously established a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) model, which is meaningful for clinical interventions against jellyfish stings. However, the mechanism of DJES still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore its potential mechanism by detecting TE-induced microvasculature alterations in vivo and ex vivo. Using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, we, for the first time, directly observed the blood vessel alterations induced by jellyfish venom in vivo and ex vivo. Firstly, microvasculature imaging of whole-body mouse in vivo indicated that the small blood vessel branches in the liver and kidney in the TE-treated group, seemed much thinner than those in the control group. Secondly, 3D imaging of kidney ex vivo showed that the kidneys in the TE-treated group had incomplete vascular trees where distal vessel branches were partly missing and disorderly disturbed. Finally, histopathological analysis found that obvious morphological changes, especially hemorrhagic effects, were also present in the TE-treated kidney. Thus, TE-induced microvasculature changes might be one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ dysfunctions in DJES. In addition, the methods we employed here will probably facilitate further studies on developing effective intervention strategies against DJES.

  19. New approaches & technologies of venomics to meet the challenge of human envenoming by snakebites in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Warrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimate of 46,000 snakebite deaths in India in 2005 (1 for every 2 HIV/AIDS deaths, based on verbal autopsies, renders unrealistic the total of only 47,000 snakebite deaths in the whole world in 2010, obtained indirectly as part of the "Global Burden of Disease 2010" study. Persistent underestimation of its true morbidity and mortality has made snakebite the most neglected of all the WHO′s "neglected tropical diseases", downgrading its public health importance. Strategies to address this neglect should include the improvement of antivenom, the only specific antidote to envenoming. To accommodate increased understanding of geographical intraspecific variation in venom composition and the range of snake species that are medically important in India, the design of antivenoms (choice of venom sources and species coverage should be reconsidered. Methods of preclinical and clinical testing should be improved. The relatively new science of venomics involves techniques and strategies for assessing the toxin composition of snake venoms directly through proteomics-centred approaches or indirectly via high-throughput venom gland transcriptomics and bioinformatic analysis. Antivenomics is translational venomics: a proteomics-based protocol to quantify the extent of cross-reactivity of antivenoms against homologous and heterologous venoms. These approaches could revolutionize the preclinical assessment of antivenom efficacy, leading to a new generation of antivenoms that are clinically more effective.

  20. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Doyle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates, a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment.

  1. Intravenous administration of equine-derived whole IgG antivenom does not induce early adverse reactions in non-envenomed horses and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ricardo; Herrera, María; Segura, Alvaro; Araya, Javier; Boschini, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    Administration of antivenoms to treat snakebite envenomings has the potential risk of inducing early adverse reactions. The mechanisms involved in these reactions are unclear. In this study, polyspecific antivenom consisting of whole IgG purified from equine plasma by caprylic acid precipitation was administered intravenously to non-envenomed horses (n = 47) and cows (n = 20) at a dose of 0.4 mL/kg. It has been reported that, in humans, this formulation (administered at a dose of 0.4 mL/kg) induces mild noticeable early adverse reactions, such as fever, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, generalized rash, tachypnea or tachycardia, in about 15-20% of the patients. Unexpectedly, none of the animals receiving antivenom in our study showed any evidence of early adverse reaction. Moreover, no late adverse reactions, i.e. serum sickness, were observed during 40 days after antivenom administration. Unlike studies performed in envenomed humans, our present results were obtained in a group of non-envenomed individuals. It is concluded that, in addition to the physicochemical characteristics of the formulation, other unknown factors must determine the occurrence of adverse reactions in snakebite envenomed humans treated with equine-derived antivenoms.

  2. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  3. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    have a performance measure which captures the essential features .... designs, user behaviour, pit dimensions, location and .... Mikhael G, Robbins, DM, Ramsay JE, Mbéguéré M (2014). ... Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organisation.

  4. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  5. Quarries, Gravel Pits, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Quarries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gravel Pits'. Data by this publisher are often...

  6. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  7. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters and are exploi......The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...

  8. An infestation of 2,055 brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) and no envenomations in a Kansas home: implications for bite diagnoses in nonendemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Barger, Diane K

    2002-11-01

    During a 6-mo period, 2,055 brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, were collected in a 19th-century-built, currently occupied home in Lenexa, KS. We conservatively estimate that at least 400 of these spiders were large enough to cause envenomation. Additional collections from more typically infested homes in Missouri and Oklahoma in 2001 yielded 45 and 30 brown recluse spiders, respectively. Despite these infestations, no envenomations of the inhabitants of these three homes occurred. Considering the levels of infestations with no bites in the homes presented here, nonendemic areas in the United States, which typically lack recluse spider populations and have had zero to few verified specimens of the spider, do not have sufficient numbers of brown recluse spiders to make envenomation a likely scenario. Despite this, physicians from nonendemic recluse areas often diagnose brown recluse bites which, therefore, are unlikely to be correct.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of complex formation between two Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors from Russell's Viper venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Dutta, Sumita; Kalita, Bhargab; Jha, Deepak K; Deb, Pritam; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs) exhibit various biological functions including anticoagulant activity. This study elucidates the occurrence and subunit stoichiometry of a putative complex formed between two KSPIs (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) purified from the native Rusvikunin complex of Pakistan Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii russelii) venom (RVV). The protein components of the Rusvikunin complex were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The non-covalent interaction between two major components of the complex (Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II) at 1:2 stoichiometric ratio to form a stable complex was demonstrated by biophysical techniques such as spectrofluorometric, classical gel-filtration, equilibrium gel-filtration, circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE analyses. CD measurement showed that interaction between Rusvikunin and Rusvikunin-II did not change their overall secondary structure; however, the protein complex exhibited enhanced hydrodynamic diameter and anticoagulant activity as compared to the individual components of the complex. This study may lay the foundation for understanding the basis of protein complexes in snake venoms and their role in pathophysiology of snakebite.

  10. Bioenergetic modeling reveals that Chinese green tree vipers select postprandial temperatures in laboratory thermal gradients that maximize net energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tein-Shun; Lee, How-Jing; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2009-11-01

    With bioenergetic modeling, we tested the hypothesis that reptiles maximize net energy gain by postprandial thermal selection. Previous studies have shown that Chinese green tree vipers (Trimeresurus s. stejnegeri) have postprandial thermophily (mean preferred temperature T(p) for males =27.8 degrees C) in a linear thigmothermal gradient when seclusion sites and water existed. With some published empirical models of digestion associated factors for this snake, we calculated the average rate (E(net)) and efficiency (K(net)) of net energy gain from possible combinations of meal size, activity level, and feeding frequency at each temperature. The simulations consistently revealed that E(net) maximizes at the T(p) of these snakes. Although the K(net) peaks at a lower temperature than E(net), the value of K(net) remains high (>=0.85 in ratio to maximum) at the peak temperature of E(net). This suggested that the demands of both E(net) and K(net) can be attained by postprandial thermal selection in this snake. In conclusion, the data support our prediction that postprandial thermal selection may maximize net energy gain.

  11. VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The decline of cosmic star formation: quenching, mass, and environment connections

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Bolzonella, M; Granett, B R; De Lucia, G; Branchini, E; Zamorani, G; Iovino, A; Garilli, B; Guzzo, L; Scodeggio, M; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; Marulli, F; Moutard, T; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Bel, J; Blaizot, J; Coupon, J; Hawken, A; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Peacock, J A; Gargiulo, A

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] We use the final data of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) to investigate the effect of environment on the evolution of galaxies between $z=0.5$ and $z=0.9$. We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the $5^{th}$ nearest neighbour. We find that more massive galaxies tend to reside in higher-density environments over the full redshift range explored. Defining star-forming and passive galaxies through their (NUV$-r$) vs ($r-K$) colours, we then quantify the fraction of star-forming over passive galaxies, $f_{\\rm ap}$, as a function of environment at fixed stellar mass. $f_{\\rm ap}$ is higher in low-density regions for galaxies with masses ranging from $\\log(\\mathcal{M}/\\mathcal{M}_\\odot)=10.38$ (the lowest value explored) to at least $\\log(\\mathcal{M}/\\mathcal{M}_\\odot)\\sim11.3$, although with decreasing significance going from smaller to larger masses. This is the first...

  12. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Krywult, J; Pollo, A; Vergani, D; Bolzonella, M; Davidzon, I; Iovino, A; Gargiulo, A; Haines, C P; Scodeggio, M; Guzzo, L; Zamorani, G; Garilli, B; Granett, B R; de la Torre, S; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Franzetti, P; Fritz, A; Brun, V Le; Fèvre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Tojeiro, R; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Moscardini, L; Takeuchi, T T

    2016-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours over the redshift range $0.5VIPERS survey. Galaxy structural parameters are measured by fitting S\\'ersic profiles to $i$-band images and then combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts, to trace the evolution in a multi-parameter space. We analyse, using a new method, the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity--redshift space. We found that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the (U-B) vs. (B-V) plane and the S\\'ersic index distributions are well fitted by a sum of two Gaussians, with a remarkable consistency of red-spheroidal and blue-disky galaxy populations, over the explored redshift ($0.5

  13. Multiple causation of phylogeographical pattern as revealed by nested clade analysis of the bamboo viper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri) within Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, S; Malhotra, A; Thorpe, R S; Chou, W H

    2001-08-01

    In order to assess the utility of nested clade analysis, both standard phylogenetic algorithms and nested clade analysis were performed on a geographically widespread survey of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of the bamboo viper, Trimeresurus stejnegeri, within Taiwan. Gross tree topologies were congruent for all analyses and indicated the presence of two geographically overlapping clades within Taiwan. The smaller lineage was restricted to the north and east coasts, whereas the larger lineage occupied all but the northern range of the species within Taiwan including the Pacific offshore populations of Green and Orchid Islands. The phylogeographical pattern supports the existence of at least one colonization event from the continent since the initial isolation of Taiwan from the mainland in the Pliocene. However, determining the exact number of colonization events was not possible due to the simultaneous vicariant forces of hypothesized continental landbridge connections and the occurrence of dramatic in situ orogenesis throughout the Pleistocene. Nested clade analysis provided multiple temporal and spatial population historical inferences that are not possible with standard analyses and therefore should become widely applied to future phylogeographical studies.

  14. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Branchini, E; Marulli, F; Iovino, A; Moscardini, L; Bel, J; Cappi, A; Peacock, J A; de la Torre, S; Bolzonella, M; Guzzo, L; Polletta, M; Fritz, A; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Coupon, J; Davidzon, I; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Krywult, J; Malek, K; Paioro, L; Pollo, A; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L A M; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Di Porto, C; Zamorani, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells and density estimates. We carry out a comparison of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey (i<22.5) based on one-pass observations with VIMOS, with gaps covering 25% of the surveyed area and a mean sampling rate of 35%. Our findings are applicable to other surveys with similar observing strategies. We compare 1) two algorithms based on photometric redshift, that assign redshifts to galaxies based on the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours, 2) two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantify the accuracy of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R=5 and 8 Mpc/h after applying each of these methods. We also study how they perform to...

  15. [Envenomations of the Kindia prefecture treated in the Institut Pasteur of Guinea for one year (2003-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balde, M C; Camara, A M B; Koivogui, A; Camara, S K

    2005-11-01

    After a broadcast information on the availability of antivenom serum in Guinea Pasteur Institute (GPI), 76 snakebites victims have been admitted to the health centre of GPI within 11 months (October 2003-September 2004), 48 of whom were in a serious condition. In addition, 13 deaths occurred during the transport of the victims, i.e. a total incidence of 89 cases. Among these cases, 84% of the bites occurred during farming works (clearing, weeding, harvesting). Among the 76 victims who came alive at GPI, 9 of them did not present any envenomation. The 67 other victims have systematically received antivenom serum with a 100% recovery rate.

  16. Kinetics of venom and antivenom serum and clinical parameters and treatment efficacy in Bothrops alternatus envenomed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, Do; Melo, M M; Santos, M M B; Heneine, L G D

    2002-12-01

    Dogs envenomed with non-lethal doses of Bothrops alternatus venom received standard antivenom therapy, im injections of flunixin meglumine, or topical treatmentwith aqueous Curcuma longa plant extract. Biodistribution of the venom and antivenom were determined by ELISA. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of antivenom and plant extract on local effects; flunixin treatment had lower efficacy. Distribution of the venom was similar with all 3 treatments. Serum levels of the antivenom reached maximum 2-4 h after administration and were not detected after the 5th d.

  17. Nobody’s perfect: Can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka ePlavcová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  18. An epidemiological study on scorpion envenomation in the Zagora oases (Morocco)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoulayAbdelmonaim El Hidan; Oulaid Touloun; Ali Boumezzough

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine epidemiological features of scorpion stings in the oases of Southern Morocco: Zagora Province. Methods: A three-year prospective descriptive survey was performed to obtain epidemiological data on scorpion stings, including information on epidemiological characteristics of patients stung, and gathered information on scorpion species distribution. The following information was recorded for each scorpion sting: demographics of stung patients (age, gender, geographical location), circumstances of the sting (location, time, date, activity at the time), and many traditional medical attention. A questionnaire was completed for every stung patient. Concomitantly with the epidemiological survey, a systematic sampling of scorpions based on observations and direct captures in situ was applied. Results: There were 50 cases of death among 1053 cases studied. Most cases of death were recorded among children (under 15 years) (64%). The average age of victims was (23.00 ± 15.36) years. The scorpion sting occurred in 34.37% of cases between 18:00 and 24:00, and it coincided with the warm period and particularly between June and September (70%). The stings were principally in hands and feet (897 cases, 85.71%). The majority of victims had chosen traditional remedies (69.61%), and only 22.79% had received modern treatment while 1.33% of cases did not receive any treatment. The scorpion species involved were yellow in 179 cases and black in 815 cases. In 59 cases the scorpion involved was not identified. Conclusions: Our data constitute a preliminary descriptive study and suggest that scorpion envenomation is an important problem in the studied area.

  19. Pathophysiological and neurobehavioral injuries in mice experimentally envenomed with Androctonus liouvillei (Pallary, 1928) scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The genus Androctonus is represented by 7 scorpion species in Morocco. All studies conducted on the characterization of Androctonus species venom are limited to Androctonus mauritanicus. However, there is other species which arouses also interest of scientists due to their high toxicity. Thus, we chose to assess the toxic effect of Androctonus liouvillei venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. In addition, we aimed to characterize the neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3h, 6h and 12h following envenomation. The LD50 of A. liouvillei scorpion venom was found to be 0.29mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom administration induced glomerular destruction and disorganization in the Bowman's spac. Examination of lungs showed a remarkable focal rupture of the alveolar structure and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Concurrently, there was a significant enhancement in the serum enzymes levels of AST, ALT, CPK and LDH, and a high level of glucose and creatinine. Proteinuria was also observed. Regarding the behavioral effects we noted a hypoactivity and anxiogenic-like effect, manifested by an increased time spent in the open arms in groups tested 30min and 12h after the injection. Concomitantly with an increased immobility time in the tail suspension test. The present finding show an obvious profound neuromodulatory effect of A. liouvillei venom manifested by an impaired neurobehavioral and physiological patterns in mice that may in part explain the toxic effect of the venom in human as one of the potent death agents.

  20. Protective effects of batimastat against hemorrhagic injuries in delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Guoyan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhou, Yonghong; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we established delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) models and proposed that the hemorrhagic toxins in jellyfish tentacle extracts (TE) play a significant role in the liver and kidney injuries of the experimental model. Further, we also demonstrated that metalloproteinases are the central toxic components of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata), which may be responsible for the hemorrhagic effects. Thus, metalloproteinase inhibitors appear to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hemorrhagic injuries in DJES. In this study, we examined the metalloproteinase activity of TE from the jellyfish C. capillata using zymography analyses. Our results confirmed that TE possessed a metalloproteinase activity, which was also sensitive to heat. Then, we tested the effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat (BB-94) on TE-induced hemorrhagic injuries in DJES models. Firstly, using SR-based X-ray microangiography, we found that BB-94 significantly improved TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature alterations in DJES mouse model. Secondly, under synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT), we also confirmed that BB-94 reduced TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature changes in DJES rat model. In addition, being consistent with the imaging results, histopathological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling (TUNEL)-like staining observations also clearly corroborated this hypothesis, as BB-94 was highly effective in neutralizing TE-induced extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in DJES rat model. Although it may require further clinical studies in the near future, the current study opens up the possibilities for the use of the metalloproteinase inhibitor, BB-94, in the treatment of multiple organ hemorrhagic injuries in DJES.

  1. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  2. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Guzzo, L.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; De Lucia, G.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Siudek, M.

    2017-08-01

    We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history (using d4000), stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z 1. We trace the extents and evolutions of both the blue cloud and red sequence by fitting double Gaussians to the d4000 distribution of galaxies in narrow stellar mass bins, for four redshift intervals over 0 1011M⊙, d4000 change, showing higher Sérsic indices and central stellar mass densities. For these galaxies, bulge growth is required for them to reach the high-mass limit of the blue cloud and be quenched by internal mechanisms. The blue-cloud galaxies that are being quenched at z 0.8 lie along the same size-mass relation as present day quiescent galaxies and seem the likely progenitors of today's S0s. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  3. Preliminary evaluation of total protein concentration and electrophoretic protein fractions in fresh and frozen serum from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Comazzi, Carlo; Belloli, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the health status of reptiles is based on physical examination and evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values. Evaluation of serum total protein (TP) concentration and protein fractions plays an important role in health assessment; however, little is known about references value for these analytes in wild viperoid snakes. In addition, studies evaluating the stability of proteins in frozen viperoid serum are lacking. The aims of this study were to establish preliminary reference values for concentrations of TP and protein fractions in serum from wild vipers and to evaluate the stability of serum proteins in frozen serum samples from viperoid snakes. Blood samples were collected from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). Using fresh serum, TP concentrations were determined using the biuret method and protein fractions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE); albumin/globulin ratios were calculated. Analyses were also performed on serum frozen at -20°C for 70 days and then thawed. Pre- and post-storage results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Five adult wild Horned Vipers were sampled and comprised 4 males and 1 female. The female snake had higher TP concentrations than the male snakes. The electrophoretic patterns demonstrated 6 protein fractions that were similar for all 5 snakes. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of the 6 protein fractions post-storage; the percentage of the alpha-1 fraction was increased in frozen/thawed serum. Total protein concentrations in serum from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes were in agreement with published reference intervals for healthy reptiles and viperoid snakes. Serum protein fractions were easy to identify using AGE electrophoresis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  5. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  6. Understanding Cavitation Intensity through Pitting and Pressure Pulse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, A.; Singh, S.; Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation erosion is of interest to the designers of ship propulsion devices because of its detrimental effects. One of the difficulties of predicting cavitation erosion is that the intensity of cavitation is not well predicted or defined. In this work we attempt to define the intensity of a cavitation erosion field through analysis of cavitation induced erosion pits and pressure pulses. In the pitting tests, material samples were subjected to cavitation field for a short duration of time selected within the test sample's incubation period, so that the test sample undergoes plastic deformation only. The sample material reacts to these cavitation events by undergoing localized permanent deformation, called pits. The resulting pitted sample surfaces were then optically scanned and analyzed. The pressure signals under cavitating jets and ultrasonic horns, for different conditions, were experimentally recorded using high frequency response pressure transducers. From the analysis of the pitting data and recorded pressure signals, we propose a model that describes the statistics, which in the future can be used to define the cavitation field intensity. Support for this work was provided by Office of Naval Research (ONR) under contract number N00014-08-C-0450, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  7. Crystals of phospholipase A2 inhibitor. The non-toxic component of vipoxin from the venom of Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedjiev, Y; Atanasov, B; Mancheva, I; Aleksiev, B

    1993-02-20

    Phospholipase A2 inhibitor, the non-toxic, acidic component of vipoxin from the venom of Bulgarian viper (Vipera ammodytes), has been crystallized. The tetragonal crystals obtained, exhibit the symmetry of space group P4(1)22 (or 4(3)22) with unit cell dimensions a = b = 59.9 A; c = 141.1 A; alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees. For two molecules per asymmetric unit, this would give Vm = 2.3 A3/Da, indicating normal packing. The crystals diffract to 2.5 A and a native data set to 3.2 A resolution has been collected.

  8. Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Juliana Marton; Alponti, Rafaela Fadoni; Frezzatti, Rodrigo; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Silveira, Paulo Flávio

    2011-01-01

    Snake bite accidents by Bothrops genus is an important public health issue in Brazil and one of its most serious complications is the acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops jararaca venom (vBj) and the treatments with lipoic acid (LA) and simvastatin (SA) on renal function, aminopeptidase (AP) activities and renal redox status. Primordial events for establishment of AKI by vBj were hyperuricemia, hypercreatinemia, urinary hyperosmolality, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit and protein content in the membrane of renal cortex and medulla and in the plasma. In the renal cortex and medulla the changes caused by vBj in soluble and membrane-bound AP activities had a similar pattern. The beneficial effects of LA and SA on envenomed mice were similar on the hyperuricemia, renal oxidative stress and reduction of hematocrit. LA mitigated the hypercreatinemia, but exacerbated the urinary urea and creatinine, whereas SA mitigated the decrease of plasma urea, urinary hyperosmolality and hypercreatinuria induced by vBj. The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation.

  9. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms.

  10. Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Hettiarachchi, R; Dalpathadu, J; Mendis, A S V; Appuhamy, P D S A N; Zoysa, H D J; Maduwage, K; Weerasinghe, V S; de Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. However, sea snake bites are rarely reported. In this report, we describe three cases where E. schistosa was the offending species. These three patients presented to two hospitals on the west coast of Sri Lanka within the course of 14 months from November 2011 with different degrees of severity of envenoming. The first patient was a 26-year-old fisherman who developed severe myalgia with very high creatine kinase (CK) levels lasting longer than 7 days. The second patient was a 32-year-old fisherman who developed gross myoglobinuria, high CK levels and hyperkalaemia. Both patients recovered and their electromyographic recordings showed myopathic features. The nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission studies were normal in both patients suggesting primary myotoxic envenoming. The third patient was a 41-year-old man who trod on a sea snake in a river mouth and developed severe myalgia seven hours later. He had severe rhabdomyolysis and died three days later due to cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, we confirm that E. schistosa is a deadly sea snake and its bite causes severe rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  12. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  13. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  14. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  15. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  16. Understanding Russell's viper venom factor V activator's substrate specificity by surface plasmon resonance and in-silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pradeep K; Antonyraj, Christian B; Basheer Ahamed, Syed Ibrahim; Srinivas, Sistla

    2017-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor V (FV) is activated either by Factor X or thrombin, cleaving at three different sites viz., Site I (Arg709-Ser710), site II (Arg1018-Thr1019), and site III (Arg1545-Ser1546). Russell's viper venom factor V activator (RVV-V) is a thrombin-like serine proteinase that activates FV with selective, single cleavage at site III. A long lasting effort is being pending in understanding the 'selective' binding specificity of the RVV-V towards site III. Here, we present the binding kinetic study of RVV-V with two designed peptides corresponding to the regions from site I (Gln699-Asn713) and site II (1008Lys-Pro1022), respectively, that include 15 amino acids. Our investigation for justifying the binding efficacy and kinetics of peptides includes SPR method, protein-peptide docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and principal component analysis (PCA). Surprisingly, the SPR experiment disclosed that the Peptide II showed a lower binding affinity with KD of 2.775 mM while the Peptide I showed none. Docking and simulation of both the peptides with RVV-V engaged either rooted or shallow binding for Peptide II and Peptide I respectively. The peptide binding resulted in global conformational changes in the native fold of RVV-V, whereas the similar studies for thrombin failed to make major changes in the native fold. In support, the PCA analysis for RVV-V showed the dislocation of catalytic triad upon binding both the peptides. Hence, RVV-V, a serine protease, is incompetent in cleaving these two sites. This study suggests a transition in RVV-V from the native rigid to the distorted flexible structure and paves a way to design a new peptide substrate/inhibitor.

  17. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  18. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  19. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  20. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  1. THE MOUSE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR TITYUS SERRULATUS SCORPION ENVENOMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Mônico Magalhães

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The scorpion toxin induces a number of physiological parameters alterations, as disturbance of cardiac rhythm, heart failure, shock, pancreatic hypersecretion, abortion, respiratory arrhytmias and pulmonary edema. As the purification of the venom fractions is a laborious process, one alternative for this would be the utilization of small animals. We utilized in the present study thity-six mice that received progressive doses of scorpion toxin TsTX, i.p. or i.v., and were observed for three hours or sacrificed, and the pulmonary alterations were determined by the lung-body index and by histological analysis of the lungs in order to determine if the mouse can be an esperimental model for scorpion envenomation. The data were analyzed by One Way analysis of variance with pA toxina do escorpião induz a várias alterações fisiológicas, como disturbio do ritmo cardíaco, insuficiência cardíaca, choque, hipersecreção pancreática, aborto, arritmias respiratórias e edema pulmonar. A purificação de frações do veneno é um processo trabalhoso. Como alternativa utilizam-se animais pequenos. No presente estudo utilizou-se 36 camundongos que receberam doses progressivas de toxinas do escorpião (TsTX, intraperitoneal ou intravenosa e foram observados por tres horas ou sacrificados. As alteraçòes pulmonares foram determinadas pela fórmula peso do pulmão x 100/ peso corporal e pela análise hitológica dos pulmões a fim de determinar que o camundongo pode ser um modelo experimental do envenenamento pelo escorpião. Os dados foram analizados pela análise de variância considerando-se p<0,05 indicando significancia. Os experimentos não mostraram diferença nos sinais clínicos do envenenamento comparando-se o camundongo com outros mamíferos. Os efeitos foram dose-dependente e que pela via venosa necessita-se menos quantidade para produzir as mesmas alterações. Nos aspectos histológicos pulmonares observou-se edema septal e não alveolar

  2. Venom conjugated polylactide applied as biocompatible material for passive and active immunotherapy against scorpion envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari-Riabi, Sana; Trimaille, Thomas; Mabrouk, Kamel; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Benlasfar, Zakaria; Zaghmi, Ahlem; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Elayeb, Mohamed

    2016-04-04

    Scorpion envenoming represents a public health issue in subtropical regions of the world. Treatment and prevention need to promote antitoxin immunity. Preserving antigenic presentation while removing toxin effect remains a major challenge in toxin vaccine development. Among particulate adjuvant, particles prepared with poly (D,L-lactide) polymer are the most extensively investigated due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study is to develop surfactant-free PLA nanoparticles that safely deliver venom toxic fraction to enhance specific immune response. PLA nanoparticles are coated with AahG50 (AahG50/PLA) and BotG50 (BotG50/PLA): a toxic fraction purified from Androctonus australis hector and Buthus occitanus tunetanus venoms, respectively. Residual toxicities are evaluated following injections of PLA-containing high doses of AahG50 (or BotG50). Immunization trials are performed with the detoxified fraction administered alone without adjuvant. A comparative study of the effect of Freund is also included. The neutralizing capacity of sera is determined in naive mice. Six months later, immunized mice are challenged subcutaneously with increased doses of AahG50. Subcutaneous lethal dose 50 (LD50) of AahG50 and BotG50 is of 575 μg/kg and 1300 μg/kg respectively. By comparison, BotG50/PLA is totally innocuous while 50% of tested mice survive 2875 μg AahG50/kg. Alhydrogel and Freund are not able to detoxify such a high dose. Cross-antigenicity between particulate and soluble fraction is also, ensured. AahG50/PLA and BotG50/PLA induce high antibody levels in mice serum. The neutralizing capacity per mL of anti-venom was 258 μg/mL and 186 μg/mL calculated for anti-AahG50/PLA and anti-BotG50/PLA sera, respectively. Animals immunized with AahG50/PLA are protected against AahG50 injected dose of 3162 μg/kg as opposed all non-immunized mice died at this dose. We find that the detoxification approach based PLA nanoparticles, benefit

  3. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell's viper) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, B L; Zameer, F; Girish, K S; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2011-06-01

    Several plant extracts rich in pharmacologically active compounds have shown to antagonize venom of several species. Mangifera indica has been used against snakebite by the traditional healers. However, there is paucity of scientific data in support. In this study, we evaluated the antivenom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of M. indica against D. russellii venom-induced pharmacological effects such as life myotoxicity, edema, LD50 etc. The extract inhibited the phospholipase, protease, hyaluronidase, 5'nucleotidase, ATPase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase activities with varying IC50 values. It significantly inhibited both metalloproteases and serine proteases activities. Further, the extract significantly reduced the myotoxicity of the venom, as evident by the reduction of serum creatin kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Though the extract completely inhibited in vitro PLA2 activity, it was unable to completely inhibit in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema-inducing activities, usually brought about by PLA2s. In lethality studies, co-injection of the venom preincubated with the extract showed higher protection than the independent injection of venom, followed by the extract in the mice. However, in both the cases the extract -a cocktail of inhibitors significantly increased the survival time, when compared to that of mice injected (i.p) with the venom alone. These results encourage further studies on the potential use of cocktail of inhibitors in improving the treatment of snake envenomation. Further, this study substantiates the use of M. indica as an antidote against snakebite by the traditional healers.

  4. Human envenomations caused by Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis in urban beaches of São Luis City, Maranhão State, Northeast Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Ramalho Ferreira Bastos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The clinical and epidemiological aspects associated with Portuguese man-of-war envenomation were investigated and characterized. METHODS: Data from recorded envenomation events between 2005 and 2013 were provided by the GBMar (Group of Firemen Maritime of Maranhão State and SEMUSC (Municipal Secretary of Security with Citizenship. RESULTS: Most victims were children, and clinical manifestations included intense pain, edema, erythema, and rare systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: The envenomation events were predictable and based on patterns involving multiple factors (environmental and/or human behavior; however, the initially applied measures did not match the current recommendations of the Health Ministry of Brazil.

  5. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  6. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Luminosity and stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, F; Branchini, E; Davidzon, I; de la Torre, S; Granett, B R; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Moscardini, L; Pollo, A; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Coupon, J; Cucciati, O; De Lucia, G; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Fumana, M; Garilli, B; Ilbert, O; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Malek, K; McCracken, H J; Paioro, L; Polletta, M; Schlagenhaufer, H; Scodeggio, M; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Burden, A; Di Porto, C; Marchetti, A; Marinoni, C; Mellier, Y; Nichol, R C; Peacock, J A; Percival, W J; Phleps, S; Wolk, M; Zamorani, G

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass, in the redshift range 0.5VIPERS). To characterize the spatial properties of the VIPERS galaxies, we measure the redshift-space two-point correlation functions (2PCF), and the projected correlation function, in samples covering different ranges of B-band absolute magnitudes and stellar masses. We consider both threshold and binned galaxy samples, with median B-band absolute magnitudes -21.6

  7. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  8. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  9. Lysosomal acid phosphatase is internalized via clathrin-coated pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Hille, A.; Geuze, H.J.; Peters, C.; Brodsky, F.M.; Figura, K. von

    1992-01-01

    The presence of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) in coated pits at the plasma membrane was investigated by immunocytochemistry in thymidine kinase negative mouse L-cells (Ltk-) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing human LAP (Ltk-LAP and BHK-LAP cells). Double immunogold labeling showed

  10. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  11. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  12. THE PITS PROPERTY OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIRICHLET SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  13. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red... for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...

  14. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  15. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  16. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  17. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  18. Pit Chains on Enceladus: A Discussion of Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R. L.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2008-03-01

    The surface of Enceladus displays a collection of pit-chains. We discuss various potential causes to their origin, including the drainage of unconsolidated surface material into dilational-fault-induced voids, which we believe to be the most likely explanation.

  19. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Protection of Metals and Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alexandrovich Grachev; Andrei Evgenievich Rozen; Gennadii Vasilievich Kozlov; Andrei Andreievich Rozen

    2016-01-01

    In this article authors set out a principle of pitting corrosion protection, suggested a new class of multilayer materials with high corrosion resistance. They substantiated the choice of the layers for the multilayer material designed for exploitation in oxidizing and non-oxidizing environment. The sphere of application of the multilayer materials was defined.

  20. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  1. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  2. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment.... 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire,'' in...

  3. Pitting Corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloy in Simulated Uterine Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangyi CHEN; Chenghao LIANG; Daojun FU

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical test technology and surface analysis method were employed to investigate the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The results showed that the breakage of the breakingrenovating equilibrium of surface layers resulted in the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The development of pitting corrosion was controlled by dissolution of surface layers. The critical pitting corrosion potential was 1.70 VsCE. The kinetics equation for the development of pitting corrosion for Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid was i0=465.68 t-0.5+1.5. Pitting appearances of pits could be two types: tortoise-shell, and anomaly abscess. Cl- ion facilitated the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy by competing adsorption and concentrating on alloy surface at high positive potential.

  4. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Gomes, André Alexandre; Silva, Iran Mendonça; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima; Oliveira, Sâmella; Sabidò, Meritxell; Chalkidis, Hipócrates; Barbosa Guerra, Maria Graças Vale; Salinas, Jorge Luis; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30–0.71; pmedian [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39–0.75; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28–2.40; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15–2.02; p = 0.003)] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage. PMID:27227455

  5. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Hess Lopes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D. We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to

  6. Venom of the Brazilian spider Sicarius ornatus (Araneae, Sicariidae) contains active sphingomyelinase D: potential for toxicity after envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Priscila Hess; Bertani, Rogério; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute M; Nagahama, Roberto H; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-01-01

    The spider family Sicariidae includes two genera, Sicarius and Loxosceles. Bites by Sicarius are uncommon in humans and, in Brazil, a single report is known of a 17-year old man bitten by a Sicarius species that developed a necrotic lesion similar to that caused by Loxosceles. Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders can result in dermonecrosis and severe ulceration. Sicarius and Loxosceles spider venoms share a common characteristic, i.e., the presence of Sphingomyelinases D (SMase D). We have previously shown that Loxosceles SMase D is the enzyme responsible for the main pathological effects of the venom. Recently, it was demonstrated that Sicarius species from Africa, like Loxosceles spiders from the Americas, present high venom SMase D activity. However, despite the presence of SMase D like proteins in venoms of several New World Sicarius species, they had reduced or no detectable SMase D activity. In order to contribute to a better understanding about the toxicity of New World Sicarius venoms, the aim of this study was to characterize the toxic properties of male and female venoms from the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider and compare these with venoms from Loxosceles species of medical importance in Brazil. SDS-PAGE analysis showed variations in the composition of Loxosceles spp. and Sicarius ornatus venoms. Differences in the electrophoretic profiles of male and female venoms were also observed, indicating a possible intraspecific variation in the composition of the venom of Sicarius spider. The major component in all tested venoms had a Mr of 32-35 kDa, which was recognized by antiserum raised against Loxosceles SMases D. Moreover, male and female Sicarius ornatus spiders' venoms were able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin, thus showing an enzymatic activity similar to that determined for Loxosceles venoms. Sicarius ornatus venoms, as well as Loxosceles venoms, were able to render erythrocytes susceptible to lysis by autologous serum and to induce a significant loss of

  7. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation.We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%. Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%. The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%. A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30-0.71; pmedian [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39-0.75; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28-2.40; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15-2.02; p = 0.003] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage.

  8. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  9. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    measuring the maximum pit size and its effect on the fatigue life. Microstructure and corrosion currents were neglected. In this paper we present the...Figure 2 Appearance of the pits on the surface of 7075 -T6 (Wang et al., 2003) Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9437 94372E-2 2 Distribution Statement A. Approved... density (Harlow and Wei, 1994). It can be seen that the definition of pitting current Ip is the key element in the pitting corrosion modeling, which

  10. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  11. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  12. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  13. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... forms of information technology. Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  15. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  16. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  17. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  18. [Herpetological data and management of ophidian envenomation at university hospitals in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djohan, V; Menan, E I H; Yavo, W; Barro, P C K; Vanga, H; Dempah, J A; N'Dri, D K; Mignonsin, D; Akaffou, M H; Koné, K

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried in the intensive care units of Abidjan university hospitals and in the herpetology department of Pasteur Institute between January 2001 and April 2003. The purpose was to identify ophidian species that were dangerous for man and to document cases of snakebite in Abidjan. The study was carried out in two phases, i.e., collection and identification of snake species followed by review of case records involving snake envenomation at Cocody and Treichville university hospitals. A total of 5 snake families, 14 genera and 17 species including some that were dangerous for man were identified. All species except Naja nigricollis live in forest areas. Most snakebites led to simple clinical signs that regressed within 72 hours with only symptomatic treatment. However, a few cases required immunotherapy. Traditional methods of snakebite treatment were used for first line treatment in 50% of cases.

  19. Infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism following scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Vellasamy; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Bethou, Adhisivam; Deepak Barathi, S

    2014-05-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the common paediatric toxicological problems encountered in southern India. This rural emergency often results in an autonomic storm causing peripheral circulatory failure and/or congestive cardiac failure, leading to pulmonary oedema. A rare case of scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old boy that led to local cellulitis, dyspnoea and congestive heart failure is presented. This was followed by a persistent high-grade fever which lasted for more than 2 weeks and was complicated by fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Although infective endocarditis has been reported occasionally in adults following scorpion sting, this is the first case of infective endocarditis in a native valve in a child following scorpion sting. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  20. Clinical and hematological alterations in dogs during experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and treated with antiophidic serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with different antiophidic serum doses. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 30mg antiophidic serum intravenously; Group II received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 60mg antiophidic serum intravenously. In the clinical evaluation, we observed ataxia, moderate sedation, dilated pupils, sialorrhea, flaccid paralysis of mandibular muscles, and discreet edema at the site of venom inoculation. Evaluating red and white blood cells, we observed a decrease of hemoglobins, globular volume and erythrocytes, and an increase of plasmatic proteins, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Clotting time increased and there was blood incoagulability with return to normal clotting time six hours after antiophidic serum administration. Animals treated with six antiophidic serum flasks had a faster recovery than the animals that received three serum flasks.

  1. Functional variability of snake venom metalloproteinases: adaptive advantages in targeting different prey and implications for human envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Juliana L; Sousa, Leijiane F; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Lopes, Aline S; Prezoto, Benedito C; Serrano, Solange M T; Zingali, Russolina B; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are major components in most viperid venoms that induce disturbances in the hemostatic system and tissues of animals envenomated by snakes. These disturbances are involved in human pathology of snake bites and appear to be essential for the capture and digestion of snake's prey and avoidance of predators. SVMPs are a versatile family of venom toxins acting on different hemostatic targets which are present in venoms in distinct structural forms. However, the reason why a large number of different SVMPs are expressed in some venoms is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the interference of five isolated SVMPs in blood coagulation of humans, birds and small rodents. P-III class SVMPs (fractions Ic, IIb and IIc) possess gelatinolytic and hemorrhagic activities, and, of these, two also show fibrinolytic activity. P-I class SVMPs (fractions IVa and IVb) are only fibrinolytic. P-III class SVMPs reduced clotting time of human plasma. Fraction IIc was characterized as prothrombin activator and fraction Ic as factor X activator. In the absence of Ca2+, a firm clot was observed in chicken blood samples with fractions Ic, IIb and partially with fraction IIc. In contrast, without Ca2+, only fraction IIc was able to induce a firm clot in rat blood. In conclusion, functionally distinct forms of SVMPs were found in B. neuwiedi venom that affect distinct mechanisms in the coagulation system of humans, birds and small rodents. Distinct SVMPs appear to be more specialized to rat or chicken blood, strengthening the current hypothesis that toxin diversity enhances the possibilities of the snakes for hunting different prey or evading different predators. This functional diversity also impacts the complexity of human envenoming since different hemostatic mechanisms will be targeted by SVMPs accounting for the complexity of the response of humans to venoms.

  2. Functional variability of snake venom metalloproteinases: adaptive advantages in targeting different prey and implications for human envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L Bernardoni

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs are major components in most viperid venoms that induce disturbances in the hemostatic system and tissues of animals envenomated by snakes. These disturbances are involved in human pathology of snake bites and appear to be essential for the capture and digestion of snake's prey and avoidance of predators. SVMPs are a versatile family of venom toxins acting on different hemostatic targets which are present in venoms in distinct structural forms. However, the reason why a large number of different SVMPs are expressed in some venoms is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the interference of five isolated SVMPs in blood coagulation of humans, birds and small rodents. P-III class SVMPs (fractions Ic, IIb and IIc possess gelatinolytic and hemorrhagic activities, and, of these, two also show fibrinolytic activity. P-I class SVMPs (fractions IVa and IVb are only fibrinolytic. P-III class SVMPs reduced clotting time of human plasma. Fraction IIc was characterized as prothrombin activator and fraction Ic as factor X activator. In the absence of Ca2+, a firm clot was observed in chicken blood samples with fractions Ic, IIb and partially with fraction IIc. In contrast, without Ca2+, only fraction IIc was able to induce a firm clot in rat blood. In conclusion, functionally distinct forms of SVMPs were found in B. neuwiedi venom that affect distinct mechanisms in the coagulation system of humans, birds and small rodents. Distinct SVMPs appear to be more specialized to rat or chicken blood, strengthening the current hypothesis that toxin diversity enhances the possibilities of the snakes for hunting different prey or evading different predators. This functional diversity also impacts the complexity of human envenoming since different hemostatic mechanisms will be targeted by SVMPs accounting for the complexity of the response of humans to venoms.

  3. Toxinology in Australia's colonial era: a chronology and perspective of human envenomation in 19th century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2006-12-01

    The medical management of those envenomed by snakes, spiders and poisonous fish in Australia featured extensively in the writings 19th century doctors, expeditioners and anthropologists. Against the background of this introduced medical doctrine there already existed an extensive tradition of Aboriginal medical lore; techniques of heat treatment, suction, incision and the application of plant-derived pharmacological substances featured extensively in the management of envenomed victims. The application of a hair-string or grass-string ligature, suctioning of the bite-site and incision were practised in a variety of combinations. Such evolved independently of and pre-dated such practices, which were promoted extensively by immigrant European doctors in the late 19th century. Pacific scientific toxinology began in the 17th century with Don Diego de Prado y Tovar's 1606 account of ciguatera. By the end of the 19th century more than 30 papers and books had defined the natural history of Australian elapid poisoning. The medical management of snakebite in Australia was the focus of great controversy from 1860 to 1900. Dogmatic claims of the supposed antidote efficacy of intravenous ammonia by Professor G.B. Halford, and that of strychnine by Dr. Augustus Mueller, claimed mainstream medical attention. This era of potential iatrogenic disaster and dogma was brought to a conclusion by the objective experiments of Joseph Lauterer and Thomas Lane Bancroft in 1890 in Brisbane; and by those of C.J. Martin (from 1893) and Frank Tidswell (from 1898), both of Sydney. The modern era of Australian toxinology developed as a direct consequence of Calmette's discovery, in Paris in 1894, of immune serum, which was protective against snakebite. We review the key contributors and discoveries of toxinology in colonial Australia.

  4. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  5. Study on determination of the stable slope configuration for deep open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-long ZHU; Shi-xiong ZHANG; Shu-yu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The space effects of deep pit slope are analyzed by an elastic mechanics principle.The interaction among the critical slide angle,the friction coefficient,the cohesion,and the horizontal radius of the deep pits is derived in this paper.It indicates that the deeper the pit is excavated,the greater the critical slide angle is.Both the theory for reducing stripping waste rock in deep pit and the approach to determining the configuration of the stable slope are developed from the interaction.The theory in this paper comprises the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes and is suitable for analyzing that of deep pit.

  6. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  7. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  8. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  9. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  10. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  11. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  12. Fatigue Crack Initiation from Pitting Introduced during the Anodising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    C. Earthman (2008) Surface characterisation of 7075 -T73 aluminium exposed to anodizing pretreatment solutions. Journal of Materials Engineering and...University, Melbourne in 2004 having obtained a Bachelor of Engineering ( Materials ) with honours. Following 5 years at Rio Tinto as a Research...in pitting attack of aluminium alloys [5]. If the composition or temperature of the treatment baths is not correct, or if the components remain in a

  13. Fundamental Investigation of Pitting Corrosion in Structural Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to .1. Electrochem. Soc.; abbreviated version submitted to H. H. Uhlig 75th Birthday Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting...Films During the Initial Stages of Corrosion, Ext. Abs. No. 93, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, October 17-22, 1976. 2. T. R...Beck, Pitting of Titanium, III Electrical Properties of Salt Film, Ext. Abs. No. 64, The Electrochemical Society , Spring Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 21

  14. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  15. Molecular phylogeography of the nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes, Linnaeus (1758)): evidence for high genetic diversity and multiple refugia in the Balkan peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursenbacher, S; Schweiger, S; Tomović, L; Crnobrnja-Isailović, J; Fumagalli, L; Mayer, W

    2008-03-01

    The nose-horned viper (Vipera ammodytes) occurs in a large part of the south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed for a total of 59 specimens using sequences from three mitochondrial regions (16S and cytochrome b genes, and control region, totalling 2308 bp). A considerable number of clades were observed within this species, showing a large genetic diversity within the Balkan peninsula. Splitting of the basal clades was evaluated to about 4 million years ago. Genetic results are in contradiction with presently accepted taxonomy based on morphological characters: V. a. gregorwallneri and V. a. ruffoi do not display any genetic difference compared with the nominotypic subspecies (V. a. ammodytes), involving that these subspecies can be regarded as synonyms. High genetic divergence in the central part of the Balkan peninsula is not concordant with low morphological differentiation. Finally, the extensive genetic diversity within the Balkan peninsula and the colonisation routes are discussed.

  16. A record of Horned viper Vipera ammodytes (L. in the diet of the Stone marten Martes foina (Erxl. (Mammalia: Mustelidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among undigested prey remains in Stone marten’s Martes foina (Erxl. faeces (n=47, collected in Sakar Mountain (near Sladun Village a single lower jaw from a Horned viper (Vipera ammodytes was found. The rest of taxa registered in the Rock marten’s diet among the faecas were: Insceta indet., Lacerta sp., Pseudopus apodus, Aves indet., Dryomis nitedula, Sylvaemus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., and fruits of Rosa sp., Rubus sp., and Pyrus sp. The percent frequency of the main prey groups in the faeces were as follows: Mammalia (n=35, 74.5%, Aves (n=16, 34.0%, Reptilia (n=4, 8.5%, Insecta (n=4, 8.5%, and fruits (n=5, 10.6%.

  17. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  18. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  19. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF.

  20. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  1. Envenomation by the neotropical colubrid Boiruna maculata (Boulenger, 1896: a case report Envenenamento por Colubrídeo Neotropical Boiruna maculata (Boulenger, 1896: registro de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina dos SANTOS-COSTA

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Boiruna maculata snake bite in a child admitted to the Hospital Municipal de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. The patient was bitten on the lower left limb, and exhibited pronounced local manifestations of envenomation. She was treated with Bothrops antivenom and was discharged from the hospital five days later with marked improvement of envenomation.Este trabalho relata o envenenamento por serpente do gênero Boiruna maculata em criança admitida e posteriormente hospitalizada no Hospital Municipal de Pronto Socorro de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. A paciente foi mordida no membro inferior esquerdo e apresentou sinais de envenenamento local pronunciado, foi tratada como acidente botrópico e permaneceu no hospital por cinco dias, recebendo alta após melhora.

  2. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PIPELINE微创通道结合VIPER2经皮椎弓根螺钉技术治疗腰椎退变性疾病%Treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases by pIPELINE minimally invasive access in combination with VIPER2 Percu-taneous Pedicle Screw Fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇旭; 陈钢; 龚飞鹏; 龙智生; 肖裕华; 李建飞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the curative effects of PIPELINE Expandable Access System in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation on lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods The clinical data of 32 patients with lumbar de-generative diseases were collected,who received PIPELINE minimally invasive access decompression and fusion in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for treatment from February 2012 to December 2013 ,and follow-up was per-formed for all the patients. Posterior paramedian transmultifidus approach was adopted for all the patients ,spinal decompression and interbody fusion by PIPELINE Expandable Access System in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation were performed. The visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were adopted for the assessment of clinical effects. Complications as well as preoperative and postoperative indicators were observed. Results The average follow-up time of all the patients was 8.3 months. Statistical analysis showed that the VAS score for lumbocrural pain and ODI score at 1 week after operation and the last follow-up visit were remarkably improved compared with those before operation ,and the differ-ence was statistically significant(P<0.05). The improvement rate of the quality of life at the last follow-up visit was 85%. The aver-age duration of operation was 122 minutes. The average length of incision was 5.3cm. The average intraoperative bleeding volume was 0.18L and the average postoperative drainage volume was 0.085L. As for the postoperative complications ,epidermal necrosis of incision was observed in 3 cases,which achieved healing by primary intention after dressing change. Conclusion PIPELINE mini-mally invasive access in combination with VIPER2 percutaneous pedicle screw fixation has advantages such as mild tissue dam-age,less bleeding,fast postoperative recovery and definite short-term effects in the treatment of lumbar degenerative

  4. Changes in the arterial blood pressure, heart rate and normal ECG parameters of rat after envenomation with Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, M A; Abdel-Nabi, I M

    1997-06-01

    1. The effect of Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) venom on the normal electrical activity of the cardiac muscles (ECG) and arterial blood pressure of envenomated rats were investigated in this study. 2. Rats were divided into three groups. The first group was injected im with saline and considered as control group. Rats of the second and third groups were injected IM with 0.02 micrograms and 0.04 micrograms cobra venom/gim b.wt, respectively. 3. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR) and four different ECG parameters (PR and QT intervals, R and T wave amplitudes) were measured over 1 h following envenomation. 4. The low dose (0.02 micrograms/g) of N. haje venom caused hypotension accompanied by an increase in the HR, whereas hypertension and bradycardia developed after injection of the high dose (0.04 micrograms/g) of venom. 5. There was a decrease in the P-R interval after administration of the low dose and prolongation of it after the high dose. The Q-T interval and R-wave amplitude were significantly increased after injection of both doses. T-wave amplitude was significantly elevated only after injection of the high dose. 6. The present results indicate that the Egyptian cobra (N. haje) venom significantly alters the arterial blood pressure and ECG parameters of envenomated rats. The suggests that impairment of the electrical activity of cardiac muscle may be one of the reasons why victims of cobra bite die.

  5. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Nogueira, Rosa Maria Barilli; Sakate, Michiko; Laposy, Cecília Braga; da Motta, Yudney Pereira; Sangiorgio, Fabíola; David, Heloísa Costa; Nabas, João Marcelo

    2009-12-01

    Crotalic envenomation represents the highest number of deaths when compared to other snakebite envenomations of medical interest. Crotalic venom has important characteristics such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and clotting and hemolytic action. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of the plant Mikania glomerata. The animals were divided into three groups: Group C (control); Group VS-venom and antivenom; Group VSM-venom, antivenom and aqueous extract of M. glomerata. Crotalic poison caused clinical and laboratory alterations in Wistar mice. Significant clinical alterations were: temperature decrease, edema in the venom inoculated member, sedation and a locomotion decrease in groups VS and VSM when compared with group C. A faster recovery from sedation was observed only for animals of group VSM when compared to VS. There was an increase in the number of leukocytes, neutrophils and creatine kinase in the VS and VSM groups, compared to group C. Wistar rats showed a high resistance to crotalic venom. Additional studies with different doses, time of treatment, different administration methods and histopathological and immunological studies are necessary to understand the action of M. glomerata in crotalic accidents.

  6. A chance to cut is not always a chance to cure- fasciotomy in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomation: A retrospective poison center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Michael A; Cantrell, F Lee; Klauk, Bryan; Thornton, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Fasciotomy has been described in the treatment of rattlesnake-envenomation. We sought to compare the characteristics of patients undergoing fasciotomy with those where fasciotomy was discussed but not performed. A retrospective case-series constructed from a single-statewide-poison-system electronic database for cases of fasciotomy discussion or completion in rattlesnake-envenomation between January 2001 and May 2012. Age, gender, bite location, antivenom administered, compartment pressure measurements, Snakebite Severity Score (SSS) and length of hospitalization (LOS) were recorded. Comparisons were made between fasciotomy completed and where fasciotomy was only discussed. One-hundred-five cases of fasciotomy discussion or completion were identified. Fasciotomy was performed in 28 cases (27%). There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between groups in age, gender, bite site, SSS, and total number of vials of antivenom administered. Only 2 of 28 (7%) had compartment pressure measurements. Patients undergoing fasciotomy spent an additional 2 days in the hospital. Fasciotomies continue to take place, without compartment pressure measurements, and without repeat dosing of antivenom. In the absence of clear objective evidence that limb-threatening compartment syndrome occurs despite adequate antivenom administration, fasciotomy does not favorably impact morbidity and may be associated with increased costs for care following rattlesnake envenomation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of Pitting Morphology Fractal Characteristic of Corroded Surface of 304 Stainless Steel in FeCl3 Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 梁成浩

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the pitting corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments and SEM micrographs of the pitting corrosion morphology were obtained. The image processing technique combining with the fractal method was employed to analyze these pitting corrosion images and the self-similarity of pits morphology was observed. It indicates that fractal characteristics exist in pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel. The self-similarity and complexity of the pitting morphology phenomenon were described in terms of fractal dimension which can also be an important parameter related to characterize pitting morphology qualitatively and quantitatively.

  8. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Hung, E-mail: hmh2n@virginia.edu [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Taxen, Claes [SWEREA-KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Williams, Keith [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Scully, John [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > The effects of water composition on pit propagation kinetics on Cu were separated from pit initiation and stabilization using the artificial pit method in a range of dilute HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}-containing waters. > The effective polarization and Ohmic resistance of pits were lower in SO4{sup 2-}-containing solutions and greater in Cl{sup -}-containing solutions. > Relationship between the solution composition and the corrosion product identity and morphology were found. > These, in turn controlled the corrosion product Ohmic resistance and subsequently the pit growth rate. - Abstract: The pit propagation behavior of copper (UNS C11000) was investigated from an electrochemical perspective using the artificial pit method. Pit growth was studied systematically in a range of HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} containing-waters at various concentrations. Pit propagation was mediated by the nature of the corrosion products formed both inside and over the pit mouth (i.e., cap). Certain water chemistry concentrations such as those high in sulfate were found to promote fast pitting that could be sustained over long times at a fixed applied potential but gradually stifled in all but the lowest concentration solutions. In contrast, Cl{sup -} containing waters without sulfate ions resulted in slower pit growth and eventual repassivation. These observations were interpreted through understanding of the identity, amount and porosity of corrosion products formed inside and over pits. These factors controlled their resistive nature as characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A finite element model (FEM) was developed which included copper oxidation kinetics, transport by migration and diffusion, Cu(I) and Cu(II) solid corrosion product formation and porosity governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and a saturation index, as well as pit current and depth of penetration. The findings of the modeling were

  9. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Samuel L; Bourne, Keith J; Hermanson, John C; Glass, Samuel V; Costa, Adriana; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2015-10-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force-displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a mesomechanical testing system. The system consists of a quartz microprobe attached to a microforce sensor that is positioned and advanced with a micromanipulator mounted on an inverted microscope. Membrane displacement is measured from digital image analysis. Unaspirated pits from earlywood of never-dried wood of Larix and Pinus and aspirated pits from earlywood of dried wood of Larix were tested to generate force-displacement curves up to the point of membrane failure. Two failure modes were observed: rupture or tearing of the pit membrane by the microprobe tip, and the stretching of the pit membrane until the torus was forced out of the pit chamber through the pit aperture without rupture, a condition we refer to as torus prolapse.

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  12. Visual PEF Reader - VIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Victor; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Boehmer, Rudy A.; Kim, Rachel Y.

    2011-01-01

    This software graphically displays all pertinent information from a Predicted Events File (PEF) using the Java Swing framework, which allows for multi-platform support. The PEF is hard to weed through when looking for specific information and it is a desire for the MRO (Mars Reconn aissance Orbiter) Mission Planning & Sequencing Team (MPST) to have a different way to visualize the data. This tool will provide the team with a visual way of reviewing and error-checking the sequence product. The front end of the tool contains much of the aesthetically appealing material for viewing. The time stamp is displayed in the top left corner, and highlighted details are displayed in the bottom left corner. The time bar stretches along the top of the window, and the rest of the space is allotted for blocks and step functions. A preferences window is used to control the layout of the sections along with the ability to choose color and size of the blocks. Double-clicking on a block will show information contained within the block. Zooming into a certain level will graphically display that information as an overlay on the block itself. Other functions include using hotkeys to navigate, an option to jump to a specific time, enabling a vertical line, and double-clicking to zoom in/out. The back end involves a configuration file that allows a more experienced user to pre-define the structure of a block, a single event, or a step function. The individual will have to determine what information is important within each block and what actually defines the beginning and end of a block. This gives the user much more flexibility in terms of what the tool is searching for. In addition to the configurability, all the settings in the preferences window are saved in the configuration file as well

  13. Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Polymer/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares D. Alsewailem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the fracture surfaces of polymer/date pits composites was investigated. Polymers used in this study were high density polyethylene (HDPE and polystyrene (PS. Date pits in the form of granules were two types of date pits: khlaas (K and sekari (S. Two coupling agents, diphenylmethane-4 4′-diisocyanate (DPMI and ethylene propylene grafted with malice anhydride (EP-g-MA, were used to ease the incorporation of date pit particles into polymer matrix. The SEM micrographs of the neat composites, that is, with no coupling agents, showed coarse morphology with bad dispersion, adhesion, and distribution of date pit particles within the polymer matrix. On the other hand, PS100/K composites coupled with DPMI and EP-g-MA had reasonable dispersed phase size with good distribution and adhesion to the composite matrix which in turn improve the mechanical properties of the resulted polymer/date pits composites.

  14. Effect of Temperature and Cl-Concentration on Pitting of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Chaofang; LUO Hong; XIAO Kui; SUN Ting; LIU Qian; LI Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of 2205 duplex stainless steel in NaCl solution with different temperatures and concentrations were studied by gravimetric tests,potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The experimental results show that temperature and chloride concentration have a great influence on the pitting resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steels.They not only effect the corrosion rate of pitting,but also change the shape of the pits.When NaCl solution was in low concentration and temperature below the critical pitting temperature,pits were very small and scattered with hemisphere-like shape.On the contrary,the pits of 2205 duplex stainless steel were large and sometimes had a lacy cover when the NaCl concentration was higher and the temperature was 70℃.

  15. Pit Formation during the Self-Assembly of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdairmid, A. R.; Cappello, M. L.; Keeler, W. J.; Banks, J. T.; Gallagher, M. C.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of pits one gold atom deep during the growth of alkanethiol monolayers on Au(111), has been observed previously by others. Explanations for pit formation include etching of the substrate, or mass transport of gold atom + thiol molecule on the surface, due to changes in surface energy^1. We have investigated the structure of dithiothreitol (DTT) SAMs on Au(111). Ex situ STM measurements indicate similar pitting occurs during formation of the dithiol monolayer. The degree of pitting depends on exposure time, sample temperature during formation, and subsequent annealing of the sample. Pitting is enhanced considerasbly when DTT is coordinated with Ti, in fact DTT/Ti films exhibit considerable pit motion during STM imaging. ^1 F. Teran et al. Electrochimica Acta 44, 1053 (1998).

  16. [Optic nerve pits: clinical and therapeutic review of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, M; Bonnet, M

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of optic nerve pits in patients referred to our clinic during the last 15 years was conducted. The study included 21 eyes in 19 patients. The optic pit was associated with a serous macular detachment (SMD) in 19 eyes (90%). Various treatments of the SMD were used depending on the time period. Systemic corticosteroids were used in five patients. The SMD did not respond to this treatment. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied to the temporal side of the optic disc in five patients. Intravitreal injection of pure gas was used as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment in eleven eyes. Pure SF 6 was used in 8 eyes, and C 3 F 8 in 3 eyes. The follow-up after treatment was over 6 months in 10 patients who underwent photocoagulation or the combination of photocoagulation and gas injection. The SMD remained unchanged in two eyes which underwent photocoagulation treatment without gas injection. In the group of patients treated by photocoagulation in association with SF 6 injection, the SMD totally reattached in one eye, decreased in 2 eyes and remained unchanged in 2 eyes. Total resorption of subretinal fluid and permanent retinal reattachment occurred in the 3 eyes treated by intravitreal injection of pure C 3 F 8 as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment. Further clinical investigations on large series of patients are required to determine whether prolonged retinal tamponade by C 3 F 8 gas in association with photocoagulation treatment is a valuable method in the management of SMD complicating optic nerve pits.

  17. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin

    2004-01-01

    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  18. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  19. Demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para todos

    OpenAIRE

    María C. Cañadas

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la gran diversidad de la muestra con la que se realiza la actividad que se presenta y la importancia de la demostración en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas en todos los niveles del sistema educativo. La demostración ha sido, en ocasiones, pensada sólo para los niveles más elevados de las matemáticas y con esta actividad pretendemos mostrar cómo utilizamos distintas demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para detectar...

  20. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.