Full Text Available Czeslaw Wycech as education minister in the Interim Government of National Unity had taken a number of initiatives aimed at improving the functioning of the oganization of education in post-war Poland. He devoted much attention to shaping the territorial division of the school administration. He set himself a target of fully implementing compulsory education. He improved the structure of elementary education, abolished the three-level organization of these schools and established one-year classes. He introduced into elementary schools transitory curricula with partially revised content. He joined the efforts to increase the number of secondary and vocational schools and to popularize pre-school education. He attempted to organise educational management at the level of districts and counties. He came up with some important legislative initiatives, aimed at a comprehensive reform of the Polish system of education. He aspired to open under favourable conditions, the eighth grade of elementary school. He kept improving the teachers` training system in Poland. He wanted to educate the young generation of Poles according to contemporary needs.
Lühidalt C. Miloszi 1997. a. ilmunud raamatutest: lühiesseede kogumik 'Miloszi ABC' (Abecadlo Milosza), esseekogumik 'Elu saartel' (Zycie na wryspah) ning aforismide, proosaluule ja mõttekildude kogumik 'Koerake tee ääres' (Piesek przydrozny)
Balti riikide ja Taiwani poliitilistest sidemetest: Taiwan pole saavutanud diplomaatiliste suhete sõlmimist Baltimaades, kuigi väikesed taasiseseisvunud riigid paistsid olevat sobilikud liitlased. Tabelid
Riflessioni sulla ricezione italiana di Czesław Miłosz. Con annessa una bibliografia italiana delle opere e della critica [The reception of the works of Czeslaw Milosz in Italy. With the complete bibliography of Milosz’s texts and texts on Milosz in Italian
Full Text Available The author presents the reception of the works of Czesław Miłosz in Italy starting from the first articles mentioning his name in the late 1940s. After his emigration from Poland in the 1950s, thanks to his efforts in favor of freedom of expression and of criticism of socialist realism, he found many Italian intellectuals who shared the same views. In 1980, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, Miłosz had his greatest moment of fame, which allowed him to publish his most important works in Italy. The second part of the article consists of the complete bibliography of Miłosz’s texts in Italian, including those published in newspapers and magazines.
The article is a review of important articles concerning the works of Czesław Milosz which were published in 2011, the Year of Czeslaw Milosz. The author investigates which aspects of the poet’s works are still interesting for researchers and whether any new interpretive perspectives have emerged.
Johannes Paulus II 1999. a. 4. aprilli kirjast 'Nendele, kes kirglikult ja pühendunult otsivad ilu uusi 'ilmutusi', et kinkida need maailmale kunstilise loomena'. Kunstnik kui sõnumi kuulutaja. Kas kirik vajab kunsti ja kunst kirikut.Czeslaw Milosz, Wojciech Kilar, Stefan Chwin paavsti kirjast
Full Text Available In the last decades of his life Seamus Heaney enjoyed phenomenal worldwide success, outselling, or so it was widely held, all other poets writing in English combined, a fact attesting to the existence of an international component in his work. A close study of the entire body of his poetry, as well as a study of the concurrent poetic interests he himself professed and which other critics have identified, reveals a subtle and gradual shift toward what may be referred to as the “international style”. The reader encounters such a style, prominently manifest, in the work of some of Heaney’s poetic influences, especially Eastern European poets like Czeslaw Milosz and Zbigniew Herbert. This article argues, however, that Heaney’s stylistic shift was too slight to account for the enormity of his international success and asserts instead that his far-ranging appeal is a matter of tone: Heaney’s attitude toward his material, but more so, deep characteristics of his personality – what Ted Hughes refers to as “the ultimate suffering and decision” in him –occupy space below the surface of his work and imbue it with a quality to which readers around the world are drawn.
Starting with two statements made by two great artists and witnesses of the XXth century - Joseph Brodsky and the Polish poet, Tadeusz Rozewicz - the author discusses the roots of our current moral crisis to which we ourselves bear witness: in the unchecked population explosion (Brodsky), and in the sinister legacy of World War II, the effects of which we witness on a daily basis (Rozewicz). The author recalls a third witness: Czeslaw Milosz, who wrote that the world's progress exhibits an inevitable tendency toward nihilism. In his discourse with the three statements mentioned, the author refers to certain XXth century intellectuals - Ortega y Gasset, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Mircea Eliade, Herbert Read - who confirm and develop the thesis of man s spiritual fall and rejection of transcendence through technology. The author further illustrates his thesis with examples taken from the scientific research concerning IT, cloning, euthanasia, as well as from the world of the arts from the apocalyptic works of Hieronymous Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder to the latest performers. He invokes a worldview which, by rejecting the metaphysics of man s birth, aging, and death, also rejects the judeo-christian taboo of the human body as a "dwelling place for the spirit" (porno festivals, exhibitions of human corpses by Prof. von Hagens in Germany).
High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab
Full Text Available Dorota Dobrzyn-Matusiak,1 Czeslaw Marcisz,2 Ewelina Bąk,3 Halina Kulik,1 Ewa Marcisz4 1Department of Nursing Propaedeutics, 2Department of Gerontology and Geriatric Nursing, School of Health Care, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bielsko-Biała, Bielsko-Biała, Poland; 4Department of Anxiety Disorders, Hospital of Ministry of Internal Affairs, Katowice, Poland Background: The objective of the study was to evaluate health aspects in elderly individuals in social, institutional, and home care in Poland.Methods: A total of 300 elderly individuals in care in Poland were included in the study. The subjects were divided into three groups: residents of long-term care institutions (group I, residents of adult day-care homes (group II, and community-dwelling subjects (group III. Each group consisted of 100 subjects. Questionnaires evaluating the following physical and mental dimensions of health were used: SF-36 Health Survey, basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini–mental state examination.Results: It was found that the health aspects of the elderly varied depending on whether care was provided in an institutionalized or a home environment, and the lowest health status was found in the elderly receiving in-home care. Furthermore, home-based elderly indicated significant limitations in performing basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living, as well as a higher prevalence of depression and cognitive impairment.Conclusion: The elderly in long-term institutionalized care, both in a residential home and adult day-care homes, were characterized by a better physical and mental health status than those receiving in-home care. It seemed that worse health status, including the more frequent depression occurrence and cognitive function disorders in the elderly using the nursing care at their homes
. Vol 35, No 21 (14 November 2002) L461-L467 A Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice J Hecker Denschlag, J E Simsarian, H Häffner, C McKenzie, A Browaeys, D Cho, K Helmerson, S L Rolston and W D Phillips J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 14 (28 July 2002) 3095-3110 Locality of a class of entangled states I R Senitzky J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 14 (28 July 2002) 3029-3039 Solitons and vortices in ultracold fermionic gases Tomasz Karpiuk, Miroslaw Brewczyk and Kazimierz Rzazewski J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 14 (28 July 2002) L315-L321 Stable islands in chaotic atom-optics billiards, caused by curved trajectories M F Andersen, A Kaplan, N Friedman and N Davidson J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 9 (14 May 2002) 2183-2190 Emission probability and photon statistics of a coherently driven mazer Jin Xiong and Zhi-Ming Zhang J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 9 (14 May 2002) 2159-2172 The Li+-H2 system in a rigid-rotor approximation: potential energy surface and transport coefficients I Røeggen, H R Skullerud, T H Løvaas and D K Dysthe J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 7 (14 April 2002) 1707-1725 The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation C W Gardiner, J R Anglin and T I A Fudge J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 6 (28 March 2002) 1555-1582 Oxygen ion impurity in the TEXTOR tokamak boundary plasma observed and analysed by Zeeman spectroscopy J D Hey, C C Chu, S Brezinsek, Ph Mertens and B Unterberg J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 6 (28 March 2002) 1525-1553 Electron-hexafluoropropene (C3F6) scattering at intermediate energies Czeslaw Szmytkowski, Pawel Mozejko and Stanislaw Kwitnewski J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 5 (14 March 2002) 1267-1274 High-resolution investigations of C2 and CN optical emissions in laser-induced plasmas during graphite ablation S Acquaviva and M L De Giorgi J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. Vol 35, No 4 (28 February 2002) 795-806 New definition of a
we had an unforgettable experience producing paper sheets ourselves in an old but still operational paper mill in the green enchanting spa of Duszniki Zdrój. A short intensive course in pottery handcraft was also offered to us in the Skansen. Hiking in the rocky labyrinth of Szczeliniec (please try to pronounce this name describing a magnificent cliffed hill with creviced rocks) was also a great adventure. This was followed by a ride on the serpentine Road of a Hundred Turns. And there was another event strongly supported by the local authorities. Two special tutorials on energy research and fusion for young scholars and the general public attracted nearly 200 people. The School was financially supported by the International Centre for Dense Magnetised Plasmas at IPPLM, European Commission, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria), the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) and the US Department of Energy. We would like to thank cordially our sponsors. Their financial support made it possible for a number of students and teachers to come to Kudowa Zdrój. We are very grateful to Dr Adam Ziembinski, the director of the spa in Kudowa, and his staff for the immense hospitality during our stay. We wish to thank Mr Czeslaw Krecichwost, the mayor of Kudowa Zdrój, for his strong support and interest in the School and help in organizing the lectures for scholars and residents of the region. And our most cordial thanks and gratitude go to Mr Ryszard Panfil for his great kindness, inexhaustible energy and organizational efficiency that helped all of us to enjoy the meeting. We thank all the participants for their contributions and we thank the reviewers of all submitted papers. Thank you for your hard work and co-operation. We are looking forward to the next school and all hope to meet again in Kudowa. Marek Rubel, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Irena Ivanova-Stanik, Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion