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Sample records for pit family paralogs

  1. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Hede, Susanne E; Grunnet, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters and are exploi......The general phosphate need in mammalian cells is accommodated by members of the P(i) transport (PiT) family (SLC20), which use either Na(+) or H(+) to mediate inorganic phosphate (P(i)) symport. The mammalian PiT paralogs PiT1 and PiT2 are Na(+)-dependent P(i) (NaP(i)) transporters...... and are exploited by a group of retroviruses for cell entry. Human PiT1 and PiT2 were characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes with (32)P(i) as a traceable P(i) source. For PiT1, the Michaelis-Menten constant for P(i) was determined as 322.5 +/- 124.5 microM. PiT2 was analyzed for the first time...

  2. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

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    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  3. The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET Family: Functional Anatomy of BET Paralogous Proteins

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    Yasushi Taniguchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET family of proteins is characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains and an extra-terminal domain. The mammalian BET family of proteins comprises BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT, which are encoded by paralogous genes that may have been generated by repeated duplication of an ancestral gene during evolution. Bromodomains that can specifically bind acetylated lysine residues in histones serve as chromatin-targeting modules that decipher the histone acetylation code. BET proteins play a crucial role in regulating gene transcription through epigenetic interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones during cellular proliferation and differentiation processes. On the other hand, BET proteins have been reported to mediate latent viral infection in host cells and be involved in oncogenesis. Human BRD4 is involved in multiple processes of the DNA virus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through interaction with viral proteins. Aberrant BRD4 expression contributes to carcinogenesis by mediating hyperacetylation of the chromatin containing the cell proliferation-promoting genes. BET bromodomain blockade using small-molecule inhibitors gives rise to selective repression of the transcriptional network driven by c-MYC These inhibitors are expected to be potential therapeutic drugs for a wide range of cancers. This review presents an overview of the basic roles of BET proteins and highlights the pathological functions of BET and the recent developments in cancer therapy targeting BET proteins in animal models.

  4. Nonredundant and locus-specific gene repression functions of PRC1 paralog family members in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Vincent; Rozenveld-Geugien, Marjan; Bonardi, Francesco; Malanga, Donatella; van Gosliga, Djoke; Heyink, Anne Margriet; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Morrone, Giovanni; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is a key factor in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic stem cell self-renewal and functions in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). In humans, each of the 5 subunits of PRC1 has paralog family members of which many reside in

  5. Novel paralogous gene families with potential function in legume nodules and seeds.

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    Silverstein, Kevin A T; Graham, Michelle A; VandenBosch, Kathryn A

    2006-04-01

    Within the plant kingdom, legumes are unusual in their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with certain bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae (rhizhobia). Genes that are required for signaling between plant and symbiont, and for the development and maintenance of the nodule, were either created de novo or adopted from other plant pathways. Only in recent years have genome-scale sequence data from legumes made it possible to identify large, novel families of genes probably evolved to function in nodulation. Members of these novel families are expressed in seeds or nodules, and are homologous to defense-related proteins. Perhaps the most striking example is a large family (of more than 340 members) of cysteine cluster proteins that have homology to plant defensins.

  6. Zebrafish brd2a and brd2b are paralogous members of the bromodomain-ET (BET family of transcriptional coregulators that show structural and expression divergence

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    Bee Katharine J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brd2 belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET family of transcriptional co-regulators, and functions as a pivotal histone-directed recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. Brd2 facilitates expression of genes promoting proliferation and is implicated in apoptosis and in egg maturation and meiotic competence in mammals; it is also a susceptibility gene for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME in humans. The brd2 ortholog in Drosophila is a maternal effect, embryonic lethal gene that regulates several homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax. Despite its importance, there are few systematic studies of Brd2 developmental expression in any organism. To help elucidate both conserved and novel gene functions, we cloned and characterized expression of brd2 cDNAs in zebrafish, a vertebrate system useful for genetic analysis of development and disease, and for study of the evolution of gene families and functional diversity in chordates. Results We identify cDNAs representing two paralogous brd2 loci in zebrafish, brd2a on chromosome 19 and brd2b on chromosome 16. By sequence similarity, syntenic and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence for structural divergence of brd2 after gene duplication in fishes. brd2 paralogs show potential for modular domain combinations, and exhibit distinct RNA expression patterns throughout development. RNA in situ hybridizations in oocytes and embryos implicate brd2a and brd2b as maternal effect genes involved in egg polarity and egg to embryo transition, and as zygotic genes important for development of the vertebrate nervous system and for morphogenesis and differentiation of the digestive tract. Patterns of brd2 developmental expression in zebrafish are consistent with its proposed role in Homeobox gene regulation. Conclusion Expression profiles of zebrafish brd2 paralogs support a role in vertebrate developmental patterning and

  7. The RAB family GTPase Rab1A from Plasmodium falciparum defines a unique paralog shared by chromalveolates and rhizaria.

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    Elias, Marek; Patron, Nicola J; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The RAB GTPases, which are involved in regulation of endomembrane trafficking, exhibit a complex but incompletely understood evolutionary history. We elucidated the evolution of the RAB1 subfamily ancestrally implicated in the endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic. We found that RAB1 paralogs have been generated over the course of eukaryotic evolution, with some duplications coinciding with the advent of major eukaryotic lineages (e.g. Metazoa, haptophytes). We also identified a unique, derived RAB1 paralog, orthologous to the Plasmodium Rab1A, that occurs in stramenopiles, alveolates, and Rhizaria, represented by the chlorarachniophyte Gymnochlora stellata. This finding is consistent with the recently documented existence of a major eukaryotic clade ("SAR") comprising these three lineages. We further found a Rab1A-like protein in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta, but it exhibits unusual features among RAB proteins: absence of a C-terminal prenylation motif and an N-terminal extension with two MSP domains; and its phylogenetic relationships could not be established convincingly due to its divergent nature. Our results nevertheless point to a unique membrane trafficking pathway shared by at least some lineages of chromalveolates and Rhizaria, an insight that has implications towards interpreting the early evolution of eukaryotes and the endomembrane system.

  8. ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE family in plants: lineage-specific expansion in monocotyledons and conserved genomic and expression features among rice (Oryza sativa paralogs

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    Lopes Karina L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably a result of a lineage-specific expansion. The rice ZIFL paralogs were named OsZIFL1 to OsZIFL13 and characterized. The genomic organization of the rice ZIFL genes seems to be highly influenced by segmental and tandem duplications and concerted evolution, as rice genome contains five highly similar ZIFL gene pairs. Most rice ZIFL promoters are enriched for the core sequence of the Fe-deficiency-related box IDE1. Gene expression analyses of different plant organs, growth stages and treatments, both from our qPCR data and from microarray databases, revealed that the duplicated ZIFL gene pairs are mostly co-expressed. Transcripts of OsZIFL4, OsZIFL5, OsZIFL7, and OsZIFL12 accumulate in response to Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency in roots, two stresses with partially overlapping responses. Conclusions We suggest that ZIFL genes have different evolutionary histories in monocot and dicot lineages. In rice, concerted evolution affected ZIFL duplicated genes

  9. Burn Pits

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    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Burn Pits Burn Pits Registry Studies Photo: U.S. Department ... the health of deployed Veterans. Health effects from burn pit smoke Toxins in burn pit smoke may ...

  10. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

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    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-01-01

    Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs), for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z)-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z)-5-decenyl acetate, (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and relaxed

  11. Functional evolution of a multigene family: orthologous and paralogous pheromone receptor genes in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum.

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    Dan-Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran pheromone receptors (PRs, for which orthologies are evident among closely related species, provide an intriguing example of gene family evolution in terms of how new functions may arise. However, only a limited number of PRs have been functionally characterized so far and thus evolutionary scenarios suffer from elements of speculation. In this study we investigated the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, in which female moths produce a mixture of chemically related pheromone components that elicit specific responses from receptor cells on male antennae. We cloned nine A. segetum PR genes and the Orco gene by degenerate primer based RT-PCR. The nine PR genes, named as AsegOR1 and AsegOR3-10, fall into four distinct orthologous clusters of known lepidopteran PRs, of which one contains six paralogues. The paralogues are under relaxed selective pressure, contrasting with the purifying selection on other clusters. We identified the receptors AsegOR9, AsegOR4 and AsegOR5, specific for the respective homologous pheromone components (Z-5-decenyl, (Z-7-dodecenyl and (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetates, by two-electrode voltage clamp recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes co-expressing Orco and each PR candidate. These receptors occur in three different orthologous clusters. We also found that the six paralogues with high sequence similarity vary dramatically in ligand selectivity and sensitivity. Different from AsegOR9, AsegOR6 showed a relatively large response to the behavioural antagonist (Z-5-decenol, and a small response to (Z-5-decenyl acetate. AsegOR1 was broadly tuned, but most responsive to (Z-5-decenyl acetate, (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate and the behavioural antagonist (Z-8-dodecenyl acetate. AsegOR8 and AsegOR7, which differ from AsegOR6 and AsegOR1 by 7 and 10 aa respectively, showed much lower sensitivities. AsegOR10 showed only small responses to all the tested compounds. These results suggest that new receptors arise through gene duplication, and

  12. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

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    Bøttger Pernille

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inorganic (Pi phosphate transporter (PiT family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na+-dependent Pi (NaPi transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. Results We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members. A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR254-V483, was found to be a fully functional Pi transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL183-V483 did also support Pi transport albeit at very low levels. Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution

  13. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Background The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house......-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... sequences of PiT family members from all kingdoms, along with the studies of the dual functions of the human PiT paralogs show that these proteins are excellent as models for studying the evolution of a protein's structure-function relationship....

  14. Functional diversification of paralogous transcription factors via divergence in DNA binding site motif and in expression.

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    Larry N Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a major driver of evolutionary innovation as it allows for an organism to elaborate its existing biological functions via specialization or diversification of initially redundant gene paralogs. Gene function can diversify in several ways. Transcription factor gene paralogs in particular, can diversify either by changes in their tissue-specific expression pattern or by changes in the DNA binding site motif recognized by their protein product, which in turn alters their gene targets. The relationship between these two modes of functional diversification of transcription factor paralogs has not been previously investigated, and is essential for understanding adaptive evolution of transcription factor gene families. FINDINGS: Based on a large set of human paralogous transcription factor pairs, we show that when the DNA binding site motifs of transcription factor paralogs are similar, the expressions of the genes that encode the paralogs have diverged, so in general, at most one of the paralogs is highly expressed in a tissue. Moreover, paralogs with diverged DNA binding site motifs tend to be diverged in their function. Conversely, two paralogs that are highly expressed in a tissue tend to have dissimilar DNA binding site motifs. We have also found that in general, within a paralogous family, tissue-specific decrease in gene expression is more frequent than what is expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS: While previous investigations of paralogous gene diversification have only considered coding sequence divergence, by explicitly quantifying divergence in DNA binding site motif, our work presents a new paradigm for investigating functional diversification. Consistent with evolutionary expectation, our quantitative analysis suggests that paralogous transcription factors have survived extinction in part, either through diversification of their DNA binding site motifs or through alterations in their tissue-specific expression

  15. The Pits

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    2006-01-01

    8 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a pit chain on the lower, northern flank of the giant martian volcano, Arsia Mons. Pits such as these commonly form as a result of collapse of surface materials into a subsurface void, possibly along a fault or into an old lava tube. The layered material, exposed near the top of several of the pits, is shedding house-sized boulders which can be seen resting on the sloping sidewalls and floors of many of the pits. Location near: 6.7oS, 120.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Paralog-selective Hsp90 inhibitors define tumor-specific regulation of Her2

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    Patel, Pallav D.; Yan, Pengrong; Seidler, Paul M.; Patel, Hardik J.; Sun, Weilin; Yang, Chenghua; Que, Nanette S.; Taldone, Tony; Finotti, Paola; Stephani, Ralph A.; Gewirth, Daniel T.; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Although the Hsp90 chaperone family, comprised in humans of four paralogs, Hsp90α, Hsp90β, Grp94 and Trap-1, has important roles in malignancy, the contribution of each paralog to the cancer phenotype is poorly understood. This is in large part because reagents to study paralog-specific functions in cancer cells have been unavailable. Here we combine compound library screening with structural and computational analyses to identify purine-based chemical tools that are specific for Hsp90 paralogs. We show that Grp94 selectivity is due to the insertion of these compounds into a new allosteric pocket. We use these tools to demonstrate that cancer cells use individual Hsp90 paralogs to regulate a client protein in a tumor-specific manner and in response to proteome alterations. Finally, we provide new mechanistic evidence explaining why selective Grp94 inhibition is particularly efficacious in certain breast cancers. PMID:23995768

  17. Vipericidins: a novel family of cathelicidin-related peptides from the venom gland of South American pit vipers.

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    Falcao, C B; de La Torre, B G; Pérez-Peinado, C; Barron, A E; Andreu, D; Rádis-Baptista, G

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins are phylogenetically ancient, pleiotropic host defense peptides-also called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-expressed in numerous life forms for innate immunity. Since even the jawless hagfish expresses cathelicidins, these genetically encoded host defense peptides are at least 400 million years old. More recently, cathelicidins with varying antipathogenic activities and cytotoxicities were discovered in the venoms of poisonous snakes; for these creatures, cathelicidins may also serve as weapons against prey and predators, as well as for innate immunity. We report herein the expression of orthologous cathelicidin genes in the venoms of four different South American pit vipers (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops lutzi, Crotalus durissus terrificus, and Lachesis muta rhombeata)-distant relatives of Asian cobras and kraits, previously shown to express cathelicidins-and an elapid, Pseudonaja textilis. We identified six novel, genetically encoded peptides: four from pit vipers, collectively named vipericidins, and two from the elapid. These new venom-derived cathelicidins exhibited potent killing activity against a number of bacterial strains (S. pyogenes, A. baumannii, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa), mostly with relatively less potent hemolysis, indicating their possible usefulness as lead structures for the development of new anti-infective agents. It is worth noting that these South American snake venom peptides are comparable in cytotoxicity (e.g., hemolysis) to human cathelicidin LL-37, and much lower than other membrane-active peptides such as mastoparan 7 and melittin from bee venom. Overall, the excellent bactericidal profile of vipericidins suggests they are a promising template for the development of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics.

  18. Burn Pits

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    ... Care Apply Online Application Process Veteran Eligibility Active Duty Families of Veterans Women Veterans Determine Costs Copays ... Vets Performance Based Interviewing Clinical Trainees (Academic Affiliations) Employees & Contractors Talent Management System (TMS) VA Learning University ( ...

  19. The impact of paralogy on phylogenomic studies - a case study on annelid relationships.

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    Torsten H Struck

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1 a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2 blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case

  20. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  1. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  2. Paralog-specific primers for the amplification of nuclear Loci in tetraploid barbels (barbus: cypriniformes).

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    Gante, Hugo F; Alves, Maria Judite; Dowling, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Thirty paralog-specific primers were developed, following an intron-primed exon-crossing strategy, for S7 and growth hormone genes in Barbus (subgenera Barbus and Luciobarbus). We found that paralog-specific amplification requires the use of only one paralog-specific primer, allowing their simultaneous use with universal exon-primed intron-crossing primers of broad taxonomic applicability. This hybrid annealing strategy guarantees both specificity and generality of amplification reactions and represents a step forward in the amplification of duplicated nuclear loci in polyploid organisms and members of multigene families. Assays of several representative taxa identified high levels of segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nucleotide diversity within each of these subgenera. Additionally, several insertions-deletions (indels) that are diagnostic across species are found in intronic regions. Therefore, these primers provide a reliable source of valuable nuclear SNP and indel data for population and species level studies of barbels, such as applied conservation and basic evolutionary studies.

  3. Close association between paralogous multiple isomiRs and paralogous/orthologues miRNA sequences implicates dominant sequence selection across various animal species.

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    Guo, Li; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Feng

    2013-09-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial negative regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Next-generation sequencing technologies have identified a series of miRNA variants (named isomiRs). In this study, paralogous isomiR assemblies (from the miRNA locus) were systematically analyzed based on data acquired from deep sequencing data sets. Evolutionary analysis of paralogous (members in miRNA gene family in a specific species) and orthologues (across different animal species) miRNAs was also performed. The sequence diversity of paralogous isomiRs was found to be similar to the diversity of paralogous and orthologues miRNAs. Additionally, both isomiRs and paralogous/orthologues miRNAs were implicated in 5' and 3' ends (especially 3' ends), nucleotide substitutions, and insertions and deletions. Generally, multiple isomiRs can be produced from a single miRNA locus, but most of them had lower enrichment levels, and only several dominant isomiR sequences were detected. These dominant isomiR groups were always stable, and one of them would be selected as the most abundant miRNA sequence in specific animal species. Some isomiRs might be consistent to miRNA sequences in some species but not the other. Homologous miRNAs were often detected in similar isomiR repertoires, and showed similar expression patterns, while dominant isomiRs showed complex evolutionary patterns from miRNA sequences across the animal kingdom. These results indicate that the phenomenon of multiple isomiRs is not a random event, but rather the result of evolutionary pressures. The existence of multiple isomiRs enables different species to express advantageous sequences in different environments. Thus, dominant sequences emerge in response to functional and evolutionary pressures, allowing an organism to adapt to complex intra- and extra-cellular events. © 2013.

  4. Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis

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    Lauren L. Lockwood

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK. Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Increases in skin surface pH, hyperhidrosis, and prolonged occlusion allow these bacteria to proliferate. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and treatment generally consists of a combination of hygienic measures, correcting plantar hyperhidrosis and topical antimicrobials.

  5. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET of Cipelang

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    Cece Sumantri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken from cows that have been superovulated Angus, Brahman, HF, Limousin and Simmental. DNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform protocol followed by polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR using specific primers for GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1 gene. PCR product was cut with restriction enzyme MspI, AluI, HaeIII and HinfI and electrophoresed on agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr. Superovulation is done by injecting a totally of 20 ml FSH for 4 days. Injecting the prostaglandin hormone (PGF2α was performed on the eleventh day of CIDR implantation. Artificial insemination (AI performed two or three days after the injection of PGF2α and Flushing was done on the seventh day after the AI. The results showed that the Angus, Limousin, Brahman and Simental GH loci diversity of GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR|AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI was not associated with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryo rate. In HF dairy cattle, genotype on Pit-1|HinfI AA has higher percentage of superovulation response (P < 0.05 when compared to AB genotype, but did not differ to BB genotype. Dairy cattle HF AA genotype also had higher ovulation rate (P < 0.05 when compared to AB and BB genotypes, but AB and BB have the same ovulation rate.

  6. Growth hormone gene family (GH, GHR, GHRH and Pit-1) polymorphisms and its association with superovulation response, ovulation rate and embryo quality in Embryo Transfer Station (BET) of Cipelang

    OpenAIRE

    Cece Sumantri; M. Imron; Sugyono; E. Andreas; M. Restu; A. B. L. Ishak

    2011-01-01

    The decrease in fertility is considered to be the main cause of reproductive loss in dairy cattle and beef industry. Many candidate genes that play an important role in fertility and embryonic development. The purpose of this study was to detect genetic variations of the growth hormone gene family (GH|MspI, GH|AluI, GHR| AluI, GHRH|HaeIII and Pit-1|HinfI) and its association with superovulation response, ovulation, fertilization and transferable embryos rate. A total of 45 blood samples taken...

  7. Functional divergence among silkworm antimicrobial peptide paralogs by the activities of recombinant proteins and the induced expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Yang

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection.

  8. Heterogeneous conservation of Dlx paralog co-expression in jawed vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Pollack, Jacob; Germon, Isabelle; Ekker, Marc; Depew, Michael; Laurenti, Patrick; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Casane, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model. The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family. Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high

  9. LEC1-LIKE paralog transcription factor: how to survive extinction and fit in NF-Y protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilioti, Zoe; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Bossis, Ioannis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2014-06-15

    Transcription factor function is crucial for eukaryotic systems. The presence of transcription factor families in genomes represents a significant technical challenge for functional studies. To understand their function, we must understand how they evolved and maintained by organisms. Based on genome scale searches for homologs of LEAFY COTYLEDON-LIKE (L1L; AtNF-YB6), NF-YB transcription factor, we report the discovery and annotation of a complete repertoire of thirteen novel genes that belong to the L1L paralogous gene family of Solanum lycopersicum. Gene duplication events within the species resulted in the expansion of the L1L family. Sequence and structure-based phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct groups of L1Ls in tomato. Natural selection appears to have contributed to the asymmetric evolution of paralogs. Our results point to key differences among SlL1L paralogs in the presence of motifs, structural features, cysteine composition and expression patterns during plant and fruit development. Furthermore, differences in the binding domains of L1L members suggest that some of them evolved new binding specificities. These results reveal dramatic functional diversification of L1L paralogs for their maintenance in tomato genome. Our comprehensive insights on tomato L1L family should provide the basis for further functional and genetic experimentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhining Sa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs.

  11. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Zhining; Zhou, Jingqi; Zou, Yangyun; Su, Zhixi; Gu, Xun

    2017-08-01

    Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II) of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  13. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal

  14. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  15. Sulci Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project

  16. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  17. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  18. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  19. Genes and processed paralogs co-exist in plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Argelia; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Jahren, Anne Hoppe

    2012-04-01

    RNA-mediated gene duplication has been proposed to create processed paralogs in the plant mitochondrial genome. A processed paralog may retain signatures left by the maturation process of its RNA precursor, such as intron removal and no need of RNA editing. Whereas it is well documented that an RNA intermediary is involved in the transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, no direct evidence exists for insertion of processed paralogs in the mitochondria (i.e., processed and un-processed genes have never been found simultaneously in the mitochondrial genome). In this study, we sequenced a region of the mitochondrial gene nad1, and identified a number of taxa were two different copies of the region co-occur in the mitochondria. The two nad1 paralogs differed in their (a) presence or absence of a group II intron, and (b) number of edited sites. Thus, this work provides the first evidence of co-existence of processed paralogs and their precursors within the plant mitochondrial genome. In addition, mapping the presence/absence of the paralogs provides indirect evidence of RNA-mediated gene duplication as an essential process shaping the mitochondrial genome in plants.

  20. Evolutionary origins of Hsp90 chaperones and a deep paralogy in their bacterial ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Alexandra; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The 82-90 kD family of molecular chaperone proteins has homologs in eukaryotes (Hsp90) and many eubacteria (HtpG) but not in Archaebacteria. We used representatives of all four different eukaryotic paralogs (cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), chloroplast, mitochondrial) together with numerous eubacterial HtpG proteins for phylogenetic analyses to investigate their evolutionary origins. Our trees confirm that none of the organellar Hsp90s derives from the endosymbionts of early eukaryotes. Contrary to previous suggestions of distant origins through lateral gene transfer (LGT) all eukaryote Hsp90s are related to Gram-positive eubacterial HtpG proteins. The nucleocytosolic, ER and chloroplast Hsp90 paralogs are clearly mutually related. The origin of mitochondrial Hsp90 is more obscure, as these sequences are deeply nested within eubacteria. Our trees also reveal a deep split within eubacteria into a group of mainly long-branching sequences (including the eukaryote mitochondrial Hsp90s) and another group comprising exclusively short-branching HtpG proteins, from which the cytosolic/ER versions probably arose. Both versions are present in several eubacterial phyla, suggesting gene duplication very early in eubacterial evolution and multiple independent losses thereafter. We identified one probable case of LGT within eubacteria. However, multiple losses can simply explain the evolutionary pattern of the eubacterial HtpG paralogs and predominate over LGT. We suggest that the actinobacterial ancestor of eukaryotes harbored genes for both eubacterial HtpG paralogs, as the actinobacterium Streptomyces coelicolor still does; one could have given rise to the mitochondrial Hsp90 and the other, following another duplication event in the ancestral eukaryote, to the cytosolic and ER Hsp90 homologs.

  1. Pitting process visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes time-domain simulation of gear pitting damage using animation program. Key frames have been used to create illusion of motion. The animation uses experimental results of high-cycle fatigue of material. The fatigue damage occurs in the nominal creep area on the side of the gear tooth sample loaded with variable-positioned Hertz pressure. By applying the force, the pressure cumulates between two convex surfaces. This phenomenon results in material damage under of curved surfaces in contact. Moreover, further damage has been registered on the surface. This is due to exceeding the elastic-plastic state limit and development of „tabs“. The tabs serve as origin of surface micro cracks powered by shear stress and enclosed grease pressure as well. This deformation and extreme pressures of Pascal law contribute to elongation and growth of the surface micro crack. Non-homogenous parts of material volume support the initialization/development of the micro cracks as well. Resulting visualization of the tooth-side fatigue damage provides clear and easy-to-understand description of the damage development process right from the micro crack initialization to the final fragmentation due to pitting degradation.

  2. An enhanced method for sequence walking and paralog mining: TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Thomas M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although technological advances allow for the economical acquisition of whole genome sequences, many organisms' genomes remain unsequenced, and fully sequenced genomes may contain gaps. Researchers reliant upon partial genomic or heterologous sequence information require methods for obtaining unknown sequences from loci of interest. Various PCR based techniques are available for sequence walking - i.e., the acquisition of unknown DNA sequence adjacent to known sequence. Many such methods require rigid, elaborate protocols and/or impose narrowly confined options in the choice of restriction enzymes for necessary genomic digests. We describe a new method, TOPO® Vector-Ligation PCR (or TVL-PCR that innovatively integrates available tools and familiar concepts to offer advantages as a means of both targeted sequence walking and paralog mining. Findings TVL-PCR exploits the ligation efficiency of the pCR®4-TOPO® (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California vector system to capture fragments of unknown sequence by creating chimeric molecules containing defined priming sites at both ends. Initially, restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA is end-repaired to create 3' adenosine overhangs and is then ligated to pCR4-TOPO vectors. The ligation product pool is used directly as a template for nested PCR, using specific primers to target orthologous sequences, or degenerate primers to enable capture of paralogous gene family members. We demonstrated the efficacy of this method by capturing entire coding and partial promoter sequences of several strawberry Superman-like genes. Conclusions TVL-PCR is a convenient and efficient method for DNA sequence walking and paralog mining that is applicable to any organism for which relevant DNA sequence is available as a basis for primer design.

  3. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Eukaryotic GPN-loop GTPases paralogs use a dimeric assembly reminiscent of archeal GPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Béatrice; Beraud, Carole; Meguellati, Sarra; Chen, Shu W; Pellequer, Jean Luc; Armengaud, Jean; Godon, Christian

    2013-02-01

    GTPases are molecular switches that regulate a wide-range of cellular processes. The GPN-loop GTPase (GPN) is a sub-family of P-loop NTPase that evolved from a single gene copy in archaea to triplicate paralog genes in eukaryotes, each having a non-redundant essential function in cell. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yGPN1 and yGPN2 are involved in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism, whereas nothing is known regarding yGPN3 function. Previous high-throughput experiments suggested that GPN paralogs interaction may occur. In this work, GPN|GPN contact was analyzed in details using TAP-Tag approach, yeast two-hybrid assay, in silico energy computation and site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved Glu residue located at the center of the interaction interface. It is demonstrated that this residue is essential for cell viability. A chromatid cohesion assay revealed that, like yGPN1 and yGPN2, yGPN3 also plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion. These results suggest that all three GPN proteins act at the molecular level in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism as a GPN|GPN complex reminiscent of the homodimeric structure of PAB0955, an archaeal member of GPN-loop GTPase.

  5. Relief of autoinhibition by conformational switch explains enzyme activation by a catalytically dead paralog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Oleg A.; Kinch, Lisa; Ariagno, Carson; Deng, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Shihua; Grishin, Nick; Tomchick, Diana R.; Chen, Zhe; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2016-12-15

    Catalytically inactive enzyme paralogs occur in many genomes. Some regulate their active counterparts but the structural principles of this regulation remain largely unknown. We report X-ray structures ofTrypanosoma brucei S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase alone and in functional complex with its catalytically dead paralogous partner, prozyme. We show monomericTbAdoMetDC is inactive because of autoinhibition by its N-terminal sequence. Heterodimerization with prozyme displaces this sequence from the active site through a complex mechanism involving acis-to-transproline isomerization, reorganization of a β-sheet, and insertion of the N-terminal α-helix into the heterodimer interface, leading to enzyme activation. We propose that the evolution of this intricate regulatory mechanism was facilitated by the acquisition of the dimerization domain, a single step that can in principle account for the divergence of regulatory schemes in the AdoMetDC enzyme family. These studies elucidate an allosteric mechanism in an enzyme and a plausible scheme by which such complex cooperativity evolved.

  6. An easy-to-use primer design tool to address paralogous loci and T-DNA insertion sites in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huep, Gunnar; Kleinboelting, Nils; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    More than 90% of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes are members of multigene families. DNA sequence similarities present in such related genes can cause trouble, e.g. when molecularly analysing mutant alleles of these genes. Also, flanking-sequence-tag (FST) based predictions of T-DNA insertion positions are often located within paralogous regions of the genome. In such cases, the prediction of the correct insertion site must include careful sequence analyses on the one hand and a paralog specific primer design for experimental confirmation of the prediction on the other hand. GABI-Kat is a large A. thaliana insertion line resource, which uses in-house confirmation to provide highly reliable access to T-DNA insertion alleles. To offer trustworthy mutant alleles of paralogous loci, we considered multiple insertion site predictions for single FSTs and implemented this 1-to-N relation in our database. The resulting paralogous predictions were addressed experimentally and the correct insertion locus was identified in most cases, including cases in which there were multiple predictions with identical prediction scores. A newly developed primer design tool that takes paralogous regions into account was developed to streamline the confirmation process for paralogs. The tool is suitable for all parts of the genome and is freely available at the GABI-Kat website. Although the tool was initially designed for the analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants, it can be used for any experiment that requires locus-specific primers for the A. thaliana genome. It is easy to use and also able to design amplimers with two genome-specific primers as required for genotyping segregating families of insertion mutants when looking for homozygous offspring. The paralog-aware confirmation process significantly improved the reliability of the insertion site assignment when paralogous regions of the genome were affected. An automatic online primer design tool that incorporates experience from the in

  7. Micromorphology and systematic distribution of pit membrane thickenings in Oleaceae: Tori and pseudo-tori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, D.; Huysmans, S.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.; Jansen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on the functional significance of pit membranes in water conducting cells have renewed general interest in their micromorphology. At least two types of pit membrane thickenings have been described in angiosperm families, i.e. genuine tori and pseudo-tori. This study explores the distr

  8. Conserved transcriptional responses to cyanobacterial stressors are mediated by alternate regulation of paralogous genes in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselman, Jana; Pfrender, Michael E; Lopez, Jacqueline A; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Janssen, Colin R; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-04-01

    Despite a significant increase in genomic data, our knowledge of gene functions and their transcriptional responses to environmental stimuli remains limited. Here, we use the model keystone species Daphnia pulex to study environmental responses of genes in the context of their gene family history to better understand the relationship between genome structure and gene function in response to environmental stimuli. Daphnia were exposed to five different treatments, each consisting of a diet supplemented with one of five cyanobacterial species, and a control treatment consisting of a diet of only green algae. Differential gene expression profiles of Daphnia exposed to each of these five cyanobacterial species showed that genes with known functions are more likely to be shared by different expression profiles, whereas genes specific to the lineage of Daphnia are more likely to be unique to a given expression profile. Furthermore, while only a small number of nonlineage-specific genes were conserved across treatment type, there was a high degree of overlap in expression profiles at the functional level. The conservation of functional responses across the different cyanobacterial treatments can be attributed to the treatment-specific expression of different paralogous genes within the same gene family. Comparison with available gene expression data in the literature suggests differences in nutritional composition in diets with cyanobacterial species compared to diets of green algae as a primary driver for cyanobacterial effects on Daphnia. We conclude that conserved functional responses in Daphnia across different cyanobacterial treatments are mediated through alternate regulation of paralogous gene families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 × 10-4 and 5.1 × 10-5 per generation for the alternative models. Conclusions This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  10. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, M E

    2001-01-01

    Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs) exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 x 10(-4) and 5.1 x 10(-5) per generation for the alternative models. This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  11. The spinal muscular atrophy gene region at 5q13.1 has a paralogous chromosomal region at 6p21.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyer, J L; Goldwurm, S; Cullen, L; van der Griend, B; Zournazi, A; Smit, D J; Powell, L W; Jazwinska, E C

    1998-03-01

    Paralogous regions are duplicated segments of chromosomal DNA that have been acquired during the evolution of the genome. Subsequent divergent evolution of the genes within paralogous regions can lead to the formation of gene families. Here, we report the identification of a region on Chromosome (Chr) 6 at 6p21.3 that is paralogous with the Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) gene region on Chr 5 at 5q13.1. Partial characterization of this region identified nine sequences all of which are highly homologous to DNA sequences of the SMA gene region at 5q13.1. These sequences include four beta-glucuronidase sequences, two retrotransposon sequences, a novel cDNA, a Sequence Tagged Site (STS), and one that is homologous to exon 9 of the Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitor Protein (NAIP) gene. The 6p21.3 paralogous SMA region may contain genes that are related to those in the SMA region at 5q13.1; however, a direct association of this region with SMA is unlikely given that no linkage of SMA with Chr 6 has been reported.

  12. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, MRG; Špírek, M; Chaurasiya, KR; Ward, JD; Carzaniga, R.; Yu, X; Egelman, EH; Collinson, LM; Rueda, D.; Krejci, L; Boulton, SJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which ...

  13. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  14. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  15. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  16. Complex evolution of orthologous and paralogous decarboxylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-de-Miera, L E; Ayala, F J

    2004-01-01

    The decarboxylases are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis in animals, and in pathways of secondary metabolism in plants. Different decarboxylase proteins are characterized for their different substrate specificities, but are encoded by homologous genes. We study, within a maximum-likelihood framework, the evolutionary relationships among dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) and alpha-methyldopa hypersensitive (amd) in animals, and tryptophan decarboxylase (Wdc) and tyrosine decarboxylase (Ydc) in plants. The evolutionary rates are heterogeneous. There are differences between paralogous genes in the same lineages: 4.13 x 10(-10) nucleotide substitutions per site per year in mammalian Ddc vs. 1.95 in Hdc; between orthologous genes in different lineages, 7.62 in dipteran Ddc vs. 4.13 in mammalian Ddc; and very large temporal variations in some lineages, from 3.7 up to 54.9 in the Drosophila Ddc lineage. Our results are inconsistent with the molecular clock hypothesis.

  17. Do quantitative vessel and pit characters account for ion-mediated changes in the hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Gortan, E.; Lens, F.; Assunta Lo Gullo, M.; Salleo, S.; Scholtz, A.; Stein, A.; Trifilò, P.; Nardini, A.

    2011-01-01

    • The hydraulic conductance of angiosperm xylem has been suggested to vary with changes in sap solute concentrations because of intervessel pit properties. • The magnitude of the ‘ionic effect’ was linked with vessel and pit dimensions in 20 angiosperm species covering 13 families including six Laur

  18. HYPOTHESIS: PARALOG FORMATION FROM PROGENITOR PROTEINS AND PARALOG MUTAGENESIS SPUR THE RAPID EVOLUTION OF TELOMERE BINDING PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J Lustig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through elegant studies in fungal cells and complex organisms, we propose a unifying paradigm for the rapid evolution of telomere binding proteins (TBPs that associate with either (or both telomeric DNA and telomeric proteins. TBPs protect and regulate telomere structure and function. Four critical factors are involved. First, TBPs that commonly bind to telomeric DNA include the c-Myb binding proteins, OB-fold single-stranded binding proteins, and G-G base paired Hoogsteen structure (G4 binding proteins. Each contributes independently or, in some cases, cooperatively, to provide a minimum level of telomere function. As a result of these minimal requirements and the great abundance of homologs of these motifs in the proteome, DNA telomere-binding activity may be generated more easily than expected. Second, telomere dysfunction gives rise to genome instability, through the elevation of recombination rates, genome ploidy, and the frequency of gene mutations. The formation of paralogs that diverge from their progenitor proteins ultimately can form a high frequency of altered TBPs with altered functions. Third, TBPs that assemble into complexes (e.g. mammalian shelterin derive benefits from the novel emergent functions. Fourth, a limiting factor in the evolution of TBP complexes is the formation of mutually compatible interaction surfaces amongst the TBPs. These factors may have different degrees of importance in the evolution of different phyla, illustrated by the apparently simpler telomeres in complex plants. Selective pressures that can utilize the mechanisms of paralog formation and mutagenesis to drive TBP evolution along routes dependent on the requisite physiologic changes.

  19. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  20. Identification, Phylogeny, and Function of fabp2 Paralogs in Two Non-Model Teleost Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitetzidou, Elisavet; Chatzifotis, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (IFABP or FABP2) is a cytosolic transporter of long-chain fatty acids, which is mainly expressed in cells of intestinal tissue. Fatty acids in teleosts are an important source of energy for growth, reproduction, and swimming and a main ingredient in the yolk sac of embryos and larvae. The fabp2 paralogs, fabp2a and fabp2b, were identified for 26 teleost fish species including the paralogs for the two non-model teleost fish species, namely the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Despite the high similarity of fabp2 paralogs, as well as the identical organization in four exons, paralogs were mapped to different chromosomes/linkage groups supporting the hypothesis that the identified transcripts are true paralogs originating from a single ancestor gene after genome duplication. This was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using fabp2 sequences of 26 teleosts and by synteny analysis carried out with ten teleosts. Differential expression analysis of the gilthead sea bream and European sea bass fabp2 paralogs in the intestine after fasting and refeeding experiment further revealed their altered implication in metabolism. Additional expression studies in seven developmental stages of the two species detected fabp2 paralogs relatively early in the embryonic development as well as possible complementary or separated roles of the paralogs. The identification and characterization of the two fabp2 paralogs will contribute significantly to the understanding of the fabp2 evolution as well as of the divergences in fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Rodent-specific alternative exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Andrey A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating functional and evolutionary diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we studied the frequency and functionality of recently gained, rodent-specific alternative exons. Results We projected the data about alternative splicing of mouse genes to the rat, human, and dog genomes, and identified exons conserved in the rat genome, but missing in more distant genomes. We estimated the frequency of rodent-specific exons while controlling for possible residual conservation of spurious exons. The frequency of rodent-specific exons is higher among predominantly skipped exons and exons disrupting the reading frame. Separation of all genes by the rate of sequence evolution and by gene families has demonstrated that rodent-specific cassette exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in rodent-specific paralogs. Conclusion Thus we demonstrated that recently gained exons tend to occur in fast-evolving genes, and their inclusion rate tends to be lower than that of older exons. This agrees with the theory that gain of alternative exons is one of the major mechanisms of gene evolution.

  2. Characterization and Expression of the Zebrafish qki Paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna J; Sager, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Bryn; Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Tuveri, Giulia; Peuckert, Christiane; Kettunen, Petronella; Jazin, Elena; Emilsson, Lina S

    2016-01-01

    Quaking (QKI) is an RNA-binding protein involved in post-transcriptional mRNA processing. This gene is found to be associated with several human neurological disorders. Early expression of QKI proteins in the developing mouse neuroepithelium, together with neural tube defects in Qk mouse mutants, suggest the functional requirement of Qk for the establishment of the nervous system. As a knockout of Qk is embryonic lethal in mice, other model systems like the zebrafish could serve as a tool to study the developmental functions of qki. In the present study we sought to characterize the evolutionary relationship and spatiotemporal expression of qkia, qki2, and qkib; zebrafish homologs of human QKI. We found that qkia is an ancestral paralog of the single tetrapod Qk gene that was likely lost during the fin-to-limb transition. Conversely, qkib and qki2 are orthologs, emerging at the root of the vertebrate and teleost lineage, respectively. Both qki2 and qkib, but not qkia, were expressed in the progenitor domains of the central nervous system, similar to expression of the single gene in mice. Despite having partially overlapping expression domains, each gene has a unique expression pattern, suggesting that these genes have undergone subfunctionalization following duplication. Therefore, we suggest the zebrafish could be used to study the separate functions of qki genes during embryonic development.

  3. Characterization and Expression of the Zebrafish qki Paralogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J Radomska

    Full Text Available Quaking (QKI is an RNA-binding protein involved in post-transcriptional mRNA processing. This gene is found to be associated with several human neurological disorders. Early expression of QKI proteins in the developing mouse neuroepithelium, together with neural tube defects in Qk mouse mutants, suggest the functional requirement of Qk for the establishment of the nervous system. As a knockout of Qk is embryonic lethal in mice, other model systems like the zebrafish could serve as a tool to study the developmental functions of qki. In the present study we sought to characterize the evolutionary relationship and spatiotemporal expression of qkia, qki2, and qkib; zebrafish homologs of human QKI. We found that qkia is an ancestral paralog of the single tetrapod Qk gene that was likely lost during the fin-to-limb transition. Conversely, qkib and qki2 are orthologs, emerging at the root of the vertebrate and teleost lineage, respectively. Both qki2 and qkib, but not qkia, were expressed in the progenitor domains of the central nervous system, similar to expression of the single gene in mice. Despite having partially overlapping expression domains, each gene has a unique expression pattern, suggesting that these genes have undergone subfunctionalization following duplication. Therefore, we suggest the zebrafish could be used to study the separate functions of qki genes during embryonic development.

  4. Comparing the Statistical Fate of Paralogous and Orthologous Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massip, Florian; Sheinman, Michael; Schbath, Sophie; Arndt, Peter F

    2016-10-01

    For several decades, sequence alignment has been a widely used tool in bioinformatics. For instance, finding homologous sequences with a known function in large databases is used to get insight into the function of nonannotated genomic regions. Very efficient tools like BLAST have been developed to identify and rank possible homologous sequences. To estimate the significance of the homology, the ranking of alignment scores takes a background model for random sequences into account. Using this model we can estimate the probability to find two exactly matching subsequences by chance in two unrelated sequences. For two homologous sequences, the corresponding probability is much higher, which allows us to identify them. Here we focus on the distribution of lengths of exact sequence matches between protein-coding regions of pairs of evolutionarily distant genomes. We show that this distribution exhibits a power-law tail with an exponent [Formula: see text] Developing a simple model of sequence evolution by substitutions and segmental duplications, we show analytically and computationally that paralogous and orthologous gene pairs contribute differently to this distribution. Our model explains the differences observed in the comparison of coding and noncoding parts of genomes, thus providing a better understanding of statistical properties of genomic sequences and their evolution.

  5. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatusova Tatiana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The computation of accurate alignments of cDNA sequences against a genome is at the foundation of modern genome annotation pipelines. Several factors such as presence of paralogs, small exons, non-consensus splice signals, sequencing errors and polymorphic sites pose recognized difficulties to existing spliced alignment algorithms. Results We describe a set of algorithms behind a tool called Splign for computing cDNA-to-Genome alignments. The algorithms include a high-performance preliminary alignment, a compartment identification based on a formally defined model of adjacent duplicated regions, and a refined sequence alignment. In a series of tests, Splign has produced more accurate results than other tools commonly used to compute spliced alignments, in a reasonable amount of time. Conclusion Splign's ability to deal with various issues complicating the spliced alignment problem makes it a helpful tool in eukaryotic genome annotation processes and alternative splicing studies. Its performance is enough to align the largest currently available pools of cDNA data such as the human EST set on a moderate-sized computing cluster in a matter of hours. The duplications identification (compartmentization algorithm can be used independently in other areas such as the study of pseudogenes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Steven Salzberg, Arcady Mushegian and Andrey Mironov (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand.

  6. Paralogous Genes as a Tool to Study the Regulation of Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Robert D

    The genomes of plants are marked by reoccurring events of whole-genome duplication. These events are major contributors to speciation and provide the genetic material for organisms to evolve ever greater complexity. Duplicated genes, referred to as paralogs, may be retained because they acquired...... new functions, or their gene products are in a dosage balance. Regulatory DNA elements - some of which are conserved across species and hence called conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs) - that control expression of duplicated genes are thus under similar purifying selection. In the present study, I...... have performed in-depth analyses of paralogous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, their expression profile, their sequence conservation, and their functions, in order to investigate the relationship between gene expression and retention of paralogous genes. Paralogs with lower expression than...

  7. A recombinase paralog from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus enhances SsoRadA ssDNA binding and strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, William J; Haseltine, Cynthia A

    2013-02-15

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a major pathway for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, a highly deleterious form of DNA damage. The main catalytic protein in HR is the essential RecA-family recombinase, which is conserved across all three domains of life. Eukaryotes and archaea encode varying numbers of proteins paralogous to their main recombinase. Although there is increasing evidence for the functions of some of these paralog proteins, overall their mechanism of action remains largely unclear. Here we present the first biochemical characterization of one of the paralog proteins, SsoRal3, from the crenarchaeaon Sulfolobus solfataricus. The SsoRal3 protein is a ssDNA-dependent ATPase that can catalyze strand invasion at both saturating and subsaturating concentrations. It can bind both ssDNA and dsDNA, but its binding preference is altered by the presence or absence of ATP. Addition of SsoRal3 to SsoRadA nucleoprotein filaments reduces total ATPase activity. Subsaturating concentrations of SsoRal3 increase the ssDNA binding activity of SsoRadA approximately 9-fold and also increase the persistence of SsoRadA catalyzed strand invasion products. Overall, these results suggest that SsoRal3 functions to stabilize the SsoRadA presynaptic filament. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of critical paralog groups with indispensable roles in the regulation of signaling flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modos, Dezso; Brooks, Johanne; Fazekas, David; Ari, Eszter; Vellai, Tibor; Csermely, Peter; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Lenti, Katalin

    2016-12-06

    Extensive cross-talk between signaling pathways is required to integrate the myriad of extracellular signal combinations at the cellular level. Gene duplication events may lead to the emergence of novel functions, leaving groups of similar genes - termed paralogs - in the genome. To distinguish critical paralog groups (CPGs) from other paralogs in human signaling networks, we developed a signaling network-based method using cross-talk annotation and tissue-specific signaling flow analysis. 75 CPGs were found with higher degree, betweenness centrality, closeness, and 'bowtieness' when compared to other paralogs or other proteins in the signaling network. CPGs had higher diversity in all these measures, with more varied biological functions and more specific post-transcriptional regulation than non-critical paralog groups (non-CPG). Using TGF-beta, Notch and MAPK pathways as examples, SMAD2/3, NOTCH1/2/3 and MEK3/6-p38 CPGs were found to regulate the signaling flow of their respective pathways. Additionally, CPGs showed a higher mutation rate in both inherited diseases and cancer, and were enriched in drug targets. In conclusion, the results revealed two distinct types of paralog groups in the signaling network: CPGs and non-CPGs. Thus highlighting the importance of CPGs as compared to non-CPGs in drug discovery and disease pathogenesis.

  9. Paralogous sm22alpha (Tagln) genes map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 9: further evidence for a paralogous relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanier, P; Abu-Hayyeh, S; Murdoch, J N; Eddleston, J; Copp, A J

    1998-07-01

    SM22alpha (TAGLN) is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle, being expressed exclusively in the smooth muscle cells of adult tissues and transiently in embryonic skeletal and cardiac tissues. We have identified and mapped the mouse Tagln gene and a closely related gene, Sm22alpha homolog (Tagln2). The chromosomal localization for Tagln was identified by linkage analysis to distal mouse chromosome 9 between D9Mit154 and D9Mit330, closely linked to the anchor locus D9Nds10. The localization of Tagln2 was also determined and was found to map between Fcgr2 and D1Mit149 on distal mouse chromosome 1. This localization is homologous to a region of human 1q21-q25 to which an EST representing human TAGLN2 was previously mapped. The two regions, distal mouse chromosome 1 and proximal mouse chromosome 9, and the human regions with conserved synteny (1q21-q25 and 11q22-qter) are believed to be paralogous, reflecting either conserved remnants of duplicated chromosomes or segments of chromosomes during vertebrate evolution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Floating Lid Constructions for Pit Water Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal storage is necessary if renewable heat sources are to be applied on a large scale. Pit water storage seems to be a cheaper alternative to steel tank storage. The lid price is the largest component of a pit water store with a cost share of about 60% of the total storage cost. Due to the l...

  11. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  12. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  13. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes. Water...

  14. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  15. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Jin; Li Fei

    2015-01-01

    The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitori...

  16. The discovery of Foxl2 paralogs in chondrichthyan, coelacanth and tetrapod genomes reveals an ancient duplication in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, M T; Valente, G T; Braz, A SK; Martins, C

    2013-01-01

    The Foxl2 (forkhead box L2) gene is an important member of the forkhead domain family, primarily responsible for the development of ovaries during female sex differentiation. The evolutionary studies conducted previously considered the presence of paralog Foxl2 copies only in teleosts. However, to search for possible paralog copies in other groups of vertebrates and ensure that all predicted copies were homolog to the Foxl2 gene, a broad evolutionary analysis was performed, based on the forkhead domain family. A total of 2464 sequences for the forkhead domain were recovered, and subsequently, 64 representative sequences for Foxl2 were used in the evolutionary analysis of this gene. The most important contribution of this study was the discovery of a new subgroup of Foxl2 copies (ortholog to Foxl2B) present in the chondrichthyan Callorhinchus milii, in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, in the avian Taeniopygia guttata and in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. This new scenario indicates a gene duplication event in an ancestor of gnathostomes. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the syntenic regions of both Foxl2 copies, the duplication event was not exclusive to Foxl2. Moreover, the duplicated copy distribution was shown to be complex across vertebrates, especially in tetrapods, and the results strongly support a loss of this copy in eutherian species. Finally, the scenario observed in this study suggests an update for Foxl2 gene nomenclature, extending the actual suggested teleost naming of Foxl2A and Foxl2B to all vertebrate sequences and contributing to the establishment of a new evolutionary context for the Foxl2 gene. PMID:23549337

  17. The discovery of Foxl2 paralogs in chondrichthyan, coelacanth and tetrapod genomes reveals an ancient duplication in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, M T; Valente, G T; Braz, A S K; Martins, C

    2013-07-01

    The Foxl2 (forkhead box L2) gene is an important member of the forkhead domain family, primarily responsible for the development of ovaries during female sex differentiation. The evolutionary studies conducted previously considered the presence of paralog Foxl2 copies only in teleosts. However, to search for possible paralog copies in other groups of vertebrates and ensure that all predicted copies were homolog to the Foxl2 gene, a broad evolutionary analysis was performed, based on the forkhead domain family. A total of 2464 sequences for the forkhead domain were recovered, and subsequently, 64 representative sequences for Foxl2 were used in the evolutionary analysis of this gene. The most important contribution of this study was the discovery of a new subgroup of Foxl2 copies (ortholog to Foxl2B) present in the chondrichthyan Callorhinchus milii, in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae, in the avian Taeniopygia guttata and in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica. This new scenario indicates a gene duplication event in an ancestor of gnathostomes. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the syntenic regions of both Foxl2 copies, the duplication event was not exclusive to Foxl2. Moreover, the duplicated copy distribution was shown to be complex across vertebrates, especially in tetrapods, and the results strongly support a loss of this copy in eutherian species. Finally, the scenario observed in this study suggests an update for Foxl2 gene nomenclature, extending the actual suggested teleost naming of Foxl2A and Foxl2B to all vertebrate sequences and contributing to the establishment of a new evolutionary context for the Foxl2 gene.

  18. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martin R G; Špírek, Mário; Chaurasiya, Kathy R; Ward, Jordan D; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H; Collinson, Lucy M; Rueda, David; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J

    2015-07-16

    Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which nucleates RAD-51-ssDNA filaments, RFS-1/RIP-1 binds and remodels pre-synaptic filaments to a stabilized, "open," and flexible conformation, in which the ssDNA is more accessible to nuclease digestion and RAD-51 dissociation rate is reduced. Walker box mutations in RFS-1, which abolish filament remodeling, fail to stimulate RAD-51 strand exchange activity, demonstrating that remodeling is essential for RFS-1/RIP-1 function. We propose that Rad51 paralogs stimulate HR by remodeling the Rad51 filament, priming it for strand exchange with the template duplex. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pit-1 inhibits BRCA1 and sensitizes human breast tumors to cisplatin and vitamin D treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Samuel; Arias, Efigenia; Sigueiro, Rita; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Martinez-Ordoñez, Anxo; Castelao, Esteban; Eiró, Noemí; Garcia-Caballero, Tomás; Macia, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Maestro, Miguel; Vizoso, Francisco; Mouriño, Antonio; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1), pertaining to the Pit-Oct-Unc (POU) family of transcription factors, has been related to tumor growth and metastasis in breast. However, its role in response to breast cancer therapy is unknown. We found that Pit-1 down-regulated DNA-damage and repair genes, and specifically inhibited BRCA1 gene expression, sensitizing breast cancer cells to DNA-damage agents. Administration of 1α, 25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3 (3-Epi, an endogenous low calcemic vitamin D metabolite) reduced Pit-1 expression, and synergized with cisplatin, thus, decreasing cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro, and reducing tumor growth in vivo. In addition, fifteen primary cultures of human breast tumors showed significantly decreased proliferation when treated with 3-Epi+cisplatin, compared to cisplatin alone. This response positively correlated with Pit-1 levels. Our findings demonstrate that high levels of Pit-1 and reduced BRCA1 levels increase breast cancer cell susceptibility to 3-Epi+cisplatin therapy. PMID:25992773

  20. Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranteda, Guglielmo; Carlesimo, Marta; Pranteda, Giulia; Abruzzese, Claudia; Grimaldi, Miriam; De Micco, Sabrina; Muscianese, Marta; Bottoni, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PK erythromycin and hyperhidrosis. All patients with PK seen in Sant'Andrea Hospital, between January 2009 and December 2011, were collected. PK was clinically and microscopically diagnosed. All patients underwent only topical treatment with erythromycin 3% gel twice daily. At the beginning of the study and after 5 and 10 days of treatment, a clinical evaluation and a gravimetric measurement of plantar sweating were assessed. A total of 97 patients were diagnosed as PK and were included in the study. Gravimetric measurements showed that in 94 of 97 examined patients (96.90%) at the time of the diagnosis, there was a bilateral excessive sweating occurring specifically in the areas affected by PK. After 10 days of antibiotic therapy, hyperhidrosis regressed together with the clinical manifestations. According to these data, we hypothesize that hyperhidrosis is due to an eccrine sweat gland hyperfunction, probably secondary to bacterial infection.

  1. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Austin, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Cao, S. V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Coelho, J. A. B. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Davies, G. S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Evans, J. J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Guzowski, P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Habig, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Huang, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnson, R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); St. John, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kreymer, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kordosky, M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Marshak, M. L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Mehdiyev, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Meier, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Miller, W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Naples, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nichol, R. J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Patterson, R. B. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paolone, V. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pawloski, G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Perch, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Pfutzner, M. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Proga, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Radovic, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Schreiner, S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sousa, A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas, J. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Vahle, P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Wendt, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Whitehead, L. H. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Wojcicki, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  2. CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS (CHIPS) Letter of Intent to FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Davies, G S; Evans, J J; Guzowski, P; Habig, A; Hartnell, J; Holin, A; Huang, J; Kreymer, A; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Marshak, M L; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J; Miller, W; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Nichol, R J; Patterson, R B; Perch, A; Pfutzner, M; Proga, M; Radovic, A; Sanchez, M C; Schreiner, S; Soldner-Rembold, S; Sousa, A; Thomas, J; Vahle, P; Wendt, C; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S

    2013-01-01

    This Letter of Intent outlines a proposal to build a large, yet cost-effective, 100 kton fiducial mass water Cherenkov detector that will initially run in the NuMI beam line. The CHIPS detector (CHerenkov detector In Mine PitS) will be deployed in a flooded mine pit, removing the necessity and expense of a substantial external structure capable of supporting a large detector mass. There are a number of mine pits in northern Minnesota along the NuMI beam that could be used to deploy such a detector. In particular, the Wentworth Pit 2W is at the ideal off-axis angle to contribute to the measurement of the CP violating phase. The detector is designed so that it can be moved to a mine pit in the LBNE beam line once that becomes operational.

  3. AHAR: Part 1 - PIT Estimates of Homelessness

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report outlines the key findings of the 2014 Point-In-Time (PIT) and Housing Inventory (HIC) counts conducted in January 2014. Specifically, this report...

  4. Geotechnical analysis of construction pit in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Grega

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis the design calculations were made for the excavation, which is located in Ljubljana between Glonarjeva street and railway track Ljubljana – Novo mesto. The depth of the excavation pit is approximately 6 m. The excavation pit is supported with bored pile wall and prestressed geotechnical anchors. For the calculation of lateral earth pressure the Rankine's theory was used. Three different profiles were analysed. Piles and anchors were dimensioned. The global stability was checked.

  5. The Creatine Transporter Gene Paralogous at 16p11.2 Is Expressed in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    We report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a boy with autism carrying a de novo translocation t(7;16(p22.1;p11.2. The chromosome 16 breakpoint disrupts the paralogous SLC6A8 gene also called SLC6A10 or CT2. Predicted translation of exons and RT-PCR analysis reveal specific expression of the creatine transporter paralogous in testis and brain. Several studies reported on the role of X-linked creatine transporter mutations in individuals with mental retardation, with or without autism. The existence of disruption in SLC6A8 paralogous gene associated with idiopathic autism suggests that this gene may be involved in the autistic phenotype in our patient.

  6. Paralogous Genes as a Tool to Study the Regulation of Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Robert D

    their duplicate were found to be under less purifying selection. A gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis showed that paralogs with similar expression levels were enriched in GO terms related to macromolecular complexes, whereas paralogs with different expression levels were enriched in terms associated......The genomes of plants are marked by reoccurring events of whole-genome duplication. These events are major contributors to speciation and provide the genetic material for organisms to evolve ever greater complexity. Duplicated genes, referred to as paralogs, may be retained because they acquired...... new functions, or their gene products are in a dosage balance. Regulatory DNA elements - some of which are conserved across species and hence called conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs) - that control expression of duplicated genes are thus under similar purifying selection. In the present study, I...

  7. Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable...

  8. Investigating the effect of paralogs on microarray gene-set analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faure, Andre J

    2011-01-24

    Abstract Background In order to interpret the results obtained from a microarray experiment, researchers often shift focus from analysis of individual differentially expressed genes to analyses of sets of genes. These gene-set analysis (GSA) methods use previously accumulated biological knowledge to group genes into sets and then aim to rank these gene sets in a way that reflects their relative importance in the experimental situation in question. We suspect that the presence of paralogs affects the ability of GSA methods to accurately identify the most important sets of genes for subsequent research. Results We show that paralogs, which typically have high sequence identity and similar molecular functions, also exhibit high correlation in their expression patterns. We investigate this correlation as a potential confounding factor common to current GSA methods using Indygene http:\\/\\/www.cbio.uct.ac.za\\/indygene, a web tool that reduces a supplied list of genes so that it includes no pairwise paralogy relationships above a specified sequence similarity threshold. We use the tool to reanalyse previously published microarray datasets and determine the potential utility of accounting for the presence of paralogs. Conclusions The Indygene tool efficiently removes paralogy relationships from a given dataset and we found that such a reduction, performed prior to GSA, has the ability to generate significantly different results that often represent novel and plausible biological hypotheses. This was demonstrated for three different GSA approaches when applied to the reanalysis of previously published microarray datasets and suggests that the redundancy and non-independence of paralogs is an important consideration when dealing with GSA methodologies.

  9. Comprehensive Analysis of DWARF14-LIKE2 (DLK2 Reveals Its Functional Divergence from Strigolactone-Related Paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Végh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs and related butenolides, originally identified as active seed germination stimulants of parasitic weeds, play important roles in many aspects of plant development. Two members of the D14 α/β hydrolase protein family, DWARF14 (D14 and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2 are essential for SL/butenolide signaling. The third member of the family in Arabidopsis, DWARF 14-LIKE2 (DLK2 is structurally very similar to D14 and KAI2, but its function is unknown. We demonstrated that DLK2 does not bind nor hydrolyze natural (+5-deoxystrigol [(+5DS], and weakly hydrolyzes non-natural strigolactone (-5DS. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that DLK2 does not affect SL responses and can regulate seedling photomorphogenesis. DLK2 is upregulated in the dark dependent upon KAI2 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs, indicating that DLK2 might function in light signaling pathways. In addition, unlike its paralog proteins, DLK2 is not subject to rac-GR24-induced degradation, suggesting that DLK2 acts independently of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2; however, regulation of DLK2 transcription is mostly accomplished through MAX2. In conclusion, these data suggest that DLK2 represents a divergent member of the DWARF14 family.

  10. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The mi

  11. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  12. miR-1279, miR-548j, miR-548m, and miR-548d-5p Binding Sites in CDSs of Paralogous and Orthologous PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko, Anatoliy T.; Issabekova, Assel S.; Berillo, Olga A.

    2013-01-01

    Only PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 have significant miR-1279 binding sites among paralogous genes of human tyrosine phosphatase family, DNA mismatch repair family, and zinc finger family, respectively. All miRNA binding sites are located within CDSs of studied mRNAs. Nucleotide sequences of hsa-miR-1279 binding sites with mRNAs of human PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 genes encode TKEQYE, EGSSDE, and GEKPYE oligopeptides, respectively. The conservation of miRNA binding sites encoding oligopeptides has been r...

  13. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  14. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  15. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  16. A Theory of Utility Conditionals: Paralogical Reasoning from Decision-Theoretic Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms…

  17. Differential contributions of mammalian Rad54 paralogs to recombination, DNA damage repair, and meiosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wesoly (Joanna); S. Agarwal (Sheba); S. Sigurdsson (Stefan); W. Bussen (Wendy); S. Komen (Stephen); J. Qin (Jian); H. van Steeg (Harry); J. van Benthem (Jan); E. Wassenaar (Evelyne); W.M. Baarends (Willy); M. Ghazvini (Mehrnaz); A. Tafel (Agnieszka); H. Heath (Helen); N.J. Galjart (Niels); J. Essers (Jeroen); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); N. Arnheim (Norman); O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; P. Sung (Patrick); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHomologous recombination is a versatile DNA damage repair pathway requiring Rad51 and Rad54. Here we show that a mammalian Rad54 paralog, Rad54B, displays physical and functional interactions with Rad51 and DNA that are similar to those of Rad54. While ablation of Rad54 in mouse embryoni

  18. Identifying pathogenicity of human variants via paralog-based yeast complementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the health implications of personal genomes, we now face a largely unmet challenge to identify functional variants within disease-associated genes. Functional variants can be identified by trans-species complementation, e.g., by failure to rescue a yeast strain bearing a mutation in an orthologous human gene. Although orthologous complementation assays are powerful predictors of pathogenic variation, they are available for only a few percent of human disease genes. Here we systematically examine the question of whether complementation assays based on paralogy relationships can expand the number of human disease genes with functional variant detection assays. We tested over 1,000 paralogous human-yeast gene pairs for complementation, yielding 34 complementation relationships, of which 33 (97% were novel. We found that paralog-based assays identified disease variants with success on par with that of orthology-based assays. Combining all homology-based assay results, we found that complementation can often identify pathogenic variants outside the homologous sequence region, presumably because of global effects on protein folding or stability. Within our search space, paralogy-based complementation more than doubled the number of human disease genes with a yeast-based complementation assay for disease variation.

  19. Identifying pathogenicity of human variants via paralog-based yeast complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Song; Tan, Guihong; Costanzo, Michael; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Andrews, Brenda J; Boone, Charles; Roth, Frederick P

    2017-05-01

    To better understand the health implications of personal genomes, we now face a largely unmet challenge to identify functional variants within disease-associated genes. Functional variants can be identified by trans-species complementation, e.g., by failure to rescue a yeast strain bearing a mutation in an orthologous human gene. Although orthologous complementation assays are powerful predictors of pathogenic variation, they are available for only a few percent of human disease genes. Here we systematically examine the question of whether complementation assays based on paralogy relationships can expand the number of human disease genes with functional variant detection assays. We tested over 1,000 paralogous human-yeast gene pairs for complementation, yielding 34 complementation relationships, of which 33 (97%) were novel. We found that paralog-based assays identified disease variants with success on par with that of orthology-based assays. Combining all homology-based assay results, we found that complementation can often identify pathogenic variants outside the homologous sequence region, presumably because of global effects on protein folding or stability. Within our search space, paralogy-based complementation more than doubled the number of human disease genes with a yeast-based complementation assay for disease variation.

  20. Vestured pits: a diagnostic character in the secondary xylem of Myrtales

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S; Pletsers, A.; Rabaey, D.; Lens, F.

    2008-01-01

    Vestures are small projections from the secondary cell wall associated with tracheary elements of the secondary xylem. They are usually associated with bordered pits and characterize various angiosperm families, including important timber species such as Dipterocarpaceae and Eucalyptus trees. The micromorphology and distribution of vestures were studied in 22 species representing all families within the order Myrtales based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Vestures are consistently ...

  1. Contrasted patterns of selective pressure in three recent paralogous gene pairs in the Medicago genus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Huu Joan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplications are a molecular mechanism potentially mediating generation of functional novelty. However, the probabilities of maintenance and functional divergence of duplicated genes are shaped by selective pressures acting on gene copies immediately after the duplication event. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates in protein-coding sequences provides a means to investigate selective pressures based on genic sequences. Three molecular signatures can reveal early stages of functional divergence between gene copies: change in the level of purifying selection between paralogous genes, occurrence of positive selection, and transient relaxed purifying selection following gene duplication. We studied three pairs of genes that are known to be involved in an interaction with symbiotic bacteria and were recently duplicated in the history of the Medicago genus (Fabaceae. We sequenced two pairs of polygalacturonase genes (Pg11-Pg3 and Pg11a-Pg11c and one pair of auxine transporter-like genes (Lax2-Lax4 in 17 species belonging to the Medicago genus, and sought for molecular signatures of differentiation between copies. Results Selective histories revealed by these three signatures of molecular differentiation were found to be markedly different between each pair of paralogs. We found sites under positive selection in the Pg11 paralogs while Pg3 has mainly evolved under purifying selection. The most recent paralogs examined Pg11a and Pg11c, are both undergoing positive selection and might be acquiring new functions. Lax2 and Lax4 paralogs are both under strong purifying selection, but still underwent a temporary relaxation of purifying selection immediately after duplication. Conclusions This study illustrates the variety of selective pressures undergone by duplicated genes and the effect of age of the duplication. We found that relaxation of selective constraints immediately after duplication might promote

  2. Evolution of paralogous genes: Reconstruction of genome rearrangements through comparison of multiple genomes within Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi; Kawai, Mikihiko; Mizutani-Ui, Yoko; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2006-06-01

    Analysis of evolution of paralogous genes in a genome is central to our understanding of genome evolution. Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes, which has provided clues as to how genome sequences evolve under natural conditions, would help in such an analysis. With species Staphylococcus aureus, whole-genome sequences have been decoded for seven strains. We compared their DNA sequences to detect large genome polymorphisms and to deduce mechanisms of genome rearrangements that have formed each of them. We first compared strains N315 and Mu50, which make one of the most closely related strain pairs, at the single-nucleotide resolution to catalogue all the middle-sized (more than 10 bp) to large genome polymorphisms such as indels and substitutions. These polymorphisms include two paralogous gene sets, one in a tandem paralogue gene cluster for toxins in a genomic island and the other in a ribosomal RNA operon. We also focused on two other tandem paralogue gene clusters and type I restriction-modification (RM) genes on the genomic islands. Then we reconstructed rearrangement events responsible for these polymorphisms, in the paralogous genes and the others, with reference to the other five genomes. For the tandem paralogue gene clusters, we were able to infer sequences for homologous recombination generating the change in the repeat number. These sequences were conserved among the repeated paralogous units likely because of their functional importance. The sequence specificity (S) subunit of type I RM systems showed recombination, likely at the homology of a conserved region, between the two variable regions for sequence specificity. We also noticed novel alleles in the ribosomal RNA operons and suggested a role for illegitimate recombination in their formation. These results revealed importance of recombination involving long conserved sequence in the evolution of paralogous genes in the genome.

  3. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland......, northeastern Denmark, however, the Pitted Ware Culture has always been regarded as having a mixed economy, utilizing both domesticated and wild resources. The research presented here was prepared in the framework of the multi-disciplinary project “CONTACT. The Pitted Ware Phenomenon in Djursland and Maritime...... Relations across the Kattegat in the Middle Neolithic”. Stable isotope analysis of food residues on pottery show what the pottery was used for on different types of sites and which resources were exploited. In contrast to human bones, the food residues provide a snapshot of the food prepared at one point...

  4. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  5. High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öst Torbjörn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salix (willow and Populus (poplar are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12 between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41. Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary

  6. Alternative polyadenylation in a family of paralogous EPB41 genes generates protein 4.1 diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Laura; Lospitao, Eva; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Alonso, Miguel A; Correas, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a step in mRNA 3'-end processing that contributes to the complexity of the transcriptome by generating isoforms that differ in either their coding sequence or their 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs). The EPB41 genes, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 and EPB41L1, encode an impressively complex array of structural adaptor proteins (designated 4.1R, 4.1G, 4.1B and 4.1N, respectively) by using alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing. The great variety of 4.1 proteins mainly results from 5'-end and internal processing of the EPB41 pre-mRNAs. Thus, 4.1 proteins can vary in their N-terminal extensions but all contain a highly homologous C-terminal domain (CTD). Here we study a new group of EPB41-related mRNAs that originate by APA and lack the exons encoding the CTD characteristic of prototypical 4.1 proteins, thereby encoding a new type of 4.1 protein. For the EPB41 gene, this type of processing was observed in all 11 human tissues analyzed. Comparative genomic analysis of EPB41 indicates that APA is conserved in various mammals. In addition, we show that APA also functions for the EPB41L2, EPB41L3 and EPB41L1 genes, but in a more restricted manner in the case of the latter 2 than it does for the EPB41 and EPB41L2 genes. Our study shows alternative polyadenylation to be an additional mechanism for the generation of 4.1 protein diversity in the already complex EPB41-related genes. Understanding the diversity of EPB41 RNA processing is essential for a full appreciation of the many 4.1 proteins expressed in normal and pathological tissues.

  7. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ∼ 2% to ∼ 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia.

  8. 5G in Open-Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    5G will play a pivotal role in the digitization of the industrial sector and is expected to make the best use of every bit of spectrum available. In this light, this paper presents the results of an extensive measurement campaign in two iron-ore open-pit mining complexes, at the 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz...

  9. Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... 4 July 2013. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013 ... Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal ...... by considerations of logistics, human resources, cost and the subsequent ...

  10. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  11. The Application of Foundation Pit Monitoring Technology to the Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The foundation pit monitoring plays an important role in the foundation pit supporting projects especially in those deep foundation pit projects. Through the whole monitoring of the foundation pit construction from the excavation to the backfill, we can learn about the forcing and deforming process of the foundation pit supporting system, and grasp the impact of external condition changes on the foundation pit. This paper takes a project in Jinan as an example to establish a specific monitoring program, and then conducts the analysis and evaluation of the monitoring data; the real-time grasp of the foundation pit deformation and internal force changes can help to further ensure the security status of the foundation pit, thus better guiding the construction.

  12. Open Pit Optimisation and Design: A Stepwise Approach*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... holes were used for the analysis. ... retrieval and analysis, using Surpac software. .... economic and technical parameters were used to produce a set of nested pits. Fig. 4 depicts a summarised flow chart for the pit optimisation.

  13. Zebrafish Wnt9a,9b paralog comparisons suggest ancestral roles for Wnt9 in neural, oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A A; Jezewski, P A; Fang, P-K; Payne-Ferreira, T L

    2010-09-01

    The Wnts are a highly conserved family of secreted glycoproteins involved in cell-cell signaling and pattern formation during early embryonic development. Teasing out the role of individual Wnt molecules through development is challenging. Gene duplications are one of the most important mechanisms for generating evolutionary variations. The current consensus suggests that most anatomical variation is generated by divergence of regulatory control regions rather than by coding sequence divergence. Thus phylogenetic comparisons of divergent gene expression patterns are essential to understanding ancestral morphogenetic patterns from which subsequent anatomy diversified in modern lineages. We previously demonstrated strongest expression of zebrafish wnt9b within its heart tube, limb bud and ventral/anterior ectoderm during oral and pharyngeal arch patterning. Our goal is to compare and contrast zwnt9b to its closest paralog, zwnt9a. Sequenced, fulllength zebrafish wnt9a and wnt9b cDNA clones were used for phylogenetic analysis, which suggests their derivation from a common pre-vertebrate archeolog by gene duplication and divergence. Here we demonstrate that zwnt9a expression is found within unique (CNS, pronephric ducts, sensory organs) and overlapping (pectoral fin buds) expression domains relative to zwnt9b. Apparently, Wnt9 paralogs differentially parsed common ancestral expression domains during their subsequent rounds of gene duplication, divergence and loss in different vertebrate lineages. This expression data suggests ancestral roles for Wnt9s in early patterning of neural/oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm derivatives.

  14. A novel Giraffidae-specific interspersed repeat with a microsatellite, originally found in an intron of a ruminant paralogous p97bcnt gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon-Nami, Koyu; Ueno, Sadao; Endo, Hideki; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Takashi; David, Lior; Iwashita, Shintaro

    2004-10-13

    The ruminant-specific p97bcnt gene (bcntp97) is a paralogous gene that includes a region derived from a retrotransposable element 1 (RTE-1). The region comprises an exon (RTE-1 exon) encoding 325 amino acids in the middle of the p97bcnt protein. To understand how the bcntp97 paralog evolved, we examined its organization in several ruminants. We found a 700-base pair (bp) insert in the 5' intron of the RTE-1 exon in giraffe bcntp97. This insert is missing in the corresponding regions of bovine and sika deer. Furthermore, the sequence of the insert is interspersed in the genome of giraffe but not bovine and also contains a (GA)n microsatellite. A highly homologous insert harboring significantly different (GA)n microsatellite was detected in the corresponding region of okapi bcntp97. Therefore, the interspersed fragments with (GA)n microsatellite might serve as a marker for tracking how duplicated genes evolve in a family-specific manner.

  15. Pit Study, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [pit_study_LOSCO_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The 'Pit Study' was meant to identify the remnants of former oil extraction sites which pose the threat of creating an oil spill. These remnants include many other...

  16. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  17. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  18. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DEEP FOUNDATION PIT CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IN WUHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Xuan Loi, Wu Li*, Nguyen Khanh Tung

    2016-01-01

    Deep foundation pit construction project is one of hot and difficult problems in rock soil engineering. How to control the deformation of the pits effectively and economically is what we all want. Retaining structure deformation of foundation pit is an important factor on the deformation of foundation pit. Reference of domestic and foreign research and the experience of similar projects, combined with the characteristics of Wuhan project, calculation, analyses and compared two design options ...

  19. Methodology Using Inverse Methods for Pit Characterization in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Concordia, Michael; Judd, David R.; Lindgren, Eric; Knopp, Jeremy

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology incorporating ultrasonic and eddy current data and NDE models to characterize pits in first and second layers. Approaches such as equivalent pit dimensions, approximate probe models, and iterative inversion schemes were designed to improve the reliability and speed of inverse methods for second layer pit characterization. A novel clutter removal algorithm was developed to compensate for coherent background noise. Validation was achieved using artificial and real pitting corrosion samples.

  20. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons work or travel in... stripped back for at least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

  1. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  2. A theory of utility conditionals: Paralogical reasoning from decision-theoretic leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms that this phenomenon can take. The theory is built on 2 main components: (1) a representational tool (the utility grid), which summarizes in compact form the decision-theoretic features of a conditional, and (2) a set of folk axioms of decision, which reflect reasoners' beliefs about the way most agents make their decisions. Applying the folk axioms to the utility grid of a conditional allows for the systematic prediction of the paralogical conclusions invited by the utility grid's decision-theoretic features. The theory of utility conditionals significantly extends the scope of current theories of conditional inference and moves reasoning research toward a greater integration with decision-making research.

  3. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-10-09

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level.

  4. Identification of homologous, homoeologous and paralogous sequence variants in an outbreeding allopolyploid species based on comparison with progenitor taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Ponting, Rebecca C; Drayton, Michelle C; Lawless, Kahlil A; Cogan, Noel O I; Charles Brummer, E; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Smith, Kevin F; Forster, John W

    2008-10-01

    The combination of homologous, homoeologous and paralogous classes of sequence variation presents major challenges for SNP discovery in outbreeding allopolyploid species. Previous in vitro gene-associated SNP discovery studies in the allotetraploid forage legume white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were vulnerable to such effects, leading to prohibitive levels of attrition during SNP validation. Identification of T. occidentale and T. pallescens as the putative diploid progenitors of white clover has permitted discrimination of the different sequence variant categories. Amplicons from selected abiotic stress tolerance-related genes were obtained using mapping family parents and individuals from each diploid species. Following cloning, progenitor comparison allowed tentative assignment of individual haplotypes to one or other sub-genome, as well as to gene copies within sub-genomes. A high degree of coincidence and identity between SNPs and HSVs was observed. Close similarity was observed between the genome of T. occidentale and one white clover sub-genome, but the affinity between T. pallescens and the other sub-genome was weaker, suggesting that a currently uncharacterised taxon may be the true second progenitor. Selected validated SNPs were attributed to individual sub-genomes by assignment to and naming of homoeologous linkage groups, providing the basis for improved genetic trait-dissection studies. The approach described in this study is broadly applicable to a range of allopolyploid taxa of equivocal ancestry.

  5. AtGEN1 and AtSEND1, two paralogs in Arabidopsis, possess holliday junction resolvase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauknecht, Markus; Kobbe, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are physical links between homologous DNA molecules that arise as central intermediary structures during homologous recombination and repair in meiotic and somatic cells. It is necessary for these structures to be resolved to ensure correct chromosome segregation and other functions. In eukaryotes, including plants, homologs of a gene called XPG-like endonuclease1 (GEN1) have been identified that process HJs in a manner analogous to the HJ resolvases of phages, archaea, and bacteria. Here, we report that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a eukaryotic organism, has two functional GEN1 homologs instead of one. Like all known eukaryotic resolvases, AtGEN1 and Arabidopsis single-strand DNA endonuclease1 both belong to class IV of the Rad2/XPG family of nucleases. Their resolvase activity shares the characteristics of the Escherichia coli radiation and UV sensitive C paradigm for resolvases, which involves resolving HJs by symmetrically oriented incisions in two opposing strands. This leads to ligatable products without the need for further processing. The observation that the sequence context influences the cleavage by the enzymes can be interpreted as a hint for the existence of sequence specificity. The two Arabidopsis paralogs differ in their preferred sequences. The precise cleavage positions observed for the resolution of mobile nicked HJs suggest that these cleavage positions are determined by both the substrate structure and the sequence context at the junction point. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Envenomation by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, D K; Kardong, K V

    1980-05-01

    Following an accidental bite inflicted by a juvenile Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma), the progress of envenomation was carefully monitored and subsequent laboratory work performed to determine the amount and quality of venom injected. Even a very small amount of venom from this species is capable of inducing noticeable local symptoms including edema, subcutaneous bleeding, and throbbing. Constitutional symptoms were present but minimal. The extent of inflammation present at any given time following envenomation was found to be a more accurate diagnostic signal than the speed with which it developed. This case is similar to that of bites by juveniles of other species of viperines and crotalines and may serve to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of bites by juvenile specimens of serpents in these families.

  7. Role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 paralogs in sister chromatid recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozlin, Amy M; Fung, Cindy W; Symington, Lorraine S

    2008-01-01

    Rad51 requires a number of other proteins, including the Rad51 paralogs, for efficient recombination in vivo. Current evidence suggests that the yeast Rad51 paralogs, Rad55 and Rad57, are important in formation or stabilization of the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament. To gain further insights into the function of the Rad51 paralogs, reporters were designed to measure spontaneous or double-strand break (DSB)-induced sister or nonsister recombination. Spontaneous sister chromatid recombination (SCR) was reduced 6000-fold in the rad57 mutant, significantly more than in the rad51 mutant. Although the DSB-induced recombination defect of rad57 was suppressed by overexpression of Rad51, elevated temperature, or expression of both mating-type alleles, the rad57 defect in spontaneous SCR was not strongly suppressed by these same factors. In addition, the UV sensitivity of the rad57 mutant was not strongly suppressed by MAT heterozygosity, even though Rad51 foci were restored under these conditions. This lack of suppression suggests that Rad55 and Rad57 have different roles in the recombinational repair of stalled replication forks compared with DSB repair. Furthermore, these data suggest that most spontaneous SCR initiates from single-stranded gaps formed at stalled replication forks rather than DSBs.

  8. Mutational analysis of three bchH paralogs in (bacterio-)chlorophyll biosynthesis in Chlorobaculum tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Aline; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    The first committed step in the biosynthesis of (bacterio-)chlorophyll is the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX by Mg-chelatase. In all known (B)Chl-synthesizing organisms, Mg-chelatase is encoded by three genes that are homologous to bchH, bchD, and bchI of Rhodobacter spp. The genomes...... of all sequenced strains of green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobi) encode multiple bchH paralogs, and in the genome of Chlorobaculum tepidum, there are three bchH paralogs, denoted CT1295 (bchT), CT1955 (bchS), and CT1957 (bchH). Cba. tepidum mutants lacking one or two of these paralogs were constructed...... and characterized. All of the mutants lacking only one of these BchH homologs, as well as bchS bchT and bchH bchT double mutants, which can only produce BchH or BchS, respectively, were viable. However, attempts to construct a bchH bchS double mutant, in which only BchT was functional, were consistently...

  9. Allosteric Activation of Trypanosomatid Deoxyhypusine Synthase by a Catalytically Dead Paralog*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Suong; Jones, Deuan C.; Wyllie, Susan; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis is a key drug target in African trypanosomes. The “resurrection drug” eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine), which is used clinically to treat human African trypanosomiasis, inhibits the first step in polyamine (spermidine) biosynthesis, a highly regulated pathway in most eukaryotic cells. Previously, we showed that activity of a key trypanosomatid spermidine biosynthetic enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, is regulated by heterodimer formation with a catalytically dead paralog (a prozyme). Here, we describe an expansion of this prozyme paradigm to the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase, which is required for spermidine-dependent hypusine modification of a lysine residue in the essential translation factor eIF5A. Trypanosoma brucei encodes two deoxyhypusine synthase paralogs, one that is catalytically functional but grossly impaired, and the other is inactive. Co-expression in Escherichia coli results in heterotetramer formation with a 3000-fold increase in enzyme activity. This functional complex is also present in T. brucei, and conditional knock-out studies indicate that both DHS genes are essential for in vitro growth and infectivity in mice. The recurrent evolution of paralogous, catalytically dead enzyme-based activating mechanisms may be a consequence of the unusual gene expression in the parasites, which lack transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that this mechanism may be more widely used by trypanosomatids to control enzyme activity and ultimately influence pathogenesis than currently appreciated. PMID:23525104

  10. Interaction of fish aryl hydrocarbon receptor paralogs (AHR1 and AHR2) with the retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, Rebeka R., E-mail: rmerson@ric.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Biology Department, Rhode Island College, 500 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2009-08-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. In some mammalian cell lines, TCDD induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which depends on an interaction between the AHR and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB). Mammals possess one AHR, whereas fishes possess two or more AHR paralogs that differ in the domains important for AHR-RB interactions in mammals. To test the hypothesis that fish AHR paralogs differ in their ability to interact with RB, we cloned RB cDNA from Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and studied the interactions of killifish RB protein with killifish AHR1 and AHR2. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, in vitro-expressed killifish RB coprecipitated with both AHR1 and AHR2. Consistent with these results, both killifish AHR1 and AHR2 interacted with RB in mammalian two-hybrid assays. These results suggest that both fish AHR1 and AHR2 paralogs may have the potential to influence cell proliferation through interactions with RB.

  11. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  12. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  13. Distribution, formation mechanisms, and significance of lunar pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert V.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2014-07-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images reveal the presence of steep-walled pits in mare basalt (n = 8), impact melt deposits (n = 221), and highland terrain (n = 2). Pits represent evidence of subsurface voids of unknown extents. By analogy with terrestrial counterparts, the voids associated with mare pits may extend for hundreds of meters to kilometers in length, thereby providing extensive potential habitats and access to subsurface geology. Because of their small sizes relative to the local equilibrium crater diameters, the mare pits are likely to be post-flow features rather than volcanic skylights. The impact melt pits are indirect evidence both of extensive subsurface movement of impact melt and of exploitable sublunarean voids. Due to the small sizes of pits (mare, highland, and impact melt) and the absolute ages of their host materials, it is likely that most pits formed as secondary features.

  14. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  15. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of paralogous spx gene function in Bacillus anthracis Sterne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Skye; Lee, Hyunwoo; Birch, Cierra; Nakano, Michiko M; Jones, Marcus; Zuber, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Spx of Bacillus subtilis is a redox-sensitive protein, which, under disulfide stress, interacts with RNA polymerase to activate genes required for maintaining thiol homeostasis. Spx orthologs are highly conserved among low %GC Gram-positive bacteria, and often exist in multiple paralogous forms. In this study, we used B. anthracis Sterne, which harbors two paralogous spx genes, spxA1 and spxA2, to examine the phenotypes of spx null mutations and to identify the genes regulated by each Spx paralog. Cells devoid of spxA1 were sensitive to diamide and hydrogen peroxide, while the spxA1 spoxA2 double mutant was hypersensitive to the thiol-specific oxidant, diamide. Bacillus anthracis Sterne strains expressing spxA1DD or spxA2DD alleles encoding protease-resistant products were used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses in order to uncover genes under SpxA1, SpxA2, or SpxA1/SpxA2 control. Comparison of transcriptomes identified many genes that were upregulated when either SpxA1DD or SpxA2DD was produced, but several genes were uncovered whose transcript levels increased in only one of the two SpxADD-expression strains, suggesting that each Spx paralog governs a unique regulon. Among genes that were upregulated were those encoding orthologs of proteins that are specifically involved in maintaining intracellular thiol homeostasis or alleviating oxidative stress. Some of these genes have important roles in B. anthracis pathogenesis, and a large number of upregulated hypothetical genes have no homology outside of the B. cereus/thuringiensis group. Microarray and RT-qPCR analyses also unveiled a regulatory link that exists between the two spx paralogous genes. The data indicate that spxA1 and spxA2 are transcriptional regulators involved in relieving disulfide stress but also control a set of genes whose products function in other cellular processes.

  16. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  17. Pits, pipes, ponds--and me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2013-05-01

    My life in low-cost sanitation and low-cost wastewater treatment and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture really has been 'pits, pipes and ponds' - 'pits' are low-cost sanitation technologies (LCST) such as VIP latrines and pour-flush toilets; 'pipes' are low-cost sewerage, principally condominial (simplified) sewerage; and 'ponds' are low-cost wastewater treatment systems, especially waste stabilization ponds, and the use of treated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. 'Pits' were mainly working on World Bank LCST research projects, with fieldwork principally in Zimbabwe, 'pipes' were working on condominial sewerage projects in Brazil and disseminating this LCST to a wider global audience, and 'ponds' were waste stabilization ponds, with fieldwork mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Portugal and the United Kingdom, the development of aerated rock filters to polish facultative-pond effluents, and the human-health aspects of treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture, with fieldwork in Brazil and the UK, and the application of quantitative microbial risk analysis. The paper provides a professional perspective and lessons from historical developments and gives recommended future directions based on my career working on low-cost sanitation technologies and treated wastewater use in agriculture and aquaculture.

  18. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  19. Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

    1989-09-10

    Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated

  20. miR-1279, miR-548j, miR-548m, and miR-548d-5p binding sites in CDSs of paralogous and orthologous PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Anatoliy T; Issabekova, Assel S; Berillo, Olga A

    2013-01-01

    Only PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 have significant miR-1279 binding sites among paralogous genes of human tyrosine phosphatase family, DNA mismatch repair family, and zinc finger family, respectively. All miRNA binding sites are located within CDSs of studied mRNAs. Nucleotide sequences of hsa-miR-1279 binding sites with mRNAs of human PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 genes encode TKEQYE, EGSSDE, and GEKPYE oligopeptides, respectively. The conservation of miRNA binding sites encoding oligopeptides has been revealed. MRNAs of many paralogs of zinc finger gene family have from 1 to 12 binding sites coding the same GEKPYE hexapeptide. MRNAs of PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 orthologous genes from different animal species have binding sites for hsa-miR-1279 which consist of homologous oligonucleotides encoding similar human oligopeptides TKEQYE, EGSSDE, and GEKPYE. MiR-548j, miR-548m, and miR-548d-5p have homologous binding sites in the mRNA of PTPN12 orthologous genes which encode PRTRSC, TEATDI, and STASAT oligopeptides, respectively. All regions of miRNA are important for binding with the mRNA.

  1. miR-1279, miR-548j, miR-548m, and miR-548d-5p Binding Sites in CDSs of Paralogous and Orthologous PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy T. Ivashchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Only PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 have significant miR-1279 binding sites among paralogous genes of human tyrosine phosphatase family, DNA mismatch repair family, and zinc finger family, respectively. All miRNA binding sites are located within CDSs of studied mRNAs. Nucleotide sequences of hsa-miR-1279 binding sites with mRNAs of human PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 genes encode TKEQYE, EGSSDE, and GEKPYE oligopeptides, respectively. The conservation of miRNA binding sites encoding oligopeptides has been revealed. MRNAs of many paralogs of zinc finger gene family have from 1 to 12 binding sites coding the same GEKPYE hexapeptide. MRNAs of PTPN12, MSH6, and ZEB1 orthologous genes from different animal species have binding sites for hsa-miR-1279 which consist of homologous oligonucleotides encoding similar human oligopeptides TKEQYE, EGSSDE, and GEKPYE. MiR-548j, miR-548m, and miR-548d-5p have homologous binding sites in the mRNA of PTPN12 orthologous genes which encode PRTRSC, TEATDI, and STASAT oligopeptides, respectively. All regions of miRNA are important for binding with the mRNA.

  2. Parturition Pit: The Bony Imprint of Vaginal Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Isuzu; Jackson, Bradford; Pitt, Michael J.; Larrison, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate for pits along the dorsum of the pubic body in females and compare the presence/absence of these pits to vaginal birth data. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed females with vaginal birth data who underwent pelvic CT. The presence of pits along the dorsum of the pubic body, pit grade (0 = not present; 1 = faintly imperceptible; 2 = present; 3 = prominent), and the presence of osteitis condensans ilii, preauricular sulcus, and sacroiliac joint vacuum phenomenon were assessed on imaging. Musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the birth data evaluated the CTs. 48 males were also evaluated for the presence of pits. Results 482 female patients underwent CT pelvis and 171 were excluded due to lack of vaginal birth data. Of the 311 study patients, 262 had prior vaginal birth(s) and 194 had pits on CT. Only 7 of the 49 patients without prior vaginal birth had pits. There was a statistically significant association between vaginal birth and presence of pits (pbirths. As vaginal deliveries increased, the odds of having parturition pits greatly increased, adjusting for age and race at CT (pbirth and should be considered a characteristic of the female pelvis. The lytic appearance of prominent pits on imaging can simulate disease and create a diagnostic dilemma for interpreting radiologists. PMID:27270921

  3. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  4. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.

    2004-06-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional

  5. Independent evolutionary origin of fem paralogous genes and complementary sex determination in hymenopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Vasco; Nissen, Inga; Schmitt, Björn D; Beye, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The primary signal of sex determination in the honeybee, the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene, evolved from a gene duplication event from an ancestral copy of the fem gene. Recently, other paralogs of the fem gene have been identified in several ant and bumblebee genomes. This discovery and the close phylogenetic relationship of the paralogous gene sequences led to the hypothesis of a single ancestry of the csd genetic system of complementary sex determination in the Hymenopteran insects, in which the fem and csd gene copies evolved as a unit in concert with the mutual transfers of sequences (concerted evolution). Here, we show that the paralogous gene copies evolved repeatedly through independent gene duplication events in the honeybee, bumblebee, and ant lineage. We detected no sequence tracts that would indicate a DNA transfer between the fem and the fem1/csd genes between different ant and bee species. Instead, we found tracts of duplication events in other genomic locations, suggesting that gene duplication was a frequent event in the evolution of these genes. These and other evidences suggest that the fem1/csd gene originated repeatedly through gene duplications in the bumblebee, honeybee, and ant lineages in the last 100 million years. Signatures of concerted evolution were not detectable, implicating that the gene tree based on neutral synonymous sites represents the phylogenetic relationships and origins of the fem and fem1/csd genes. Our results further imply that the fem1 and csd gene in bumblebees, honeybees, and ants are not orthologs, because they originated independently from the fem gene. Hence, the widely shared and conserved complementary sex determination mechanism in Hymenopteran insects is controlled by different genes and molecular processes. These findings highlight the limits of comparative genomics and emphasize the requirement to study gene functions in different species and major hymenopteran lineages.

  6. Unusual domain architecture of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their paralogs from Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri V S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania major, a protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Due to the development of resistance against the currently available anti-leishmanial drugs, there is a growing need for specific inhibitors and novel drug targets. In this regards, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, the linchpins of protein synthesis, have received recent attention among the kinetoplastid research community. This is the first comprehensive survey of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, their paralogs and other associated proteins from L. major. Results A total of 26 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases were identified using various computational and bioinformatics tools. Phylogenetic analysis and domain architectures of the L. major aminoacyl tRNA synthetases suggest a probable archaeal/eukaryotic origin. Presence of additional domains or N- or C-terminal extensions in 11 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases from L. major suggests possibilities such as additional tRNA binding or oligomerization or editing activity. Five freestanding editing domains were identified in L. major. Domain assignment revealed a novel asparagine tRNA synthetase paralog, asparagine synthetase A which has been so far reported from prokaryotes and archaea. Conclusions A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis revealed 26 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and five freestanding editing domains in L. major. Identification of two EMAP (endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II-like proteins similar to human EMAP II-like proteins suggests their participation in multisynthetase complex formation. While the phylogeny of tRNA synthetases suggests a probable archaeal/eukaryotic origin, phylogeny of asparagine synthetase A strongly suggests a bacterial origin. The unique features identified in this work provide rationale for designing inhibitors against parasite aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their paralogs.

  7. Glitching Paralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In the late seventies, Lyotard claimed that research and culture would be increasingly legitimated not on their own terms, but through their performance in supporting the smooth running of governmental, economic and bureaucratic systems; treating them as inputs and outputs in the production...... of power, something he referred to as ‘performativity’ (xxiv). He suggested a ‘paralogical’ approach to offset this tendency, which broadly meant pursuing those kinds of research and culture that highlight and de-stabilise underlying systemic conditions, and that critique, or change the rules...

  8. Conserved structure and expression of hsp70 paralogs in teleost fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, David C.H.; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Schulte, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytosolic 70 KDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70s) are widely used as biomarkers of environmental stress in ecological and toxicological studies in fish. Here we analyze teleost genome sequences to show that two genes encoding inducible hsp70s (hsp70-1 and hsp70-2) are likely present in all teleost...... fish. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that hsp70-1 and hsp70-2 are distinct paralogs that originated prior to the diversification of the teleosts. The promoters of both genes contain a TATA box and conserved heat shock elements (HSEs), but unlike mammalian HSP70s, both genes contain...

  9. Space-time principles of reducing stripping in furrow pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The lower slope of furrow pits has following special features: small extent of weathering destruction, short time of production blasting damage, good arching effect of lower slope with small curvature radius, and good bottom effect ofa pit end for transferring and bearing initial horizontal stresses in lower slope. The new principles provided theoretical basis for convex slope in furrow pits to reduce stripping. Similar phenomena and examples are supplied simultaneously.

  10. Electrochemical Studies of Nitrate-Induced Pitting in Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1998-12-07

    The phenomenon of pitting in carbon steel exposed to alkaline solutions of nitrate and chloride was studied with the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization technique. Open-circuit and pitting potentials were measured on specimens of ASTM A537 carbon steel in pH 9.73 salt solutions at 40 degrees Celsius, with and without the inhibiting nitrite ion present. Nitrate is not so aggressive a pitting agent as is chloride. Both nitrate and chloride did induce passive breakdown and pitting in nitrite-free solutions, but the carbon steel retained passivity in solutions with 0.11-M nitrite even at a nitrate concentration of 2.2 M.

  11. EKA hoonelt rebiti maha kaunistav pits / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Ehituskulude vähendamiseks muudeti Eesti Kunstiakadeemia uue hoone projekti. Maja välisfassaadilt eemaldati kaunistav pits ja loobuti spiraalsest aatriumist. Ehitusplatsile hakatakse rajama metallist sulundseina

  12. HasB, the Serratia marcescens TonB paralog, is specific to HasR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Wandersman, Cécile; Biville, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Serratia marcescens possesses two functional TonB paralogs, TonB(Sm) and HasB, for energizing TonB-dependent transport receptors (TBDT). Previous work had shown that HasB is specific to heme uptake in the natural host and in Escherichia coli expressing the S. marcescens TBDT receptor HasR, whereas the S. marcescens TonB and E. coli TonB proteins function equally well with various TBDT receptors for heme and siderophores. This has raised the question of the target of this specificity. HasB could be specific either to heme TBDT receptors or only to HasR. To resolve this question, we have cloned in E. coli another S. marcescens heme receptor, HemR, and we show here that this receptor is TonB dependent and does not work with HasB. This demonstrates that HasB is not dedicated to heme TBDT receptors but rather forms a specific pair with HasR. This is the first reported case of a specific TonB protein working with only one TBDT receptor in one given species. We discuss the occurrence, possible molecular mechanisms, and selective advantages of such dedicated TonB paralogs.

  13. IDN2 and its paralogs form a complex required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available IDN2/RDM12 has been previously identified as a component of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM machinery in Arabidopsis thaliana, but how it functions in RdDM remains unknown. By affinity purification of IDN2, we co-purified two IDN2 paralogs IDP1 and IDP2 (IDN2 PARALOG 1 and 2. The coiled-coil domain between the XS and XH domains of IDN2 is essential for IDN2 homodimerization, whereas the IDN2 C-terminal XH domain but not the coiled-coil domain is required for IDN2 interaction with IDP1 and IDP2. By introducing the wild-type IDN2 sequence and its mutated derivatives into the idn2 mutant for complementation testing, we demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized IDN2 XH domain is required for the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex formation as well as for IDN2 function. IDP1 is required for de novo DNA methylation, siRNA accumulation, and transcriptional gene silencing, whereas IDP2 has partially overlapping roles with IDP1. Unlike IDN2, IDP1 and IDP2 are incapable of binding double-stranded RNA, suggesting that the roles of IDP1 and IDP2 are different from those of IDN2 in the IDN2-IDP1/IDP2 complex and that IDP1 and IDP2 are essential for the functioning of the complex in RdDM.

  14. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Paralogous APETALA1/FRUITFULL-Like Genes in Grasses (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the generation of evolutionary novelty. Paralogous genes that are not silenced may evolve new functions (neofunctionalization) that will alter the developmental outcome of preexisting genetic pathways, partition ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) into divergent developmental modules, or function redundantly. Functional divergence can occur by changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression and/or by changes in the activities of their protein products. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of two paralogous monocot MADS-box transcription factors, FUL1 and FUL2, and determined the evolution of sequence and gene expression in grass AP1/FUL-like genes. Monocot AP1/FUL-like genes duplicated at the base of Poaceae and codon substitutions occurred under relaxed selection mostly along the branch leading to FUL2. Following the duplication, FUL1 was apparently lost from early diverging taxa, a pattern consistent with major changes in grass floral morphology. Overlapping gene expression patterns in leaves and spikelets indicate that FUL1 and FUL2 probably share some redundant functions, but that FUL2 may have become temporally restricted under partial subfunctionalization to particular stages of floret development. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the history of AP1/FUL-like genes in Poaceae and to hypothesize a role for this gene duplication in the evolution of the grass spikelet. PMID:16816429

  15. Structure of the NPr:EIN(Ntr) Complex: Mechanism for Specificity in Paralogous Phosphotransferase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Madeleine; Stanley, Ann Marie; Wang, Guangshun; Botos, Istvan; Schwieters, Charles D; Buchanan, Susan K; Peterkofsky, Alan; Tjandra, Nico

    2016-12-06

    Paralogous enzymes arise from gene duplication events that confer a novel function, although it is unclear how cross-reaction between the original and duplicate protein interaction network is minimized. We investigated HPr:EI(sugar) and NPr:EI(Ntr), the initial complexes of paralogous phosphorylation cascades involved in sugar import and nitrogen regulation in bacteria, respectively. Although the HPr:EI(sugar) interaction has been well characterized, involving multiple complexes and transient interactions, the exact nature of the NPr:EI(Ntr) complex was unknown. We set out to identify the key features of the interaction by performing binding assays and elucidating the structure of NPr in complex with the phosphorylation domain of EI(Ntr) (EIN(Ntr)), using a hybrid approach involving X-ray, homology, and sparse nuclear magnetic resonance. We found that the overall fold and active-site structure of the two complexes are conserved in order to maintain productive phosphorylation, however, the interface surface potential differs between the two complexes, which prevents cross-reaction.

  16. Extensive local gene duplication and functional divergence among paralogs in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ian A; Ciborowski, Kate L; Casadei, Elisa; Hazlerigg, David G; Martin, Sam; Jordan, William C; Sumner, Seirian

    2014-06-19

    Many organisms can generate alternative phenotypes from the same genome, enabling individuals to exploit diverse and variable environments. A prevailing hypothesis is that such adaptation has been favored by gene duplication events, which generate redundant genomic material that may evolve divergent functions. Vertebrate examples of recent whole-genome duplications are sparse although one example is the salmonids, which have undergone a whole-genome duplication event within the last 100 Myr. The life-cycle of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, depends on the ability to produce alternating phenotypes from the same genome, to facilitate migration and maintain its anadromous life history. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that genome-wide and local gene duplication events have contributed to the salmonid adaptation. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the transcriptomes of three key organs involved in regulating migration in S. salar: Brain, pituitary, and olfactory epithelium. We identified over 10,000 undescribed S. salar sequences and designed an analytic workflow to distinguish between paralogs originating from local gene duplication events or from whole-genome duplication events. These data reveal that substantial local gene duplications took place shortly after the whole-genome duplication event. Many of the identified paralog pairs have either diverged in function or become noncoding. Future functional genomics studies will reveal to what extent this rich source of divergence in genetic sequence is likely to have facilitated the evolution of extreme phenotypic plasticity required for an anadromous life-cycle.

  17. The differential expression of ribosomal 18S RNA paralog genes from the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélémy, Roxane-Marie; Grino, Michel; Pontarotti, Pierre; Casanova, Jean-Paul; Faure, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Chaetognaths constitute a small marine phylum of approximately 120 species. Two classes of both 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences have been evidenced in this phylum, even though significant intraindividual variation in the sequences of rRNA genes is unusual in animal genomes. These observations led to the hypothesis that this unusual genetic characteristic could play one or more physiological role(s). Using in situ hybridization on the frontal sections of the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera, we found that the 18S Class I genes are expressed in the whole body, with a strong expression throughout the gut epithelium, whereas the expression of the 18S Class II genes is restricted to the oocytes. Our results could suggest that the paralog products of the 18S Class I genes are probably the "housekeeping" 18S rRNAs, whereas those of class II would only be essential in specific tissues. These results provide support for the idea that each type of 18S paralog is important for specific cellular functions and is under the control of selective factors.

  18. Structure of the NPr:EINNtr Complex: Mechanism for Specificity in Paralogous Phosphotransferase Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Madeleine; Stanley, Ann Marie; Wang, Guangshun; Botos, Istvan; Schwieters, Charles D.; Buchanan, Susan K.; Peterkofsky, Alan; Tjandra, Nico

    2016-12-01

    Paralogous enzymes arise from gene duplication events that confer a novel function, although it is unclear how cross-reaction between the original and duplicate protein interaction network is minimized. We investigated HPr:EIsugar and NPr:EINtr, the initial complexes of paralogous phosphorylation cascades involved in sugar import and nitrogen regulation in bacteria, respectively. Although the HPr:EIsugar interaction has been well characterized, involving multiple complexes and transient interactions, the exact nature of the NPr:EINtr complex was unknown. We set out to identify the key features of the interaction by performing binding assays and elucidating the structure of NPr in complex with the phosphorylation domain of EINtr (EINNtr), using a hybrid approach involving X-ray, homology, and sparse nuclear magnetic resonance. We found that the overall fold and active-site structure of the two complexes are conserved in order to maintain productive phosphorylation, however, the interface surface potential differs between the two complexes, which prevents cross-reaction.

  19. The de novo cytosine methyltransferase DRM2 requires intact UBA domains and a catalytically mutated paralog DRM3 during RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Henderson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic DNA cytosine methylation can be used to transcriptionally silence repetitive sequences, including transposons and retroviruses. This silencing is stable between cell generations as cytosine methylation is maintained epigenetically through DNA replication. The Arabidopsis thaliana Dnmt3 cytosine methyltransferase ortholog DOMAINS rearranged methyltransferase2 (DRM2 is required for establishment of small interfering RNA (siRNA directed DNA methylation. In mammals PIWI proteins and piRNA act in a convergently evolved RNA-directed DNA methylation system that is required to repress transposon expression in the germ line. De novo methylation may also be independent of RNA interference and small RNAs, as in Neurospora crassa. Here we identify a clade of catalytically mutated DRM2 paralogs in flowering plant genomes, which in A.thaliana we term domains rearranged methyltransferase3 (DRM3. Despite being catalytically mutated, DRM3 is required for normal maintenance of non-CG DNA methylation, establishment of RNA-directed DNA methylation triggered by repeat sequences and accumulation of repeat-associated small RNAs. Although the mammalian catalytically inactive Dnmt3L paralogs act in an analogous manner, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the DRM and Dnmt3 protein families diverged independently in plants and animals. We also show by site-directed mutagenesis that both the DRM2 N-terminal UBA domains and C-terminal methyltransferase domain are required for normal RNA-directed DNA methylation, supporting an essential targeting function for the UBA domains. These results suggest that plant and mammalian RNA-directed DNA methylation systems consist of a combination of ancestral and convergent features.

  20. Differential expression and novel permeability properties of three aquaporin 8 paralogs from seawater-challenged Atlantic salmon smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Chauvigné, François; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster

    2013-01-01

    of aqp8aa, aqp8ab and aqp8b genes found in other teleosts. The permeability properties were studied by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the expression levels examined by qPCR, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, and immunoblotting of membrane fractions from intestines...... of SW challenged smolts. All three Aqp8 paralogs were permeable to water and urea, whereas Aqp8ab and -8b were, surprisingly, also permeable to glycerol. The mRNA tissue distribution of each paralog was distinct although some tissues, such as the intestine showed redundant expression of more than one...

  1. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix” Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery.

  2. Pit initiation on nitinol in simulated physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Bruce G

    2017-08-21

    Inclusions appear to play a crucial role in the initiation of pitting on nitinol, but the reason remains unclear. Furthermore, it has not been established whether the type of inclusion is a central factor. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization together with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to provide more insight into the initiation of pits on electropolished nitinol wire. Corrosion was limited to a single primary pit on each of the few wire samples that exhibited breakdown. The pit contained numerous Ti2 NiOx inclusions, but secondary pits that developed within the primary pit provided evidence that these inclusions were the sites of pit initiation. Although several theories have been proposed to account for pit initiation at inclusions in mechanically polished and electropolished nitinol, titanium depletion in the adjacent alloy matrix appears to provide the most viable explanation. The key factor appears to be the size of the inclusion and therefore the extent of titanium depletion in the alloy matrix. The type of inclusion evidently plays a secondary role at most. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water tabl

  4. [Spontaneous disappearance of herniation pit on the femoral neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerais, J M; Jacob, D; Thibaud, J C; Fourrer, C; Cercueil, J P; Krause, D; Laredo, J D; Baudrillard, J C

    1995-09-01

    The authors present a case of a 39 years old patient who had a herniation pit of the left femoral neck, 5 years ago. This lesion disappeared spontaneously. To our knowledge, no report of healing of a herniation pit has been previously described.

  5. Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water

  6. EXPERIMENTAL AND FIELD STUDY ON MINING-PIT MIGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Ali Akbar Salehi NEYSHABOURI; Ali FARHADZADEH; Ata AMINI

    2002-01-01

    Rivers are one of the most essential sources of sand and gravel supply for civil works. However,undesirable effects of irregular in-stream mining have been reported on natural sources, environment and infrastructures close to rivers. Therefore, it is necessary to find the effects of mining on rivers in more details. This research concentrates on mining-pit migration phenomenon and its effects on the channel bed.This paper reports an experimental study on the migration of rectangular mining pits and variation of longitudinal profile in the channel bed composed of rather uniform sediments. Different values of widths and lengths were used for pit while pit depths and flow variables were kept constant. The results show that the migration speed changes with the length/width ratio of the pit. The migration speed in convection period is higher than that in diffusion period. In addition, by increasing the length or width, filling rate of pit increases, where the effect of width is more important than the effect of the length. Also is reported in this paper a field study on the changes of three pits excavated at different locations of a river. Some similarities between the pit migration in the straight reach of the river and that of the experimental work is realized and presented.

  7. Inhibition of Copper Pitting Corrosion in Aggressive Potable Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sarver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper pitting corrosion can lead to premature plumbing failures, and can be caused by aggressive potable waters characterized by high pH, free chlorine residual and low alkalinity. In such waters and under continuous flow, certain inhibitors including phosphate, silica or natural organic matter may greatly reduce pitting occurrence. In the current work, 1 mg/L phosphate (as P completely prevented initiation of pits, and 5 mg/L silica (as Si significantly decelerated pitting. However, much lower doses of these inhibitors had little benefit and actually accelerated the rate of attack in some cases. Effects of organic matter were dependent on both the type (e.g., natural versus ozonated humic substances and dosage. Dose-response effects of free chlorine and alkalinity were also investigated. Based on electrochemical data, pits initiated more rapidly with increased free chlorine, but even moderate levels of chlorine (~0.4 mg/L eventually caused severe pitting. High alkalinity decreased pit propagation rates but did not prevent pit formation.

  8. Pit membranes of Ephedra resemble gymnosperms more than angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland Dute; Lauren Bowen; Sarah Schier; Alexa Vevon; Troy Best; Maria Auad; Thomas Elder; Pauline Bouche; Steven Jansen

    2014-01-01

    Bordered pit pairs of Ephedra species were characterized using different types of microscopy. Pit membranes contained tori that did not stain for lignin. SEM and AFM views of the torus surface showed no plasmodesmatal openings, but branched, secondary plasmodesmata were occasionally noted using TEM in conjunction with ultrathin sections. The margo consisted of radial...

  9. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  10. Modelling the mechanical behaviour of pit membranes in bordered pits with respect to cavitation resistance in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Aude; Herbette, Stephane; Jansen, Steven; Capron, Marie; Tordjeman, Philippe; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Various correlations have been identified between anatomical features of bordered pits in angiosperm xylem and vulnerability to cavitation, suggesting that the mechanical behaviour of the pits may play a role. Theoretical modelling of the membrane behaviour has been undertaken, but it requires input of parameters at the nanoscale level. However, to date, no experimental data have indicated clearly that pit membranes experience strain at high levels during cavitation events. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to quantify the pit micromorphology of four tree species that show contrasting differences in vulnerability to cavitation, namely Sorbus aria, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula. This allowed anatomical characters to be included in a mechanical model that was based on the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory. A mechanistic model was developed that included the geometric features of the pits that could be measured, with the purpose of evaluating the pit membrane strain that results from a pressure difference being applied across the membrane. This approach allowed an assessment to be made of the impact of the geometry of a pit on its mechanical behaviour, and provided an estimate of the impact on air-seeding resistance. The TEM observations showed evidence of residual strains on the pit membranes, thus demonstrating that this membrane may experience a large degree of strain during cavitation. The mechanical modelling revealed the interspecific variability of the strains experienced by the pit membrane, which varied according to the pit geometry and the pressure experienced. The modelling output combined with the TEM observations suggests that cavitation occurs after the pit membrane has been deflected against the pit border. Interspecific variability of the strains experienced was correlated with vulnerability to cavitation. Assuming that air-seeding occurs at a given pit membrane strain, the pressure predicted by the model

  11. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  12. Resin Material Dependence of Pit Shape in Thermal Direct Mastering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshihiko; Shimo, Masanori; Takamori, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Akira

    2007-06-01

    We report the resin material dependence of the shape of pits obtained by thermal direct mastering (TDM), which is a heat-mode mastering method utilizing the thermal decomposition of resins. By applying suitable resins, both circular and crescent pits can be obtained by TDM. This difference in shape was considered to originate from the temperature difference between the glass transition temperature and the thermal decomposition temperature of the resins. The resin with a relatively small temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the circular pits and random patterns, and the resin with a large temperature difference was suitable for the fabrication of the crescent pits and monotone patterns with high linear density. By using a deep ultraviolet (DUV) laser mastering system with a wavelength of 257 nm and a numerical aperture of 0.90, a monotone pattern of 40-nm-length pits was fabricated by applying a novolak-type resin with a relatively large temperature difference.

  13. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, .... quantify the effect of natural degradation and dehydration of pit latrine ... through the toilet pedestal.

  14. Microbial contents of soil from fire pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

  15. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  16. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeryun; Servetas, Stephanie L; Kang, Jieun; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Cha, Ho Jin; Lee, Wan Jin; Kim, June; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Merrell, D Scott; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH) and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH). Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH), but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%); locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%), no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001) and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001) were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002). En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the vac

  17. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeryun Kim

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH. Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH, but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%; locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%, no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001 and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001 were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002. En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the

  18. SPOCS: software for predicting and visualizing orthology/paralogy relationships among genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Summary: At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. Availability and Implementation: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required. Contact: leeann.mccue@pnnl.gov PMID:23956303

  19. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  20. Critical Idealism and Transcendal Materialism: A Speculative Analysis of the Second Paralogism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Olson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the critical doctrine of the necessary unity of the thinking subject propounded in Kant’s Second Paralogism contains an idealist commitment to the metaphysically exceptional nature of the unifying activity of thought. Rather than rejecting Kant’s transcendental framework as necessarily idealist and antagonistic to the current projects of speculative materialism, it is argued that transcendental philosophy should remain an important ingredient of any contemporary metaphysics. The implicit metaphysical idealism of Kantian critical idealism, it is claimed, in the end reveals speculative resources within the architecture of transcendental philosophy that can, if I am right, maintain the importance of the project of determining the epistemological legitimacy of metaphysical knowledge without reducing metaphysics to the subjective idealism of Kantian critical philosophy.

  1. Comparisons of Maize pericarp color1 Alleles Reveal Paralogous Gene Recombination and an Organ-Specific Enhancer Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng Zhang; Thomas Peterson

    2005-01-01

    ... (for red pericarp/white cob) alleles, P1-rw1077 and P1-rw751::Ac. Structural analysis of P1-rw1077 indicated that this allele was generated by recombination between p1 and the tightly linked paralogous gene, p2...

  2. The tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor-P with (R)-ß-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Hervé; Zou, S Betty; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    The lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor P (EF-P) with a-lysine at low efficiency. Cell-free extracts containing non-a-lysine substrates of PoxA modified EF-P with a change in mass consistent with addition of ß-lysine, a substrate also predicted by genomic analyses. EF-P ...

  3. Rice MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family:Evolution, expression profiling, and sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Yuan; Junwei Zhao; Renyan Huang; Xianghua Li; Jinghua Xiao; Shiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    The rice MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family consists of 21 paralogs. However, their functions in physiological processes are largely unknown, although at least three of the 21 paralogs are used by pathogenic bacteria to infect rice. Here, we report the evolutionary features, transcriptional characteristics, and putative functions in sugar transport of this gene family. The wild rice accessions in this study included those with AA, BB, CC, BBCC, CCDD, EE, and GG genomes, which appeared approximately 0.58-14.6 million years ago. The structures, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relation-ships, and homologous distribution among the accessions suggest that the number of rice MtN3/saliva/SWEET paralogs gradual y increased as the Oryza genus evolved, and one third of the paralogs may have originated recently. These paralogs are differentially expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues, in the leaf senescence process, and in signaling dependent on gibberel ic acid, cytokinin, or 1-naphthalene acetic acid (an analog of auxin), suggesting that they may be associated with multiple physiological processes. Four paral-ogs could transport galactose in yeast, which suggests that they may have a similar function in rice. These results will help to elucidate their roles and biochemical functions in rice development, adaptation to environment, host-pathogen interaction, and so forth.

  4. Paralogous histidine biosynthetic genes: evolutionary analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS6 and HIS7 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, R; Tamburini, E; Mori, E; Lazcano, A; Liò, P; Barberio, C; Casalone, E; Cavalieri, D; Perito, B; Polsinelli, M

    1997-09-15

    The HIS6 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YNN282 is able to complement both the S. cerevisiae his6 and the Escherichia coli hisA mutations. The cloning and the nucleotide sequence indicated that this gene encodes a putative phosphoribosyl-5-amino-1-phosphoribosyl-4-imidazolecarboxiamide isomerase (5' Pro-FAR isomerase, EC 5.3.1.16) of 261 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 29,554. The HIS6 gene product shares a significant degree of sequence similarity with the prokaryotic HisA proteins and HisF proteins, and with the C-terminal domain of the S. cerevisiae HIS7 protein (homologous to HisF), indicating that the yeast HIS6 and HIS7 genes are paralogous. Moreover, the HIS6 gene is organized into two homologous modules half the size of the entire gene, typical of all the known prokaryotic hisA and hisF genes. The structure of the yeast HIS6 gene supports the two-step evolutionary model suggested by Fani et al. (J. Mol. Evol. 1994; 38: 489-495) to explain the present-day hisA and hisF genes. According to this idea, the hisF gene originated from the duplication of an ancestral hisA gene which, in turn, was the result of an earlier gene elongation event involving an ancestral module half the size of the extant gene. Results reported in this paper also suggest that these two successive paralogous gene duplications took probably place in the early steps of molecular evolution of the histidine pathway, well before the diversification of the three domains, and that this pathway was one of the metabolic activities of the last common ancestor. The molecular evolution of the yeast HIS6 and HIS7 genes is also discussed.

  5. Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is described and used to calculate the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The model uses equilibrium data and diffusion coefficients and calculates the stationary concentration profiles of 26 aqueous species from the bulk water outside a corrosion pit to the site of the metal dissolution. Precipitation of oxides and salts of copper is considered. Studied conditions include water compositions from tap waters to seawater at the temperatures 25 deg C and 75 deg C. Carbonate and sulphate are aggressive towards copper because of complex formation with divalent copper. Carbonate is less aggressive in a corrosion pit than outside at the pH of the bulk. Carbonate carries acidity out from the pit, favours oxide formation and may prevent the initiation of acidic corrosion pits. The concentration profiles are used to estimate the maximum propagation rates for a corrosion pit. A high potential is found to be the most important factor for the rate of propagation. The levels of potential copper can sustain, as corrosion potentials are discussed in terms of the stability of cuprous oxide as a cathode material for oxygen reduction relative to non-conducting cupric phases.

  6. Ancient hypogeous manufactures: the cereal pits in San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia De Nicolò

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the analysis of the hypogeous pits for the conservation of cereals in the historical center of San Giovanni in Marignano (Rimini. This small town in the low Valle del Conca (Conca Valley, on the border between Marche and Romagna, 3 km away from the sea, has a high concentration of underground silos protected by a fortified enclosure, this was known already in the late Middle Ages. Those silos were used to store the cereal products of a very productive territory, it is a sort of “wheat bank”, a huge container for cereals that was the reason why the castle in modern times was called: “The barn of the Malatesta family” (noble family. Some research was carried out in archives and according to notarial sources of the XIV-XVI centuries, and it was confirmed by other information from ancient city statutes and printed texts (XV-XIX centuries concerning the problems on the conservation of wheat and on the making of underground silos. That research provided interesting information on the making, the placing and the capacity of these pits, furthermore recently a diagnostic exploration was executed in the underground of San Giovanni in Marignano, analyzing high-frequency electromagnetic waves penetrating into the ground (Ground Penetrating Radar, such exploration located and detected precisely the pits.

  7. Effects of MreB paralogs on poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis and cell morphology in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weixia; Zhang, Zhongxiong; Feng, Jun; Dang, Yulei; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Wang, Shufang; Song, Cunjiang

    2016-09-01

    Actin-like MreB paralogs play important roles in cell shape maintenance, cell wall synthesis and the regulation of the D,L-endopeptidases, CwlO and LytE. The gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3, is a poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) producing strain that contains three MreB paralogs: MreB, Mbl and MreBH. In B. amyloliquefaciens, CwlO and LytE can degrade γ-PGA. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that modulating transcript levels of MreB paralogs would alter the synthesis and degradation of γ-PGA. The results showed that overexpression or inhibition of MreB, Mbl or MreBH had distinct effects on cell morphology and the molecular weight of the γ-PGA products. In fermentation medium, cells of mreB inhibition mutant were 50.2% longer than LL3, and the γ-PGA titer increased by 55.7%. However, changing the expression level of mbl showed only slight effects on the morphology, γ-PGA molecular weight and titer. In the mreBH inhibition mutant, γ-PGA production and its molecular weight increased by 56.7% and 19.4%, respectively. These results confirmed our hypothesis that suppressing the expression of MreB paralogs might reduce γ-PGA degradation, and that improving the cell size could strengthen γ-PGA synthesis. This is the first report of enhanced γ-PGA production via suppression of actin-like MreB paralogs. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effect of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit viper) venom on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... 1Clinical Microscopy Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microscopy, Faculty of ... At a concentration of 10 µg crude venom, red blood cells (RBC) osmotic fragility ... in human victims of Trimeresurus albolabris (green pit.

  9. Rifle Pits at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon file showing the rifle pits used by the 7th Cavalry at the Reno-Benteen Battlefield at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI)....

  10. Modeling sludge accumulation rates in lined pit latrines in slum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne

    have a performance measure which captures the essential features .... designs, user behaviour, pit dimensions, location and .... Mikhael G, Robbins, DM, Ramsay JE, Mbéguéré M (2014). ... Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organisation.

  11. Influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in pipeline steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J. H. [ESIME Zacatenco, SEPI Electronica Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M. [DIM-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lopez-Montenegro, A.; Perez-Baruch, E. [Pemex Exploracion y Produccion, Region Sur Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Statistical studies performed in Mexico indicate that leakage due to external pitting corrosion is the most likely cause of failure of buried pipelines. When pipelines are inspected with the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology, which is routinely used, the magnetization level of every part of the pipeline changes as the MFL tool travels through it. Remanent magnetization stays in the pipeline wall after inspection, at levels that may differ from a point to the next. This paper studies the influence of the magnetic field on pitting corrosion. Experiments were carried out on grade 52 steel under a level of remanent magnetization and other laboratory conditions that imitated the conditions of a pipeline after an MLF inspection. Non-magnetized control samples and magnetized samples were subjected to pitting by immersion in a solution containing chlorine and sulfide ions for seven days, and then inspected with optical microscopy. Results show that the magnetic field in the pipeline wall significantly increases pitting corrosion.

  12. Quarries, Gravel Pits, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Quarries dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2004. It is described as 'Gravel Pits'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  14. Rad51/Dmc1 paralogs and mediators oppose DNA helicases to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote crossovers during meiotic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Alexander; Mehats, Alizée; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome (homolog) as a template. This repair results in crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) recombinants. Only CO formation between homologs provides the physical linkages guiding correct chromosome segregation, which are essential to produce healthy gametes. The factors that determine the CO/NCO decision are still poorly understood. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model we show that the Rad51/Dmc1-paralog complexes Rad55-Rad57 and Rdl1-Rlp1-Sws1 together with Swi5-Sfr1 play a major role in antagonizing both the FANCM-family DNA helicase/translocase Fml1 and the RecQ-type DNA helicase Rqh1 to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote Mus81-Eme1-dependent COs. A common attribute of these protein complexes is an ability to stabilize the Rad51/Dmc1 nucleoprotein filament, and we propose that it is this property that imposes constraints on which enzymes gain access to the recombination intermediate, thereby controlling the manner in which it is processed and resolved. PMID:25414342

  15. Structure of the human zinc finger protein HIVEP3: molecular cloning, expression, exon-intron structure, and comparison with paralogous genes HIVEP1 and HIVEP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicar, M D; Liu, Y; Allen, C E; Wu, L C

    2001-01-01

    Here we report the cloning and characterization of HIVEP3, the newest member in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer-binding protein family that encodes large zinc finger proteins and regulates transcription via the kappaB enhancer motif. The largest open reading frame of HIVEP3 contains 2406 aa. and is approximately 80% identical to the mouse counterpart. The HIVEP3 gene is located in the chromosomal region 1p34 and is at least 300 kb with 10 exons. RNA studies show that multiple HIVEP3 transcripts are differentially expressed and regulated. Additionally, transcription termination occurs in the ultimate exon, exon 10, or in exon 6. Therefore, HIVEP3 may produce protein isoforms that contain or exclude the carboxyl DNA binding domain and the leucine zipper by alternative RNA splicing and differential polyadenylation. Sequence homologous to HIVEP3 exon 6 is not found in mouse nor are the paralogous genes HIVEP1 and HIVEP2. Zoo-blot analysis suggests that sequences homologous to the human exon 6 are present only in primates and cow. Therefore, a foreign DNA harboring a termination exon likely was inserted into the HIVEP3 locus relatively recently in evolution, resulting in the acquisition of novel gene regulatory mechanisms as well as the generation of structural and functional diversity. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Annexin A11 (ANXA11) gene structure as the progenitor of paralogous annexins and source of orthologous cDNA isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bances, P; Fernandez, M R; Rodriguez-Garcia, M I; Morgan, R O; Fernandez, M P

    2000-10-01

    The genomic organization of the annexin A11 gene was determined in mouse and human to assess its congruity with other family members and to examine the species variation in alternative splicing patterns. Mouse annexin A11 genomic clones were characterized by restriction analysis, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing, and the homologous human gene (HGMW-approved gene symbol ANXA11) was deciphered from high-throughput genomic sequence with coanalysis of expressed sequence tags. Exons 6-15 of the tetrad core repeat region differ from annexins A7 and A13 but are spliced identically to other phylogenetic descendents, making annexin A11 the putative primary progenitor of up to nine paralogous human annexins. The 5' regions consist of untranslated exon 1, followed by an extensive intron 1 comprising almost half the total gene length of >40 kb, and additional GC-rich exons 2-5 encoding the proline- and glycine-rich amino-terminus. Distinct cDNA isoforms in cow and human were determined to be unique to each species and hence of dubious general significance for this gene's function. Multiple transcription start sites were revealed by primer extension analysis of the mouse gene, and transfection constructs containing the prospective promoter generated transcriptional activity comparable to that of the SV40 promoter. Internal repetitive elements and vicinal gene markers were mapped for the complete human annexin A11 gene sequence to characterize the surrounding genomic environment. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of human TRAP1NM, the Hsp90 paralog in the mitochondrial matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Tsai, Francis T F; Lee, Sukyeong

    2016-08-01

    TRAP1 is an organelle-specific Hsp90 paralog that is essential for neoplastic growth. As a member of the Hsp90 family, TRAP1 is presumed to be a general chaperone facilitating the late-stage folding of Hsp90 client proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. Interestingly, TRAP1 cannot replace cytosolic Hsp90 in protein folding, and none of the known Hsp90 co-chaperones are found in mitochondria. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of TRAP1 must feature regulatory elements that are essential to the ATPase activity and chaperone function of TRAP1. Here, the crystal structure of a human TRAP1NM dimer is presented, featuring an intact N-domain and M-domain structure, bound to adenosine 5'-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (ADPNP). The crystal structure together with epitope-mapping results shows that the TRAP1 M-domain loop 1 contacts the neighboring subunit and forms a previously unobserved third dimer interface that mediates the specific interaction with mitochondrial Hsp70.

  18. 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure of human TRAP1 NM , the Hsp90 paralog in the mitochondrial matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Nuri; Lee, Jungsoon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Changsoo; Tsai, Francis T. F.; Lee, Sukyeong

    2016-07-13

    TRAP1 is an organelle-specific Hsp90 paralog that is essential for neoplastic growth. As a member of the Hsp90 family, TRAP1 is presumed to be a general chaperone facilitating the late-stage folding of Hsp90 client proteins in the mitochondrial matrix. Interestingly, TRAP1 cannot replace cytosolic Hsp90 in protein folding, and none of the known Hsp90 co-chaperones are found in mitochondria. Thus, the three-dimensional structure of TRAP1 must feature regulatory elements that are essential to the ATPase activity and chaperone function of TRAP1. Here, the crystal structure of a human TRAP1NMdimer is presented, featuring an intact N-domain and M-domain structure, bound to adenosine 5'-β,γ-imidotriphosphate (ADPNP). The crystal structure together with epitope-mapping results shows that the TRAP1 M-domain loop 1 contacts the neighboring subunit and forms a previously unobserved third dimer interface that mediates the specific interaction with mitochondrial Hsp70.

  19. Functional Divergence of Poplar Histidine-Aspartate Kinase HK1 Paralogs in Response to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Héricourt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have shown the existence of protein partnerships belonging to a MultiStep Phosphorelay (MSP in Populus putatively involved in osmosensing. This study is focused on the identification of a histidine-aspartate kinase, HK1b, paralog of HK1a. The characterization of HK1b showed its ability to homo- and hetero-dimerize and to interact with a few Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer (HPt proteins, suggesting a preferential partnership in poplar MSP linked to drought perception. Furthermore, determinants for interaction specificity between HK1a/1b and HPts were studied by mutagenesis analysis, identifying amino acids involved in this specificity. The HK1b expression analysis in different poplar organs revealed its co-expression with three HPts, reinforcing the hypothesis of partnership participation in the MSP in planta. Moreover, HK1b was shown to act as an osmosensor with kinase activity in a functional complementation assay of an osmosensor deficient yeast strain. These results revealed that HK1b showed a different behaviour for canonical phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues. These phosphorylation modularities of canonical amino acids could explain the improved osmosensor performances observed in yeast. As conserved duplicates reflect the selective pressures imposed by the environmental requirements on the species, our results emphasize the importance of HK1 gene duplication in poplar adaptation to drought stress.

  20. Identification of paralogous genes of firefly luciferase in the Japanese firefly, Luciola cruciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Sato, Mitsunori; Ohta, Yuichiro; Inouye, Satoshi

    2006-03-01

    Two homologous genes of firefly luciferase, LcLL1 and LcLL2, were cloned from the Japanese firefly Luciola cruciata, and were expressed and characterized. The gene product of LcLL1 had long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity, but not luciferase activity. The other gene product of LcLL2 did not show enzymatic activities of acyl-CoA synthetase and luciferase. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript of LcLL1 was abundant in larva but very low in adult, while LcLL2 was expressed in both larva and adult. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that LcLL1 and LcLL2 are paralogous genes of firefly luciferase. Recently, we found that CG6178 in Drosophila melanogaster is an orthologue of firefly luciferase and shows fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity, but not luciferase activity. These results suggest that firefly luciferase might be evolved from a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase by gene duplication in insects.

  1. Frequency and character of alternative somatic recombination fates of paralogous genes during T-DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelesko, John G; Carter, Kristy; Kinoshita, Yuki; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2005-09-01

    A synthetic RBCSB gene cluster was transformed into Arabidopsis in order to simultaneously evaluate the frequency and character of somatic illegitimate recombination, homologous recombination, and targeted gene replacement events associated with T-DNA-mediated transformation. The most frequent type of recombination event observed was illegitimate integration of the T-DNA without activation of the silent DeltaRBCS1B: LUC transgene. Sixteen luc(+) (firefly luciferase positive) T1 plants were isolated. Six of these were due to illegitimate recombination events resulting in a gene trapping effect. Nine resulted from homologous recombination between paralogous RBCSB sequences associated with T-DNA integration. The frequency of somatic homologous recombination associated with T-DNA integration was almost 200 times higher than previously reported rates of meiotic homologous recombination with the same genes. The distribution of (somatic homologous) recombination resolution sites generally fits a fractional interval length model. However, a small region adjacent to an indel showed a significant over-representation of resolution sites, suggesting that DNA mismatch recognition may also play an important role in the positioning of somatic resolution sites. The frequency of somatic resolution within exon-2 was significantly different from that previously observed during meiotic recombination.

  2. Deletion of cdvB paralogous genes of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius impairs cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nuan; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2014-03-01

    The majority of Crenarchaeota utilize the cell division system (Cdv) to divide. This system consists of three highly conserved genes, cdvA, cdvB and cdvC that are organized in an operon. CdvC is homologous to the AAA-type ATPase Vps4, involved in multivesicular body biogenesis in eukaryotes. CdvA is a unique archaeal protein that interacts with the membrane, while CdvB is homologous to the eukaryal Vps24 and forms helical filaments. Most Crenarcheota contain additional CdvB paralogs. In Sulfolobus acidocaldarius these are termed CdvB1-3. We have used a gene inactivation approach to determine the impact of these additional cdvB genes on cell division. Independent deletion mutants of these genes were analyzed for growth and protein localization. One of the deletion strains (ΔcdvB3) showed a severe growth defect on plates and delayed growth on liquid medium. It showed the formation of enlarged cells and a defect in DNA segregation. Since these defects are accompanied with an aberrant localization of CdvA and CdvB, we conclude that CdvB3 fulfills an important accessory role in cell division.

  3. Specific Roles of XRCC4 Paralogs PAXX and XLF during V(DJ Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Lescale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paralog of XRCC4 and XLF (PAXX is a member of the XRCC4 superfamily and plays a role in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ, a DNA repair pathway critical for lymphocyte antigen receptor gene assembly. Here, we find that the functions of PAXX and XLF in V(DJ recombination are masked by redundant joining activities. Thus, combined PAXX and XLF deficiency leads to an inability to join RAG-cleaved DNA ends. Additionally, we demonstrate that PAXX function in V(DJ recombination depends on its interaction with Ku. Importantly, we show that, unlike XLF, the role of PAXX during the repair of DNA breaks does not overlap with ATM and the RAG complex. Our findings illuminate the role of PAXX in V(DJ recombination and support a model in which PAXX and XLF function during NHEJ repair of DNA breaks, whereas XLF, the RAG complex, and the ATM-dependent DNA damage response promote end joining by stabilizing DNA ends.

  4. Paralog re-emergence: a novel, historically contingent mechanism in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nichola J; Cools, Hans J; Sierotzki, Helge; Shaw, Michael W; Knogge, Wolfgang; Kelly, Steven L; Kelly, Diane E; Fraaije, Bart A

    2014-07-01

    Evolution of resistance to drugs and pesticides poses a serious threat to human health and agricultural production. CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due to point mutations or overexpression of CYP51, and previous studies have shown that fungicide-resistant alleles have arisen by de novo mutation. Paralogs CYP51A and CYP51B are found in filamentous ascomycetes, but CYP51A has been lost from multiple lineages. Here, we show that in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of historical barley leaf samples from a unique long-term experiment from 1892 to 2008 indicates that the majority of the R. commune population lacked CYP51A until 1985, after which the frequency of CYP51A rapidly increased. Functional analysis demonstrates that CYP51A retains the same substrate as CYP51B, but with different transcriptional regulation. Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show CYP51A persisting in the R. commune lineage rather than being regained by horizontal gene transfer; therefore, CYP51A re-emergence provides an example of adaptation to novel compounds by selection from standing genetic variation.

  5. Paralog Re-Emergence: A Novel, Historically Contingent Mechanism in the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nichola J.; Cools, Hans J.; Sierotzki, Helge; Shaw, Michael W.; Knogge, Wolfgang; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.; Fraaije, Bart A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance to drugs and pesticides poses a serious threat to human health and agricultural production. CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due to point mutations or overexpression of CYP51, and previous studies have shown that fungicide-resistant alleles have arisen by de novo mutation. Paralogs CYP51A and CYP51B are found in filamentous ascomycetes, but CYP51A has been lost from multiple lineages. Here, we show that in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of historical barley leaf samples from a unique long-term experiment from 1892 to 2008 indicates that the majority of the R. commune population lacked CYP51A until 1985, after which the frequency of CYP51A rapidly increased. Functional analysis demonstrates that CYP51A retains the same substrate as CYP51B, but with different transcriptional regulation. Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show CYP51A persisting in the R. commune lineage rather than being regained by horizontal gene transfer; therefore, CYP51A re-emergence provides an example of adaptation to novel compounds by selection from standing genetic variation. PMID:24732957

  6. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-02-12

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4-8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. An easy-to-use primer design tool to address paralogous loci and T-DNA insertion sites in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huep, Gunnar; Kleinboelting, Nils; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    .... In such cases, the prediction of the correct insertion site must include careful sequence analyses on the one hand and a paralog specific primer design for experimental confirmation of the prediction on the other hand...

  8. Nobody’s perfect: Can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka ePlavcová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that species-specific pit properties such as pit membrane thickness, pit membrane porosity, torus-to-aperture diameter ratio and pit chamber depth influence xylem vulnerability to cavitation. Despite the indisputable importance of using mean pit characteristics, considerable variability in pit structure within a single species or even within a single pit field should be acknowledged. According to the rare pit hypothesis, a single pit that is more air-permeable than many neighboring pits is sufficient to allow air-seeding. Therefore, any irregularities or morphological abnormalities in pit structure allowing air-seeding should be associated with increased vulnerability to cavitation. Considering the currently proposed models of air-seeding, pit features such as rare, large pores in the pit membrane, torus extensions, and plasmodesmatal pores in a torus can represent potential glitches. These aberrations in pit structure could either result from inherent developmental flaws, or from damage caused to the pit membrane by chemical and physical agents. This suggests the existence of interesting feedbacks between abiotic and biotic stresses in xylem physiology.

  9. Targeted mutagenesis of multiple and paralogous genes in Xenopus laevis using two pairs of transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Yuto; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T

    2014-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) have been extensively used in genome editing in various organisms. In some cases, however, it is difficult to efficiently disrupt both paralogous genes using a single pair of TALENs in Xenopus laevis because of its polyploidy. Here, we report targeted mutagenesis of multiple and paralogous genes using two pairs of TALENs in X. laevis. First, we show simultaneous targeted mutagenesis of three genes, tyrosinase paralogues (tyra and tyrb) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) by injection of two TALENs pairs in transgenic embryos carrying egfp. Consistent with the high frequency of both severe phenotypic traits, albinism and loss of GFP fluorescence, frameshift mutation rates of tyr paralogues and egfp reached 40-80%. Next, we show early introduction of TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of these target loci during embryogenesis. Finally, we also demonstrate that two different pairs of TALENs can simultaneously introduce mutations to both paralogues encoding histone chaperone with high efficiency. Our results suggest that targeted mutagenesis of multiple genes using TALENs can be applied to analyze the functions of paralogous genes with redundancy in X. laevis.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of human disease alleles reveals that their locations are correlated in paralogous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, Mark; Moore, Barry; Salas, Fidel; Mungall, Chris; MacBride, Andrew; White, Charles; Reese, Martin G

    2008-11-01

    The millions of mutations and polymorphisms that occur in human populations are potential predictors of disease, of our reactions to drugs, of predisposition to microbial infections, and of age-related conditions such as impaired brain and cardiovascular functions. However, predicting the phenotypic consequences and eventual clinical significance of a sequence variant is not an easy task. Computational approaches have found perturbation of conserved amino acids to be a useful criterion for identifying variants likely to have phenotypic consequences. To our knowledge, however, no study to date has explored the potential of variants that occur at homologous positions within paralogous human proteins as a means of identifying polymorphisms with likely phenotypic consequences. In order to investigate the potential of this approach, we have assembled a unique collection of known disease-causing variants from OMIM and the Human Genome Mutation Database (HGMD) and used them to identify and characterize pairs of sequence variants that occur at homologous positions within paralogous human proteins. Our analyses demonstrate that the locations of variants are correlated in paralogous proteins. Moreover, if one member of a variant-pair is disease-causing, its partner is likely to be disease-causing as well. Thus, information about variant-pairs can be used to identify potentially disease-causing variants, extend existing procedures for polymorphism prioritization, and provide a suite of candidates for further diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of human disease alleles reveals that their locations are correlated in paralogous proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yandell

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The millions of mutations and polymorphisms that occur in human populations are potential predictors of disease, of our reactions to drugs, of predisposition to microbial infections, and of age-related conditions such as impaired brain and cardiovascular functions. However, predicting the phenotypic consequences and eventual clinical significance of a sequence variant is not an easy task. Computational approaches have found perturbation of conserved amino acids to be a useful criterion for identifying variants likely to have phenotypic consequences. To our knowledge, however, no study to date has explored the potential of variants that occur at homologous positions within paralogous human proteins as a means of identifying polymorphisms with likely phenotypic consequences. In order to investigate the potential of this approach, we have assembled a unique collection of known disease-causing variants from OMIM and the Human Genome Mutation Database (HGMD and used them to identify and characterize pairs of sequence variants that occur at homologous positions within paralogous human proteins. Our analyses demonstrate that the locations of variants are correlated in paralogous proteins. Moreover, if one member of a variant-pair is disease-causing, its partner is likely to be disease-causing as well. Thus, information about variant-pairs can be used to identify potentially disease-causing variants, extend existing procedures for polymorphism prioritization, and provide a suite of candidates for further diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  12. A Polar and Nucleotide-Dependent Mechanism of Action for RAD51 Paralogs in RAD51 Filament Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martin R G; Špírek, Mário; Jian Ma, Chu; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Takaki, Tohru; Collinson, Lucy M; Greene, Eric C; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J

    2016-12-01

    Central to homologous recombination in eukaryotes is the RAD51 recombinase, which forms helical nucleoprotein filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and catalyzes strand invasion with homologous duplex DNA. Various regulatory proteins assist this reaction including the RAD51 paralogs. We recently discovered that a RAD51 paralog complex from C. elegans, RFS-1/RIP-1, functions predominantly downstream of filament assembly by binding and remodeling RAD-51-ssDNA filaments to a conformation more proficient for strand exchange. Here, we demonstrate that RFS-1/RIP-1 acts by shutting down RAD-51 dissociation from ssDNA. Using stopped-flow experiments, we show that RFS-1/RIP-1 confers this dramatic stabilization by capping the 5' end of RAD-51-ssDNA filaments. Filament end capping propagates a stabilizing effect with a 5'→3' polarity approximately 40 nucleotides along individual filaments. Finally, we discover that filament capping and stabilization are dependent on nucleotide binding, but not hydrolysis by RFS-1/RIP-1. These data define the mechanism of RAD51 filament remodeling by RAD51 paralogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004 at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals.

  14. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-Miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals.

  15. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  16. Evaporative respiratory cooling augments pit organ thermal detection in rattlesnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Bovo, Rafael P; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2013-12-01

    Rattlesnakes use their facial pit organs to sense external thermal fluctuations. A temperature decrease in the heat-sensing membrane of the pit organ has the potential to enhance heat flux between their endothermic prey and the thermal sensors, affect the optimal functioning of thermal sensors in the pit membrane and reduce the formation of thermal "afterimages", improving thermal detection. We examined the potential for respiratory cooling to improve strike behaviour, capture, and consumption of endothermic prey in the South American rattlesnake, as behavioural indicators of thermal detection. Snakes with a higher degree of rostral cooling were more accurate during the strike, attacking warmer regions of their prey, and relocated and consumed their prey faster. These findings reveal that by cooling their pit organs, rattlesnakes increase their ability to detect endothermic prey; disabling the pit organs caused these differences to disappear. Rattlesnakes also modify the degree of rostral cooling by altering their breathing pattern in response to biologically relevant stimuli, such as a mouse odour. Our findings reveal that low humidity increases their ability to detect endothermic prey, suggesting that habitat and ambush site selection in the wild may be influenced by external humidity levels as well as temperature.

  17. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  18. Understanding Cavitation Intensity through Pitting and Pressure Pulse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, A.; Singh, S.; Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation erosion is of interest to the designers of ship propulsion devices because of its detrimental effects. One of the difficulties of predicting cavitation erosion is that the intensity of cavitation is not well predicted or defined. In this work we attempt to define the intensity of a cavitation erosion field through analysis of cavitation induced erosion pits and pressure pulses. In the pitting tests, material samples were subjected to cavitation field for a short duration of time selected within the test sample's incubation period, so that the test sample undergoes plastic deformation only. The sample material reacts to these cavitation events by undergoing localized permanent deformation, called pits. The resulting pitted sample surfaces were then optically scanned and analyzed. The pressure signals under cavitating jets and ultrasonic horns, for different conditions, were experimentally recorded using high frequency response pressure transducers. From the analysis of the pitting data and recorded pressure signals, we propose a model that describes the statistics, which in the future can be used to define the cavitation field intensity. Support for this work was provided by Office of Naval Research (ONR) under contract number N00014-08-C-0450, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  19. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  20. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  1. Detection of Pitting in Gears Using a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; a new method for gear pitting fault detection is presented. The presented method is developed based on a deep sparse autoencoder. The method integrates dictionary learning in sparse coding into a stacked autoencoder network. Sparse coding with dictionary learning is viewed as an adaptive feature extraction method for machinery fault diagnosis. An autoencoder is an unsupervised machine learning technique. A stacked autoencoder network with multiple hidden layers is considered to be a deep learning network. The presented method uses a stacked autoencoder network to perform the dictionary learning in sparse coding and extract features from raw vibration data automatically. These features are then used to perform gear pitting fault detection. The presented method is validated with vibration data collected from gear tests with pitting faults in a gearbox test rig and compared with an existing deep learning-based approach.

  2. Fukushima nuclear accident recorded in Tibetan Plateau snow pits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninglian Wang

    Full Text Available The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month.

  3. Congenital upper lip pit: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the rarest developmental malformations of the lip is congenital lip pits. They are usually seen as bilateral depressions in the vermilion zone of the lip and occur on the paramedian portion of the vermilion border of the lip. They are extremely rare in the upper lip. Lip pits are due to the failure of complete union of embryonic lateral sulci of the lip/notching of lip at an early stage of development with fixation of tissues of the base of the notch. Lip pits have also been associated with a variety of other congenital disorders and other malformations. The clinical and pathologic picture and the therapeutic aspects of this condition are discussed in this paper.

  4. Phyletic profiling with cliques of orthologs is enhanced by signatures of paralogy relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Skunca

    Full Text Available New microbial genomes are sequenced at a high pace, allowing insight into the genetics of not only cultured microbes, but a wide range of metagenomic collections such as the human microbiome. To understand the deluge of genomic data we face, computational approaches for gene functional annotation are invaluable. We introduce a novel model for computational annotation that refines two established concepts: annotation based on homology and annotation based on phyletic profiling. The phyletic profiling-based model that includes both inferred orthologs and paralogs-homologs separated by a speciation and a duplication event, respectively-provides more annotations at the same average Precision than the model that includes only inferred orthologs. For experimental validation, we selected 38 poorly annotated Escherichia coli genes for which the model assigned one of three GO terms with high confidence: involvement in DNA repair, protein translation, or cell wall synthesis. Results of antibiotic stress survival assays on E. coli knockout mutants showed high agreement with our model's estimates of accuracy: out of 38 predictions obtained at the reported Precision of 60%, we confirmed 25 predictions, indicating that our confidence estimates can be used to make informed decisions on experimental validation. Our work will contribute to making experimental validation of computational predictions more approachable, both in cost and time. Our predictions for 998 prokaryotic genomes include ~400000 specific annotations with the estimated Precision of 90%, ~19000 of which are highly specific-e.g. "penicillin binding," "tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation," or "pathogenesis"-and are freely available at http://gorbi.irb.hr/.

  5. Clusters of ancestrally related genes that show paralogy in whole or in part are a major feature of the genomes of humans and other species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Walker

    Full Text Available Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.

  6. Parameters of proteome evolution from histograms of amino-acid sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Koon-Kiu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is mostly driven by gene duplications, deletions, and sequence modifications of existing proteins. Indirect information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the proteome-wide distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. Results We introduce a simple mathematical framework based on a stochastic birth-and-death model that allows one to extract some of this information and apply it to the set of all pairs of paralogous proteins in H. pylori, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and H. sapiens. It was found that the histogram of sequence identities p generated by an all-to-all alignment of all protein sequences encoded in a genome is well fitted with a power-law form ~ p-γ with the value of the exponent γ around 4 for the majority of organisms used in this study. This implies that the intra-protein variability of substitution rates is best described by the Gamma-distribution with the exponent α ≈ 0.33. Different features of the shape of such histograms allow us to quantify the ratio between the genome-wide average deletion/duplication rates and the amino-acid substitution rate. Conclusion We separately measure the short-term ("raw" duplication and deletion rates rdup∗ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaemOCai3aa0baaSqaaiabbsgaKjabbwha1jabbchaWbqaaiabgEHiQaaaaaa@3283@, rdel∗ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGaemOCai3aa0baaSqaaiabbsga

  7. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  8. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  9. Description of work for 216-U-Pond test pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-08-11

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the test pit excavation and soil sampling at the 216- U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. It will be used in conjunction with the 200-UP-2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study (DOE-RL 1993a, [LFI]) and Site Characterization Manual (WHC 1988a). Test pits will be constructed to characterize the vertical extent of contaminants in sediments within and beneath the former U-10 pond.

  10. The effects of pitting on fatigue crack nucleation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, LI; Hoeppner, David W.

    1994-01-01

    A high-strength aluminum alloy, 7075-T6, was studied to quantitatively evaluate chemical pitting effects of its corrosion fatigue life. The study focused on pit nucleation, pit growth, and fatigue crack nucleation. Pitting corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution under constant amplitude sinusoidal loading at two frequencies, 5 and 20 Hz. Smooth and unnotched specimens were used in this investigation. A video recording system was developed to allow in situ observation of the surface changes of the specimens during testing. The results indicated that pitting corrosion considerably reduces the fatigue strength by accelerating fatigue crack nucleation. A metallographic examination was conducted on the specimens to evaluate the nature of corrosion pits. First, the actual shapes of the corrosion pits were evaluated by cross-sectioning the pits. Secondly, the relation between corrosion pits and microstructure was also investigated. Finally, the possibility of another corrosion mechanism that might be involved in pitting was explored in this investigation. The fractography of the tested specimens showed that corner corrosion pits were responsible for fatigue crack nucleation in the material due to the associated stress concentration. The pits exhibited variance of morphology. Fatigue life for the experimental conditions appeared to be strongly dependent on pitting kinetics and the crack nucleation stage.

  11. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  12. Uncoupling the functions of CALM in VAMP sorting and clathrin-coated pit formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Sahlender

    Full Text Available CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein is a cargo-selective adaptor for the post-Golgi R-SNAREs VAMPs 2, 3, and 8, and it also regulates the size of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. The present study has two objectives: to determine whether CALM can sort additional VAMPs, and to investigate whether VAMP sorting contributes to CALM-dependent vesicle size regulation. Using a flow cytometry-based endocytosis efficiency assay, we demonstrate that CALM is also able to sort VAMPs 4 and 7, even though they have sorting signals for other clathrin adaptors. CALM homologues are present in nearly every eukaryote, suggesting that the CALM family may have evolved as adaptors for retrieving all post-Golgi VAMPs from the plasma membrane. Using a knockdown/rescue system, we show that wild-type CALM restores normal VAMP sorting in CALM-depleted cells, but that two non-VAMP-binding mutants do not. However, when we assayed the effect of CALM depletion on coated pit morphology, using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay, we found that the two mutants were as effective as wild-type CALM. Thus, we can uncouple the sorting function of CALM from its structural role.

  13. Uncoupling the functions of CALM in VAMP sorting and clathrin-coated pit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlender, Daniela A; Kozik, Patrycja; Miller, Sharon E; Peden, Andrew A; Robinson, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein) is a cargo-selective adaptor for the post-Golgi R-SNAREs VAMPs 2, 3, and 8, and it also regulates the size of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane. The present study has two objectives: to determine whether CALM can sort additional VAMPs, and to investigate whether VAMP sorting contributes to CALM-dependent vesicle size regulation. Using a flow cytometry-based endocytosis efficiency assay, we demonstrate that CALM is also able to sort VAMPs 4 and 7, even though they have sorting signals for other clathrin adaptors. CALM homologues are present in nearly every eukaryote, suggesting that the CALM family may have evolved as adaptors for retrieving all post-Golgi VAMPs from the plasma membrane. Using a knockdown/rescue system, we show that wild-type CALM restores normal VAMP sorting in CALM-depleted cells, but that two non-VAMP-binding mutants do not. However, when we assayed the effect of CALM depletion on coated pit morphology, using a fluorescence microscopy-based assay, we found that the two mutants were as effective as wild-type CALM. Thus, we can uncouple the sorting function of CALM from its structural role.

  14. A missense mutation in ITGB6 causes pitted hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, James A; Brookes, Steven J; Shore, Roger C; Smith, Claire E L; Abi Farraj, Layal; Kirkham, Jennifer; Inglehearn, Chris F; Mighell, Alan J

    2014-04-15

    We identified a family in which pitted hypomineralized amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) with premature enamel failure segregated in an autosomal recessive fashion. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a missense mutation (c.586C>A, p.P196T) in the I-domain of integrin-β6 (ITGB6), which is consistently predicted to be pathogenic by all available programmes and is the only variant that segregates with the disease phenotype. Furthermore, a recent study revealed that mice lacking a functional allele of Itgb6 display a hypomaturation AI phenotype. Phenotypic characterization of affected human teeth in this study showed areas of abnormal prismatic organization, areas of low mineral density and severe abnormal surface pitting in the tooth's coronal portion. We suggest that the pathogenesis of this form of AI may be due to ineffective ligand binding of ITGB6 resulting in either compromised cell-matrix interaction or compromised ITGB6 activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) impacting indirectly on ameloblast-ameloblast interactions and proteolytic processing of extracellular matrix proteins via MMP20. This study adds to the list of genes mutated in AI and further highlights the importance of cell-matrix interactions during enamel formation.

  15. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilić Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  16. Lysosomal acid phosphatase is internalized via clathrin-coated pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Hille, A.; Geuze, H.J.; Peters, C.; Brodsky, F.M.; Figura, K. von

    1992-01-01

    The presence of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) in coated pits at the plasma membrane was investigated by immunocytochemistry in thymidine kinase negative mouse L-cells (Ltk-) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing human LAP (Ltk-LAP and BHK-LAP cells). Double immunogold labeling showed

  17. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  18. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  19. THE PITS PROPERTY OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIRICHLET SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  20. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1... substantially free from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A) Classification. Frozen red... for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...

  1. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  2. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  3. Olanzapine-induced tender pitting pre-tibial edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliaperumal Mathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic-induced edema is uncommonly encountered in clinical practice. We report a case of tender pitting pre-tibial edema with olanzapine in a woman with no medical comorbidities. The peculiar distribution of edema resulted in diagnostic confusion necessitating specific investigations. Eventually, the edema resolved following complete stoppage of the drug, but caused distress to the patient and the caregiver.

  4. Atomic force microscopy of torus-bearing pit membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland R. Dute; Thomas Elder

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to compare the structures of dried, torus-bearing pit membranes from four woody species, three angiosperms and one gymnosperm. Tori of Osmanthus armatus are bipartite consisting of a pustular zone overlying parallel sets of microfibrils that form a peripheral corona. Microfibrils of the corona form radial spokes as they traverse the...

  5. Pit Chains on Enceladus: A Discussion of Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R. L.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2008-03-01

    The surface of Enceladus displays a collection of pit-chains. We discuss various potential causes to their origin, including the drainage of unconsolidated surface material into dilational-fault-induced voids, which we believe to be the most likely explanation.

  6. Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Protection of Metals and Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Alexandrovich Grachev; Andrei Evgenievich Rozen; Gennadii Vasilievich Kozlov; Andrei Andreievich Rozen

    2016-01-01

    In this article authors set out a principle of pitting corrosion protection, suggested a new class of multilayer materials with high corrosion resistance. They substantiated the choice of the layers for the multilayer material designed for exploitation in oxidizing and non-oxidizing environment. The sphere of application of the multilayer materials was defined.

  7. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  8. Prognostic values of the miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Tang, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Mao-Lin; Li, Hui; Wang, Xin; Wu, Tao; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Shan-Jun; Wan, Yuan-Lian

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs have been shown to offer great potential in both the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Despite the well-established role of the miR-17-92 in cancer formation and progression, the contribution of each individual miRNA remains to be characterized. Thus, we investigated whether deregulation of the miR-17-92 associated with colon cancer prognosis. Expression levels of the miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were determined in 48 colon tumor and 48 paired normal tissues by real-time qRT-PCR. Associations with miRNA expression, age, sex, TNM staging, and survival prognosis were evaluated. MiR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were significantly overexpressed in colon tumor. No significant associations were found between the deregulation of certain miRNAs and the clinical and pathologic characteristics observed in patients. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significantly reduced overall survival in patients expressing high levels of miR-17. In multivariate Cox models, miR-17 overexpression (HR 2.67; P = 0.007) and TNM staging (HR 8.87; P = 0.002) were significantly associated with a risk of death. The miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were significantly elevated in patients with colon cancer, and heightened expression of miR-17 was associated with poor survival. Moreover, miR-17 and TNM staging were both identified as significant, but independent, prognostic biomarkers in colon cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  10. 78 FR 44625 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment.... 2900--NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire,'' in...

  11. Pitting Corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al Shape Memory Alloy in Simulated Uterine Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangyi CHEN; Chenghao LIANG; Daojun FU

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical test technology and surface analysis method were employed to investigate the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The results showed that the breakage of the breakingrenovating equilibrium of surface layers resulted in the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid. The development of pitting corrosion was controlled by dissolution of surface layers. The critical pitting corrosion potential was 1.70 VsCE. The kinetics equation for the development of pitting corrosion for Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid was i0=465.68 t-0.5+1.5. Pitting appearances of pits could be two types: tortoise-shell, and anomaly abscess. Cl- ion facilitated the pitting corrosion of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy by competing adsorption and concentrating on alloy surface at high positive potential.

  12. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  13. Structural and Binding Properties of Two Paralogous Fatty Acid Binding Proteins of Taenia solium Metacestode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Jong; Shin, Joo-Ho; Diaz-Camacho, Sylvia Paz; Nawa, Yukifumi; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins (FABPs) of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC), shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2), which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15–95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1) and 8.4 (TsMFABP2). Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]amino)undecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions of lipids

  14. Paralog-Specific Kinase Inhibition of FGFR4: Adding to the Arsenal of Anti-FGFR Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Leisl M; Pollock, Pamela M

    2015-04-01

    In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Hagel and colleagues report the design and the in vitro and in vivo activity of a novel, irreversible, paralog-specific kinase inhibitor of FGFR4, BLU9931. This compound binds covalently to a cysteine residue in the hinge region of FGFR4 but not in FGFR1-3. BLU9931 induces tumor shrinkage in hepatocellular carcinoma models that express a functioning ligand/receptor complex consisting of FGF19/FGFR4/KLB and adds to a growing list of anti-FGFR4 agents.

  15. NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase: molecular cloning and functional characterization of two paralogs from Withania somnifera (L. dunal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satiander Rana

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L. Dunal, a highly reputed medicinal plant, synthesizes a large array of steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Although its chemical profile and pharmacological activities have been studied extensively during the last two decades, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. Cytochrome P450 reductase is the most imperative redox partner of multiple P450s involved in primary and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We describe here the cloning and characterization of two paralogs of cytochrome P450 reductase from W. somnifera. The full length paralogs of WsCPR1 and WsCPR2 have open reading frames of 2058 and 2142 bp encoding 685 and 713 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that grouping of dual CPRs was in accordance with class I and class II of eudicotyledon CPRs. The corresponding coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins, purified and characterized. Recombinant proteins of both the paralogs were purified with their intact membrane anchor regions and it is hitherto unreported for other CPRs which have been purified from microsomal fraction. Southern blot analysis suggested that two divergent isoforms of CPR exist independently in Withania genome. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both genes were widely expressed in leaves, stalks, roots, flowers and berries with higher expression level of WsCPR2 in comparison to WsCPR1. Similar to CPRs of other plant species, WsCPR1 was un-inducible while WsCPR2 transcript level increased in a time-dependent manner after elicitor treatments. High performance liquid chromatography of withanolides extracted from elicitor-treated samples showed a significant increase in two of the key withanolides, withanolide A and withaferin A, possibly indicating the role of WsCPR2 in

  16. Review and Study of Physics Driven Pitting Corrosion Modeling in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    measuring the maximum pit size and its effect on the fatigue life. Microstructure and corrosion currents were neglected. In this paper we present the...Figure 2 Appearance of the pits on the surface of 7075 -T6 (Wang et al., 2003) Proc. of SPIE Vol. 9437 94372E-2 2 Distribution Statement A. Approved... density (Harlow and Wei, 1994). It can be seen that the definition of pitting current Ip is the key element in the pitting corrosion modeling, which

  17. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  19. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries....

  20. 78 FR 54956 - Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment....rennie@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 33894 - Proposed Information Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Collection (Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment Questionnaire) Activity: Comment Request... forms of information technology. Title: Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard Self-Assessment...@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW, Open Burn Pit Registry Airborne Hazard...

  2. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  3. Effect of PIT tags on the survival and recruitment of Great Tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Bouwman, Karen M.; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of subcutaneous passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in nestling and adult Great Tits Parus major. We investigated whether subcutaneous PIT tags affected fledging success, winter condition, survival and/or recruitment. We found no negative effects of PIT tags on any of these

  4. Study of pitting corrosion in line-pipe steel under the influence of remanent magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina-Hernandez, J.H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The influence of remanent magnetization on pitting corrosion in line-pipe steels is studied. Pitting corrosion experiments have been carried out on samples of an API 5L grade 52 steel under a magnetization level of the same order of magnitude of the remanent magnetization in the pipeline wall after in-line inspection based on magnetic flux leakage. The samples were magnetized using rings of the same grade as the investigated steel. Immediately after magnetization, the investigated samples were subjected to pitting by immersing them in a solution containing dissolved Cl{sup -} and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and ions. The pitting experiments were conducted during a seven days period. The pit depth distribution and the maximum pit depth in each sample were recorded and used to conduct extreme value analyses of the pitting process in magnetized and non-magnetized control samples. The statistical assessment of the pitting corrosion data collected during this study shows that the magnetic field reduces the average depth of the pit population and also the extreme pit depth values that can be predicted from the maximum values observed in the magnetized samples in comparison with to the non-magnetized control samples. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the magnetic field alters the pit morphology by increasing the pit mouth opening. (author)

  5. Evaluation of recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97/P102 paralogs formulated with selected adjuvants as vaccines against mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Lauren K; Fell, Shayne A; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R; Raymond, Benjamin B A; Collins, Damian; Kuit, Tracey A; Walker, Mark J; Djordjevic, Steven P; Eamens, Graeme J; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2014-07-23

    Pig responses to recombinant subunit vaccines containing fragments of eight multifunctional adhesins of the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) P97/P102 paralog family formulated with Alhydrogel(®) or Montanide™ Gel01 were compared with a commercial bacterin following experimental challenge. Pigs, vaccinated intramuscularly at 9, 12 and 15 weeks of age with either of the recombinant formulations (n=10 per group) or Suvaxyn(®) M. hyo (n=12), were challenged with Mhp strain Hillcrest at 17 weeks of age. Unvaccinated, challenged pigs (n=12) served as a control group. Coughing was assessed daily. Antigen-specific antibody responses were monitored by ELISA in serum and tracheobronchial lavage fluid (TBLF), while TBLF was also assayed for cytokine responses (ELISA) and bacterial load (qPCR). At slaughter, gross and histopathology of lungs were quantified and damage to epithelial cilia in the porcine trachea was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Suvaxyn(®) M. hyo administration induced significant serological responses against Mhp strain 232 whole cell lysates (wcl) and recombinant antigen F3P216, but not against the remaining vaccine subunit antigens. Alhydrogel(®) and Montanide™ Gel01-adjuvanted antigen induced significant antigen-specific IgG responses, with the latter adjuvant eliciting comparable Mhp strain 232 wcl specific IgG responses to Suvaxyn(®) M. hyo. No significant post-vaccination antigen-specific mucosal responses were detected with the recombinant vaccinates. Suvaxyn(®) M. hyo was superior in reducing clinical signs, lung lesion severity and bacterial load but the recombinant formulations offered comparable protection against cilial damage. Lower IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 responses after challenge were associated with reduced lung lesion severity in Suvaxyn(®) M. hyo vaccinates, while elevated pathology scores in recombinant vaccinates corresponded to cytokine levels that were similarly elevated as in unvaccinated pigs. This study highlights

  6. The Arabidopsis paralogs, PUB46 and PUB48, encoding U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, are essential for plant response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Guy; Konrad, Zvia; Zamir, Lyad; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Raveh, Dina; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2017-01-11

    Plants respond to abiotic stress on physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. This includes a global change in their cellular proteome achieved by changes in the pattern of their protein synthesis and degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a key player in protein degradation in eukaryotes. Proteins are marked for degradation by the proteasome by coupling short chains of ubiquitin polypeptides in a three-step pathway. The last and regulatory stage is catalyzed by a member of a large family of substrate-specific ubiquitin ligases. We have identified AtPUB46 and AtPUB48-two paralogous genes that encode ubiquitin ligases (E3s)-to have a role in the plant environmental response. The AtPUB46, -47, and -48 appear as tandem gene copies on chromosome 5, and we present a phylogenetic analysis that traces their evolution from an ancestral PUB-ARM gene. Single homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants of AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 displayed hypersensitivity to water stress; this was not observed for similar mutants of AtPUB47. Although the three genes show a similar spatial expression pattern, the steady state levels of their transcripts are differentially affected by abiotic stresses and plant hormones. AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 encode plant U-Box E3s and are involved in the response to water stress. Our data suggest that despite encoding highly homologous proteins, AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 biological activity does not fully overlap.

  7. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  8. Limitations of using a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by temperature gradients, kinetic snow metamorphism is important for avalanche formation. Even when gradients appear to be insufficient for kinetic metamorphism, based on temperatures measured 10 cm apart, faceting close to a~crust can still be observed. Recent studies that visualized small scale (< 10 cm thermal structures in a profile of snow layers with an infrared (IR camera produced interesting results. The studies found melt-freeze crusts to be warmer or cooler than the surrounding snow depending on the large scale gradient direction. However, an important assumption within the studies was that a thermal photo of a freshly exposed snow pit was similar enough to the internal temperature of the snow. In this study, we tested this assumption by recording thermal videos during the exposure of the snow pit wall. In the first minute, the results showed increasing gradients with time, both at melt-freeze crusts and at artificial surface structures such as shovel scours. Cutting through a crust with a cutting blade or a shovel produced small concavities (holes even when the objective was to cut a planar surface. Our findings suggest there is a surface structure dependency of the thermal image, which is only observed at times with large temperature differences between air and snow. We were able to reproduce the hot-crust/cold-crust phenomenon and relate it entirely to surface structure in a temperature-controlled cold laboratory. Concave areas cooled or warmed slower compared with convex areas (bumps when applying temperature differences between snow and air. This can be explained by increased radiative transfer or convection by air at convex areas. Thermal videos suggest that such processes influence the snow temperature within seconds. Our findings show the limitations of the use of a thermal camera for measuring pit-wall temperatures, particularly in scenarios where large gradients exist between air and snow and the interaction of snow

  9. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Chung, Amanda G; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution.

  10. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Karn

    Full Text Available The Androgen-binding protein (Abp region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1 no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2 substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3 that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution.

  11. Distribution and abundance of pit vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae along the Western Ghats of Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sawant

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of pit vipers in the Western Ghats namely Trimeresurus gramineus (Bamboo Pit Viper, T. malabaricus (Malabar Pit Viper and Hypnale hypnale (Hump-nosed Pit Viper was investigated in five wildlife sanctuaries of Goa from 2005 to 2009. Seasonal day-night data was collected based on band transect methods. All the pit viper species showed specific habitat preferences and their abundance changed with season. They were most abundant during monsoon. H. hypnale extended its range to the adjoining cashew plantations during the post monsoon and winter.

  12. Study on determination of the stable slope configuration for deep open pit mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nai-long ZHU; Shi-xiong ZHANG; Shu-yu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The space effects of deep pit slope are analyzed by an elastic mechanics principle.The interaction among the critical slide angle,the friction coefficient,the cohesion,and the horizontal radius of the deep pits is derived in this paper.It indicates that the deeper the pit is excavated,the greater the critical slide angle is.Both the theory for reducing stripping waste rock in deep pit and the approach to determining the configuration of the stable slope are developed from the interaction.The theory in this paper comprises the preceding principles of stability analysis of slopes and is suitable for analyzing that of deep pit.

  13. Water and chemical budgets of gravel pit lakes: Case studies of fluvial gravel pit lakes along the Meuse River (The Netherlands) and coastal gravel pit lakes along the Adriatic Sea (Ravenna, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Gravel pit lakes form when gravel is excavated from below the water table of a phreatic or shallow confined aquifer. Typically many of these lakes are concentrated along naturally occurring sedimentary gravel deposits in areas where gravel is needed for construction. Most gravel pit lakes are relati

  14. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  15. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  16. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  17. Copper Tube Pitting in Santa Fe Municipal Water Caused by Microbial Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Burleigh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many copper water lines for municipal drinking water in Santa Fe, New Mexico USA, have developed pinhole leaks. The pitting matches the description of Type I pitting of copper, which has historically been attributed to water chemistry and to contaminants on the copper tubing surface. However, more recent studies attribute copper pitting to microbial induced corrosion (MIC. In order to test for microbes, the copper tubing was fixed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, then the tops of the corrosion mounds were broken open, and the interior of the corrosion pits were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis found that microbes resembling actinobacteria were deep inside the pits and wedged between the crystallographic planes of the corroded copper grains. The presence of actinobacteria confirms the possibility that the cause of this pitting corrosion was MIC. This observation provides better understanding and new methods for preventing the pitting of copper tubing in municipal water.

  18. Predictive Index for slope instabilities in open pit mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, J H; Lecaros, R; Medel, F; Padilla, F; García, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the stability and deformation of structures, in particular the wall of an open pit mine is studied by using information obtained from a variety of remote sensors and some extra data, with a novelty approach considering the use of mathematical models and data mining techniques. In particular we present two models to help the study the slope stability of pit and the possible occurrence of movements. Primarily we present an static model for slow movements, which will help us identify areas of possible risks areas with time horizons of several months or years, depends on the available information, before the wall start moving, and secondly a dynamic short-term model, which help us to determine risks of collapse zones with several days in advance. We remark that this methodology can be a powerful tool to plain future actions in order to simulate possible scenarios considering the production plans.

  19. Gene family level comparative analysis of gene expression in mammals validates the ortholog conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, Igor B; Managadze, David; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-04-01

    The ortholog conjecture (OC), which is central to functional annotation of genomes, posits that orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared with orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. However, several subsequent studies suggest that GO annotations and microarray data could artificially inflate functional similarity between paralogs from the same organism. We sought to test the OC using approaches distinct from those used in previous studies. Analysis of a large RNAseq data set from multiple human and mouse tissues shows that expression similarity (correlations coefficients, rank's, or Z-scores) between orthologs is substantially greater than that for between-species paralogs with the same sequence divergence, in agreement with the OC and the results of recent detailed analyses. These findings are further corroborated by a fine-grain analysis in which expression profiles of orthologs and paralogs were compared separately for individual gene families. Expression profiles of within-species paralogs are more strongly correlated than profiles of orthologs but it is shown that this is caused by high background noise, that is, correlation between profiles of unrelated genes in the same organism. Z-scores and rank scores show a nonmonotonic dependence of expression profile similarity on sequence divergence. This complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication might be at least partially caused by selection for protein dosage rebalancing following gene duplication.

  20. Fatigue Crack Initiation from Pitting Introduced during the Anodising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    C. Earthman (2008) Surface characterisation of 7075 -T73 aluminium exposed to anodizing pretreatment solutions. Journal of Materials Engineering and...University, Melbourne in 2004 having obtained a Bachelor of Engineering ( Materials ) with honours. Following 5 years at Rio Tinto as a Research...in pitting attack of aluminium alloys [5]. If the composition or temperature of the treatment baths is not correct, or if the components remain in a

  1. Fundamental Investigation of Pitting Corrosion in Structural Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    to .1. Electrochem. Soc.; abbreviated version submitted to H. H. Uhlig 75th Birthday Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting...Films During the Initial Stages of Corrosion, Ext. Abs. No. 93, The Electrochemical Society , Fall Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, October 17-22, 1976. 2. T. R...Beck, Pitting of Titanium, III Electrical Properties of Salt Film, Ext. Abs. No. 64, The Electrochemical Society , Spring Meeting, Seattle, WA, May 21

  2. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  3. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  4. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  5. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay

    2016-03-01

    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF.

  6. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  7. Characterisation of a novel paralog of scavenger receptor class B member I (SCARB1 in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omholt Stig W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red flesh colour is a unique trait found in some salmonid genera. Carotenoid pigments are not synthesized de novo in the fish, but are provided by dietary uptake. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular uptake and deposition of carotenoids could potentially be used to improve the low muscle deposition rate that is typically found in farmed Atlantic salmon. In addition, from an evolutionary point of view, the establishment and maintenance of this trait is still poorly understood. It has been demonstrated in several species that scavenger receptor class B, member 1 (SCARB1 is involved in intestinal absorption of carotenoids, which makes this gene a possible source of genetic variation in salmonid flesh pigmentation. Results In this study, a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2 was detected through screening for genetic variation in Atlantic salmon SCARB1. Full length SCARB1-2 encodes a protein with 89% identity to Atlantic salmon SCARB1, except for the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail that shows only 12% identity. The most prominent site of SCARB1 mRNA expression was in the mid gut, while a five-fold lower level was detected in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscle and liver. The SCARB1-2 mRNA was equally expressed in liver, muscle and mid gut, and at a lower level than SCARB1 mRNA. A total of seven different SCARB1-2 alleles comprising repetitive enhancer of zeste motifs (EZH2 were identified in the founding parents of a resource Atlantic salmon population. We mapped the SCARB1-2 paralog to a region on Atlantic salmon chromosome 1, containing a putative QTL for flesh colour. Addition of the SCARB1-2 marker increased the significance of this QTL, however the large confidence interval surrounding the QTL precludes confirmation of SCARB1-2 as a causative gene underlying variation in this trait. Conclusion We have characterised a novel paralog of SCARB1 (SCARB1-2, have mapped it to Atlantic salmon chromosome 1

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase β subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) β-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: β1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), β2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), β3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and β4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that β1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other β paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA β subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with β1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and β3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments.

  9. Study of Pitting Morphology Fractal Characteristic of Corroded Surface of 304 Stainless Steel in FeCl3 Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮; 梁成浩

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the pitting corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments and SEM micrographs of the pitting corrosion morphology were obtained. The image processing technique combining with the fractal method was employed to analyze these pitting corrosion images and the self-similarity of pits morphology was observed. It indicates that fractal characteristics exist in pitting corrosion of 304 stainless steel. The self-similarity and complexity of the pitting morphology phenomenon were described in terms of fractal dimension which can also be an important parameter related to characterize pitting morphology qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Hung, E-mail: hmh2n@virginia.edu [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Taxen, Claes [SWEREA-KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Williams, Keith [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Scully, John [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > The effects of water composition on pit propagation kinetics on Cu were separated from pit initiation and stabilization using the artificial pit method in a range of dilute HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -}-containing waters. > The effective polarization and Ohmic resistance of pits were lower in SO4{sup 2-}-containing solutions and greater in Cl{sup -}-containing solutions. > Relationship between the solution composition and the corrosion product identity and morphology were found. > These, in turn controlled the corrosion product Ohmic resistance and subsequently the pit growth rate. - Abstract: The pit propagation behavior of copper (UNS C11000) was investigated from an electrochemical perspective using the artificial pit method. Pit growth was studied systematically in a range of HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} containing-waters at various concentrations. Pit propagation was mediated by the nature of the corrosion products formed both inside and over the pit mouth (i.e., cap). Certain water chemistry concentrations such as those high in sulfate were found to promote fast pitting that could be sustained over long times at a fixed applied potential but gradually stifled in all but the lowest concentration solutions. In contrast, Cl{sup -} containing waters without sulfate ions resulted in slower pit growth and eventual repassivation. These observations were interpreted through understanding of the identity, amount and porosity of corrosion products formed inside and over pits. These factors controlled their resistive nature as characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A finite element model (FEM) was developed which included copper oxidation kinetics, transport by migration and diffusion, Cu(I) and Cu(II) solid corrosion product formation and porosity governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and a saturation index, as well as pit current and depth of penetration. The findings of the modeling were

  11. Revisiting the human polypeptide GalNAc-T1 and T13 paralogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festari, María Florencia; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Berois, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of 20 human glycosyltransferases (comprising 9 subfamilies), which initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The O-glycoproteome is thought to be differentially regulated via the different substrate specificities and expression patterns o...

  12. Directional sensitivity in the thermal response of the facial pit in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Tobias; Colayori, Samantha E; Westhoff, Guido; Bakken, George S; Young, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membrane's neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.

  13. Force-displacement measurements of earlywood bordered pits using a mesomechanical tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Samuel L; Bourne, Keith J; Hermanson, John C; Glass, Samuel V; Costa, Adriana; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2015-10-01

    The elastic properties of pit membranes are reported to have important implications in understanding air-seeding phenomena in gymnosperms, and pit aspiration plays a large role in wood technological applications such as wood drying and preservative treatment. Here we present force-displacement measurements for pit membranes of circular bordered pits, collected on a mesomechanical testing system. The system consists of a quartz microprobe attached to a microforce sensor that is positioned and advanced with a micromanipulator mounted on an inverted microscope. Membrane displacement is measured from digital image analysis. Unaspirated pits from earlywood of never-dried wood of Larix and Pinus and aspirated pits from earlywood of dried wood of Larix were tested to generate force-displacement curves up to the point of membrane failure. Two failure modes were observed: rupture or tearing of the pit membrane by the microprobe tip, and the stretching of the pit membrane until the torus was forced out of the pit chamber through the pit aperture without rupture, a condition we refer to as torus prolapse.

  14. Structure–Activity Relationship in a Purine-Scaffold Compound Series with Selectivity for the Endoplasmic Reticulum Hsp90 Paralog Grp94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hardik J.; Patel, Pallav D.; Ochiana, Stefan O.; Yan, Pengrong; Sun, Weilin; Patel, Maulik R.; Shah, Smit K.; Tramentozzi, Elisa; Brooks, James; Bolaender, Alexander; Shrestha, Liza; Stephani, Ralph; Finotti, Paola; Leifer, Cynthia; Li, Zihai; Gewirth, Daniel T.; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Grp94 is involved in the regulation of a restricted number of proteins and represents a potential target in a host of diseases, including cancer, septic shock, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory conditions, diabetes, coronary thrombosis, and stroke. We have recently identified a novel allosteric pocket located in the Grp94 N-terminal binding site that can be used to design ligands with a 2-log selectivity over the other Hsp90 paralogs. Here we perform extensive SAR investigations in this ligand series and rationalize the affinity and paralog selectivity of choice derivatives by molecular modeling. We then use this to design 18c, a derivative with good potency for Grp94 (IC50 = 0.22 μM) and selectivity over other paralogs (>100- and 33-fold for Hsp90α/β and Trap-1, respectively). The paralog selectivity and target-mediated activity of 18c was confirmed in cells through several functional readouts. Compound 18c was also inert when tested against a large panel of kinases. We show that 18c has biological activity in several cellular models of inflammation and cancer and also present here for the first time the in vivo profile of a Grp94 inhibitor. PMID:25901531

  15. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  16. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  17. Digenic mutations of human OCRL paralogs in Dent’s disease type 2 associated with Chiari I malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Daniel; Jin, Sheng Chih; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Cogal, Andrea G; Abrash, Elizabeth W; Harris, Peter C; Lieske, John C; Shimshak, Serena JE; Mane, Shrikant; Bilguvar, Kaya; DiLuna, Michael L; Günel, Murat; Lifton, Richard P; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2016-01-01

    OCRL1 and its paralog INPP5B encode phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases that localize to the primary cilium and have roles in ciliogenesis. Mutations in OCRL1 cause the X-linked Dent disease type 2 (DD2; OMIM# 300555), characterized by low-molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and the variable presence of cataracts, glaucoma and intellectual disability without structural brain anomalies. Disease-causing mutations in INPP5B have not been described in humans. Here, we report the case of an 11-year-old boy with short stature and an above-average IQ; severe proteinuria, hypercalciuria and osteopenia resulting in a vertebral compression fracture; and Chiari I malformation with cervico-thoracic syringohydromyelia requiring suboccipital decompression. Sequencing revealed a novel, de novo DD2-causing 462 bp deletion disrupting exon 3 of OCRL1 and a maternally inherited, extremely rare (ExAC allele frequency 8.4×10−6) damaging missense mutation in INPP5B (p.A51V). This mutation substitutes an evolutionarily conserved amino acid in the protein’s critical PH domain. In silico analyses of mutation impact predicted by SIFT, PolyPhen2, MetaSVM and CADD algorithms were all highly deleterious. Together, our findings report a novel association of DD2 with Chiari I malformation and syringohydromyelia, and document the effects of digenic mutation of human OCRL paralogs. These findings lend genetic support to the hypothesis that impaired ciliogenesis may contribute to the development of Chiari I malformation, and implicates OCRL-dependent PIP3 metabolism in this mechanism. PMID:28018608

  18. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  19. Venomics of New World pit vipers: genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E; Fry, Bryan G; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H Lisle; Sovic, Michael G; Calvete, Juan J

    2014-01-16

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across Agkistrodon and a ground for

  20. Effect of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Polymer/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares D. Alsewailem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the fracture surfaces of polymer/date pits composites was investigated. Polymers used in this study were high density polyethylene (HDPE and polystyrene (PS. Date pits in the form of granules were two types of date pits: khlaas (K and sekari (S. Two coupling agents, diphenylmethane-4 4′-diisocyanate (DPMI and ethylene propylene grafted with malice anhydride (EP-g-MA, were used to ease the incorporation of date pit particles into polymer matrix. The SEM micrographs of the neat composites, that is, with no coupling agents, showed coarse morphology with bad dispersion, adhesion, and distribution of date pit particles within the polymer matrix. On the other hand, PS100/K composites coupled with DPMI and EP-g-MA had reasonable dispersed phase size with good distribution and adhesion to the composite matrix which in turn improve the mechanical properties of the resulted polymer/date pits composites.

  1. Effect of Temperature and Cl-Concentration on Pitting of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Chaofang; LUO Hong; XIAO Kui; SUN Ting; LIU Qian; LI Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of 2205 duplex stainless steel in NaCl solution with different temperatures and concentrations were studied by gravimetric tests,potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The experimental results show that temperature and chloride concentration have a great influence on the pitting resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steels.They not only effect the corrosion rate of pitting,but also change the shape of the pits.When NaCl solution was in low concentration and temperature below the critical pitting temperature,pits were very small and scattered with hemisphere-like shape.On the contrary,the pits of 2205 duplex stainless steel were large and sometimes had a lacy cover when the NaCl concentration was higher and the temperature was 70℃.

  2. Pit Formation during the Self-Assembly of Dithiol Monolayers on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdairmid, A. R.; Cappello, M. L.; Keeler, W. J.; Banks, J. T.; Gallagher, M. C.

    2000-03-01

    The formation of pits one gold atom deep during the growth of alkanethiol monolayers on Au(111), has been observed previously by others. Explanations for pit formation include etching of the substrate, or mass transport of gold atom + thiol molecule on the surface, due to changes in surface energy^1. We have investigated the structure of dithiothreitol (DTT) SAMs on Au(111). Ex situ STM measurements indicate similar pitting occurs during formation of the dithiol monolayer. The degree of pitting depends on exposure time, sample temperature during formation, and subsequent annealing of the sample. Pitting is enhanced considerasbly when DTT is coordinated with Ti, in fact DTT/Ti films exhibit considerable pit motion during STM imaging. ^1 F. Teran et al. Electrochimica Acta 44, 1053 (1998).

  3. [Optic nerve pits: clinical and therapeutic review of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, M; Bonnet, M

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of optic nerve pits in patients referred to our clinic during the last 15 years was conducted. The study included 21 eyes in 19 patients. The optic pit was associated with a serous macular detachment (SMD) in 19 eyes (90%). Various treatments of the SMD were used depending on the time period. Systemic corticosteroids were used in five patients. The SMD did not respond to this treatment. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied to the temporal side of the optic disc in five patients. Intravitreal injection of pure gas was used as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment in eleven eyes. Pure SF 6 was used in 8 eyes, and C 3 F 8 in 3 eyes. The follow-up after treatment was over 6 months in 10 patients who underwent photocoagulation or the combination of photocoagulation and gas injection. The SMD remained unchanged in two eyes which underwent photocoagulation treatment without gas injection. In the group of patients treated by photocoagulation in association with SF 6 injection, the SMD totally reattached in one eye, decreased in 2 eyes and remained unchanged in 2 eyes. Total resorption of subretinal fluid and permanent retinal reattachment occurred in the 3 eyes treated by intravitreal injection of pure C 3 F 8 as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment. Further clinical investigations on large series of patients are required to determine whether prolonged retinal tamponade by C 3 F 8 gas in association with photocoagulation treatment is a valuable method in the management of SMD complicating optic nerve pits.

  4. Cut slope reinforcement technique in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongtao Gao; Jianbo Sun; Shunchuan Wu; Aibing Jin

    2004-01-01

    The design and practice in supporting the cut slope of an open-pit mine were introduced, in which the high pressure grouting method was used in reinforcing the weak formation in the slopes. Based on a detailed geological survey of the slope, a theoretical analysis was carried out, and the design parameters were proposed, where the Tresca or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria was employed. A patent technology, named "Technology of high pressure and multiple grouting in different levels within a single hole", was employed in the construction. Anchor bars were also installed as grouting proceeds. This method combines anchoring and grouting comprehensively and was found successful in practice.

  5. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  6. Demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para todos

    OpenAIRE

    María C. Cañadas

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo se basa en dos pilares fundamentales: la gran diversidad de la muestra con la que se realiza la actividad que se presenta y la importancia de la demostración en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las matemáticas en todos los niveles del sistema educativo. La demostración ha sido, en ocasiones, pensada sólo para los niveles más elevados de las matemáticas y con esta actividad pretendemos mostrar cómo utilizamos distintas demostraciones del teorema de Pitágoras para detectar...

  7. INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

  8. Giant weathering pits in the Entrada Sandstone, southeastern Utah: Preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netoff, D.I. (Sam Houston State Univ., Huntsville, TX (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology); Shroba, R.R. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Giant weathering pits formed in outcrops of the lower Entrada Sandstone slickrock of Jurassic age are present in two areas in the Glen Canyon region of arid southeastern Utah. The pits are far larger than any previously described in the geologic literature. The pits near Cookie Jar Butte are commonly cylindrical, typically have low width-to-depth ratios (1.5--3.6), and have a depth of closure of as much as 18 m. There are no obvious lithologic or structural controls that determine their shape or location. Many of the pits at Rock Creek Bay are elongate; several of them have long axes in excess of 53 m, and the longest one is 74 m. Many of the pit walls are breached at the top, and the depth of closure is generally less than 6 m. The shapes of these pits are influenced by point orientation and pit coalescence. Thin-section analyses of near-surface sandstone cores taken near Cookie Jar Butte from pit walls, floors, and rims reveal no significant diagenetic alteration of the fine-grained to very fine frained quartzose sandstone (quartz arenite). Quartz grains appear fresh, and feldspar grains are only slightly weathered. The cement between the grains is mostly CaCO[sub 3]. In several of the pits in both areas sandy sediment veneers the bedrock floor. This sediment is similar in character to the adjacent sandstone and is probably locally derived. Possible origins of the giant pits include various physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes that initiate pit development, followed by excavation by plunge-pool action, wind deflation, dissolution, and piping. Preliminary field and laboratory data do not clearly identify and single process of group of processes that account for pit development.

  9. Tellurite enters Escherichia coli mainly through the PitA phosphate transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Elías, Alex O; Abarca, María José; Montes, Rebecca A; Chasteen, Thomas G; Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

    2012-01-01

    Several transporters suspected to be involved in tellurite uptake in Escherichia coli were analyzed. Results showed that the PitA phosphate transporter was related to tellurite uptake. Escherichia coli ΔpitA was approximately four-fold more tolerant to tellurite, and cell viability remained almost unchanged during prolonged exposure to the toxicant as compared with wild type or ΔpitB cells. Notably, reduced thiols (toxicant targets) as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and fumarase C ac...

  10. Intermetallic particles-induced pitting corrosion in 6061-T651 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mutombo, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -Induced Pitting Corrosion in 6061-T651 Aluminium Alloy Kalenda Mutombo Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), South Africa kmutombo@csir.co.za Keywords: pitting corrosion, 6061-T651 aluminium alloy, intermetallic particles, 3.5% Na... extrudability, reasonable weldability and good corrosion resistance. This alloy finds widespread application in ship building and in the fabrication of tank containers for transporting various liquids. 6061-T651 aluminium alloy is, however, prone to pitting...

  11. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knief, R.A. [Ogden Environmental & Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  12. Pitting Corrosion of 13Cr Steel in Oxygen-free Completion Fluids of Organic Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lining XU; Yao MENG; Yunguang SHI; Yan LIU

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of 13Cr steel in oxygen-free completion fluids of the organic salt at 180 ℃ was studied.Cross-sectional morphologies of the corrosion products were observed by scanning electron microscopy.Energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) was used to study the element distribution of the corrosion product inside and outside the pits.The results show that the organic salt causes severe pitting corrosion of 13Cr steel.The width and depth of the pits increase simultaneously when the test duration prolongs,and potassium enriches inside the pits.

  13. Comparing Central Peak and Central Pit Craters on Mercury and Mars: Implications for Crustal Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Horstman, Ryan M.

    2016-10-01

    We have measured and classified 20,782 impact craters on Mercury and 24,495 craters on Mars 5 km in diameter and larger for a comparison study of these features. We identified 1144 floor pit and 638 summit pit craters on Mars and 32 summit pit craters but no floor pits on Mercury. We also identified 1682 central peak craters on Mars and 1764 on Mercury. We computed the ratio of the pit or basal peak diameter to the crater diameter in each case and compared the results for the two bodies. Summit pits on Mars have a median pit-to-crater diameter (Dp/Dc) ratio of 0.12 compared to 0.09 on Mercury, indicating pits are slightly larger relative to their parent crater on Mars. We find no correlation of the distribution of Mercury's central pits with features attributed to volatiles, i.e. radar-bright polar craters and craters containing hollows. This indicates that Mercury's central pits form by collapse of a weak brecciated core in the central peak and do not require the presence of volatiles, as is commonly assumed for central pit formation. The median peak-to-crater diameter (Dpk/Dc) ratio for the peaks on which summit pits are found on both bodies is statistically identical to that of the respective normal unpitted central peaks. This indicates that the peaks on which summit pits occur form in the same manner as normal central peaks but subsequently undergo core collapse to create the summit pit. Interestingly, the median Dpk/Dc for Martian peaks is twice as high as for their Mercurian counterparts (0.30 versus 0.15, respectively). Because Mercury and Mars have essentially the same surface gravity, the only major difference between the two bodies that could explain this observation is target characteristics. Prior studies of the composition of the crust and the detection of larger-than-normal secondary craters have led to the proposal that Mercury's crust is stronger than the crusts of the other terrestrial planets. Mercury's low number of central pit craters, the

  14. Printability and inspectability of programmed pit defects on teh masks in EUV lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, I.-Y.; Seo, H.-S.; Ahn, B.-S.; Lee, D.-G.; Kim, D.; Huh, S.; Koh, C.-W.; Cha, B.; Kim, S.-S.; Cho, H.-K.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.

    2010-03-12

    Printability and inspectability of phase defects in ELlVL mask originated from substrate pit were investigated. For this purpose, PDMs with programmed pits on substrate were fabricated using different ML sources from several suppliers. Simulations with 32-nm HP L/S show that substrate pits with below {approx}20 nm in depth would not be printed on the wafer if they could be smoothed by ML process down to {approx}1 nm in depth on ML surface. Through the investigation of inspectability for programmed pits, minimum pit sizes detected by KLA6xx, AIT, and M7360 depend on ML smoothing performance. Furthermore, printability results for pit defects also correlate with smoothed pit sizes. AIT results for pattemed mask with 32-nm HP L/S represents that minimum printable size of pits could be {approx}28.3 nm of SEVD. In addition, printability of pits became more printable as defocus moves to (-) directions. Consequently, printability of phase defects strongly depends on their locations with respect to those of absorber patterns. This indicates that defect compensation by pattern shift could be a key technique to realize zero printable phase defects in EUVL masks.

  15. Assessment of Concrete Repair Techniques for Radiologically Contaminated Tank Farm Pump and Valve Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-09-19

    As part of the scope of Project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations,'' the condition of pump and valve pit walls and floors is being assessed, and repairs made as needed, to support upgrading the infrastructure necessary to safely transfer tank waste for treatment. Flaws in the surfaces of the pits (e.g., concrete crack/faults, protective coating deterioration) must be repaired to ensure containment integrity and to facilitate future decontamination of the pits. This engineering study presents a cost/risk/benefit evaluation of concrete and protective coating repair methods in pump and valve pits using various manual and remote tool systems.

  16. A novel thymoma-associated autoimmune disease: Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Iguchi, Genzo; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Mokubo, Atsuko; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Maniwa, Yoshimasa; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome has recently been reported and characterized by acquired growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies associated with autoimmunity to a pituitary specific transcription factor PIT-1, which plays an essential role in GH-, PRL-, and TSH-producing cells. Although circulating anti-PIT-1 antibody and PIT-1-reactive cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) were detected in the patients, the pathophysiology and precise mechanisms for the autoimmunity remain unclarified. During the follow up, thymoma was diagnosed in all 3 cases with anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PIT-1 was strongly expressed in neoplastic cortical thymic epithelial cells. Importantly, after thymectomy, the titer of anti-PIT-1 antibody decreased and reactivity of CTLs toward PIT-1 diminished. These data strongly suggest that the aberrant expression of PIT-1 in the thymoma plays a causal role in the development of this syndrome. Thus, we define that this syndrome is a novel thymoma-associated autoimmune disease. PMID:28216655

  17. INTER-TRACHEID AND CROSS-FIELD PITTING IN COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Tarmian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter-tracheid and cross-filed pit pairs in compression and opposite wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies were examined. The size, appearance, and frequency of bordered pits on the radial side of axial tracheids and their aperture specification were studied. The type, size, and number of half-bordered pits between the axial tracheids and rays per cross-field were also studied. Several techniques were employed for the measurements: Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Light Microscope (LM, and the Frankling method (FM. The structure, size, and frequency of both types of the pits varied between compression and opposite wood. Fewer pits of a smaller size and a smaller aperture diameter were observed in compression wood. The uniseriate arrangement of bordered pit pairs, unpitted tracheid walls, circular- or often slit-like pit aperture, dominantly piceoid but sometimes cupressoid and occasionally taxodioid cross-field pitting, and a number of fissures on the tracheid walls and bordered pits were characteristics of compression wood.

  18. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  19. Pit-like changes of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R. L.; Maumenee, A. E.; Green, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    Six patients with open-angle glaucoma and acquired pit-like changes in the optic nerve head are presented. In 1 patient evolution of the pit-like defect is documented. In all 6 patients progression of associated visual field deficits is described. It is suggested that such pit-like changes in selected patients with glaucoma may not represent congenital lesions but rather local, progressive nerve head disease, occurring particularly in response to raised intraocular pressure. The management of patients with optic nerve head pitting and the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy are discussed with respect to this observation. Images PMID:666988

  20. Pluto: Pits and mantles on uplands north and east of Sputnik Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alan D.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; White, Oliver L.; Umurhan, Orkan M.; Schenk, Paul M.; Grundy, William M.; Schmitt, Bernard; Philippe, Sylvain; McKinnon, William B.; Spencer, John R.; Beyer, Ross A.; Stern, S. Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy B.; Weaver, Harold A.; Young, Leslie A.

    2017-09-01

    The highlands region north and east of Sputnik Planitia can be subdivided into seven terrain types based on their physiographic expression. The northern rough uplands are characterized by jagged uplands and broad troughs, and it may contain a deeply-eroded ancient mantle. Dissected terrain has been interpreted to have been eroded by paleo-glaciation. The smooth uplands and pits terrain contains broad, rolling uplands surrounding complexes of pits, some of which contain smooth floors. The uplands are mantled by smooth-surfaced deposits possibly derived from adjacent pits through low-power explosive cryovolcanism or through slow vapor condensation. The eroded smooth uplands appear to have originally been smooth uplands and pits terrain modified by small-scale sublimation pitting. The bright pitted uplands features intricate texturing by reticulate ridges that may have originated by sublimation erosion, volatile condensation, or both. The bladed terrain is characterized by parallel ridges oriented north-south and is discussed in a separate paper. The dark uplands are mantled with reddish deposits that may be atmospherically deposited tholins. Their presence has affected long-term landform evolution. Widespread pit complexes occur on most of the terrain units. Most appear to be associated with tectonic lineations. Some pits are floored by broad expanses of ices, whereas most feature deep, conical depressions. A few pit complexes are enclosed by elevated rims of uncertain origin.

  1. A rare nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral doughnut shaped lip pits in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Balasubramani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lip pits are a rare congenital anomaly that presents on the upper or lower lip or the commissure of the lips. Lip pits are an autosomal dominant trait occurring almost always in association with cleft lip or palate. They most commonly occur in association with developmental disturbances such as Van der Woude's syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome, oro-facial-digital syndrome, Marres-Cremers syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. Its occurrence in nonsyndromic individuals is extremely rare with only a handful of cases reported. The identification of lip pits with other associated anomalies is crucial for genetic counseling; we report a case of nonsyndromic presentation of bilateral lip pits.

  2. Sensory pits - Enigmatic sense organs of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus (Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Peter; Krumpholz, Katharina; Baumgartner, Werner

    2012-09-01

    The sensory pits of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus were investigated using light and electron microscopic techniques. Sensory pits consist of a bowl-shaped depression in the cuticle (25-70 μm in diameter) covered by a transparent cupola of presumably waxy material. Each pit is equipped with a long sensory hair that emerges from the inner wall of the pit and extends horizontally for about two thirds of the pit diameter. The cupola emerges from the rim of the pit opposite to the socket of this hair. Additional small sensory hairs extend into the base of the cupola. While the ultrastructure of these small hairs resembles that of other mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of insects, that of the long hairs shows several peculiarities. Sensory pits are dispersed over the frontal part of the head, the tergites of thoracic and abdominal segments. On the different parts of the exoskeleton, the orientation of long hairs within the pits varies in a systematic fashion with respect to the body axes. Size, location, and orientation of the pits show almost perfect bilateral symmetry. Their number increases with each moult. Comparative data show that the level of structural complexity of these sense organs varies considerably within this group of insects.

  3. Controls by saturation state on etch pit formation during calcite dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H. Henry

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution experiments were conducted on {101¯4} cleavage faces of calcite at various under-saturations to determine how the saturation state controls etch pit formation. Experimental observations were made by using in situ fluid cell Atomic Force Microscopy. Three dissolution modes were observed. When the saturation index Ω > 0.541, no etch pit formation was seen and dissolution primarily occurred at existing steps. When Ω decreased to Ω c = 0.541-0.410, the first visible pits appeared and continuous reduction in saturation state slowly increased the pit density on terraces while dissolution simultaneously proceeded at step edges. Finally, when the saturation state fell below Ω max = ˜0.007, a precipitous increase in pit density took place that sharply contrasted to the ordered fashion of pit formation observed at saturation conditions above this level. These observations are interpreted to be two-dimensional and unassisted pit formation at Ω 0.541. The values of Ω c are in good agreement with the dislocation theory's predicted critical under-saturations for pit formation at line dislocations. The occurrence of Ω max is not directly predicted but is a logical consequence of dissolution thermodynamics. These findings suggest that (1) dissolution near and far from equilibrium (i.e., Ω > Ω c, Ω unassisted pit nucleation at Ω ˜ Ω max is not predicted by the current dissolution rate equations. This suggests that an accurate 'general' rate law describing universal dissolution processes has yet to be developed.

  4. The syndrome of pit of the lower lip and its association with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Van der Woude syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant developmental malformation usually associated with lower lip pits, cleft lip and palate. These congenital lip pits appear, clinically, as a malformation in the vermilion border of the lip, with or without excretion. Obligate carriers of this dominant mutation may have lip pits alone, cleft(s alone, clefts and pits or neither. Here, we present a case report of a 10 year-old male patient with Van der Woude syndrome and a brief literature on its treatment modalities.

  5. Expression of Pit2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter during murine odontogenesis is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Vaziri Sani, Forugh; Nilsson, Jeanette; Rodenburg, Michaela; Stocking, Carol; Linde, Anders; Gritli-Linde, Amel

    2006-12-01

    Different sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate (P(i)) uptake mechanisms play a major role in cellular P(i) homeostasis. The function and detailed distribution patterns of the type III Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter, PiT-2, in different organs during development are still largely unknown. We therefore examined the temporospatial expression patterns of Pit2 during murine odontogenesis. Odontoblasts were always devoid of Pit2 expression, whereas a transient, but strong, expression was detected in young secretory ameloblasts. However, the stratum intermedium and, later on, the papillary layer and cells of the subodontoblastic layer, exhibited high levels of Pit2 mRNA, which increased gradually as the tooth matured. Hormonal treatment or P(i) starvation of tooth germs in vitro did not alter Pit2 levels or patterns of expression, indicating mechanisms of regulation different from those of PiT-1 or other cell types. PiT-2 also functions as a retroviral receptor, and functional membrane-localized protein was confirmed throughout the dental papilla/pulp by demonstrating cellular permissiveness to infection by a gammaretrovirus that uses PiT-2 as a receptor. The distinct pattern of Pit2 expression during odontogenesis suggests that its P(i)-transporter function may be important for homeostasis of dental cells and not specifically for mineralization of the dental extracellular matrices. The expression of viral receptors in enamel-forming cells and the dental pulp may be of pathological significance.

  6. Genome-wide characterization of soybean P 1B -ATPases gene family provides functional implications in cadmium responses

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lei; Deng, Xiaojuan; Wang, Peng; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Wang, Yingxiang; Yang, Cunyi

    2016-01-01

    Background The P1B-ATPase subfamily is an important group involved in transporting heavy metals and has been extensively studied in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Emerging evidence indicates that one homolog in Glycine max is also involved in cadmium (Cd) stress, but the gene family has not been fully investigated in soybean. Results Here, we identified 20 heavy metal ATPase (HMA) family members in the soybean genome, presented as 10 paralogous pairs, which is si...

  7. Deciphering the spatio-temporal expression and stress regulation of Fam107B, the paralog of the resilience-promoting protein DRR1 in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, M; Jukic, M M; Kretzschmar, A; Wagner, K V; Westerholz, S; Schmidt, M V; Rein, T; Brodski, C; Müller, M B

    2015-04-02

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote stress resilience might open up new therapeutic avenues to prevent stress-related disorders. We recently characterized a stress and glucocorticoid-regulated gene, down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma - DRR1 (Fam107A). DRR1 is expressed in the mouse brain; it is up-regulated by stress and glucocorticoids and modulates neuronal actin dynamics. In the adult mouse, DRR1 was shown to facilitate specific behaviors which might be protective against some of the deleterious consequences of stress exposure: in the hippocampal CA3 region, DRR1 improved cognitive performance whereas in the septum, it specifically increased social behavior. Therefore DRR1 was suggested as a candidate protein promoting stress-resilience. Fam107B (family with sequence similarity 107, member B) is the unique paralog of DRR1, and both share high sequence similarities, predicted glucocorticoid response elements, heat-shock induction and tumor suppressor properties. So far, the role of Fam107B in the central nervous system was not studied. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, was to analyze whether Fam107B and DRR1 display comparable mRNA expression patterns in the brain and whether both are modulated by stress and glucocorticoids. Spatio-temporal mapping of Fam107B mRNA expression in the embryonic and adult mouse brain, by means of in situ hybridization, showed that Fam107B was expressed during embryogenesis and in the adulthood, with particularly high and specific expression in the forming telencephalon suggestive of an involvement in corticogenesis. In the adult mouse, expression was restricted to neurogenic niches, like the dentate gyrus. In contrast to DRR1, Fam107B mRNA expression failed to be modulated by glucocorticoids and social stress in the adult mouse. In summary, Fam107B and DRR1 show different spatio-temporal expression patterns in the central nervous system, suggesting at least partially different functional roles in

  8. Functional Determinants of Metal Ion Transport and Selectivity in Paralogous Cation Diffusion Facilitator Transporters CzcD and MntE in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julia E; Giedroc, David P

    2016-01-19

    Cation diffusion facilitators (CDFs) are a large family of divalent metal transporters that collectively possess broad metal specificity and contribute to intracellular metal homeostasis and virulence in bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses two homologous CDF efflux transporters, MntE and CzcD. Cells lacking mntE or czcD are sensitive to manganese (Mn) or zinc (Zn) toxicity, respectively, and specifically accumulate Mn or Zn, respectively, thus suggesting that MntE selectively transports Mn, while CzcD transports Zn. Here, we probe the origin of this metal specificity using a phenotypic growth analysis of pneumococcal variants. Structural homology to Escherichia coli YiiP predicts that both MntE and CzcD are dimeric and each protomer harbors four pairs of conserved metal-binding sites, termed the A site, the B site, and the C1/C2 binuclear site. We find that single amino acid mutations within both the transmembrane domain A site and the B site in both CDFs result in a cellular metal sensitivity similar to that of the corresponding null mutants. However, multiple mutations in the predicted cytoplasmic C1/C2 cluster of MntE have no impact on cellular Mn resistance, in contrast to the analogous substitutions in CzcD, which do have on impact on cellular Zn resistance. Deletion of the MntE-specific C-terminal tail, present only in Mn-specific bacterial CDFs, resulted in only a modest growth phenotype. Further analysis of MntE-CzcD functional chimeric transporters showed that Asn and Asp in the ND-DD A-site motif of MntE and the most N-terminal His in the HD-HD site A of CzcD (the specified amino acids are underlined) play key roles in transporter metal selectivity. Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are divalent metal ion transporters that are conserved in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans and that play important roles in cellular physiology, from metal homeostasis and resistance to type I diabetes in vertebrates. The respiratory

  9. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F. [Titan Environmental Corp., Englewood, CO (United States); Bronson, J.M. [Titan Environmental Corp., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  10. Off-line tests on pitting damage in mercury target

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Ishikura, S; Kogawa, H; Tsai, C C

    2003-01-01

    A liquid-mercury target system for the MW-scale target is being developed in the world. The moment the proton beams bombard the target, stress waves will be imposed on the beam window and pressure waves will be generated in the mercury by the thermally shocked heat deposition. Provided that the negative pressure generates through its propagation in the mercury target and causes cavitation in the mercury, there is the possibility for the cavitation bubbles collapse to form pits on the interface between the mercury and the target vessel wall. In order to estimate the cavitation erosion damage due to pitting, two types of off-line tests were performed: Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), and Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM). The data on the piping damage at the high cycle impacts up to 10 million were given by the MIMTM. Additionally the data obtained were compared with classical vibratory horn tests. As a result, it is confirmed that the mean depth erosion is predictable using a homologous line in the s...

  11. Two recently duplicated maize NAC transcription factor paralogs are induced in response to Colletotrichum graminicola infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsik, Anna-Maria; Muench, Steffen; Deising, Holger B; Voll, Lars M

    2013-05-29

    NAC transcription factors belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors with more than 100 family members in monocot and dicot species. To date, the majority of the studied NAC proteins are involved in the response to abiotic stress, to biotic stress and in the regulation of developmental processes. Maize NAC transcription factors involved in the biotic stress response have not yet been identified. We have found that two NAC transcription factors, ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, are transcriptionally induced both during the initial biotrophic as well as the ensuing necrotrophic colonization of maize leaves by the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus C. graminicola. ZmNAC41 transcripts were also induced upon infection with C. graminicola mutants that are defective in host penetration, while the induction of ZmNAC100 did not occur in such interactions. While ZmNAC41 transcripts accumulated specifically in response to jasmonate (JA), ZmNAC100 transcripts were also induced by the salicylic acid analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA).To assess the phylogenetic relation of ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100, we studied the family of maize NAC transcription factors based on the recently annotated B73 genome information. We identified 116 maize NAC transcription factor genes that clustered into 12 clades. ZmNAC41 and ZmNAC100 both belong to clade G and appear to have arisen by a recent gene duplication event. Including four other defence-related NAC transcription factors of maize and functionally characterized Arabidopsis and rice NAC transcription factors, we observed an enrichment of NAC transcription factors involved in host defense regulation in clade G. In silico analyses identified putative binding elements for the defence-induced ERF, Myc2, TGA and WRKY transcription factors in the promoters of four out of the six defence-related maize NAC transcription factors, while one of the analysed maize NAC did not contain any of these potential binding sites. Our study provides a

  12. Highly divergent 18S rRNA gene paralogs in a Cryptosporidium genotype from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kváč, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Dyer, Neil W; Schultz, Jessie L; McEvoy, John M

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidium is an apicomplexan parasite that causes the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans, livestock, and other vertebrates. Much of the knowledge on Cryptosporidium diversity is derived from 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) phylogenies. Eukaryote genomes generally have multiple 18S rDNA copies that evolve in concert, which is necessary for the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships. However, 18S rDNA copies in some genomes evolve by a birth-and-death process that can result in sequence divergence among copies. Most notably, divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in the apicomplexan Plasmodium share only 89-95% sequence similarity, encode structurally distinct rRNA molecules, and are expressed at different life cycle stages. In the present study, Cryptosporidium 18S rDNA was amplified from 28/72 (38.9%) eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-occurrence of two 18S rDNA types, Type A and Type B, in 26 chipmunks, and Type B clustered with a sequence previously identified as Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Types A and B had a sister group relationship but shared less than 93% sequence similarity. In contrast, actin and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences were homogeneous in samples with both Types A and B present. It was therefore concluded that Types A and B are divergent 18S rDNA paralogs in Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II. Substitution patterns in Types A and B were consistent with functionally constrained evolution; however, Type B evolved more rapidly than Type A and had a higher G+C content (46.3% versus 41.0%). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype II measured 4.17 μm (3.73-5.04 μm) × 3.94 μm (3.50-4.98 μm) with a length-to-width ratio of 1.06 ± 0.06 μm, and infection occurred naturally in the jejunum, cecum, and colon of eastern chipmunks. The findings of this study have implications for the use of 18S rDNA sequences to infer phylogenetic relationships.

  13. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  14. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  15. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.

    2015-12-01

    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  16. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  17. Orbital cyst associated with ocular pit in an adult without microphthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Valerie; Vignal-Clermont, Catherine; Berges, Olivier; Morax, Serge; Gaudric, Alain

    2009-01-01

    We describe an adult without microphthalmos who developed an acquired compressive optic neuropathy secondary to an orbital cyst which showed direct communication with an optic disc pit. Such pits may be revealed by late complications such as orbital compressive cyst of the optic nerve, even in previously normal adult patients.

  18. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Baas, P.; Gasson, P.; Lens, F.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    Bordered pits play an important role in permitting water flow among adjacent tracheary elements in flowering plants. Variation in the bordered pit structure is suggested to be adaptive in optimally balancing the conflict between hydraulic efficiency (conductivity) and safety from air entry at the

  19. Intervascular pit membranes with a torus in the wood of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Vinckier, S.; Lens, F.; Schols, P.; Smets, E.

    2004-01-01

    • The distribution of intervascular pit membranes with a torus was investigated in juvenile wood samples of 19 species of Ulmus and seven related genera. • A staining solution of safranin and alcian blue (35 : 65) was recommended to distinguish torus-bearing pit membranes using light microscopy. • I

  20. Compromises in orchestra pit design: A ten-year trench war in The Royal Theatre, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Mortensen, Bo

    1998-01-01

    of opera finally opened the way for a new renovation of the pit, which solved most of the problems. The paper describes the many lessons learned during the ten-year period in which the authors were involved with the case as acoustic consultants. Questions of how pit configuration influences mutual hearing...

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  2. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment o

  3. Floodplain restoration with flood control: fish habitat value of levee borrow pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthen flood control levees are often built using soil excavated from borrow pits lying parallel to and riverward of the finished levee. After construction, these pits can provide valuable floodplain habitats, and their value is well established along corridors of larger rivers. However, levee bo...

  4. A Comprehensive Investigation of Copper Pitting Corrosion in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper pipe pitting is a complicated corrosion process for which exact causes and solutions are uncertain. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of a cold water copper pitting corrosion problem in a drinking water distribution system, including a refi...

  5. A proper solution to study the etch pits on LiAlO 2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huichun; Chou, Mitch M. C.; Gan, Dershin; Shen, Pouyan

    2010-12-01

    Detailed structures of the etch pits on the (1 0 0), (0 1 0), and (0 0 1) surfaces of LiAlO 2 single crystals have been studied. The crystal was grown by the Czochralski-pulling technique. Hot water is found to be a good etching solution for LiAlO 2 crystal. On the (1 0 0) surface, many shallow rhomboidal etch pits with a deep rhombic pit at the center are revealed and can line up to form boundaries. These etch pits are categorized into two groups which are symmetric relative to the [0 1 0] direction and are separated by boundaries made up of dense etch pits. On the (0 0 1) surface, square pyramid-like etch pits are present. However, rectangle-like etch pits are found on the (0 1 0) surface, which may not be related to dislocations. The density and the distribution of dislocations are studied. A scheme of the domain structure is proposed to explain the observed shapes and distributions of etch pits.

  6. Detection of pit fragments in fresh cherries using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900nm to 2600nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries. Partial Least Squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) following various spectral pretreatments was applied to sp...

  7. FINITE ELEMENT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SEEPAGE CONTROL FOR DEEP FOUNDATION PIT DEWATERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; ZHANG Ying-ying; WU Yong-xia

    2008-01-01

    For deep foundation pit dewatering in the Yangtze River Delta, it is easy to make a dramatic decrease of the underground water level surrounding the dewatering area and cause land subsidence and geologic disasters. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element simulation method was applied in the forth subway of Dongjiadu tunnel repair foundation pit dewatering in Shanghai. In order to control the decrease of the underground water level around the foundation pit, the foundation pit dewatering method was used to design the optimization project of dewatering ,which was simulated under these conditions that the aquifers deposited layer by layer, the bottom of the aquifers went deep to 144.45 m, the retaining wall of foundation pit shield went deep to 65 m, the filters of the extraction wells were located between 44 m to 59 m, the water level in the deep foundation pit was decreased by 34 m, and the maximum decrease of water level outside the foundation pit was 3 m. It is shown that the optimization project and the practical case are consistent with each other. Accordingly, the three-dimensional finite element numerical simulation is the basic theory of optimization design of engineering structures of dewatering in deep foundation pit in such areas.

  8. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  9. The Tegelen clay-pits: a hundred year old classical locality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Having been described in 1904 by Dubois as a locality for fossil mammals, the Tegelen clay-pits are nowadays considered a ‘classical’ locality. It is the type locality of the Tiglian, a warm period of the Early Pleistocene or Late Pliocene. The pits are primarily known for their mammalian remains,

  10. Sca1, a previously undescribed paralog from autotransporter protein-encoding genes in Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the 17 genes encoding autotransporter proteins of the "surface cell antigen" (sca family in the currently sequenced Rickettsia genomes, ompA, sca5 (ompB and sca4 (gene D, have been extensively used for identification and phylogenetic purposes for Rickettsia species. However, none of these genes is present in all 20 currently validated Rickettsia species. Of the remaining 14 sca genes, sca1 is the only gene to be present in all nine sequenced Rickettsia genomes. To estimate whether the sca1 gene is present in all Rickettsia species and its usefulness as an identification and phylogenetic tool, we searched for sca1genes in the four published Rickettsia genomes and amplified and sequenced this gene in the remaining 16 validated Rickettsia species. Results Sca1 is the only one of the 17 rickettsial sca genes present in all 20 Rickettsia species. R. prowazekii and R. canadensis exhibit a split sca1 gene whereas the remaining species have a complete gene. Within the sca1 gene, we identified a 488-bp variable sequence fragment that can be amplified using a pair of conserved primers. Sequences of this fragment are specific for each Rickettsia species. The phylogenetic organization of Rickettsia species inferred from the comparison of sca1 sequences strengthens the classification based on the housekeeping gene gltA and is similar to those obtained from the analyses of ompA, sca5 and sca4, thus suggesting similar evolutionary constraints. We also observed that Sca1 protein sequences have evolved under a dual selection pressure: with the exception of typhus group rickettsiae, the amino-terminal part of the protein that encompasses the predicted passenger domain, has evolved under positive selection in rickettsiae. This suggests that the Sca1 protein interacts with the host. In contrast, the C-terminal portion containing the autotransporter domain has evolved under purifying selection. In addition, sca1 is transcribed in R. conorii

  11. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  12. Characterization of the Expression of CTRP9, a Paralog of Adiponectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ziwen; CUI Ting; LIU Jing; ZHUANG Yuan; MENG Qinghang; TAO Litao; LI Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin is one of the hormones secreted exclusively by the adipose tissue with anti-diabetic,anti-inflammatory,anti-atherogenic,anti-atherosclerotic,and insulin-sensitizing effects.Adiponectin has structural features including a signal peptide at the N terminus,a short variable region,a collagenous domain,and a C-terminal globular domain homologous to Clq.The family of proteins containing this globular domain is called the Clq/tumor necrosis factor-α-related proteins (CTRP).Among all the CTRPs characterized so far,the CTRP9 protein has the highest homology to adiponectin.However,little is known about the functions of CTRP9.This study examines the tissue expression of CTRP9 as well as the ex-pression of CTRP9 during mouse development and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.The effects of LPS,TNFα,and starvation on the expression of CTRP9 were also investigated.CTRP9 mRNA is shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the adipose tissues.The expression profile of CTRP9 dif-fers from that of adiponectin,implying that they are functionally diverse although structurally homologous.

  13. Mutations in paralogous Hox genes result in overlapping homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton: evidence for unique and redundant function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, G S; Kovàcs, E N; Behringer, R R; Featherstone, M S

    1995-05-01

    Hoxd-4 (previously known as Hox-4.2 and -5.1) is a mouse homeobox-containing gene homologous to the Drosophila homeotic gene Deformed. During embryogenesis, Hoxd-4 is expressed in the presumptive hindbrain and spinal cord, prevertebrae, and other tissues. In the adult, Hoxd-4 transcripts are expressed predominantly in the testis and kidney, and to a lesser extent in intestine and heart. To understand the role of Hoxd-4 during mouse embryogenesis, we generated Hoxd-4 mutant mice. Mice heterozygous or homozygous for the Hoxd-4 mutation exhibit homeotic transformations of the second cervical vertebrae (C2) to the first cervical vertebrae (C1) and malformations of the neural arches of C1 to C3 and of the basioccipital bone. The phenotype was incompletely penetrant and showed variable expressivity on both an F2 hybrid and 129 inbred genetic background. The mutant phenotype was detected in the cartilaginous skeleton of 14.5-day (E14.5) mutant embryos but no apparent differences were detected in the somites of E9.5 mutant embryos, suggesting that the abnormalities develop after E9.5 perhaps during or after resegmentation of the somites to form the prevertebrae. These results suggest that Hoxd-4 plays a role in conferring position information along the anteroposterior axis in the skeleton. The phenotypic similarities and differences between Hoxd-4 and previously reported Hoxa-4 and Hoxb-4 mutant mice suggest that Hox gene paralogs have both redundant and unique functions.

  14. Genome-wide location analysis reveals distinct transcriptional circuitry by paralogous regulators Foxa1 and Foxa2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkis, Irina M; Schug, Jonathan; Ye, Diana Z; Kurinna, Svitlana; Stratton, Sabrina A; Barton, Michelle C; Kaestner, Klaus H

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication is a powerful driver of evolution. Newly duplicated genes acquire new roles that are relevant to fitness, or they will be lost over time. A potential path to functional relevance is mutation of the coding sequence leading to the acquisition of novel biochemical properties, as analyzed here for the highly homologous paralogs Foxa1 and Foxa2 transcriptional regulators. We determine by genome-wide location analysis (ChIP-Seq) that, although Foxa1 and Foxa2 share a large fraction of binding sites in the liver, each protein also occupies distinct regulatory elements in vivo. Foxa1-only sites are enriched for p53 binding sites and are frequently found near genes important to cell cycle regulation, while Foxa2-restricted sites show only a limited match to the forkhead consensus and are found in genes involved in steroid and lipid metabolism. Thus, Foxa1 and Foxa2, while redundant during development, have evolved divergent roles in the adult liver, ensuring the maintenance of both genes during evolution.

  15. Genome-wide location analysis reveals distinct transcriptional circuitry by paralogous regulators Foxa1 and Foxa2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M Bochkis

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a powerful driver of evolution. Newly duplicated genes acquire new roles that are relevant to fitness, or they will be lost over time. A potential path to functional relevance is mutation of the coding sequence leading to the acquisition of novel biochemical properties, as analyzed here for the highly homologous paralogs Foxa1 and Foxa2 transcriptional regulators. We determine by genome-wide location analysis (ChIP-Seq that, although Foxa1 and Foxa2 share a large fraction of binding sites in the liver, each protein also occupies distinct regulatory elements in vivo. Foxa1-only sites are enriched for p53 binding sites and are frequently found near genes important to cell cycle regulation, while Foxa2-restricted sites show only a limited match to the forkhead consensus and are found in genes involved in steroid and lipid metabolism. Thus, Foxa1 and Foxa2, while redundant during development, have evolved divergent roles in the adult liver, ensuring the maintenance of both genes during evolution.

  16. MICU2, a paralog of MICU1, resides within the mitochondrial uniporter complex to regulate calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Plovanich

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial calcium uptake is present in nearly all vertebrate tissues and is believed to be critical in shaping calcium signaling, regulating ATP synthesis and controlling cell death. Calcium uptake occurs through a channel called the uniporter that resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Recently, we used comparative genomics to identify MICU1 and MCU as the key regulatory and putative pore-forming subunits of this channel, respectively. Using bioinformatics, we now report that the human genome encodes two additional paralogs of MICU1, which we call MICU2 and MICU3, each of which likely arose by gene duplication and exhibits distinct patterns of organ expression. We demonstrate that MICU1 and MICU2 are expressed in HeLa and HEK293T cells, and provide multiple lines of biochemical evidence that MCU, MICU1 and MICU2 reside within a complex and cross-stabilize each other's protein expression in a cell-type dependent manner. Using in vivo RNAi technology to silence MICU1, MICU2 or both proteins in mouse liver, we observe an additive impairment in calcium handling without adversely impacting mitochondrial respiration or membrane potential. The results identify MICU2 as a new component of the uniporter complex that may contribute to the tissue-specific regulation of this channel.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingyuan (王清远); N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials are known to have a considerable scatter due to the random nature of materials,loading,and environmental conditions.A probabilistic approach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effect of the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigue process (i.e.the pit nucleation and growth,pit-crack transition,short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size,corrosion pitting current,and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data.Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the failure probability distribution.Predicted cumulative distribution functions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  18. Effect of Trace Sn on Pitting Behaviors of High Voltage Anode Aluminum Foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingbo SONG; Weimin MAO; Hong YANG; Huiping FENG

    2008-01-01

    The effect of trace Sn on the pitting morphology of high voltage anode aluminum foils was investigated. The distributions of microelement Sn, Fe, Si, Cu and Mg in the surface layer of aluminum foils with different Sn content were determined by using a secondary ion mass spectrometer. It was found that the micro-alloyed Sn is enriched at the external surface. The mechanism of pitting behavior of trace Sn on aluminum surface is similar with that of lead. Enrichment of Sn in the surface layer provides large numbers of sites for initiation of pitting corrosion, while pitting sites appeared relatively inhomogenously in the foils without Sn. Sn, as an eco-friendly microelement, can be applied to replace Pb in improving the homogenous pitting behaviors of high voltage aluminum foils, in which the volume fraction of cube texture is not reduced.

  19. Pit chains on Enceladus signal the recent tectonic dissection of the ancient cratered terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily S.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Michaud, Robert L.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2017-09-01

    Enceladus is the first outer solar system body on which pit chains have been positively identified. We map the global distribution of pit chains and show that pit chains are among the youngest tectonic features on Enceladus's surface, concentrated in the cratered plains centered on Enceladus's Saturnian and anti-Saturnian hemispheres. Pit chains on Enceladus are interpreted as the surface expressions of subsurface dilational fractures underlying a cover of unconsolidated material, which we infer to be a geologically young cover of loose regolith that mantles the surface of Enceladus. A widespread layer of regolith may act to insulate the surface, which has implications for the thermal state of Enceladus's ice shell. The widespread distribution of pit chains across the cratered plains indicates that this ancient surface has recently been tectonically active.

  20. Susceptibility of two types of low-alloy hull steels to pit initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianmin Wang; Xuequn Chen; Guomin Li

    2004-01-01

    Four low-alloy hull steels with different alloy elements were selected. Their susceptibility to pitting corrosion was compared by means of electrochemical polarization test. The inclusions in the steels and their pitting corrosion characteristics were studied by an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). The results indicate that some inclusions are the main sources of pitting corrosion.The susceptibility of nickel-chromium steel to pit initiation is less than that of manganese steel. Under the same conditions, nickelchromium steel is easier to passivate than manganese steel, and the passive films on nickel-chromium steel surface are more stable than that on manganese steel. In low-alloy steels, the higher the contents of nickel and chromium, the lower the critical passive pH value. In the same kind of steel, multi-phase inclusions containing sulfide are easier to initiate pitting corrosion than other inclusions.

  1. Annealing to Mitigate Pitting in Electropolished Niobium Coupons and SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, L.D.; Hahn, E.; Hicks, D.; Romanenko, A.; Schuessler, R.; Thompson, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-08

    Ongoing studies at Fermilab investigate whether dislocations and other factors instigate pitting during cavity electropolishing (EP), despite careful processing controls and the inherent leveling mechanism of EP itself. Here, cold-worked niobium coupons, which exhibited increased tendencies for pitting in our past study, were annealed in a high vacuum furnace and subsequently processed by EP. Laser confocal scanning microscopy and special defect counting algorithms were used to assess the population of pits formed. Hardness measurements indicated that annealing for 2 hours at 800 C produced recovery, whereas annealing for 12 hours at 600 C did not, as is consistent with known changes for cavities annealed in a similar way. The 800 C anneal was effective in some cases but not others, and we discuss reasons why tendencies for pitting remain. We discuss implications for cavities and continued work to understand pitting.

  2. Cavitation pitting and erosion of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. C. S.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cavitation erosion studies of aluminum 6061-T6 in mineral oil and in ordinary tap water are presented. The maximum erosion rate (MDPR, or mean depth of penetration rate) in mineral oil was about four times that in water. The MDPR in mineral oil decreased continuously with time, but the MDPR in water remained approximately constant. The cavitation pits in mineral oil were of smaller diameter and depth than the pits in water. Treating the pits as spherical segments, we computed the radius r of the sphere. The logarithm of h/a, where h is the pit depth and 2a is the top width of the pit, was linear when plotted against the logarithm of 2r/h - 1.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOENGINEERED Cu DEFECTS ON ALUMINUM PITTING INITIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALL,F.D.; SON,K.A.; MISSERT,N.A.; BARBOUR,J.C.; MARTINEZ,M.A.; ZAVIDIL,K.R.; SULLIVAN,J.P.; GOPELAND,R.G.; CIESLAK,W.R.; BUCHHEIT,R.G.; ISAACS,H.S.

    1999-11-01

    Nanoengineering technologies have been used to generate well defined arrays of pure Cu islands within an Al thin film matrix in order to examine the impact of noble particle defects on the initiation of metastable pitting. The Cu particles form local galvanic cells with the surrounding Al matrix and drive metastable corrosion. Electrical isolation of the Cu particles from the Al occurs due to selective Al dissolution and appears to correlate to cessation of metastable events. Distributions of parameters related to the electrochemical signature of an event suggests that size and spacing of particles do not impact the signatures of individual events. However, event frequency data indicate that the propensity for a structure to induce localized events is linked to Cu island diameter and separation.

  4. Pitágoras y los números perfectos

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel J. Cadavieco Castillo

    2002-01-01

    Las matemáticas tienen un amplio campo de aplicaciones prácticas, pero en el caso de la teoría de números sus usos no fueron tan claros, sino hasta mediados del siglo XX. Ejemplos de ello son los cifrados de códigos usados en la segunda guerra mundial, criptografía, diseño de pantallas acústicas y en la comunicación de sondas espaciales lejanas. La intención es de situar a Pitágoras en el tiempo y en el espacio, como iniciador de la teoría de números y su repercusión actual en el desarrollo d...

  5. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.

    2016-01-01

    that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization......The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...... techniques. On the other hand, unlike unpredictable disaster scenarios, mining is a carefully planned activity. Taking advantage of this predictability element, we propose a framework that integrates mine and network planning so that continuous and automated adaptation of the network becomes possible...

  6. Environmental impacts of phosphogypsum vs. borrow pits in roadfill construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D F; Dooris, P M; Sumpter, D

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was performed of the environmental impacts of using phosphogypsum versus conventional fill materials (e.g., from borrow pits) for road construction. The study compared a hypothetical roadway with an actual roadway in Florida; the two facilities differed only in that phosphogypsum was employed as fill material instead of conventional materials. The effect of the two construction approaches on the plant and animal communities was considered, as was the impact on the surface and ground water. A summary was made of the comparative impacts, and a comparison matrix was constructed using integral numbers to depict impacts ranging from -5 (most impact) to 0 (none) to + 5, showing most benefit of the part of the project on a given resource. Values were subjective, based upon investigators' experience. Four categories (plant and animal communities, water quality, water resources, and air quality) were considered. The cumulative total was +12 for phosphogypsum and -6 for conventional fill material.

  7. Venomics of Tropidolaemus wagleri, the sexually dimorphic temple pit viper: Unveiling a deeply conserved atypical toxin arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong

    2017-02-27

    Tropidolaemus wagleri (temple pit viper) is a medically important snake in Southeast Asia. It displays distinct sexual dimorphism and prey specificity, however its venomics and inter-sex venom variation have not been thoroughly investigated. Applying reverse-phase HPLC, we demonstrated that the venom profiles were not significantly affected by sex and geographical locality (Peninsular Malaya, insular Penang, insular Sumatra) of the snakes. Essentially, venoms of both sexes share comparable intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) (0.56-0.63 μg/g) and cause neurotoxic envenomation in mice. LCMS/MS identified six waglerin forms as the predominant lethal principles, comprising 38.2% of total venom proteins. Fourteen other toxin-protein families identified include phospholipase A2, serine proteinase, snaclec and metalloproteinase. In mice, HPLC fractions containing these proteins showed insignificant contribution to the overall venom lethality. Besides, the unique elution pattern of approximately 34.5% of non-lethal, low molecular mass proteins (3-5 kDa) on HPLC could be potential biomarker for this primitive crotalid species. Together, the study unveiled the venom proteome of T. wagleri that is atypical among many pit vipers as it comprises abundant neurotoxic peptides (waglerins) but little hemotoxic proteinases. The findings also revealed that the venom is relatively well conserved intraspecifically despite the drastic morphological differences between sexes.

  8. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  10. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Effects of Nanoscale V-Shaped Pits on GaN-Based Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo-Wei; Li, Heng; Chang, Chia-Jui; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2017-01-28

    This paper reviews the formation of nanoscale V-shaped pits on GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system and studies the effect of V-shaped pits on quantum efficiency. Since V-pits could provide potential barriers around threading dislocations to lessen non-radiative recombinations in such a high defect environment. In our study, multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well samples with different emission wavelengths of 380, 420, 460, and 500 nm were grown, each with different nanoscale V-shaped pits of three diameters for 150, 200, and 250 nm, respectively. It was found that the multiple quantum well (MQW) sample with larger V-pits had a lower pit density, but a relatively larger total V-pits defected area. The optimum diameter of V-pits showing the highest quantum efficiency from the MQW sample depended on the emission wavelength. MQW samples with wavelengths of 380 and 500 nm exhibited the best internal quantum efficiency (IQE) performance at the smallest V-pits area; however, the best performance for MQW samples with wavelength around 420 and 460 nm occurred when large V-pit areas were presented. Photoluminescence (PL) peak shifts and Raman shifts can provide a relationship between quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and IQE, as well as a comparison between strain and IQE. The results obtained in this phenomenological study shall provide a useful guide line in making high-performance GaN-based LEDs with wide emission spectra.

  12. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  13. Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

  14. Modeling and simulation of pit chemistry of 304 austenitic stainless steel under applied stress in sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuhui, E-mail: yhhuang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, MOE, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A corrosion model was developed to simulate a stressed metal surface with a pit. ► The stress state in the pit bottom was coupled with the local corrosion environment. ► An analytical expression was established for current density of deformed pit surface. ► Local deformation had a strong effect on potential and species concentration in pits. -- Abstract: A mathematical model for simulating the active dissolution of a pit on stressed metal surface had been developed. Based on active dissolution mechanism, dissolution current density on the pit surface was assumed and extended through accounting for the thermal activation energy and the multiaxial stress state in pit bottom. The influence of applied tensile stress, pit radius and temperature was addressed. The distribution of solution potential and species concentration was predicted for different applied tensile stresses based on finite element calculations.

  15. Multiple kisspeptin receptors in early osteichthyans provide new insights into the evolution of this receptor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Pasquier

    Full Text Available Deorphanization of GPR54 receptor a decade ago led to the characterization of the kisspeptin receptor (Kissr in mammals and the discovery of its major role in the brain control of reproduction. While a single gene encodes for Kissr in eutherian mammals including human, other vertebrates present a variable number of Kissr genes, from none in birds, one or two in teleosts, to three in an amphibian, xenopus. In order to get more insight into the evolution of Kissr gene family, we investigated the presence of Kissr in osteichthyans of key-phylogenetical positions: the coelacanth, a representative of early sarcopterygians, the spotted gar, a non-teleost actinopterygian, and the European eel, a member of an early group of teleosts (elopomorphs. We report the occurrence of three Kissr for the first time in a teleost, the eel. As measured by quantitative RT-PCR, the three eel Kissr were differentially expressed in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, and differentially regulated in experimentally matured eels, as compared to prepubertal controls. Subfunctionalisation, as shown by these differences in tissue distribution and regulation, may have represented significant evolutionary constraints for the conservation of multiple Kissr paralogs in this species. Furthermore, we identified four Kissr in both coelacanth and spotted gar genomes, providing the first evidence for the presence of four Kissr in vertebrates. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses supported the existence of four Kissr paralogs in osteichthyans and allowed to propose a clarified nomenclature of Kissr (Kissr-1 to -4 based on these paralogs. Syntenic analysis suggested that the four Kissr paralogs arose through the two rounds of whole genome duplication (1R and 2R in early vertebrates, followed by multiple gene loss events in the actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages. Due to gene loss there was no impact of the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (3R on the number of Kissr paralogs

  16. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  17. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries on Pit and Fissure and Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, J.R.; Wang, X.; DeSensi, R.S.; Wendell, S.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h2, i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h2 = 19–53%; p caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  19. A single precursor pit for pitting corrosion on defect of tinplate alloy layer visualized by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Guofeng [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: cuiguofeng@hit.edu.cn; Wang Jinghe [Research of Precise Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Huang Xingqiao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-06-10

    The gray points highly disperse on the alloy layer surface after free tin coating removed on poorly corrosion-resistant tinplate. The morphology and composition of normal area and the gray point were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) on the same tinplate sheet. Additional, the cyclic voltammetry results indicate that corrosion resistance of alloy layer containing gray points is less than that of normal area. Those indicate that gray points are defects of Sn-Fe alloy layer. AFM was applied to obtain detail information on topography change of the gray point in electrolyte. Furthermore, profile lines of the sample at varied time were determined and delivered additional arguments for corrosion rate of the gray point. The results of a single pit corrosion measurement show that corrosion rate is determined by a mass-transport controlled mechanism in acid electrolyte.

  20. Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel 304 in Carbon Dioxide Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-min; GUO Xing-peng; ZHENG Jia-shen

    2004-01-01

    The pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steel (SS) 304 in aqueous CO2-H2S-Cl- environment was investigated by potentiodynamic cyclic anodic polarization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The experimental results show that the pitting corrosion susceptivity of SS 304 increases with the increase of temperature. Chlorine ion is the prerequisite for pitting corrosion of SS 304 in H2S-CO2 environments. There is a linear relationship between the pitting corrosion potential (Eb-100) and chlorine ion concentration, and Eb-100 becomes noble with increasing pH value of the solution with or without H2S. pH value has little effect on the protection potential with the presence of H2S. H2S increases strongly the pitting corrosion susceptivity and deteriorates the pitting corrosion resistance of SS 304 in CO2 environments. The observations by EPMA show that SS 304 in CO2-saturated NaCl solution (3 %) with H2S suffers pitting corrosion accompanied with intergranular corrosion.

  1. Critical pitting temperature for Type 254 SMO stainless steel in chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Meguid, E.A. [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: eameguid_nrc@yahoo.com; Abd El Latif, A.A. [Department of Electrochemistry and Corrosion, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The variation with time of the open circuit potential of high molybdenum containing stainless steel (Type 254 SMO) was measured in 4% sodium chloride solution in the temperatures range 30-100 deg. C. The plot of steady state potentials as function of temperature showed an inflection at 50 deg. C, attributed to the decrease of oxygen solubility in test solution above 50 deg. C. Potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization technique was used to determine the critical pitting potential (E {sub pit}) and the critical protection potential (E {sub prot}) of the steel in 4-30% NaCl solutions at temperatures between 30 and 100 deg. C. By plotting the two values versus solution temperature, the corresponding critical pitting (CPT) and the critical protection (CPrT) temperatures were determined. Both parameters decreased with increasing chloride content. Above the CPT, E {sub pit} and E {sub prot} decreased linearly with log[Cl{sup -}]. The addition of bromide ions to the solution shifted both E {sub pit} and E {sub prot} towards positive values. In 4% NaCl, E {sub pit} increased linearly with pH in the range 1-10. The combined effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the morphology of the pits was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following potentiodynamic cycling anodic polarization.

  2. Effect of halide ions on passivation and pitting corrosion of copper in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gad Allah, A.G.; Abou-Romia, M.M.; Badawy, W.A.; Rehan, H.H. (Cairo Univ., Gizeh (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-11-01

    The passivity of copper in NaOH and borate buffer solutions containing chloride, bromide and fluoride ions was studied by using cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic current transient measurements. At scan rates >> 20 mVs{sup -1}, the addition of halide ions does not nearly affect the cyclic voltammograms in the absence of pitting. But they differ considerably in presence of pitting. The pitting potential was found to depend on the solution pH and decreased linearly with increase of logarithm of halide ion concentration. The current transients in the passivity as well as in the pitting potential regions were analyzed. Before the pitting, i-time curves were rather similar to those obtained in the plain solutions. At times > 20 seconds, the current varies linearly with the reciprocal of the square root of time indicating diffusional characteristics of the metal corrosion through the passive layer. In presence of pitting, the pitting current versus time relations fit the Engell-Stolica equation. (orig.).

  3. The theoretical plausibility of central pit crater formation via melt drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Catherine M.; Bray, Veronica J.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2012-11-01

    Central pit craters are seen in large craters on some icy satellites and on Mars. We investigate the hypothesis that central pits form when impact melt drains into fractures beneath the impact crater. For this process to occur, the volume of melt generated during the impact, the volume of void space in fractures beneath the impact crater, and the volume of melt able to drain before the fractures freeze shut all must exceed the volume of the observed central pits. We estimate the volume of melt generated using results from previous numerical modeling studies. The fracture volume is estimated using gravity anomalies over terrestrial craters. To estimate the amount of melt able to drain before freezing, we consider flow through plane parallel fractures. These calculations all suggest that enough liquid water could drain into fractured ice beneath a crater on Ganymede to form a central pit. On Earth and the Moon, silicate impact melt will freeze before a large volume is able to drain, so we do not expect to see central pits in impact craters in targets with no ice. In summary, we find our calculations are consistent with observed central pits in craters on Ganymede and the lack of central pits in craters on Earth and the Moon.

  4. Fracture Characteristics in a Disposal Pit on Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David T. Vaniman; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-12-01

    The characteristics of fractures in unit 2 of the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff were documented in Pit 39, a newly excavated 13.7 m deep disposal pit at Material Disposal Area G on Mesita del Buey. The average spacing between fractures is about 1.0 to 1.3 m, the average fracture aperture is about 3 to 5 mm, and the average fracture dip is about 76o to 77o. Fracture spacing and dip in Pit 39 are generally consistent with that reported from other fracture studies on the Pajarito Plateau, although the fracture apertures in Pit 39 are less than reported elsewhere. Measured fracture orientations are strongly affected by biases imparted by the orientations of the pit walls, which, combined with a small data set, make identification of potential preferred orientations dlfflcult. The most prominent fracture orientations observed in Pit 39, about E-W and N20E, are often not well represented elsewhere on the Pajarito Plateau. Fracture fills contain smectite to about 3 m depth, and calcite and opal may occur at all depths, principally associated with roots or root fossils (rhizoliths). Roots of pifion pine extend in fractures to the bottom of the pit along the north side, perhaps indicating a zone of preferred infiltration of water. Finely powdered tuff with clay-sized particles occurs within a number of fractures and may record abrasive disaggregation associated with small amounts of displacement on minor local faults.

  5. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  6. Central Pit and Dome Formation as Seen in Occator Crater, Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Buczkowski, Debra; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Schmidt, Britney E.; O'Brien, David P.; Hiesinger, Harald; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Dawn mapping of Ceres revealed that central depressions (or pits) are common in craters >75 km. The best preserved of these is Occator (D~92 km), where the pit is associated with a major bright deposit dominated by carbonates. The pit is ~9 km wide, 600-800 m deep and flanked by asymmetric massifs 0.7 to 1.3 km high. The pit is partially filled by a fractured central dome ~3 km wide and 700 m high. Fracturing could have been due to dome inflation by "magma" or by subsurface freezing of ice. Within the bright material, two color units are mapped, including a paler surface unit and a more yellowish to reddish unit exposed within the most fractured parts of the dome surface and at small bright spots, at least some of which could be post-Occator small craters. Some bright materials form as discrete small spots midslope along the pit wall and others avoid small hills, suggesting partial topographic control. Stratigraphic relations are ambiguous but suggest formation of a smooth carapace some meters thick that was subsequently disrupted by fractures crossing the floor of Occator, and by uplift of the dome surface. Pit and dome morphologies, including dome fracturing are potentially analogous to central pits and domes in many craters on Ganymede and Callisto, suggesting some commonality in formation processes. The absence of center pits or domes on Saturnian satellites could be related to much lower temperatures on those bodies. The prominence of central pits and domes on Ceres confirms the importance of volatile materials, mostly likely water ice, in the outer layers of Ceres, especially as compared to Vesta.

  7. Atypical pit craters on Mars: new insights from THEMIS, CTX and HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper-range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters), and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey THermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night, and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially-drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower-resolution THEMIS visible-wavelength (VIS) observations. Here, we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  8. Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks.

  9. Functional characterization of two paralogs that are novel RNA binding proteins influencing mitochondrial transcripts of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafková, Lucie; Ammerman, Michelle L; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Fisk, John C; Zimmer, Sara L; Sobotka, Roman; Read, Laurie K; Lukes, Julius; Hashimi, Hassan

    2012-10-01

    A majority of Trypanosoma brucei proteins have unknown functions, a consequence of its independent evolutionary history within the order Kinetoplastida that allowed for the emergence of several unique biological properties. Among these is RNA editing, needed for expression of mitochondrial-encoded genes. The recently discovered mitochondrial RNA binding complex 1 (MRB1) is composed of proteins with several functions in processing organellar RNA. We characterize two MRB1 subunits, referred to herein as MRB8170 and MRB4160, which are paralogs arisen from a large chromosome duplication occurring only in T. brucei. As with many other MRB1 proteins, both have no recognizable domains, motifs, or orthologs outside the order. We show that they are both novel RNA binding proteins, possibly representing a new class of these proteins. They associate with a similar subset of MRB1 subunits but not directly with each other. We generated cell lines that either individually or simultaneously target the mRNAs encoding both proteins using RNAi. Their dual silencing results in a differential effect on moderately and pan-edited RNAs, suggesting a possible functional separation of the two proteins. Cell growth persists upon RNAi silencing of each protein individually in contrast to the dual knockdown. Yet, their apparent redundancy in terms of cell viability is at odds with the finding that only one of these knockdowns results in the general degradation of pan-edited RNAs. While MRB8170 and MRB4160 share a considerable degree of conservation, our results suggest that their recent sequence divergence has led to them influencing mitochondrial mRNAs to differing degrees.

  10. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  11. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  12. Influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN He; YANG Zhi-feng; WANG Xuan

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the Haizhou Open Pit Mine on the atmospheric flow in nearby Fuxin City in China was analyzed with the aid of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. The finite element method was used to obtain numerical solutions to these equations. The results showed that the Haizhou Open Pit Coal Mine contributes to the turbulent flow in the Fuxin City and its surroundings. However, when compared with the climatic effects, the open pit mine has a relatively small impact on the atmospheric flow over Fuxin.

  13. New Generation Energy Efficient Refractory Application in Soaking Pits of Bhilai Steel Plant, Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Chintaiah, Perumetla; Bhattacharya, Ajoy Kr.; Garai, Swapan Kr.; Ray Choudhury, Pankaj Kr.; Tiwari, Laksman

    In Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP), soaking pits are used for heating ingots for successive rolling into blooms. Pits are operated at a temperature of around 1350°C. Mixed gas (Mixture of Blast Furnace gas & Coke Oven gas) of calorific value around 2040 kcal/Nm3 is used as fuel. The walls of soaking pits were lined with traditional 38% Al2O3 firebricks and top 500mm was cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castable (LCC). This type of lining results in frequent damages due to hitting by ingots while being lifted from pit by overhead cranes thus affecting the availability of pit. Life of pits was 2 to 2.5 years in BSP with 3-4 cold repairs and 3-4 hot repairs. Energy loss through the wall is also quite high in this type of lining. To triumph over the limitations of the conventional lining, a lining design was developed for the walls which consist of special 70% Al2O3 LCC having high hot strength (HMOR) in combination with specially design flexible SS-304 anchors. Ceramic fiber blanket and insulation bricks were provided between castable and the metallic shell of the pit to minimize the heat loss. A heating schedule was developed and introduced based on available infrastructure at BSP for proper curing of modified LCC based lining. After introduction of modified lining, pit no. 14/2 is running for more than 2.5 years without any repair. To capitalize the success, two more pits i.e. 12/1 and 9/2 were converted to modified lining. These pits are also running satisfactorily for more than 1.5 years. The modification has resulted in higher availability with substantial increase in production. Shell temperature of the modified pits reduced to 90° - 140°C from 120° - 200°C of conventional pits. This shows reduction in heat loss through walls, resulting less fuel consumption and energy saving of about 18%.

  14. Studies on surface pitting during laser assisted removal of translucent ellipsoidal particulates from metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, Bijoy; Nilaya, J. Padma; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Biswas, D. J.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the manifestation of field enhanced surface absorption during laser assisted removal of translucent particulates of ellipsoidal geometry from a metallic substrate surface. The surface pitting caused due to this effect has been experimentally probed as a function of the ratio of minor to major axis of the ellipsoid and the behavioral trend has been theoretically interpreted by invoking the principle of geometrical optics. The study also includes the effect of fluence and wavelength of the incident coherent radiation on the surface pitting. Probing of the surface topography has helped gain insight into the formation of multiple pits by a single particulate following its removal post laser exposure.

  15. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  16. Misfit dislocation gettering by substrate pit-patterning in SiGe films on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grydlik, Martyna; Groiss, Heiko; Brehm, Moritz; Schaeffler, Friedrich [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Boioli, Francesca; Montalenti, Francesco; Miglio, Leo [L-NESS and Department of Material Science, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Gatti, Riccardo; Devincre, Benoit [LEM, CNRS/ONERA, Chatillon Cedex (France)

    2012-07-02

    We show that suitable pit-patterning of a Si(001) substrate can strongly influence the nucleation and the propagation of dislocations during epitaxial deposition of Si-rich Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloys, preferentially gettering misfit segments along pit rows. In particular, for a 250 nm layer deposited by molecular beam epitaxy at x{sub Ge} = 15%, extended film regions appear free of dislocations, by atomic force microscopy, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy sampling. This result is quite general, as explained by dislocation dynamics simulations, which reveal the key role of the inhomogeneous distribution in stress produced by the pit-patterning.

  17. Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng

    2001-07-01

    Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from

  18. Study on Electro-Polishing Process by Niobium-Plate Sample With Artificial Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Saeki, H. Hayano, S. Kato, M. Nishiwaki, M. Sawabe, W.A. Clemens, R.L. Geng, R. Manus, P.V. Tyagi

    2011-07-01

    The Electro-polishing (EP) process is the best candidate of final surface-treatment for the production of ILC cavities. Nevertheless, the development of defects on the inner-surface of the Superconducting RF cavity during EP process has not been studied by experimental method. We made artificial pits on the surface of a Nb-plate sample and observed the development of the pit-shapes after each step of 30um-EP process where 120um was removed by EP in total. This article describes the results of this EP-test of Nb-sample with artificial pits.

  19. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, P.D. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Llorente, C.L. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones de Metalurgia Fisica ' Ing. Gregorio Cusminsky' (LIMF), Departamento Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, calle 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Saire Huaman, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gassa, L.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Gervasi, C.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones, Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Sucursal 4-C.C. 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) and Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Corrosion y Tecnologia Electroquimica (LICTE), Departamento Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, 1 y 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: gervasi@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-10-15

    Cyclic potentiodynamic measurements and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze susceptibility to pitting corrosion of 13CrNiMo weld metals. In order to carry out a critical assessment of the influence of microstructural factors on localized corrosion, different heat treatments were applied to the alloys under investigation. Volume fractions of austenite in tempered conditions as well as the amount and size of precipitated carbides strongly affect pitting resistance. Characteristic potentials (pitting potential and repassivation potential) increase according to the retained austenite content. Results can be discussed in terms of a model that describes the structural refinement resulting from a double-tempering procedure.

  20. Optimal Growth Conditions for Selective Ge Islands Positioning on Pit-Patterned Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschini R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate ordered nucleation of Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001 using an original hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo model. The method allows us to explore long time-scale evolution while using large simulation cells. We analyze the possibility to achieve selective nucleation and island homogeneity as a function of the various parameters (flux, temperature, pit period able to influence the growth process. The presence of an optimal condition where the atomic diffusivity is sufficient to guarantee nucleation only within pits, but not so large to induce significant Ostwald ripening, is clearly demonstrated.

  1. Passivation and pitting corrosion of. alpha. -brass (Cu/Zn: 63/37) in neutral buffer solutions containing chloride ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, H.A. (Cairo Univ., Gizeh (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The passivation behaviour and pitting corrosion of a commercial grade {alpha}-brass (Cu/Zn: 63/37) in neutral buffer solutions (borate and phosphate) in the presence and absence of chloride ions were investigated by electrochemical techniques. The results indicated the dezincification in absence of chloride ions at highly enough anodic potentials and both dezincification and pitting corrosion in the presence of chloride ions. The pitting susceptibility was found to depend on the composition of the buffer solution, chloride ion concentration and nature of the passive layer on the metal surface before pitting. Current transients corresponding to passivity, dezincification and pitting corrosion were identified and analyzed. (orig.).

  2. Prediction of Pitting Corrosion Mass Loss for 304 Stainless Steel by Image Processing and BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LIANG Cheng-hao

    2005-01-01

    Image processing technique was employed to analyze pitting corrosion morphologies of 304 stainless steel exposed to FeCl3 environments. BP neural network models were developed for the prediction of pitting corrosion mass loss using the obtained data of the total and the average pit areas which were extracted from pitting binary image. The results showed that the predicted results obtained by the 2-5-1 type BP neural network model are in good agreement with the experimental data of pitting corrosion mass loss. The maximum relative error of prediction is 6.78%.

  3. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  4. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  5. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  6. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy of buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects with snow, adjust temperature gradients, adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism. Further study is needed to use absolute temperatures independently of supporting gradient data.

  7. Use of a thermal imager for snow pit temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak snow of interest to avalanche forecasting often forms and changes as thin layers. Thermometers, the current field technology for measuring the temperature gradients across such layers – and for thus estimating the expected vapour flux and future type of crystal metamorphism – are difficult to use at distances shorter than 1 cm. In contrast, a thermal imager can provide thousands of simultaneous temperature measurements across small distances with better accuracy. However, a thermal imager only senses the exposed surface, complicating its methods for access and accuracy with respect to buried temperatures. This paper presents methods for exposing buried layers on pit walls and using a thermal imager to measure temperatures on these walls, correct for lens effects, adjust temperature gradients adjust time exposed, and calculate temperature gradients over millimetre distances. We find lens error on temperature gradients to be on the order of 0.03 °C between image centre and corners. We find temperature gradient change over time to usually decrease – as expected with atmospheric equalization as a strong effect. Case studies including thermal images and visual macro photographs of crystals, collected during the 2010–2011 winter, demonstrate large temperature differences over millimetre-scale distances that are consistent with observed kinetic metamorphism.

  8. EXCAVATION OF PITS (CHANNELS BY IMPACT OF PULSE POWER LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakhaev Koshkinbai Nazirovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an innovative hydromechanical solution of the problem of profiles development of pits and channels by impact of pulse (blasting power load on a surface of homogeneous soil mass, for example, when excavating solid rocks, frozen soil, etc. Thus, soil would be considered as an ideal heavy liquid (disregarding its mechanical strength and plastic properties. The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of consecutive conformal mappings of physical flow region (in the form of Kirchhoff complex on the region of complex potential (in the form of a rectangle. Thus, the new technique of geometrical image generation of the latter in the presence in the flow region of a fixed point with discontinuous variations of pressure head-flow function and the direction of speed of flow and representation of an elliptic sine of Jacobi by means of elementary functions are used. The received analytical functional dependencies allow to determine an outline of a funnel of the soil ejection and all the required hydromechanical characteristics of flow (head-flow function, function of flow, speed of flow, etc.. Thus, the soil ejection funnel outline (for a benchmark problem completely coincides with subproduct of the known rigorous solution of Lavrentyev-Kuznetsov.

  9. Cargo and dynamin regulate clathrin-coated pit maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinah Loerke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM has become a powerful tool for studying clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, due to difficulties in tracking and quantifying their heterogeneous dynamic behavior, detailed analyses have been restricted to a limited number of selected clathrin-coated pits (CCPs. To identify intermediates in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and factors that regulate progression through these stages, we used particle-tracking software and statistical methods to establish an unbiased and complete inventory of all visible CCP trajectories. We identified three dynamically distinct CCP subpopulations: two short-lived subpopulations corresponding to aborted intermediates, and one longer-lived productive subpopulation. In a manner dependent on AP2 adaptor complexes, increasing cargo concentration significantly enhances the maturation efficiency of productive CCPs, but has only minor effects on their lifetimes. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA depletion of dynamin-2 GTPase and reintroduction of wild-type or mutant dynamin-1 revealed dynamin's role in controlling the turnover of abortive intermediates and the rate of CCP maturation. From these data, we infer the existence of an endocytic restriction or checkpoint, responsive to cargo and regulated by dynamin.

  10. Are plague pits of particular use to palaeoepidemiologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H A

    2001-02-01

    The demography and pattern of disease of skeletal assemblages may not accurately reflect those of the living population of which they were once a part. The hypothesis tested here was that skeletons from a mass disaster would more closely approximate to a living population than those from a conventional cemetery. Six hundred skeletons recovered from a Black Death plague pit in London were compared with 236 skeletons recovered from an overlying medieval cemetery. Age and sex were determined by standard anthropological means by a single observer and adjustments were made to correct for those skeletons for which either or both could not be established. An estimate of age structure of the living medieval population of London was made, using model life tables. The age and sex distribution and the pattern of disease in the Black Death skeletons did not differ substantially from those in the control group of skeletons. Both assemblages tended to overestimate the numbers in the younger age groups of the model population and underestimate the numbers in the oldest age group. On the evidence from this single site, a skeletal assemblage from a mass disaster does not provide a better representation of the living population from which it was derived than that from a conventional cemetery.

  11. A shared promoter region suggests a common ancestor for the human VCX/Y, SPANX, and CSAG gene families and the murine CYPT family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin A; Nielsen, John E; Retelska, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Many testis-specific genes from the sex chromosomes are subject to rapid evolution, which can make it difficult to identify murine genes in the human genome. The murine CYPT gene family includes 15 members, but orthologs were undetectable in the human genome. However, using refined homology search...... with the murine SPANX gene and the CYPT family may share a common ancestor. Finally, we present evidence that VCX/Y and SPANX may be paralogs with a similar protein structure consisting of C terminal acidic repeats of variable lengths....

  12. Regulation of cell proliferation and cell density by the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byskov Kristina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background The inorganic phosphate (Pi transporter, PiT1 (SLC20A1, is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It has previously been shown that down-regulation of PiT1 severely impaired the proliferation of two transformed human cells lines, HepG2 and HeLa, and the tumorigenicity of HeLa cells in nude mice. Moreover, PiT1 knock-out mice do not survive past E12.5 and from E10.5, the embryos were found to be growth-retarded and showed reduced proliferation of liver cells. Isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts with knocked out as well as reduced PiT1 expression levels also exhibited impaired proliferation. Together these results suggest that a certain level of PiT1 is important for proliferation. We have here investigated the role of PiT1 in regulation of cell proliferation using two strictly density-inhibited cells lines, the murine MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cells. Results We found that knock-down of PiT1 in MC3T3-E1 cells led to impaired proliferation supporting that at least a certain level of PiT1 is important for wildtype level of proliferation. We, however, also observed that MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cells themselves regulate their endogenous PiT1 mRNA levels with lower levels in general correlating with decreased proliferation/increased cell density. Moreover, over-expression of human PiT1 led to increased proliferation of both MC3T3-E1 and NIH3T3 cultures and resulted in higher cell densities in cultures of these two strictly density-inhibited cell lines. In addition, when we transformed NIH3T3 cells by cultivation in fetal bovine serum, cells over-expressing human PiT1 formed more colonies in soft agar than control cells. Conclusions We conclude that not only is a certain level of PiT1 necessary for normal cell division as suggested by previously published studies, rather the cellular PiT1 level is involved in regulating cell proliferation and cell density and an increased PiT1 expression can indeed make NIH3T3 cells more sensitive to

  13. Fabrication of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels with excellent mechanical and pitting corrosion properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    18Cr18Mn2Mo0.9N high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel exhibits high strength and good ductility at room temperature. The steel shows typical duc-tile-brittle transition behavior and excellent pitting corrosion resistance properties.

  14. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Residual Cap: Evidence for Pressurized Subsurface Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Titus, T.; Byrne, S.

    2005-12-01

    We present observations of small-scale pitting within the Swiss cheese terrain of the carbon dioxide South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) and consider the implications of their rapid cascade-like evolution. We show that such pitting cascades: (1) only occur near the walls of thick Swiss cheese mesas; (2) rarely occur in polygonally-cracked mesas; and (3) occur far more often in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Years 2 and 3 than in MGS Year 1. We propose that pitting results from depressurization of a sealed layer, which requires subsurface heating that cannot be presently maintained by lateral heat conduction. Instead, we attribute the pressurization and heating implied by pitting to a solid state greenhouse initiated by the recent formation of slab CO2 ice during the southern spring and summer of MGS Year 1, which we show is consistent with Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) 25-micron band depth measurements of the SPRC over the last three Mars years.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION OF PITTING CORROSION FATIGUE LIFE IN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清远; N.KAWAGOISHI; Q.CHEN; R.M.PIDAPARTI

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion and fatigue properties of aircraft materials axe known to have a considerablescatter due to the random nature of materials, loading, and environmental conditions. A probabilisticapproach for predicting the pitting corrosion fatigue life has been investigated which captures the effectof the interaction of the cyclic load and corrosive environment and all stages of the corrosion fatigueprocess (i.e. the pit nucleation and growth, pit-crack transition, short- and long-crack propagation).The probabilistic model investigated considers the uncertainties in the initial pit size, corrosion pittingcurrent, and material properties due to the scatter found in the experimental data. Monte Carlo simu-lations were performed to define the failure probability distribution. Predicted cumulative distributionfunctions of fatigue life agreed reasonably well with the existing experimental data.

  16. Unsuccessful vitrectomy without gas tamponade for macular retinal detachment and retinoschisis without optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of subretinal fluid accumulation in optic disc pit maculopathy is unknown. A 67-year-old Japanese woman complaining of blurred vision in her right eye presented with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography examination showed maculopathy typically associated with optic disc pits, except that the patient had no optic disc pit. Long-acting gas tamponade was required to achieve reattachment of the retina and retinoschisis after initial failure of surgery using surgically induced vitreous detachment without either fluid-air exchange or gas injection. Vitreous traction may not have played a major role in introducing fluid into the submacular space in this case. Gas tamponade may be indispensable to achieve surgical success. This may also pertain to some cases of optic nerve pits.

  17. Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors firstly introduce deformation control of deep excavation pit in detail, and then put forward new conceptions such as: effective coefficient of excavation pit, effective area, ineffective area and critical line, and also put forward the referential criteria of deformation control. The System of Optimization Design with Deformation Control of Deep Excavation Pit and Numerical Simulation with Finite Element Method (SDCDEFEM) is also briefly introduced. Factors influencing deformation of excavation pit are analyzed by the system. The measured and simulated data of maximum deformations (settlement, displacement and upheaval) and their positions are analyzed and discussed. The statistic formula estimating maximum deformations and their positions was gained, and economical-effective measures of deformation control were brought forward.

  18. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  19. Study on Deep Well Dewatering Optimization Design in Deep Foundation Pit and Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on analyses of the theories of groundwater unsteady flow in deep well dewatering in the deep foundation pit, Theis equations are chosen to calculate and analyze the relationship between water level drawdown of confined aquifer and dewatering duration. In order to reduce engineering cost and diminish detrimental effect on ambient surrounding, optimization design target function based on the control of confined water drawdown and four restriction requisitions based on the control of safe water level, resistance to throwing up from the bottom of foundation pit, avoiding excessively great subsidence and unequal surface subsidence are proposed. A deep well dewatering project in the deep foundation pit is optimally designed. The calculated results including confined water level drawdown and surface subsidence are in close agreement with the measured results, and the optimization design can effectively control both surface subsidence outside foundation pit and unequal subsidence as a result of dewatering.

  20. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  1. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  2. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  3. Maximal sequence length of exact match between members from a gene family during early evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao; GUO Xing-yi; FAN Long-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Mutation (substitution, deletion, insertion, etc.) in nucleotide acid causes the maximal sequence lengths of exact match (MALE) between paralogous members from a duplicate event to become shorter during evolution. In this work, MALE changes between members of 26 gene families from four representative species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens) were investigated. Comparative study ofparalogous' MALE and amino acid substitution rate (dA<0.5)indicated that a close relationship existed between them. The results suggested that MALE could be a sound evolutionary scale for the divergent time for paralogous genes during their early evolution. A reference table between MALE and divergent time for the four species was set up, which would be useful widely, for large-scale genome alignment and comparison. As an example, detection of large-scale duplication events of rice genome based on the table was illustrated.

  4. Short convalescence and minimal pain after out-patient Bascom's pit-pick operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of pilonidal sinuses with Bascom's pit-pick operation can easily be performed under local analgesia. We describe pain during and after the operation, time to return to work, time to healing and success rate.......Treatment of pilonidal sinuses with Bascom's pit-pick operation can easily be performed under local analgesia. We describe pain during and after the operation, time to return to work, time to healing and success rate....

  5. Identifying and Reducing Health Risks Associated with Open-Air Burn Pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    results in the Periodic Occupational Exposure Monitoring Summary ( POEMS ). Based on his review of the POEMS data, CPT Pratt opined: “The long term...is inconclusive regarding whether exposure to burn pit emissions creates a long -term health risk for deployed personnel. Contrary to this position...Air Field was "unhealthy" and concluded that the primary contributor was the burn pit. He also listed potential long -term health risks associated

  6. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  7. Enamel Pit Defects and Taurodontism in a Patient with Ring Chromosome 14 and 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Lacour, Letitia; Scheuerle, Angela E

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the clinical findings and management of a case involving a patient with co-occurring ring chromosome 14 syndrome and 47,XXX presenting with enamel pit defects and taurodontism. Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is an unusual condition with uncontrolled seizure disorder as its most significant finding; 47,XXX (trisomy X; triple X) is a more common condition and has characteristic physical and behavioral findings. Neither condition has been associated with enamel pit defects.

  8. The Experience of Implementation of Innovative Technology of Quarry Waste Water Purifying in Kuzbass Open Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Yu V.; Hellmer, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    Among all industries in Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia) the coal industry provides the most environmental threat. However, the construction of new and maintenance of existing open pit mines do not often correspond to the tasks of improving the environmental safety of surface mining. So the article describes the use of innovative quarry waste water purifying technology implemented in Kuzbass open pit mine «Shestaki». This technology is based on using artificial filter arrays made of overburden rock.

  9. Evaluation of remote delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT technology to mark large mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Methods to individually mark and identify free-ranging wildlife without trapping and handling would be useful for a variety of research and management purposes. The use of Passive Integrated Transponder technology could be an efficient method for collecting data for mark-recapture analysis and other strategies for assessing characteristics about populations of various wildlife species. Passive Integrated Transponder tags (PIT have unique numbered frequencies and have been used to successfully mark and identify mammals. We tested for successful injection of PIT and subsequent functioning of PIT into gelatin blocks using 4 variations of a prototype dart. We then selected the prototype dart that resulted in the least depth of penetration in the gelatin block to assess the ability of PIT to be successfully implanted into muscle tissue of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus post-mortem and long-term in live, captive Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus. The prototype dart with a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch needle length and no powder charge resulted in the shallowest mean (± SD penetration depth into gelatin blocks of 27.0 mm (± 5.6 mm with 2.0 psi setting on the Dan-Inject CO(2-pressured rifle. Eighty percent of PIT were successfully injected in the muscle mass of white-tailed deer post-mortem with a mean (± SD penetration depth of 22.2 mm (± 3.8 mm; n = 6. We injected PIT successfully into 13 live, captive elk by remote delivery at about 20 m that remained functional for 7 months. We successfully demonstrated that PIT could be remotely delivered in darts into muscle mass of large mammals and remain functional for >6 months. Although further research is warranted to fully develop the technique, remote delivery of PIT technology to large mammals is possible using prototype implant darts.

  10. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Identification of paralogous HERV-K LTRs on human chromosomes 3, 4, 7 and 11 in regions containing clusters of olfactory receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhdin, E V; Lebedev, Y B; Glazkova, D V; Bornholdt, D; Arman, I P; Grzeschik, K H; Hunsmann, G; Sverdlov, E D

    2001-07-01

    A locus harboring a human endogenous retroviral LTR (long terminal repeat) was mapped on the short arm of human chromosome 7 (7p22), and its evolutionary history was investigated. Sequences of two human genome fragments that were homologous to the LTR-flanking sequences were found in human genome databases: (1) an LTR-containing DNA fragment from region 3p13 of the human genome, which includes clusters of olfactory receptor genes and pseudogenes; and (2) a fragment of region 21q22.1 lacking LTR sequences. PCR analysis demonstrated that LTRs with highly homologous flanking sequences could be found in the genomes of human, chimp, gorilla, and orangutan, but were absent from the genomes of gibbon and New World monkeys. A PCR assay with a primer set corresponding to the sequence from human Chr 3 allowed us to detect LTR-containing paralogous sequences on human chromosomes 3, 4, 7, and 11. The divergence times for the LTR-flanking sequences on chromosomes 3 and 7, and the paralogous sequence on chromosome 21, were evaluated and used to reconstruct the order of duplication events and retroviral insertions. (1) An initial duplication event that occurred 14-17 Mya and before LTR insertion - produced two loci, one corresponding to that located on Chr 21, while the second was the ancestor of the loci on chromosomes 3 and 7. (2) Insertion of the LTR (most probably as a provirus) into this ancestral locus took place 13 Mya. (3) Duplication of the LTR-containing ancestral locus occurred 11 Mya, forming the paralogous modern loci on Chr 3 and 7.

  12. Herniation pits and their renaissance in association with femoroacetabular impingement; Herniation Pits und ihre Renaissance im Zusammenhang mit femoroazetabulaerem Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, Stephonie [Unfallklinik Murnau (Germany). Radiologie; Augat, P. [Unfallklinik Murnau (Germany). Radiologie; Paracelsus Univ. Salzburg (Austria). Biomechanisches Labor; Scheidler, J. [Radiologischs Zentrum Muenchen-Pasing (Germany). Radiologie

    2010-07-15

    Hernitation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in 1982. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the information concerning HPs published since then and to show their association with the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) which has occurred within the last years. HPs are predominantly located at the anterior-superior femoral neck with a typical radiological appearance, which makes it possible to differentiate them from the numerous differential diagnoses mentioned. In the early publications HPs were described as a separate entity, while recent studies increasingly assign them to intra-osseous ganglia. In contrast to the early publications depicting HPs as an incidental finding, they are currently mainly mentioned in association with FAI and at the same time are partly considered to be a radiological indicator of FAI. In summary, HPs should always be recognized and documented because they may contribute to the diagnosis of FAI which is essential for preventing or delaying osteoarthritis of the hip joint in the early stage. (orig.)

  13. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  14. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmunt, S.; Christensen, L.; Richardson, C.

    1997-12-12

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned.

  15. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert

    2013-07-01

    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  16. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  17. Computer aided design and analysis of Sapan Dalam open pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baafi, E.Y.; Milawarma, E.; Cusack, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Mining Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Sapan Dalam coal deposit of Indonesia consists of ten steeply dipping seams with thicknesses varying between 0.1 and 3.5 m and split by shale clay, silt and sandstone. The area contains four faults dipping about 75{degree} with four to 85 m vertical displacements. The complex nature of the deposit coupled with limited 27 exploration drillholes at an average spacing of 200 m made it difficult to create a realistic geological model. A three-dimensional gridded seam model gave a fair representation of the deposit. Attempts to create an optimum pit using the WHITTLE 3D pit optimiser proved unsuccessful since the pit optimiser is restricted to standard regular or fixed blocks. The gridded seam model was converted to a fixed block model prior to the optimum pit design. Smoothing and pit base controlling were also introduced to obtain a smoother pit. A mining scenario produced 3.6 million tonnes of coal, 28.4 million bcm of waste and 18.1 million US dollars revenue. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Finger nail pitting in psoriasis and its relation with different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of pitting, vary considerably in different types of psoriasis. In clinical practice, toe nail examination is inconvenient. There are inadequate studies which show relation of nail pitting with duration and severity of the disease. The objective was to examine the incidence of finger nail pitting in all types of cutaneous psoriasis and its relation with different variables. This is a clinico-epidemiological study. A careful clinical examination of finger nails was done in day time. Severity of disease was calculated by psoriasis area severity index (PASI. Statistical analysis was done using Microcomputer statistics software (MSTAT. In study group, 621 patients and in control group 350 people were taken. Finger nail pitting was present in 37% (total number was 60 in 12% in study group. In control group, it was present in 10% (in all cases total number was 1 year duration group it was 40.5%.In mild psoriasis, pitting was present in 34.2%, while in severe cases it was 47.6%. Finger nail pitting is an important nail finding in psoriasis and its incidence increases with duration and severity of disease.

  19. New pollution reduction technologies through tank sealing of slag and ashes pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruell, A.; Revenco, V. [Institutul de Stuidii Si Proiectari Energetice S.A. (ISPE), Bucharest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Under the Romanian environment protection law provision no. 137/1995, the existing slag and ashes pits raise problems due to the exfiltrations from the pits tank towards the phreatic water sheet. The design includes the following steps to be taken: pit bed waterproofing under new works; bed ends sealing, parallel with pit aggradation for dumps in operation; waterproofing of aggradation dikes. The conventional solution is clay plating. When works are performed under bad weather conditions, and clay must be brought from remote distances, the clay plating solution should be compared to the geocomponents one. The latter area combination of geotextiles and bentone material that can be placed easily, joint in situ, and can be paid at negative temperatures. Once wet, geo components become impermeable. The paper describes the sealing performed at the slag and ashes pit of Vales Ceplea at Turceni thermal power plant, and the sealing solution being developed at the Beterega Nord slag and ashes pit at Rovinari thermal power plant. The necessary geophysical characteristics of the material are pointed out.

  20. Structural Design and Monitoring Analysis of Foundation Pit Support in Yiwu Huishang Tiandi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsu

    2017-08-01

    Huishang Tiandi deep foundation pit in Yiwu is a two-story basement,which is located in the downtown area and adjacent to the city center main traffic trunk. The surrounding environment is too com-plex to slope. The excavation depth is large, the formation is weak and complex, and the groundwater level is high.In order to ensure the safety of the foundation wall and the surrounding environment, the deformation of the foundation pit support is strictly controlled, and the deformation and internal force of the foundation supporting structure and the surrounding building are monitored.The deformation law of the foundation pit is obtained through the analysis of the horizontal displacement, the deformation rate of the supporting struc-ture, the surrounding environment of the foundation pit and the internal force of the anchor cable. The relia-bility and rationality of the design of foundation pit support are verified. It is of reference value for the de-sign and construction of other deep foundation pit engineering in Yiwu area.

  1. Corrosion pathways in liquid sulfur run-down pits and other liquid sulfur handling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Dowling, N.I.; Huang, M.

    2010-01-15

    This poster presentation explained why sulfur pits deteriorate over time and provided the detailed chemistry of the mechanisms for the deterioration of concrete in sulfur pits. Liquid and solid sulfur may build up in the pore structure of the concrete, which is followed by chemical reactions. The sulfur formation inside the concrete pore structure is catalyzed by concrete constituents. The sulfate formation in sulfur pit concrete was described. The chemical process that produces the corrosion of re-enforcing steel rods used in the construction of sulfur pits was also described. The consequence of such corrosion is the loss of structural integrity. The secondary corrosion processes at concrete pit reinforcing steel were also presented. To limit the deterioration of sulfur pit concrete, high-density silica facing should be used on the concrete to prevent the ingress of gases into the concrete. Silica does not catalyze the conversion of hydrogen disulfide and sulfur dioxide to sulfur, so there is no formation of stable sulfates and acidic intermediates. 8 figs.

  2. Origins of etch pits in β-Ga2O3(010) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Kenji; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Sasaki, Kohei; Kuramata, Akito; Ueda, Osamu; Kasu, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Etch pits of various shapes were observed on etched β-Ga2O3(010) single crystals and classified into types A-F according to shape. Type-A etch pits changed in shape in the order of types B, C, and D by etching. Groove-shaped pits observed on as-grown β-Ga2O3(010) single crystal surfaces [K. Hanada et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 030303 (2016)] were classified into type G. Type-G pits, which were determined to be void defects because of three-dimentional spaces in single crystals, existed before etching and changed to type A after etching. Therefore, after etching, void defects must change in shape as follows: Type G → A → B → C → D. The exposed facets change with etching time. Types-E and -F etch pits were observed to be parallelograms and hexagons, respectively. Types-E and -F etch pits must include dislocations along the [010] direction because they did not change in shape after etching.

  3. From Anomaly to Paralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years natural science students' enrolment patterns have changed. Many new study-programmes have emerged with new hot names like nanotechnology, molecular biomedicine, medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, health mathematics, product and design psychology etc. These new study programmes...... transcend the traditional disciplinary borders of the classical scientific disciplines, so that we see how core knowledge from the old sciences like physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics etc. are mixed with each other and sometimes with humanistic disciplines and social sciences. With the new study...... programmes we say “[f]arewell to the old classifications, such as physics, chemistry, biology. Welcome to new ones, like GRAINN — short for genomics, robotics, artificial intelligence, neuroscience and nanotechnology [and] SHEE — the sciences of safety, health and environment plus ethics” as Jerome Ravetz...

  4. Bacillus vini sp. nov. isolated from alcohol fermentation pit mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kedong; Chen, Xiaorong; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Zhao, Bingqiang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM0415(T), was isolated from an alcohol fermentation pit mud sample collected from Sichuan Luzhou-flavour liquor enterprise in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-10 % (w/v) (optimum: 1.0 %), 10-50 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 3.0-10.0 (optimum: 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T), with 98.4 and 97.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0415(T) and the two reference strains were 33.3 ± 1.2 and 42.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK7 and MK8. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0415(T) (=ACCC 06413(T) = JCM 19841(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vini sp. nov. is proposed.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeln, Terri G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-25

    A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

  6. White phosphorus pits focused feasibility study final July 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Martino, L.

    2007-08-21

    The White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP) Area of Concern (AOC) is a site of about 5.5 acres (2.2 ha) located in the J-Field Study Area, in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland (Figure 1.1). Considerable information about the WPP exists as a result of efforts to characterize the hazards associated with J-Field. Contamination in the J-Field Study Area was first detected during an environmental survey of the APG Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 (Nemeth et al. 1983) by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA; predecessor to the U.S. Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field (three of them at the WPP) (Nemeth 1989). Contamination was also detected in 1983 during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science (1984). The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved installing and sampling nine wells (four at the WPP) and collecting and analyzing surficial and deep composite soil samples (including samples from the WPP area). In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a post-wide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field. In 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phase hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil-gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed (four at the WPP), a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today. The results of the USGS study were published by Hughes (1993).

  7. The origin and diversification of the merozoite surface protein 3 (msp3) multi-gene family in Plasmodium vivax and related parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Benjamin L; Acosta, Mónica M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Carlton, Jane M; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2014-09-01

    The genus Plasmodium is a diversified group of parasites with more than 200 known species that includes those causing malaria in humans. These parasites use numerous proteins in a complex process that allows them to invade the red blood cells of their vertebrate hosts. Many of those proteins are part of multi-gene families; one of which is the merozoite surface protein-3 (msp3) family. The msp3 multi-gene family is considered important in the two main human parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, as its paralogs are simultaneously expressed in the blood stage (merozoite) and are immunogenic. There are large differences among Plasmodium species in the number of paralogs in this family. Such differences have been previously explained, in part, as adaptations that allow the different Plasmodium species to invade their hosts. To investigate this, we characterized the array containing msp3 genes among several Plasmodium species, including P. falciparum and P. vivax. We first found no evidence indicating that the msp3 family of P. falciparum was homologous to that of P. vivax. Subsequently, by focusing on the diverse clade of nonhuman primate parasites to which P. vivax is closely related, where homology was evident, we found no evidence indicating that the interspecies variation in the number of paralogs was an adaptation related to changes in host range or host switches. Overall, we hypothesize that the evolution of the msp3 family in P. vivax is consistent with a model of multi-allelic diversifying selection where the paralogs may have functionally redundant roles in terms of increasing antigenic diversity. Thus, we suggest that the expressed MSP3 proteins could serve as "decoys", via antigenic diversity, during the critical process of invading the host red blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrete element modeling of Martian pit crater formation in response to extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.; Ferrill, David A.

    2011-04-01

    Pit craters, circular to elliptical depressions that lack a raised rim or ejecta deposits, are common on the surface of Mars. Similar structures are also found on Earth, Venus, the Moon, and smaller planetary bodies, including some asteroids. While it is generally accepted that these pits form in response to material drainage into a subsurface void space, the primary mechanism(s) responsible for creating the void is a subject of debate. Previously proposed mechanisms include collapse into lave tubes, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. In this study, we employ two-dimensional discrete element models to assess both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting as mechanisms for forming pit craters. We also examine the effect of mechanical stratigraphy (alternating strong and weak layers) and variation in regolith thickness on pit morphology. Our simulations indicate that both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting are viable mechanisms. Both mechanisms lead to generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles; extensional fracturing results in generally symmetric pits, whereas dilational normal faulting produces strongly asymmetric geometries. Pit width is established early, whereas pit depth increases later in the deformation history. Inclusion of mechanical stratigraphy results in wider and deeper pits, particularly for the dilational normal faulting, and the presence of strong near-surface layers leads to pits with distinct edges as observed on Mars. The modeling results suggest that a thicker regolith leads to wider but shallower pits that are less distinct and may be more difficult to detect in areas of thick regolith.

  9. Pitting Corrosion Behaviour of New Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement Bars in Chloride-Containing Concrete Pore Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Chu, Hong-yan; Wang, Danqian; Ma, Han; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the pitting behaviour of a new corrosion-resistant alloy steel (CR) is compared to that of low-carbon steel (LC) in a simulated concrete pore solution with a chloride concentration of 5 mol/L. The electrochemical behaviour of the bars was characterised using linear polarisation resistance (LPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting profiles were detected by reflective digital holographic microscopy (DHM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical components produced in the pitting process were analysed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the CR bars have a higher resistance to pitting corrosion than the LC bars. This is primarily because of the periodic occurrence of metastable pitting during pitting development. Compared to the pitting process in the LC bars, the pitting depth grows slowly in the CR bars, which greatly reduces the risk of pitting. The possible reason for this result is that the capability of the CR bars to heal the passivation film helps to restore the metastable pits to the passivation state. PMID:28777327

  10. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the distribution and number of pit organs (free neuromasts) of sharks and rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Meredith B

    2003-04-01

    The distribution of pit organs (free neuromasts) has previously been documented for several species of pelagic sharks, but is relatively poorly known for rays and bottom-dwelling (demersal) sharks. In the present study, the complete distribution of pit organs was mapped in the demersal sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni, Orectolobus maculatus, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Chiloscyllium punctatum, and Asymbolus analis, and the rays Rhinobatos typus, Aptychotrema rostrata, Trygonorrhina sp. A, Raja sp. A, and Myliobatis australis. All of these species had pit organs scattered over the dorsolateral surface. The sharks also had "mandibular" pit organs (and "umbilical" pit organs in C. punctatum and A. analis) on the ventral surface, while pit organs were sparse or absent on the ventral surface of rays. All of the species examined here, except for M. australis, also had a "spiracular" group of pit organs adjacent to the eye and/or spiracle. Spiracular pit organs were also recorded for the sawshark Pristiophorus sp. A and the skate Pavoraja nitida, although the remainder of pit organs were not mapped in these species. The distribution and number of pit organs varied both within and among species. Pit organ distribution was asymmetrical in each individual examined, but no particular trend towards left or right "handedness" was observed in any species. Although rays have been thought to have fewer pit organs than sharks in general, this was not the case in the present study. All of the species examined here had few pit organs compared to the pelagic sharks previously documented, but it is not clear whether this is due to ecological or phylogenetic causes. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linning Qu

    Full Text Available Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV, a member of the genus Ampelovirus in the family Closteroviridae, infects different Prunus species and has a worldwide distribution. Yet the population structure and genetic diversity of the virus is still unclear. In this study, sequence analyses of a partial heat shock protein 70 homolog (HSP70h gene and coat protein (CP gene of PBNSPaV isolates from seven Prunus species grown in China revealed a highly divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population, sharing nucleotide similarities of 73.1-100% with HSP70h gene, and 83.9-98.6% with CP gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70h and CP sequences revealed segregation of global PBNSPaV isolates into four phylo-groups (I-IV, of which two newly identified groups, II and IV, solely comprised Chinese isolates. Complete genome sequences of three PBNSPaV isolates, Pch-WH-1 and Pch-GS-3 from peaches, and Plm-WH-3 from a plum tree, were determined. The three isolates showed overall nucleotide identities of 90.0% (Pch-GS-3 and 96.4% (Pch-WH-1 with the type isolate PL186, and the lowest identity of 70.2-71.2% with isolate Nanjing. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report evidence of significant recombination in the HSP70h gene of PBNSPaV variant Pch2 by using five programs implemented in RDP3; in addition, five codon positions in its CP gene (3, 8, 44, 57, and 88 were identified that appeared to be under positive selection. Collectively, these results indicate a divergent Chinese PBNSPaV population. In addition, our findings provide a foundation for elucidating the epidemiological characteristics of virus population.

  12. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  13. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  14. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  15. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  17. Co-expression with RadA and the characterization of stRad55B, a RadA paralog from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaea Sulfolobus tokodaii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ST0838 (designed stRad55B) is one of the four RadA paralogs (or Rad55 homologues) in the genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. The gene is induced by UV irradiation, sug-gesting that it is involved in DNA recombinational repair in this organism. However, this protein could not be expressed normally in vitro. In this study, thermostable and soluble stRad55B was obtained by co-expression with S. tokodaii RadA (stRadA) in E. coli, and the enzymatic properties were examined. It was found that stRad55B bound ssDNA preferentially and had a very weak ATPase activity that was not stimulated by DNA. The recombinant protein inhibited the strand exchange activity promoted by stRadA, indicating that stRad55B might be an inhibitor to the homologous recombination in this ar-chaeon. The results will be helpful for further functional and interaction analysis of RadA paralogs and for the understanding of the mechanism of recombinational repair in archaea.

  18. Co-expression with RadA and the characterization of stRad55B, a RadA paralog from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaea Sulfolobus tokodaii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ST0838 (designed stRad55B) is one of the four RadA paralogs (or Rad55 homologues) in the genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. The gene is induced by UV irradiation, suggesting that it is involved in DNA recombinational repair in this organism. However, this protein could not be expressed normally in vitro. In this study, thermostable and soluble stRad55B was obtained by co-expression with S. tokodaii RadA (stRadA) in E. coli, and the enzymatic properties were examined. It was found that stRad55B bound ssDNA preferentially and had a very weak ATPase activity that was not stimulated by DNA. The recombinant protein inhibited the strand exchange activity promoted by stRadA, indicating that stRad55B might be an inhibitor to the homologous recombination in this archaeon. The results will be helpful for further functional and interaction analysis of RadA paralogs and for the understanding of the mechanism of recombinational repair in archaea.

  19. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  20. Pitting and galvanic corrosion behavior of stainless steel with weld in wet-dry environment containing Cl-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion test of stainless steel with weld was carried out to investigate the corrosion behavior under the wetdry cyclic condition in the atmosphere containing Cl-. In the surface morphology, corrosion products were analyzed by metallographic observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the damage to stainless steel with weld in the atmosphere containing Cl- is due to localized corrosion, especially pitting and galvanic corrosion.Weld acts as the anode, whereas matrix acts as the cathode in the corrosion process. The pitting corrosion, including the nucleation and growth of a stable pit, is promoted by the presence of wet-dry cycles, especially during the drying stage. Pits centralizing in weld are found to be grouped together like colonies, with a number of smaller pits surrounding a larger pit. The composition of the corrosion products is Fe2O3, Cr2O3, Fe3O4, NiCrO4, etc.

  1. Association of bGH and Pit-1 gene variants with milk production traits in dairy Gyr bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Keiko Kusamura de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain genetic marker information in the Gyr breed by analyzing bGH and Pit-1 gene polymorphisms and to verify their association with milk production traits. One sample including 40 Gyr bulls were genotyped at two bGH gene restriction sites (bGH- AluI and bGH-MspI and at one restriction site in the Pit-1 gene (Pit-1 HinfI. The bGH-MspI(- allele was favorable for fat milk percentage. The heterozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/- bulls were superior for fat milk production, in relation to homozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/+. The Pit-1 and bGH genes are strong candidates in the dairy cattle QTL search, and zebuine populations are promising samples for this purpose.

  2. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    art show a celebration of beauty and experience -- abstract geology. The last design approach combines art and science in a human-nature ecosystem termed integration. With environmental concerns, an operating or reclaimed mine site can no longer be considered isolated from its surroundings. Site analysis of mine works needs to go beyond site-specific information and relate to the regional context of the greater landscape. Understanding design approach can turn undesirable features (mines and pits) into something perceived as desirable by the public.

  3. Prediction of microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel welds by modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilpas, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Materials and Structural Integrity

    1999-07-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of several computer models to accurately predict the solidification, microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel weld metals. Emphasis was given to modelling the effect of welding speed on solute redistribution and ultimately to the prediction of weld pitting corrosion resistance. Calculations were experimentally verified by applying autogenous GTA- and laser processes over the welding speed range of 0.1 to 5 m/min for several austenitic stainless steel grades. Analytical and computer aided models were applied and linked together for modelling the solidification behaviour of welds. The combined use of macroscopic and microscopic modelling is a unique feature of this work. This procedure made it possible to demonstrate the effect of weld pool shape and the resulting solidification parameters on microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance. Microscopic models were also used separately to study the role of welding speed and solidification mode in the development of microsegregation and pitting corrosion resistance. These investigations demonstrate that the macroscopic model can be implemented to predict solidification parameters that agree well with experimentally measured values. The linked macro-micro modelling was also able to accurately predict segregation profiles and CPT-temperatures obtained from experiments. The macro-micro simulations clearly showed the major roles of weld composition and welding speed in determining segregation and pitting corrosion resistance while the effect of weld shape variations remained negligible. The microscopic dendrite tip and interdendritic models were applied to welds with good agreement with measured segregation profiles. Simulations predicted that weld inhomogeneity can be substantially decreased with increasing welding speed resulting in a corresponding improvement in the weld pitting corrosion resistance. In the case of primary austenitic

  4. PRELIMINARY PLANKTON INVESTIGATIONS IN THE GRAVEL PIT AND WINTERPONDS NEAR JAGODNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tomec

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of plankton populations have been performed in the gravel pit and two winterponds near the place Jagodno, Novo Čiće, in the vicinity of Velika Gorica. Our goal was to examine plankton composition of the gravel pit and winterponds, two ecosystems characterized by specific life–conditions which change with time and space. Investigations were conducted during June 2007. Plankton samples were collected from water surface layer at four locations (two locations in the gravel pit and one location in each of two winterponds. Along with plankton sample collecting, measurements were made of some physico–chemical parameters (water temperature, pH–values and dissolved oxygen content in water. Water temperature at two sampling locations in the gravel pit and one location at each of the winterponds depended on the surrounding air temperature, and ranged from 22.5ºC to 23.6ºC. pH–reaction was alkaline, ranging from 8. 23 to 9. 02. Dissolved oxygen content in the gravel pit was around 10 mg/O2; in winterponds it ranged from 7.6 to 9.7 mg/O2 (Table 1. At the gravel pit locations total number of 32 phytoplankton species were determined; in winterponds were determined 37 (microphytic species? while zooplankton was represented in the phytoplankton community composition at the four locations with 5 species. Phytoplankton species determined in the samples from two gravel pit locations belonged to the system groups Dinophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta while in the samples from winterpond locations, along with the mentioned system groups, were found as well the representatives from the groups Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Zooplankton species belonged to the groups Rotatoria, Cladocera and Copepoda (Table 2. In gravel pit locations dominated diatoms or Bacillarophyceae while in winterponds the majority of phytoplankton mass consisted of the representatives of the species Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria and Euglenophyta. Qualitative

  5. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie

    2011-09-01

    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  6. Origin of pit chains in the floor of lunar Copernican craters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    There are small pit chains in the floor of lunar Copernican craters. They are usually so small in scale that there are few lunar spacecrafts to detect their detailed morphology. Combining camera data from Lunar Orbiter, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Kaguya and Chang’e-1 missions, 5 representative large Copernican craters on various terrains of the lunar surface are chosen to study the origin of the pit chains in the crater floor. The morphology and distribution characteristic of the pit chains are referred by the high resolution images in this research. It is suggested that it is the magma activities from the subsurface magma layer combining with the existence of fractures and faults under the crater floor that leaded the formation of the pit chains. The model is further verified and discussed using the regolith thickness data in the crater floor. Our model suggests that the pit chains are still developing in the floor of the Copernican craters and the Moon may not be totally cold. Finally, the model limitation and potential future work are discussed based on available data.

  7. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyungnam [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Wook [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, East-West Neo Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39 , acetabular index (AI) {<=}0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI. (orig.)

  8. NORM levels in Spanish pit lakes and their impact in neighboring environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjon, G.; Galvan, J.A.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R. [University of Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is a part of the South Zone of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (SW of Iberian Peninsula), being pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) the main mineral associated to this volcano-sedimentary complex. The intensive mining activities in the area, which started in the Roman Empire, have generated mine pits where underground and/or rainwater are stored. These stored waters have produced oxidation of pyrite and, consequently, the pH of pit water has become acid (pH around 2), causing the dissolution of metals and natural radionuclides. The main objective of this work is to show and discuss the levels found for different natural radionuclides (mainly uranium isotopes and daughters via α/γ spectrometry) in water samples and sediments collected from several mine pit lakes located in the south-west of Spain. The waters of the studied pit lakes can interact with the environment, and a fraction can be transferred to surrounding aquifers and even to the main river of the zone (the Odiel River). The waters of this river, when cross the mining area, show low pH values and high concentrations of U-isotopes due to acid mining drainage. Through the analysis of several isotope activity ratios, the presence of natural radionuclides in these pit lakes and its influence in the surrounding area and Odiel river will be additionally evaluated. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion behaviors of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-bing Li; Zhou-hua Jiang; Yan Yang; Yang Cao; Zu-rui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion behaviors of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steels (HNSS) were investigated by electrochemical and immersion testing methods in chloride solution, respectively. The chemical constitution and composition in the depth of passive films formed on HNSS were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). HNSS has excellent pitting and crevice corrosion resistance compared to 316L stainless steel. With increasing the nitrogen content in steels, pitting potentials and critical pitting temperature (CPT) increase, and the maximum, average pit depths and average weight loss decrease. The CPT of HNSS is correlated with the alloying element content through the measure of alloying for resistance to corrosion (MARC). The MARC can be expressed as an equation of CPT=2.55MARC-29. XPS results show that HNSS exhibiting excellent corrosion resis-tance is attributed to the enrichment of nitrogen on the surface of passive films, which forms ammonium ions increasing the local pH value and facilitating repassivation, and the synergistic effects of molybdenum and nitrogen.

  10. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion W. Jenkins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar, Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  11. Microstructural Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steels Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qifeng; Pan, Tongyan

    2017-05-01

    Two microscale numerical models are developed in this work using a moving-mesh approach to investigate the growth process of pitting in different iron phases and the corrosion prevention capability of polyaniline (PANi) on steels. The distributions of corrosion potential and current in the electrolyte-coating-steel system are computed to evaluate the anti-corrosion ability of PANi. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was used to accomplish the continuous remesh process as was needed to simulate the dynamic growing forefront of the modeled pitting domain. Experimental validation of the numerical models was conducted using the technique of scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The SKPFM-scanned surface topography and Volta potential difference exhibit comparable results to and thereby prove the numerical results. The potential distribution in the electrolyte phase of the validated models shows that the corrosion pit grows faster in the epoxy-only-coated steel than that in the PANi-primer-coated steel over the simulation time; also, the corrosion pit grows faster in the ferrite phase than in the cementite phase. The simulation results indicate that the epoxy-only coating lost its anti-corrosion capability as the coating was penetrated by electrolyte, while the PANi-based coating can still protect the steel from corrosion after the electrolyte penetration. The models developed in this work can be used to study the mechanisms of pitting corrosion as well as develop more effective corrosion prevention strategies for general metallic materials.

  12. Microstructural Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steels Using an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qifeng; Pan, Tongyan

    2017-03-01

    Abstracts Two microscale numerical models are developed in this work using a moving-mesh approach to investigate the growth process of pitting in different iron phases and the corrosion prevention capability of polyaniline (PANi) on steels. The distributions of corrosion potential and current in the electrolyte-coating-steel system are computed to evaluate the anti-corrosion ability of PANi. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was used to accomplish the continuous remesh process as was needed to simulate the dynamic growing forefront of the modeled pitting domain. Experimental validation of the numerical models was conducted using the technique of scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). The SKPFM-scanned surface topography and Volta potential difference exhibit comparable results to and thereby prove the numerical results. The potential distribution in the electrolyte phase of the validated models shows that the corrosion pit grows faster in the epoxy-only-coated steel than that in the PANi-primer-coated steel over the simulation time; also, the corrosion pit grows faster in the ferrite phase than in the cementite phase. The simulation results indicate that the epoxy-only coating lost its anti-corrosion capability as the coating was penetrated by electrolyte, while the PANi-based coating can still protect the steel from corrosion after the electrolyte penetration. The models developed in this work can be used to study the mechanisms of pitting corrosion as well as develop more effective corrosion prevention strategies for general metallic materials.

  13. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  14. Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Li, Juiki; Salamh, Yousef; Al-Laqtah, Nasir; Walker, Gavin; Ahmad, Mohammad N M

    2010-04-15

    A potential usefulness of raw date pits as an inexpensive solid adsorbent for methylene blue (MB), copper ion (Cu(2+)), and cadmium ion (Cd(2+)) has been demonstrated in this work. This work was conducted to provide fundamental information from the study of equilibrium adsorption isotherms and to investigate the adsorption mechanisms in the adsorption of MB, Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) onto raw date pits. The fit of two models, namely Langmuir and Freundlich models, to experimental data obtained from the adsorption isotherms was checked. The adsorption capacities of the raw date pits towards MB and both Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich models were found to be 277.8, 35.9, and 39.5 mg g(-1), respectively. Surface functional groups on the raw date pits surface substantially influence the adsorption characteristics of MB, Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) onto the raw date pits. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies show clear differences in both absorbances and shapes of the bands and in their locations before and after solute adsorption. Two mechanisms were observed for MB adsorption, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction, while other mechanisms were observed for Cu(2+) and Cd(2+). For Cu(2+), binding two cellulose/lignin units together is the predominant mechanism. For Cd(2+), the predominant mechanism is by binding itself using two hydroxyl groups in the cellulose/lignin unit. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pitting Behavior of L415 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Leaching Liquid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H. X.; Yang, X. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Song, D. D.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion behavior and laws of the west-east gas pressure pipeline of L415 steel were studied in simulated leaching liquid. The failure of the L415 steel during the pressure testing process was investigated using electrochemical polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test. The corrosion rate of the L415 steel increased with ion concentration in the leaching liquid. This rate reached about 0.8 mm a-1 and belonged to the severe corrosion grade. Pitting corrosion was observed in various simulated solutions with different aggressive species concentrations. The original ion concentration in the leaching liquid (1×) is the key factor influencing pitting initiation and development. Pitting showed easy nucleation, and its growth rate was relatively slow, in the basic simulating solution of the leach liquid (i.e., the ion content is compactable to the real condition in the rust on the inner steel pipe surface). Pitting was also highly sensitive and easily grew in the solution with doubled ion concentration in the basic simulating solution (2×). A uniform corrosion, instead of pitting, mainly occurred when the ion concentration was up to 10× of the basic solution.

  16. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang [KAIST, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys.

  17. Snakebite by the Shore Pit Viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) Treated With Polyvalent Antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Tan, Hock Heng

    2016-06-01

    Although snakebites are uncommon, there are several species of medically important venomous snakes native to Singapore. We present a case of envenoming by the shore pit viper (Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus) that showed clinical improvement when treated with the Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom. A 40-year-old man was bitten on his right hand by a snake, which was identified through photos and his description to be a shore pit viper, which is native to the local mangrove area. Severe swelling and pain developed immediately after the bite, which progressed up the arm. Because of the progression of local swelling, antivenom was started. He was given a total of 6 vials (60 mL) of polyvalent antivenom, with the first vial started 3 hours after the bite. He showed clinical improvement within 24 hours. His subsequent recovery was uneventful, with no other complications as a result of envenomation or antivenom use. Severe envenoming by the shore pit viper can lead to marked local effects such as extensive swelling and tissue necrosis. Antivenom is indicated in the presence of severe local envenomation. Antivenom against the shore pit viper is however not available locally. The Indian (Haffkine) polyvalent antivenom contains antibodies against 4 common venomous snakes in India, namely the Indian cobra, common krait, Russell's viper, and sawscaled viper. The improvement seen in this patient suggests possible cross-neutralizing activity of the Indian vipers' antivenom against the local shore pit viper venom. Further in vivo and in vitro studies should be performed to verify this clinical case.

  18. Differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations were conducted to examine the response of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), pitted morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.number/sup 1/ IPOLA), and ivy leaf morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. number IPOHE) to acifluorfen, fomesafen, and lactofen. In field studies, greatest soybean injury was observed with acifluorfen and lactofen. All treatments provided 80% or greater control of pitted morning glory 15 days after treatment. Only acifluorfen and fomesafen at 0.6 kg ai ha/sup -1/ provided 80% or greater ivy leaf morning glory. The differential response of pitted morning glory and ivy leaf morning glory to these diphenyl ether herbicides was reflected in soybean seed yields. In laboratory studies, 71 to 84% of applied /sup 14/C-acifluorfen was not absorbed into the leaf surface of ivy leaf morning glory. Thirty-two to 46% of applied acifluorfen was recovered from the leaf surface of pitted morning glory. Sixty-four percent of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was recovered from leaf surfaces of both morning glory species 96 h after treatment. Treated leaves of pitted morning glory contained 35 to 37% more /sup 14/C-acifluorfen than ivy leaf morning glory. Less than 28% of applied /sup 14/C-lactofen was absorbed into treated leaves of both morning glory species at 24, 48, and 96 h harvests.

  19. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  20. Effect of boron addition on pitting corrosion resistance of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel: Application of electrochemical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujar, M.G., E-mail: pujar55@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Das, C.R.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group (MMG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Brijitta, J.; Tata, B.V.R. [Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Weibull probability plots separate pitting and passive corrosion events. {yields} Gumbel distribution analysis gives maximum metastable pit depths. {yields} Addition of boron results in superior pitting corrosion resistance in 0.1 M NaCl. {yields} Incorporation of B into M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides refines them and improves pitting resistance. {yields} Coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and delta-ferrite result in inferior pitting resistance. - Abstract: 9Cr-1Mo steels indigenously melted with the addition of boron (Alloy B) and without it (Alloy D) along with Alloy C (without boron addition with minor changes in the trace element concentrations) were studied for their pitting corrosion resistance in 0.001 M, 0.01 M, 0.05 M and 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions using electrochemical noise (EN) technique. Weibull probability plots were used to determine the pit embryo generation rates. Gumbel extreme value analysis was conducted to determine the maximum metastable as well as stable pit radii. The analysis of the data showed superior pitting corrosion resistance of the Alloy B compared to Alloy C as well as Alloy D.

  1. Microscopic investigation of pitting corrosion in plasma nitrided austenitic stainless steel; Mikroskopische Untersuchung von Lochkorrosion an plasmanitriertem austenitischem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalada, Lisandro; Simison, Silvia N. [Univ. of Mar del Plata (Argentina). Faculty of Engineering; Bruehl, Sonia P. [National Univ. of Technology, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina). Surface Engineering Group

    2014-10-01

    UNS 31603 austenitic stainless steel was nitrided using different techniques, and pitting corrosion resistance was analysed in a chloride solution. All nitriding techniques, LEII, PI. and convectional DC nitriding produced a nitrided layer called S phase which is corrosion resistant. Pits morphology and layer structure was investigated using optical and electronic microscopy, SEM-FIB, EDS, and a 3D reconstruction of a pit was assessed using FIB tomography. It was concluded that pits are initiated in MnS inclusions and a channel was generated passing through the nitrided layer, connecting the steel with the electrolyte. Base alloy dissolution was observed beneath the nitrided layer.

  2. Electrochemical and pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel subjected to massive laser shock peening treatment with different coverage layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J. Z.; Han, B.; Cui, C. Y.; Li, C. J.; Luo, K. Y.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) treatment with different coverage layers on residual stress, pitting morphologies in a standard corrosive solution and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel were investigated by pitting corrosion test, potentiodynamic polarisation test, and SEM observations. Results showed massive LSP treatment can effectively cause an obvious improvement of pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 4145 steel, and increased coverage layer can also gradually improve its corrosion resistance. Massive LSP treatment with multiple layers was shown to influence pitting corrosion behaviour in a standard corrosive solution.

  3. Association of bGH and Pit-1 gene variants with milk production traits in dairy Gyr bulls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Keiko Kusamura de; Del Lama Silvia Nassif; Martinez Mario Luiz; Freitas Ary Ferreira de

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain genetic marker information in the Gyr breed by analyzing bGH and Pit-1 gene polymorphisms and to verify their association with milk production traits. One sample including 40 Gyr bulls were genotyped at two bGH gene restriction sites (bGH- AluI and bGH-MspI) and at one restriction site in the Pit-1 gene (Pit-1 HinfI). The bGH-MspI(-) allele was favorable for fat milk percentage. The heterozigous Pit-1 HinfI (+/-) bulls were superior for fat milk produ...

  4. Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome; a novel clinical entity leading to hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Iguchi, Genzo; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Hidaka-Takeno, Ryoko; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Various hypothalamic-pituitary diseases cause hypopituitarism. Inflammation related to autoimmunity also causes hypopituitarism. Hypophysitis is a representative disease caused by autoimmunity. Generally, anterior pituitary hormones are non-specifically impaired in this condition, but specific hormone defects have been reported in some cases. Anti-PIT-1 (pituitary-specific transcription factor 1) antibody syndrome is a novel clinical entity that presents an acquired combined pituitary hormone deficiency characterized by a specific defect in growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Circulating anti-PIT-1 antibody along with various autoantibodies are detected with multiple endocrine organopathy, meeting the definition of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Mechanistically, cytotoxic T lymphocytes that specifically react with PIT-1 protein play an important role in the development of this syndrome.

  5. A case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankurt, Murat; Aslan, Lokman; Aksoy, Adnan; Başkan, Ahmet M

    2015-03-01

    To report a case of unusual coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit. A 29-year-old male patient followed up because of the left established and right subclinical keratoconus presented with blurred vision on the left eye that occurred within days. In addition to a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, computerized corneal topography (CT), corneal pachymetry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination were performed. The corneal CT showed a mild keratoconus pattern, with a minimum corneal pachymetry of 472 in the right eye and moderate keratoconus pattern with a minimum pachymetry of 435 micron in the left eye. The OCT scans showed the presence of the optic disc pit and related maculopathy. This is the second report of the coexistence of keratoconus and optic disc pit in the literature. The association of these two entities is therefore less likely to be accidental. Further histopathological studies will be necessary to explain this relationship between two entities.

  6. Uncertainty Representation Method for Open Pit Optimization Results Due to Variation in Mineral Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to quantitatively represent the uncertainty existing in open pit optimization results due to variations in mineral prices. After generating multiple mineral prices using Monte Carlo simulation with data on past mineral prices, a probability model that represents the uncertainty was developed by integrating multiple open pit optimization results derived from the mineral prices. The results of applying the proposed method to the copper-zinc deposits showed that significant uncertainty exists in open pit optimization results due to the variation in copper prices. It was also found that the method has a potential as a tool for classifying the estimation results of ore reserve based on confidence level.

  7. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  8. Surgical Management of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy with Outer Retinal Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Shreekant Kelkar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the successful outcome of a rare optic pit-associated maculopathy with an outer retinal hole following 23 G vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling and fluid-gas exchange without additional endolaser. Method: Interventional case report. Results: This case report documents a 56-year-old male patient with complaints of progressive diminution of vision in the right eye more than in the left eye due to an optic disc pit with an outer retinal hole and a cataract. Optical coherence tomography confirmed the presence of an outer retinal hole. The case report shows the successful outcome of a rare optic pit-associated maculopathy with an outer retinal hole and a cataract following phacoemulsification with 23 G vitrectomy, ILM peeling and fluid-gas exchange without additional endolaser.

  9. The Great Bear Flare Pit Project : review of work to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridal, J. [St. Lawrence River Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Cornwall, ON (Canada); Lean, D. [Ottawa Univ., Dept. of Biology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Findlay, S.C. [Ottawa Univ., Inst. for Research on Environment and Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-04-30

    Published information regarding potential toxic agents associated with flare emissions and a study to determine the risk posed to Treaty 8 First Nations (T8FN) peoples and wildlife was reviewed as part of the Great Bear Flare Pit Project (GBFPP). The project is concerned with the study of water and soil contamination in the immediate vicinity of flare pits in the Del Rio, Doig basin, Blueberry River, and Halfway River regions of T8FN lands in Alberta. The GBFPP has established good baseline data on metal contamination, and other contaminants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the immediate vicinity of selected flare pits. Based on a critical assessment of reports published to date a series of prioritized recommendations for further research are made. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Calculation of slope-cover height under price fluctuation in open-pit mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jinyan; Cai Qingxiang; Liu Fuming; Chen Shuzhao

    2014-01-01

    Leaving ditches between adjacent mining areas can effectively reduce re-stripping in the latter mining area and simultaneously lead to an increment in internal dumping costs in the former mining area. This paper establishes calculation models for these two marginal costs. The optimizing model for slope cover height can be determined by including marginal cost models in the objective function. The paper has two main contributions:(a) it fully considers redistribution of dumping space in the model;(b) it introduces price fluctuations and cash discounts in the model. We use the typical open-pit mine as an example to test and prove the model. We conclude that a completely covered slope is reasonable in Haerwusu open pit mine;in addition to an increasing price index, the slope cover height can be reduced;and that price changes are one of the most important influencing factors of slope cover height optimization in an open-pit mine.

  11. Dynamics of pit filling in heteroepitaxy via phase-field simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth on a pit-patterned substrate is investigated by phase-field simulations, tackling both film and substrate geometry and elastic properties. The dynamics results from material deposition and redistribution via surface diffusion according to the tendency toward free-energy minimization. The balance between surface energy, misfit strain, and wetting effects is taken into account. Numerical solution by finite-element method permits to properly account for the role played by the actual pit morphology in determining strain relaxation. The mechanisms leading to island growth into the pit are discussed. Different growth parameters and pattern geometries are considered and their effects on island ordering are explained and related to experimental evidences in literature.

  12. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  13. An assessment of a partial pit ventilation system to reduce emission under slatted floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wentao; Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt;

    2012-01-01

    CFD simulations were carried out to assess the feasibility of using RANS (Reynolds – averaged Navier– Stokes) turbulence models to evaluate the performance of a partial pit ventilation system to reduce gas emission under slatted floor. The entire system included a pit model with slatted floor...... and pit exhaust system, a wind table to simulate ground and a wind tunnel to simulate room space of a naturally ventilated livestock house. CFD simulations started with the selection of a proper domain. Two domains were chosen to evaluate the effect of domain simplification. The results showed...... that the effect was significant. The assessment of different turbulence models including the standard, RNG, realizable k _ e models; transition SST k _ x model; Reynolds Stress Models were conducted. Results of RSM were found out to agree best with measured results. In order to understand the transportation...

  14. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  15. The Suggestion of the Macrophoto Method for the Evaluation of the Gear Damages by Pitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiláková, Beáta; Bošanský, Miroslav; Zápotočný, Ján

    2012-12-01

    It is necessary to determine regularly the span of a damaged gear surface caused by pitting. It is an arduous task, because the size of the damage on the tooth flank depends on the number of cycles and the torque. Therefore it is needed to check continually the degree of the surface damage during the testing. When evaluating it is needed to take into account both the area of one tooth and all teeth. In the past various tedious methods with the arduous manual evaluating were used to evaluate pitting . The article deals with the analysis and evaluating of pitting by a new original macrophoto method via the electronic microscope with the computer processing. The main advantage of this method is its speed, exactness and universality.

  16. Pitting Corrosion of 316L Stainless Steel under Low Stress below Yield Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Shengjie; CHENG Xuequn; LI Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) under various stress was studied by potentiodynamic polarization,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results of polarization curves show that,with the increase of the stress,the pitting potentials and the passive current density markedly decrease firstly (180 MPa),and then increase greatly (200 MPa).The corresponding surface morphologies of the samples after the polarization test well correspond to the results.Mott-Schottky analysis proved the least Cl- adsorbed to the surface of passive film with more positive flat potential,indicating that a moderate stress could increase the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L SS in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  17. Co-Evolution Optimization of Anchored Row Piles for Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 吴恒; 李陶声; 韦日钰; 陈秋莲

    2001-01-01

    The thinking of co-evolution is applied to the optimization of retaining and protecting structure for deep foundation excavation, and the system of optimization of anchored row piles for deep foundation pit has been already developed successfully. For the co-evolution algorithm providing an evolutionary mechanism to simulate ever-changing problem space, it is an optimization algorithm that has high performance, especially applying to the optimization of complicated system of retaining and protecting for deep foundation pit. It is shown by many engineering practices that the co-evolution algorithm has obvious optimization effect, so it can be an important method of optimization of retaining and protecting for deep foundation pit. Here the authors discuss the co-evolution model, object function, all kinds of constraint conditions and their disposal methods, and several key techniques of system realization.

  18. Research on deformation prediction method of soft soil deep foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng-hai; ZHENG Yan; YANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of soft soil deep foundation pit for the construction and geotechnical characteristics of the special medium,it is difficult to calculate theoretically accurately structural deformation of the foundation pit,so in the course of excavation on the construction of the information is particularly important.The analysis and comparison of several popular non-linear forecasting methods,combined with the actual projects,set up a grey theoretical prediction model,time series forecasting model,improved neural network model to predict deformation of the foundation pit.The results show that the use of neural network to predict with high accuracy solution,it is the foundation deformation prediction effective way in underground works with good prospects.

  19. Research on deformation prediction method of soft soil deep foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Feng-hai; ZHENG Yan; YANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of soft soil deep foundation pit for the construction and geotechnical characteristics of the special medium, it is difficult to calculate theoreti-cally accurately structural deformation of the foundation pit, so in the course of excavation on the construction of the information is particularly important. The analysis and compari-son of several popular non-linear forecasting methods, combined with the actual projects, set up a grey theoretical prediction model, time series forecasting model, improved neural network model to predict deformation of the foundation pit. The results show that the use of neural network to predict with high accuracy solution, it is the foundation deformation prediction effective way in underground works with good prospects.

  20. Evaluation of pitting corrosion with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for alumina/aluminium alloys composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, C.; Bronson, A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The pitting susceptibility of monolithic aluminum 6061 alloy and alumina/aluminum alloy composites has been analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and subsequent comparison with their polarization scans. The composites consisting of 0.10 and 0.15 volume fraction of alumina particles (VFAP) and the monolith as cylindrical electrodes were rotated at 1500 rpm while immersed in NaCl solution. The passive currents of the composites were greater than that of the monolith as per the polarization scans. The impedance spectra were acquired at constant potential increments along the passive region up to the pitting potential. The impedance spectra represented by semicircles on a Nyquist plot acquired above the pitting potential collapsed underneath the spectra obtained in the passive region near the corrosion potential for the monolithic alloy and composites. The impedance spectra modeled with a simplified equivalent circuit indicate that the effective capacitance for the composites is greater than that of the monolithic alloy.