WorldWideScience

Sample records for pirenzepine

  1. [Corneal permeability of topically applied pirenzepine solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-di; Zhang, Jin-song; Yan, Pan-shi

    2006-06-01

    To study the corneal permeability of three different pirenzepine eye-drop solutions and provide reference for further clinical use. Sixty-three New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups. Each group of rabbits received 2% pirenzepine (pirenzepine group), 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% hyaluronic acid (hyaluronic acid group), or 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% azone (azone group). One drop eye-drops was applied to conjunctive sac every 5 min for six times. Aqueous samples were obtained from each group at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 24.0 h after the last drop, respectively. Concentration of pirenzepine in these samples was determined by the HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography). Stimulation symptom of rabbit eyes was also observed. The concentrations of pirenzepine in aqueous humor were (0.40 +/- 0.06) microg/ml at 0.5 h, (0.53 +/- 0.03) microg/ml at 1.0 h, (1.52 +/- 0.33) microg/ml at 2.0 h and (0.15 +/- 0.02) microg/ml at 4.0 h in pirenzepine group. Aqueous humor concentration of pirenzepine in both 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% azone and 2% pirenzepine with 0.1% hyaluronic acid were significantly higher than that of single pirenzepine application, and their bioavailability in the groups with combinations of pirenzepine with 0.1% azone or 0.1% hyaluronic acid were 23.0 times and 3.4 times higher than that of single pirenzepine usage. No obvious irritate symptom was found in rabbit of all three groups after eye-drop applying. The combination application of pirenzepine with azone or hyaluronic acid has higher corneal permeability compared with pirenzepine alone. This result indicates that azone and hyaluronic acid could be used in pirenzepine eye-drop solution to increase corneal permeability.

  2. Comparison of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and pirenzepine-ranitidine combination for reducing preoperative gastric fluid acidity and volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, N; Nishina, K; Mikawa, K; Shiga, M; Obara, H

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a two-part controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative oral pirenzepine (muscarinic receptor antagonist known to inhibit gastric secretion), ranitidine, and the combination pirenzepine-ranitidine in controlling gastric fluid pH and volume in 210 ASA I children, aged 2-14 yr, undergoing elective surgery. In the first part of the study (n = 90), the proportion of children considered at risk for aspiration pneumonitis was reduced with pirenzepine 25 mg (P pirenzepine 25 mg with placebo; ranitidine 75 mg with placebo; pirenzepine 25 mg with ranitidine 75 mg; and placebo and placebo. These medications were administered 1 h before anaesthesia. After tracheal intubation, volume and pH of the gastric fluid aspiration via a multiorifice orogastric tube were measured. Pirenzepine 25 mg decreased gastric fluid volume (P pirenzepine-ranitidine combination reduced gastric fluid acidity and volume (P < 0.05).

  3. Does pirenzepine distinguish between 'subtypes' of muscarinic receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelenyi, I.

    1982-01-01

    Pharmacological studies with pirenzepine were carried out on the isolated ileum and atrium of the guinea-pig and on the acid secretion from the isolated stomach of the mouse. Pirenzepine inhibited the bethanechol-evoked changes in all three organs in a dose-dependent manner. The slopes of the Schild-plots confirmed the competitive nature of the antagonism by pirenzepine. The estimated pA2-values were very similar. Based on these data, it might be concluded that pirenzepine is an anticholinoceptor compound without specific affinity for gastric muscarinic receptors. PMID:6897522

  4. Effect of pirenzepine on gallbladder emptying in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshavarzian, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Anagnostides, A.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of the selective antimuscarinic agent, pirenzepine, on gallbladder function was studied in six healthy volunteers, using /sup 99m/Tc HIDA (N-(2,6-diethylthenyl) carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) hepatobiliary scanning. Pirenzepine, in doses that inhibit gastric acid secretion, did not alter gallbladder emptying responses to sham feeding stimulation or to a test meal.

  5. Functionalized Congener Approach to Muscarinic Antagonists: Analogues of Pirenzepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Yishai; Bradbury, Barton J.; Baumgold, Jesse; Paek, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine (5,11-dihydro-11-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was derivatized to explore points of attachment of functionalized side chains for the synthesis of receptor probes and ligands for affinity chromatography. The analogues prepared were evaluated in competitive binding assays versus [3H]-N-methylscopolamine at four muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1AChR-m4AChR) in membranes from rat heart tissue and transfected A9L cells. 9-(Hydroxymethyl)pirenzepine, 8-(methylthio)pirenzepine, and a series of 8-aminosulfonyl derivatives were synthesized. Several 5-substituted analogues of pirenzepine also were prepared. An alternate series of analogues substituted on the 4-position of the piperazine ring was prepared by reaction of 4-desmethylpirenzepine with various electrophiles. An N-chloroethyl analogue of pirenzepine was shown to form a reactive aziridine species in aqueous buffer yet failed to affinity label muscarinic receptors. Within a series of aminoalkyl analogues, the affinity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased. Shorter chain analogues were generally much less potent than pirenzepine, and longer analogues (7–10 carbons) were roughly as potent as pirenzepine at m1 receptors, but were nonselective. Depending on the methylene chain length, acylation or alkyl substitution of the terminal amine also influenced the affinity at muscarinic receptors. PMID:2066986

  6. Effects of atropine and pirenzepine on heart rate turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukajlovic, Dejan D; Guettler, Norbert; Miric, Milutin; Pitschner, Heinz Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that mortality risk in patients after myocardial infarction could be estimated by heart rate turbulence (HRT), a short-term change in heart rate after ventricular premature beat (VPB), presumably caused by baroreceptor mechanism. We sought to determine whether pharmacological blockade with atropine, or augmentation of vagal tone with pirenzepine given in small doses would influence HRT. In 30 patients with normal echocardiogram, and without signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease, after electrophysiologic examination or radiofrequency ablation for supraventricular arrhythmias was completed, turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) in basal state, after 1.3 mg IV pirenzepine and finally, after atropine in dose of 0.04 mg/kg of body weight were compared. As assessed by Friedman ANOVA test both pirenzepine and atropine caused a significant change in both TO (P pirenzepine to -5.99 +/- 5.6% (P pirenzepine to 26.8 +/- 19.9 ms/R-R interval (P pirenzepine from 706.8 +/- 106.8 to 830 +/- 151.9 ms (P pirenzepine increases HRT; vagal blockade with atropine decreases HRT. This finding suggests that a normal vagal innervation of heart is a prerequisite for the phenomenon of HRT.

  7. Reduction of clozapine-induced hypersalivation by pirenzepine is safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B; Weigmann, H; Hiemke, C; Weber, B; Fritze, J

    2004-03-01

    Hypersalivation is known as a frequent, disturbing, and socially stigmatizing side effect of therapy with the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. It has been shown that the addition of the anticholinergic pirenzepine is able to reduce clozapine-induced hypersalivation, probably by blocking M4-receptors. Nevertheless, a pharmacokinetic interaction between both compounds cannot be excluded. In this pilot study, 29 schizophrenic patients (ICD-10; 51.7 % female; age: 36.7 +/- 8.7 years [mean +/- SD]) were included. Serum concentrations of clozapine and its pharmacologically active metabolite N-desmethylclozapine were determined under steady-state conditions by automated HPLC with UV detection before and after addition of pirenzepine for 3 days. Significantly fewer patients reported hypersalivation after addition of pirenzepine (69 % vs. 34.5 %, P = 0.002). No significant differences of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine serum levels before (329 +/- 181 ng/ml and 218.0 +/- 123.4 ng/ml, respectively) and 3 days after (336 +/- 215 ng/ml and 235.9 +/- 164.4 ng/ml, respectively) addition of pirenzepine were found. In three patients, however, clozapine serum levels increased; this was probably unrelated to pirenzepine. In conclusion, treatment of clozapine-induced hypersalivation with pirenzepine is a recommendable combination with low risk of additional side effects.

  8. HPLC determination of pirenzepine dihydrochloride in rabbit aqueous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiasheng; Li, Pengmei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hui

    2005-08-05

    Pirenzepine was considered as a pharmacologic agent of preventing form-deprivation myopia. To assess the ocular bioavailability of pirenzepine, a HPLC method for determination of pirenzepine in rabbit aqueous humor was developed. An HPLC system was used in the reverse phase mode for the determination of pirenzepine. A Luna RP18 5 microm 4.6 mm x 150 mm column was employed at 35 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol/0.02 M KH2PO4/sodium 1-pentanesulfonate (350/650/1, v/v/m, pH was adjusted to 8.0 by dropping 1M NaOH). The flow rate was 1 ml/min. Pirenzepine was monitored at 280 nm. Sample treatment procedure consists of deproteinisation with methanol. Calibration curves fitted by plotting the peak area versus concentration were linear in the range 20-400 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of present method was 20 ng/ml. Within-day and inter-day coefficient of variation was lower than 10%. Analytical recoveries were determined as 92.4, 95.4 and 101.4% at concentrations of 40, 200 and 400 ng/ml. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring ocular concentration of pirenzepine.

  9. The binding of pirenzepine to digitonin-solubilized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from the rat myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N. J.; Hulme, E. C.; Keen, M.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of pirenzepine to digitonin-solubilized rat myocardial muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been examined at 4 degrees C. Solubilization produced only small changes in the binding of N-methylscopolamine and atropine. In contrast to the low affinity binding of pirenzepine found to be present in in the membranes, high affinity binding was detected in the soluble preparation. In both preparations, pirenzepine binding was complex. High affinity pirenzepine binding (KD approximately 3 X 10(-8)M) to the soluble myocardial receptors could be monitored directly using [3H]-pirenzepine. [3H]-pirenzepine-labelled soluble myocardial receptors have a sedimentation coefficient of 11.1 s. This indicates that [3H]-pirenzepine binds predominantly to the uncoupled form of the receptor. However, [3H]-pirenzepine-agonist competition experiments indicated that the high affinity pirenzepine binding sites are capable of coupling with a guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein. Pirenzepine affinities for the soluble myocardial receptors were unaffected by their state of association with the GTP-binding proteins found in the heart. The equilibrium binding properties of the soluble cortical and myocardial receptors were very similar. However, the binding kinetics of the myocardial receptor were much slower. It appears that the membrane environment can affect the affinity of pirenzepine for the rat myocardial muscarinic receptor. Removal of the constraint by solubilization allows the expression of high affinity pirenzepine binding. PMID:3754173

  10. A tolerability study of pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in myopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jimmy D; Niemann, Katherine; Houde, Barbara; Allred, Troy; Edmondson, Marcia J; Crockett, R S

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and tolerability of pirenzepine ophthalmic gel (PIR) and the magnitude of mydriatic and accommodative effects in myopic children. This was a placebo-controlled, parallel double-masked study of unequal (4:1) randomization. Children were randomized to receive 0.5% PIR, b.i.d., or vehicle (placebo) for one week, then titrated to 1% PIR for one week, then 2% PIR for two weeks, and then for an additional 11 months. Enrolled were 26 normal healthy children, 9-12 years old, with myopia (-0.75 to -3 D) and minimal astigmatism (pirenzepine in a larger patient population.

  11. Treatment of duodenal ulcer with pirenzepine and cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, H; Dittrich, H; Kratochvil, P; Brandstätter, G; Hentschel, E; Schütze, K; Tragl, K H; Kern, H; Löffelmann, K; Zeiler, H

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this single blind controlled multicentre trial was to compare the relative effectiveness of pirenzepine and cimetidine in healing endoscopically proven duodenal ulcers. One hundred and twenty six patients with duodenal ulcer were treated with a daily dose of 100 mg pirenzepine (50 mg each before breakfast and before the evening meal), and 128 patients were treated with 1000 mg cimetidine (200 mg with breakfast, lunch, and evening meal and 400 mg at bedtime). Endoscopy was repeated after four weeks by an endoscopist who had not been informed about the treatment. Pirenzepine showed a healing rate of 64.3%, cimetidine one of 73.4%. This difference is not statistically significant (one-sided test: chi 1(2) = 2.48). After four weeks a higher proportion of first ulcers than of recurrent lesions was healed. Pain relief was rapidly achieved with both drugs. A significant trend in favour of cimetidine may, however, not be clinically relevant considering the small difference in the absolute numbers of pain free days and nights. Adverse effects were rare and reversible. We conclude that the efficacy of pirenzepine is similar to that of cimetidine in healing duodenal ulcers. PMID:6363220

  12. Effects of omeprazole and pirenzepine on enterochromaffin-like cells and parietal cells in rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A; Kuruhara, Y; Yonei, Y; Yamauchi, R; Okahara, S; Sumii, K; Kajiyama, G

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the regulation of histamine synthesis in enterochromaffin-like cells, chemically and structurally, by treatment with omeprazole and pirenzepine. The ultrastructures of enterochromaffin-like cells and parietal cells were examined in rats treated with oral omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or intraperitoneal pirenzepine (1 mg/kg) administration. Serum gastrin concentrations, mRNA levels of H+-K+-ATPase and histidine decarboxylase, and the fundic concentrations of somatostatin and histamine were determined. Pirenzepine treatment suppressed omeprazole-induced increases in serum gastrin levels and mRNA levels of H+-K+-ATPase and histidine decarboxylase. Pirenzepine also decreased omeprazole-induced increases of histamine concentration in fundic mucosa. Pirenzepine elevated somatostatin mRNA level, previously decreased by omeprazole treatment, in fundic mucosa. In the cytoplasm of enterochromaffin-like cells, omeprazole markedly reduced the numbers of vesicles and granules, but significantly increased their diameters, whereas pirenzepine treatment changed neither of these features. The densities and diameters of both vesicles and granules produced by treatment with omeprazole and pirenzepine were between those produced by treatment with omeprazole alone and pirenzepine alone. Omeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia and pirenzepine-induced somatostatin synthesis play important roles not only in histamine synthesis but also in ultrastructural changes in enterochromaffin-like cells.

  13. Complete inhibition of food-stimulated gastric acid secretion by combined application of pirenzepine and ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londong, W; Londong, V; Ruthe, C; Weizert, P

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind, placebo controlled and randomised secretory study the effectiveness of pirenzepine, ranitidine, and their combination was compared intraindividually in eight healthy subjects receiving intravenous bolus injections. Pirenzepine (0.15 mg/kg) plus ranitidine (0.6 mg/kg) suppressed peptone-stimulated gastric acid secretion from 69 +/- 11 to 2 +/- 0.4 mmol H+/3 h; the mean percentage inhibition was 97%. Postprandial gastrin was unaffected. There were only minor side-effects in a few experiments (reduction of salivation, brief blurring of vision), but no prolactin stimulation after ranitidine or ranitidine plus pirenzepine. The combined application of ranitidine and pirenzepine inhibited meal-stimulated acid secretion more effectively and produced fewer side-effects than the combination of cimetidine plus pirenzepine studied previously. PMID:6114900

  14. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Frishman, Laura J; Glasser, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Pirenzepine is suggested to be a relatively selective muscarinic (M(1)) antagonist and is currently under investigation for the treatment of myopia. Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects. An M(1)-specific antagonist may decrease side effects and remain effective at reducing the progression of myopia. In the current study, the effects of pirenzepine on pupil diameter, resting refraction, and accommodation were studied in rhesus monkeys. The time course and extent of mydriasis from subconjunctival injection of 2% pirenzepine were determined in five normal rhesus monkeys, and the effects on static and dynamic accommodation were determined in four rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain. Subconjunctival injections of 0.0002% to 0.2% pirenzepine in log unit dilutions were tested in three monkeys to determine the effects on static EW-stimulated accommodation. At 40 to 50 minutes after pirenzepine injection, accommodation was stimulated pharmacologically in both eyes, and the response was measured for 30 minutes. After 2% pirenzepine injection, pupil size increased 2.02 +/- 0.41 mm, there was a hyperopic shift in resting refraction of 1.07 +/- 0.23 D, and nearly complete cycloplegia occurred. Maximum EW-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased 20 to 40 minutes after 0.02% or greater pirenzepine. Carbachol-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased after 0.2% or greater pirenzepine. Subconjunctival injections of 0.02% or greater pirenzepine result in a significant decrease in accommodation and are probably acting through nonselective muscarinic antagonism. Subconjunctival injections of 0.002% or less pirenzepine do not decrease EW-stimulated accommodation.

  15. Effects of pirenzepine on omeprazole-induced gastrin gene expression in rat antral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A; Hamada, M; Kamiyasu, T; Fukino, Y; Sumii, M; Sumii, K; Kajiyama, G

    1996-06-01

    Pirenzepine has inhibitory effects on gastrin secretion both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism responsible for the suppression of omeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia that occurs with pirenzepine treatment. The effects were measured in rats treated with oral omeprazole plus intraperitoneal pirenzepine or saline once daily for seven days in the antrum. The serum gastrin level increased significantly by more than sixfold with omeprazole treatment; additional treatment with pirenzepine suppressed this increase by 48%. Pirenzepine treatment did not change the level of gastrin mRNA but significantly increased the level of somatostatin mRNA. Combination treatment with omeprazole plus pirenzepine significantly decreased the gastrin mRNA level to half and significantly increased the somatostatin mRNA level up to 1.4-fold of the levels achieved with omeprazole treatment alone. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of omeprazole on gastrin synthesis is partially blocked by pirenzepine via mediation of somatostatin synthesis in the antrum.

  16. Effects of pirenzepine on omeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia and acid suppression in peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, A; Hamada, M; Kamiyasu, T; Fukino, Y; Sumii, M; Haruma, K; Sumii, K; Inoue, M; Kajiyama, G

    1996-04-01

    Omeprazole effectively suppresses acid secretion, resulting in the long-term elevation of intragastric pH and serum gastrin level. Pirenzepine has been reported to inhibit gastrin secretion. This study was carried out to examine the effects of additional pirenzepine treatment on the hypergastrinemia and gastric acid suppression induced by omeprazole. Concentrations of serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin were measured in 28 peptic ulcer patients before treatment, after omeprazole treatment (20 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and after omeprazole and pirenzepine (100 mg/day) treatment for 2 weeks. The acid inhibitory effect of pirenzepine treatment in addition to omeprazole was evaluated by 24-h intragastric pH measurement in six healthy volunteers. Serum gastrin level was increased significantly, to 2.4-fold the pretreatment level, by omeprazole treatment. Additional treatment with pirenzepine suppressed serum gastrin level to 0.6-fold the omeprazole-treatment level. The serum somatostatin level was not altered significantly either by omeprazole treatment or by omeprazole and pirenzepine treatment. In healthy volunteers whose pH 3 holding time on 24-h intragastric pH monitoring was 70% by omeprazole treatment, omeprazole and pirenzepine treatment markedly increased the pH 3 holding time, to 89%. These findings suggest that pirenzepine is useful in reducing the undesirable effects of omeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia, i.e., the excessive trophic effect of omeprazole on the acid-secreting part of the stomach and the overstimulation of acid secretion. The additional pirenzepine treatment is also effective in suppressing acid secretion.

  17. The M1 muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine reduces myopia and eye enlargement in the tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottriall, C L; McBrien, N A

    1996-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, in preventing experimentally induced myopia in a mammalian model, the tree shrew. Tree shrews were monocularly deprived (MD) using translucent goggles or negative lenses for a period of 12 days. In two of the MD groups, tree shrews received daily subconjunctival administration of either pirenzepine (17.7 mumol; n = 9) or vehicle control (n = 6). Control groups (n = 6) were used to assess the effects of MD, injection regimen, and drug effects. In sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD produced-13.2 D +/- 0.8 D and -14.1 D +/- 0.5 D of axial myopia, respectively. In pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews, 12 days of MD induced an axial myopia of only -2.1 D +/- 1.4 D. The significant reduction in myopia in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation of the deprived eye (0.05 mm +/- 0.04 mm) relative to the contralateral control eye when compared to sham-injected and saline-injected MD tree shrews (0.24 mm +/- 0.02 mm and 0.29 mm +/- 0.01 mm). Mean equatorial enlargement and increased eye weight were prevented in pirenzepine-injected MD tree shrews (P Pirenzepine also was found to reduce myopia and ocular enlargement in lens defocus-induced myopia. Control experiments demonstrated that pirenzepine did not cause a significant reduction in amplitude of carbachol-induced accommodation. Findings demonstrate that chronic administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, prevents experimentally induced myopia in this mammalian model by a nonaccommodative mechanism.

  18. [Effect of pirenzepine on form deprivation myopia in chicks and its possible mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shu-zhen; Zeng, Jun-wen; Wang, Li-ya

    2006-01-01

    To observe the effect of M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, on form deprivation myopia and investigate the expression of MMP-2 and its inhibitor TIMP-2 in the fibrous sclera in order to better understand the mechanism by which pirenzepine inhibits myopia. 40 chicks after birth one day were divided into 4 groups randomly: I. Control group; II. Form deprivation group; III. Vehicle application group; IV. Pirenzepine injected group. Form deprivation myopia was established in right eyes of group II, III, IV by placement of a translucent occluder. The deprived eyes of group III and IV received daily subconjunctival administration of vehicle PBS and pirenzepine respectively. Optical measures such as refraction, axial length, equatorial diameter were made at the end of the experiment. Total RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior fibrous sclera chicks. The expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein were investigated with RT-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Refraction status, axial length, equatorial diameter of the eyes in pirenzepine injected group were significantly lower when compared with form deprivation group (P pirenzepine injected group when optical measures and the expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2 were concerned (P > 0.05). The expressions (mRNA and protein) of both MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were significantly different in form deprivation group when compared with normal control group (MMP-2 mRNA increased by 143.51%, P pirenzepine injected group the relative expression of MMP-2 mRNA and protein were decreased obviously by 41.95% (P pirenzepine, partly prevents or restrains form deprivation induced myopia. It may exert its inhibitory effect by modulating the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in fibrous sclera.

  19. [Effects of pirenzepine on lens-induced myopia in the guinea-pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Chao-hu; Chu, Ren-yuan; Hu, Wen-zheng

    2003-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of the M(1)-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, in preventing lens-induced myopia in the guinea-pig and to study the mechanism and the possibility of treatment of myopia with pirenzepine. Fifteen 4-week-old guinea-pigs were monocularly fitted with -10.00 D lenses for a period of 11 days. In Group I (n = 7), both eyes received topical administration of 0.24% saline vehicle as the controls. In Group II (n = 8), the lens-fitted eyes were topically treated with 10% pirenzepine, while the other eyes received the vehicle control. Ocular refraction and biometric measurements were collected on the first and the 11th days. All eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects of pirenzepine. In Group I, 11 days of lens-fitting produced -2.45 D myopia (t = 3.141, P pirenzepine-treated eyes. Topical administration of the M(1)-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, prevents lens-induced experimental myopia in guinea-pig by inhibiting the elongation of axial dimension with no obvious damage to the ocular tissues.

  20. The effect of pirenzepine on gastric emptying and salivary flow rate: constraints on the use of saliva paracetamol concentrations for the determination of paracetamol pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, F; Edwards, C; Rawlins, M D

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of pirenzepine on gastric emptying, salivary flow and saliva paracetamol concentrations were investigated in healthy volunteers. 2. Pirenzepine significantly reduced the area under the saliva flow-time curves (7.29 +/- 3.30 g min-1 h without pirenzepine; 4.19 +/- 2.59 g min-1 h with pirenzepine, P less than 0.01). Pirenzepine had no significant effect on plasma paracetamol Cmax (17.5 +/- 7.8 micrograms ml-1 without pirenzepine; 12.6 +/- 7.7 micrograms ml-1 with pirenzepine), plasma tmax (0.2 h (0.2-0.8 h) without pirenzepine; (0.2 h 0.2-0.8 h) with pirenzepine) and plasma AUC(0.6 h) (32.3 +/- 7.2 micrograms ml-1 h without pirenzepine; 30.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms ml-1 h with pirenzepine). 3. Mean ratios of saliva:plasma paracetamol AUC (1.06 +/- 0.24 without pirenzepine; 1.84 +/- 0.48 with pirenzepine, P less than 0.001) and saliva:plasma paracetamol Cmax (1.7 +/- 1.0 without pirenzepine; 6.5 +/- 2.7 with pirenzepine, P less than 0.01) were significantly increased by pirenzepine pretreatment, but there was a poor correlation between the percentage change in the area under the saliva flow-time curve and the percentage change in saliva paracetamol AUC (r = 0.47, P = 0.21). 4. The findings suggest that a) pirenzepine is a more selective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors in salivary glands than those in gastric smooth muscle and b) caution is required when using saliva paracetamol concentrations to determine the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the presence of other agents which may influence salivary flow rate. PMID:1576053

  1. Ocular permeability of pirenzepine hydrochloride enhanced by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiasheng; Pang, Hui; Yan, Zhen; Li, Pengmei

    2007-10-01

    Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer was tested as an ocular permeation enhancer for pirenzepine hydrochloride. The block copolymers with the methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) to poly(D, L-lactide) weight ratio of 80/20, 50/50, 40/60 were synthesized by a ring-opening polymerization procedure. In vitro transcorneal experiments demonstrated that the block copolymer 80/20 significantly enhanced the transcorneal permeation of pirenzepine at the mass ratio of 1/1.4 (pirenzepine hydrochloride/copolymer). Interaction between pirenzepine and copolymer was identified by infrared spectroscopy analysis and dialysis experiments. Ocular pharmacokinetics of pirenzepine/copolymer preparation by in vivo instillation experiments confirmed that block copolymer could enhance the ocular penetration of pirenzepine. Ocular chronic toxicity experiments of block copolymer and pirenzepine/copolymer preparation were studied on rabbits, and no significant toxicity in both groups was observed within 9 months. It could conclude that pirenzepine/copolymer preparation is effective and safe in ocular delivery of pirenzepine.

  2. A placebo controlled comparison of the effects of pirenzepine and amitriptyline on the tyramine pressor test in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M R; Wynne, R D; Kendall, M J

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of an interaction between pirenzepine, an antimuscarinic drug structurally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, and sympathomimetic agents was investigated in a group of healthy volunteers. The effect of pirenzepine on response to intravenous tyramine was compared with that of placebo and amitriptyline. The mean dose of tyramine required to elevate systolic blood pressure by 30 mm Hg was 5.0 mg (+/- s.d. 0.8) after placebo, 5.1 mg (+/- 1.0) after pirenzepine and 11.3 mg (+/- 1.8) after amitriptyline. These results suggest that pirenzepine will not potentiate the effects of concurrently administered sympathomimetic drugs. PMID:3839679

  3. Effect of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Qi-hua; Cheng, Neng-neng; Wu, Wei; Chu, Ren-yuan

    2005-04-05

    Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures. Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31+/-1.47) D and (-2.25+/-0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63+/-0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89+/-0.42) D and (-0.70+/-0.41) D (F=9.56, Ppirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009+/-0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006+/-0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs (0.057+/-0.056) mm, (0.064+/-0.053) mm and (0.033+/-0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine. Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  4. Prevention of form-deprivation myopia with pirenzepine: a study of drug delivery and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottriall, C L; McBrien, N A; Annies, R; Leech, E M

    1999-07-01

    The present study investigated the drug distribution and elimination profiles in ocular tissues of pirenzepine, a selective M1 muscarinic antagonist known to inhibit myopia. Results demonstrate that (1) Intravitreal injections of the M1 selective antagonist pirenzepine were more effective at preventing form-deprivation myopia than subconjunctival injections. (2) Maximum drug levels were reached within 1 hr for both retina and sclera following intravitreal (28 and 11 nanomole) and subconjunctival (0.25 and 1 nanomole) injection. Intravitreal injection proved a more effective route of drug delivery to all ocular tissues compared to subconjunctival injection. (3) Elimination times of pirenzepine from ocular tissues were much shorter than those reported for blood plasma. (4) Histological examination revealed no evidence of gross toxic effects at doses effective in inhibiting induced axial myopia. In conclusion, pirenzepine was effective at reducing form-deprivation myopia in a dose-dependent manner with no evidence of disruption to the retina. However, results were not conclusive as to where pirenzepine may have its site of action in preventing form-deprivation myopia.

  5. Paradoxical effects of pirenzepine on parasympathetic activity in chronic heart failure and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, T; Shimizu, A; Ikeda, Y; Yamamoto, T; Yamagata, T; Ueyama, T; Furutani, Y; Matsuzaki, M

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effect of intravenous pirenzepine (3 mg) in normal subjects (n=15, 43+/-16 years old) and in patients with chronic heart failure (n=15, 61+/-12 years old) to assess the effect of low-dose pirenzepine on vagal activity. R-R intervals and the standard deviations, low-frequency power (LF: ln ms2, 0.04-0.15 Hz), high-frequency power (HF: ln ms2, 0.15-0.40 Hz) and the ratio of low- to high-frequency power (LF/HF ratio) were measured 10 min before and after pirenzepine using a Holter analysis system. Pirenzepine was found to cause a significant increase in the R-R interval from 903+/-112 to 956+/-129 ms in the control group (PPirenzepine also increased HF significantly from 4.29+/-0.32 to 5.16+/-0.38 ln ms2 in the control group (PPirenzepine did not significantly alter the LF/HF ratio in either group. We emphasize that pirenzepine appears to have a vagoinimetic effect in patients with chronic heart failure and that it may be useful for augmenting vagal control of the heart in some patients with chronic heart failure.

  6. Pirenzepine versus scopolamine methyl bromide in double-contrast barium enema study of large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, P; Braccini, G; Marrucci, A; Boraschi, P; Bertellotti, L; Testa, R

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of pirenzepine for diagnostic double-contrast barium enema study of the large bowel, pirenzepine and scopolamine methyl bromide (SMB) were compared in a single, blind, randomized trial. Sixty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Quantitative analysis of bowel distention was done by measuring the maximum diameter of the transverse colon before and after drug administration. Four independent observers blindly evaluated distention and mucosal coating of the large bowel and global quality of the images. No differences were found in the diagnostic performance between the two drugs. However, pirenzepine induced a slight but significantly larger distention of the large bowel (68 +/- 12 vs. 65 +/- 8 mm, p = 0.02). Heart rate and rhythm during the study were recorded by ECG. SMB induced tachycardia in all patients (from 72 +/- 15 to 98 +/- 24 beats/min, p pirenzepine did not (from 76 +/- 13 to 78 +/- 20, p = NS). After SMB, one-patient exhibited faintness, and some patients complained of visual accommodation defects, dryness of the mouth, and dizziness. Pirenzepine had a diagnostic performance similar to SMB in avoiding adverse effects elicited by SMB.

  7. Selective affinity of pirenzepine analogues for subtypes of muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, J.F.; Smith, J.D.; Liu, W.S.; Gulya, K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-05

    Pirenzepine (PZ), telenzepine (TZ) and quinuclidinyl xanthene-9-carboxylate (QNX) are antimuscarinic agents containing a tricyclic ring system and a basic side chain that have been reported to have selective affinity for the M/sub 1/ subtype of receptor. They have prepared and examined seven new PZ analogues containing modifications in either the tricyclic ring system, the side-chain, or both. Affinity for M/sub 1/ type receptors was determined by displacement of specifically-bound (/sup 3/H)PZ from rat cerebral cortex homogenates. Affinity for M/sub 2/ type receptors was measured on rat heart homogenate using (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate. The ratio of the K/sub i/'s for M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ receptors were calculated and compared to PZ. All of the compounds had a higher affinity for M/sub 1/ than M/sub 2/ receptors. Three of the compounds were comparable to PZ in selectivity, but the more selective compounds had a weaker affinity for M/sub 1/ receptors. TZ and QNX were less selective than PZ.

  8. Effect of cimetidine and pirenzepine in combination on 24 hour intragastric acidity in subjects with previous duodenal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Deakin, M; Ramage, J K

    1986-01-01

    Intragastric pH was monitored during 24 hours in eight volunteers with duodenal ulcer disease in remission, while on placebo, cimetidine 400 mg bd, pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 400 mg bd + pirenzepine 50 mg bd, cimetidine 200 mg bd + pirenzepine 25 mg bd. The control of intragastric acidity during the 24 hour period by the combination of low dose cimetidine and pirenzepine was significantly better than with cimetidine, or pirenzepine alone in full dosage. This difference was most apparent after breakfast but was still present after lunch when cimetidine had no significant effect. Combination treatment is a logical approach when continuous control of intragastric acidity is needed, but a three times daily regimen will be necessary to cover the 24 hours. PMID:3754233

  9. Antisecretory activity of pirenzepine versus cimetidine in man: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procacciante, F; Citone, G; Montesani, C; Ribotta, G

    1984-01-01

    Antisecretory effect of single oral therapeutic doses of pirenzepine (25 mg and 50 mg) and cimetidine (200 mg and 400 mg) was studied in 12 patients with duodenal ulcer. Gastric secretion was studied in basal condition and after stimulation with pentagastrin. Basal, maximum and peak acid output, basal and maximum acidity, and basal and maximum volume were calculated after computerised correction for pyloric loss and duodenal reflux. Both drugs showed dose-related inhibition of all facets of gastric secretion. Cimetidine (200 mg) had a greater inhibitory effect on gastric basal secretion, but a similar effect on pentagastrin stimulated secretion as with pirenzepine (50 mg). Cimetidine (400 mg) showed about twice the inhibitory activity of pirenzepine (50 mg) both on basal and stimulated secretion. PMID:6546371

  10. Effects of the muscarinic antagonists atropine and pirenzepine on olfactory conditioning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Lozano, V; Gauthier, M

    1998-04-01

    One-trial conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in honeybees was used to examine the qualitative effects of two muscarinic antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine, on the acquisition and retrieval of memory following intracranial injection. The main result of this study is that atropine, at a relatively high concentration of 10(-2) M, impairs memory retrieval but not acquisition of memory after a single olfactory conditioning trial (at this concentration, there is no effect of atropine on the sensorimotor components of the PER). This result is in agreement with the effects of scopolamine, reported in a previously published article. Pirenzepine, at the same concentration as atropine, had no effect on either acquisition or retrieval of memory. These results suggest that blockade of muscarinic-like receptors, except those that bind to pirenzepine, induces solely an impairment of memory retrieval.

  11. Effect of pirenzepine, a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, on amygdala kindling in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eşkazan, E; Aker, R; Onat, F; Köseoğlu, S; Gören, M Z; Hasanoğlu, A

    1999-11-01

    Kindling, an animal model of complex partial seizures with secondary generalization, is performed by daily application of low-intensity electrical brain stimulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of muscarinic M1 receptors on amygdala kindling in the rat. Bipolar nichrome stimulation and recording electrodes were stereotaxically implanted into the right and left basolateral amygdala. Extradural recording electrodes were also placed bilaterally in the skull over the cortex. Amygdala stimulation was applied twice daily at the current intensity of afterdischarge threshold. Seizure intensity was graded by using Racine's standard five-stage scale. In the first group of experiments, saline or pirenzepine (10, 25, 50 and 100 nmol), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, was injected intracerebroventricularly 1 h before the electrical stimulation. In the second group of experiments, rats were kindled to full stage 5 seizures. After a recovery period, 50 nmol of pirenzepine was administered intracerebroventricularly to kindled animals. In the first group of experiments, none of the animals pretreated with the doses of 50 and 100 nmol of pirenzepine reached a stage 5 seizure. Pirenzepine significantly retarded kindling seizure development and increased the total number of stimulations required to reach the first stage 5 seizure. Afterdischarge duration was also reduced in the pirenzepine 10 nmol group as compared with that in the saline-pretreated group. In the second group, seizure stage and afterdischarge duration were not affected by pirenzepine in fully-kindled animals. The findings of this study suggest that muscarinic M1 receptors may have a critical role in the development of kindling epileptic activity, but not in already kindled seizures.

  12. Pirenzepine binding to membrane-bound, solubilized and purified muscarinic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgold, J.

    1986-05-01

    Muscarinic receptors were purified to near-homogeneity from bovine cortex, an area rich in the putative M1 subtype, and from bovine pons/medulla, an area rich in the putative M2 subtype. In both cases, the receptors were solubilized in digitonin and purified over an affinity column. Both the cortical and pons/medulla preparations yielded receptor proteins of 70,000 daltons. Pirenzepine binding was deduced from its competition with /sup 3/H-N-methyl scopolamine. The binding of pirenzepine to membrane-bound receptors from cortex was best described by a two site model, with approximately half the sites having a Ki of 6.4 x 10/sup -9/ M and the remaining sites having a Ki of 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M. Membrane-bound receptors from pons/medulla bound pirenzepine according to a one-site model with a Ki of 1.1 x 10/sup -7/ M. After solubilization the two-site binding of cortical receptors became a one-site binding, Ki = 1.1 x 10/sup -7/M. This value was still five-fold lower than that of soluble receptors from pons/medulla. After purification however the affinity of pirenzepine for the pons/medulla receptor increased so that the two putative subtypes bound pirenzepine with approximately the same affinity. These findings suggest that the different pirenzepine binding characteristics used to define muscarinic receptor subtypes are not inherent in the receptor protein itself but may be due to coupling factors associated with the receptor.

  13. Effects of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Qi-hua; CHENG Neng-neng; WU Wei; CHU Ren-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs.Methods Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures.Results Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31±1.47) D and (-2.25±0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63±0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89±0.42) D and (-0.70±0.41) D (F=9.56, P<0.05). The significant reduction in myopia in 2% and 4% pirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009±0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006±0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs [(0.057±0.056) mm, (0.064±0.053) mm and (0.033±0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine.Conclusion Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  14. Pirenzepine affects scleral metabolic changes in myopia through a non-toxic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hue-Trung; Cottriall, Charles L; Gentle, Alex; McBrien, Neville A

    2002-01-01

    Whilst the precise mechanism regulating ocular growth is unknown, it has been shown that various pharmacological agents, including the muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine, are effective at preventing the development of myopia. A recent study, which demonstrated that muscarinic antagonists reduce the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and DNA in chick sclera in vitro, led to the suggestion that such drugs may act directly on the sclera, possibly through a toxic mechanism. Accepted markers of scleral metabolism and cell viability were used in conjunction with a non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation to determine whether the selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine inhibits the development of myopia via toxicity to the sclera. Chicks were monocularly deprived (MD) of pattern vision and given daily intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine (700 microg) or saline vehicle into the deprived eye over 5 days. Unoccluded animals also received intravitreal injections of either pirenzepine or saline into one eye (n=6, all groups). The contralateral eye of all animals was left untreated for comparison. Optical and ocular biometric measures were collected on the final experimental day. Following in vivo delivery of [(35)S] labelled sulphate, levels of sulphate incorporation into scleral glycosaminoglycans were measured in proteinase K digests following selective precipitation with alcian blue dye. The DNA content was also assessed through luminescence spectrometry after binding to Hoechst 33258 dye. To allow comparison with an accepted non-invasive, physiological method of ocular growth regulation, myopia was prevented in additional groups of MD animals by allowing 3hr of unoccluded vision each day, over 5 days, before levels of sulphate incorporation were measured. Scleral DNA content, a marker of cell viability, was not significantly altered between treated and control eyes in any injected group. Relative levels of sulphate

  15. Human cardiac beta1- or beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation and the negative chronotropic effect of low-dose pirenzepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubetz, J; Schmuck, S; Wochatz, G; Ruhland, B; Poller, U; Radke, J; Brodde, O E

    2000-05-01

    The M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine in low doses (pirenzepine differ in volunteers with activated cardiac beta1-adrenergic receptors versus activated cardiac beta2-adrenergic receptors. In 17 male volunteers (25 +/- 1 years) we studied effects of pirenzepine infusion (0.5 mg intravenous bolus followed by continuous infusion of 0.15 microg/kg/min) on heart rate and heart rate-corrected duration of electromechanical systole (QS2c, as a measure of inotropism) that had been stimulated by activation of cardiac beta1-adrenergic receptors (bicycle exercise in the supine position for 60 minutes at 25 W) or cardiac beta2-adrenergic receptors (continuous intravenous infusion of 100 ng/kg/min terbutaline). Bicycle exercise and terbutaline infusion significantly increased heart rate and shortened QS2c. When pirenzepine was infused 20 minutes after the beginning of the exercise or terbutaline infusion, heart rate decreased in both settings by approximately the same extent (approximately -10 to -14 beats/min), although exercise and terbutaline infusion continued; however, QS2c was not affected. Pirenzepine (0.05 to 1 mg intravenous bolus)-induced decrease in heart rate was abolished after 6 days of transdermal scopolamine treatment of volunteers. Low-dose pirenzepine decreased heart rate by muscarinic receptor stimulation, because this was blocked by scopolamine. Moreover, low-dose pirenzepine did not differentiate between cardiac beta1- or beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation; however, low-dose pirenzepine did not affect cardiac contractility as measured by QS2c. Low-dose pirenzepine therefore exerted a unique pattern of action in the human heart: it decreased heart rate (basal and beta1- and/or beta2-adrenergic receptor-stimulated) without affecting contractility.

  16. Effect of pirenzepine on gastric endocrine cell kinetics during lansoprazole administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, N; Kashiwagi, H; Gang, C; Omura, K; Aoki, T

    1998-10-01

    We studied the effect of pirenzepine on gastric secretion kinetics in rats in a hypochlorhydric state induced by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Pirenzepine was administered intramuscularly at a dosage of 20 mg/kg twice daily; and lansorprazole, subcutaneously at 50 mg/kg once daily, both every day for 4 weeks. After the 4-week treatment, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. In addition, gastrin cells, somatostatin cells, and enterochromaffin-like cells were immunostained and counted. Serum gastrin levels were elevated, and gastrin and enterochromaffin-like cell numbers increased in the group on lansoprazole alone, compared with these values in the control group (which received distilled water). In the group on the lansoprazole and pirenzepine combination, serum gastrin levels decreased, and gastrin and enterochromaffin-like cell numbers were significantly decreased, compared with the respective variables in the group on lansoprazole alone, while the number of somatostatin cells increased in the group on the combination. Plasma somatostatin levels did not vary significantly in any group. It was thus demonstrated that pirenzepine corrects the abnormal gastric secretion kinetics resulting from treatment with lansoprazole alone, such as hypergastrinemia and gastrin and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia.

  17. (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine selectively identifies a high affinity population of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1982-11-01

    The specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine was investigated in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and heart. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine in the cerebral cortex as defined by displacement with atropine sulfate (1..mu..M) was of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 4-10 nM, receptor density = 1.06 pmoles/mg protein), stereoselective, and competitive with drugs specific for the muscarinic receptor. In contrast, few (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding sites were demonstrated in cerebellar and heart homogenates.

  18. Effect of pirenzepine and gallamine on cardiac and pulmonary muscarinic receptors in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclagan, J.; Faulkner, D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of muscarinic antagonists considered to be selective for M1 receptors (pirenzepine) and for M2 receptors (gallamine) were studied on bronchoconstriction and bradycardia elicited by stimulation of the vagal nerves and by i.v. acetylcholine (ACh) in anaesthetized rabbits. 2. Pirenzepine was equipotent as an antagonist of ACh-induced responses at postjunctional muscarinic receptors in the heart, lung and blood vessels, whereas gallamine was at least ten times less potent at pulmonary and vascular muscarinic receptors. Thus, gallamine never caused complete inhibition of bronchoconstrictor or hypotensive responses to i.v. ACh, whereas doses of pirenzepine in excess of 1 mumol kg-1 abolished all muscarinic responses. 3. In the lung, both antagonists inhibited bronchoconstriction caused by vagal stimulation and ACh-induced bronchoconstriction to the same extent (pirenzepine, mean ED50 65 +/- 22 and, 130 +/- 28 nmol kg-1 respectively; gallamine, ED50 greater than 10,000 nmol kg-1 for both responses). Enhancement of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction was never observed. 4. In the heart, however, both pirenzepine and gallamine were ten times less potent as antagonists of vagally-induced bradycardia than of ACh-induced bradycardia. This differential blockade was unaltered by propranolol (1 mg kg-1) pretreatment. 5. It is concluded that there is no evidence for M1 or M2 muscarinic receptors in the pulmonary innervation of the rabbit and the potency of the antagonists in abolishing in abolishing vagally-induced bronchoconstriction was consistent with blockade of M3 muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle. 6. The results suggest that M2 muscarinic receptors may exert an inhibitory effect on transmission in the parasympathetic nerves innervating the heart in the rabbit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2758229

  19. Interaction between Pirenzepine and Ninjinto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on the Plasma Gut-Regulated Peptide Levels in Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    ...) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration...

  20. Effects of the muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and gallamine on spontaneous and evoked responses of rat cerebral cortical neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, T. H.; Phillis, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    1. The muscarinic receptor antagonists gallamine and pirenzepine were iontophoretically applied to rat cerebral cortical cholinoceptive neurones, including corticospinal neurones, to assess their effects on spontaneous firing, and firing induced by: stimulation of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM); contralateral hindpaw stimulation; application of acetylcholine (ACh); and application of glutamate. 2. Both compounds potently inhibited firing induced by ACh iontophoresis, whilst neither compound consistently altered firing induced by application of glutamate. 3. Gallamine was very effective and pirenzepine less effective, at inhibiting both spontaneous firing and the delayed firing induced by NBM stimulation. The short-latency excitations elicited by NBM stimulation were enhanced by these muscarinic antagonists. 4. Gallamine and pirenzepine enhanced cortical cholinoceptive cell firing induced by contralateral hindpaw stimulation. 5. It is concluded that gallamine depresses spontaneous activity more than pirenzepine, and that both compounds can affect the cortical cell firing evoked by stimulation of the NBM and of thalamo-cortical afferent fibres. PMID:3401638

  1. The effect of pirenzepine on positive- and negative-lens-induced refractive error and ocular growth in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlapally, Sangeetha; McBrien, Neville A

    2010-11-01

    The selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine inhibits experimentally induced myopia in avian and mammalian species, including nonhuman primates and adolescent humans. Transient positive lens defocus has a potent inhibitory effect on negative-lens-induced myopia in avian and mammalian models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of daily treatment with pirenzepine on ocular growth and refractive error in chicks wearing positive lenses. The chicks were allocated to one of eight groups (n = 6 each group) on the basis of whether they wore +10 or -10 D lenses monocularly and whether they received daily intravitreal injections of pirenzepine (700 μg) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) in the lens-defocused eye. In vivo refractive and biometric data were collected, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the sclera was assessed. Pirenzepine did not alter the level of positive-lens-induced hyperopia in chicks wearing +10 D lenses compared with that in the vehicle control group (+8.1 ± 0.6 D vs. +8.9 ± 2.4 D, mean ± SEM; P = 0.76). In contrast, pirenzepine caused significant inhibition of negative-lens-induced myopia compared with that in the vehicle group (-1.1 ± 1.5 D vs. -8.8 ± 1.1 D; P = 0.001). Glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the posterior sclera was significantly increased in the negative-lens-treated groups and showed small decreases in the positive-lens-treated groups. The influence of pirenzepine on ocular growth in chicks differed by sign of lens defocus, with pirenzepine blocking negative-lens effects on ocular growth, but not positive-lens effects. The most likely reason that hyperopia was not enhanced by pirenzepine treatment was that the rapid compensatory eye growth associated with positive lenses eliminated the imposed myopic defocus, and the clear retinal image prevented any additional hyperopia from developing.

  2. Identification of M1 muscarinic receptors in pulmonary sympathetic nerves in the guinea-pig by use of pirenzepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclagan, J.; Fryer, A. D.; Faulkner, D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of pirenzepine, a muscarinic antagonist considered to be selective for M1 receptors, was studied on bronchoconstriction and bradycardia elicited by preganglionic stimulation of the parasympathetic vagal nerves and by i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. 2. Pirenzepine was equipotent in the heart and lung as an antagonist of the effects of i.v. ACh at postjunctional muscarinic receptors. Doses of pirenzepine in excess of 1 mumol kg-1 abolished all muscarinic responses consistent with non-selective blockade of M3 receptors on airway smooth muscle and M2 receptors on atrial cells. 3. In the lung, low doses of pirenzepine (1-100 nmol kg-1) increased vagally-induced bronchoconstriction despite concurrent partial blockade of the postjunctional receptors. This suggests blockade of neuronal muscarinic receptors. 4. Propranolol (1 mg kg-1) increased control bronchoconstrictor responses elicited by ACh and vagal stimulation but did not alter the potency of pirenzepine for postjunctional receptors in heart or lung. However, pirenzepine-induced enhancement of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction was abolished by propranolol, suggesting that pirenzepine may be an antagonist for muscarinic receptors located in the sympathetic nerves innervating airway smooth muscle. 5. These results confirm that bronchoconstrictor stimuli indirectly initiate activation of an opposing sympathetic reflex in the guinea-pig lung. This response is facilitated by muscarinic receptors located in the sympathetic nervous pathway. 6. The high potency of pirenzepine for the neuronal receptors in the sympathetic nerves suggests that these are M1 receptors. In contrast, the parasympathetic nerves innervating airway smooth muscle in this species contain M2 receptors which inhibit neurotransmission. PMID:2758228

  3. Evaluation of pirenzepine on gastric acidity in healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, A; Fimmel, C J; Bron, B A; Loizeau, E; Blum, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pirenzepine on 24 hour intragastric acidity was studied in 10 healthy volunteers using ambulatory 24 hour intragastric pH-monitoring in a double blind crossover study. Tests were performed on the seventh day of ingestion of either placebo, 75 mg pirenzepine or 150 mg pirenzepine per day. The drugs were given at two doses at 8.30 am and 8.30 pm. Mean nocturnal hydrogen ion activity during placebo treatment was 68 mmol/l +/- 9 SEM and was reduced by 75 mg (26%, p less than 0.01) and 150 mg of pirenzepine (36%, p less than 0.01), respectively. Mean diurnal hydrogen ion activity was 32 mmol/l +/- 6 SEM and was not significantly reduced (p greater than 0.1) by either dose of pirenzepine (4% and 12% respectively). Thus, the effect of pirenzepine on intragastric acidity is small, even with high doses of the drug, and becomes apparent only during the night. PMID:3882525

  4. [Mechanism of Smad 3 signaling pathway and connective tissue growth factor in the inhibition of form deprivation myopia by pirenzepine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xueying; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Yanting; Sun, Hongliang; Jia, Peisheng

    2009-04-01

    To observe the inhibitive effect of pirenzepine on form deprivation myopia in guinea pigs and to explore the mechanism of Smad3 signaling pathway and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the inhibition of myopia by pirenzepine. Forty 1-week-old guinea pigs of either sex were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group (Group I), a form deprivation group (Group II), a pirenzepine ophthalmic solution group (Group III), and a sodium chloride ophthalmic solution group (Group IV). Translucent blinders were used in the right eyes of Group II, III and IV. The left eyes were not given any treatment as the normal control group. Covered eyes of Group III and IV were given 3% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution and 0.1% azone ophthalmic solution respectively twice every day. Six weeks later, refraction and axial length were measured at the end of the experiment, and immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to analyze the expression levels of Smad3 and CTGF in the sclera of all 4 groups. There was no significant difference between Group III and I in relative refraction and changes of axial length (P>0.05). The difference of Group II and IV compared with Group I was statistically significant (P0.05), while the difference in Group II, IV and I was significant (P0.05). Pirenzepine ophthalmic solution can inhibit the development of form deprivation myopia. Pirenzepine may affect Smad3 signaling pathway in the sclera by inhibiting the development of form deprivation myopia.

  5. Effect on gastric secretion, gastrin and histamine release during and after long-term treatment by pirenzepine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatier, J; Riquet, W; Célice-Pingaud, C; Olivier, A; Mignon, M; Farinotti, R

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the effects of pirenzepine (2 mg/kg per os) on gastric secretion and gastrin and histamine release in response to food and histamine dihydrochloride infusion in four dogs during 24 weeks of treatment and for 15 weeks after the end of treatment. The results were compared to those obtained in the same animals in control experiments, before treatment, and in four untreated dogs. Pirenzepine absorption was checked by measuring plasma concentrations. Pirenzepine led to a significant reduction in acid and pepsin secretion in response to histamine. In response to food, the reduction in secretion was concomitant with a reduction in gastrin and histamine release. Baseline concentrations of gastrin were reduced, while those of histamine were unchanged. No side effects were observed. After treatment, a long time lapse (about 15 weeks) was required for acid and pepsin secretion and gastrinemia to return to control levels, while histamine release in response to food normalized rapidly. Pirenzepine fixes selectively to M1 muscarinic receptors of the synaptic ganglion, thus inhibiting the effect of vagal stimulation, especially on pepsin secretion. Our data suggest that it might also fix to M1 receptors located on ECL cells, thereby reducing histamine release. In addition, pirenzepine probably fixes to other muscarinic receptors inhibiting gastrin release and resulting in a G and secretory cell mass reduction, probably by increasing somatostatin release.

  6. Two-year multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel safety and efficacy study of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatkowski, R Michael; Cotter, Susan A; Crockett, R S; Miller, Joseph M; Novack, Gary D; Zadnik, Karla

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate if the safety and efficacy of the relatively selective M1-antagonist, pirenzepine, in slowing the progression of myopia in children is sustained over a 2-year period. This was a multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Enrolled were children aged 8 to 12 years, with entry spherical equivalent refractive error of -0.75 to -4.00 D and astigmatism pirenzepine ophthalmic gel or a placebo control (vehicle), twice daily to each eye. The main outcome measure was spherical equivalent refractive error via cycloplegic autorefraction. At study entry, spherical equivalent was -2.10 +/- 0.90 D (mean +/- SD) for the pirenzepine group (n = 117) and -1.93 +/- 0.83 D for the placebo group (n = 57; p = 0.22). At 1 year, there was a mean increase in myopia of 0.26 D in the pirenzepine group versus 0.53 D in the placebo group (p pirenzepine = 53, placebo = 31). At 2 years, the mean increase in myopia was 0.58 D for the pirenzepine group and 0.99 D for the placebo group (p = 0.008). Thirteen (11%) pirenzepine patients dropped out due to adverse effects in the first year, and 1 did so in the second year. Pirenzepine ophthalmic gel 2% was effective compared with placebo in slowing the progression of myopia over a 2-year treatment period and demonstrated a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  7. Pirenzepine Inhibits Myopia in Guinea Pig Model by Regulating the Balance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 Expression and Increased Tyrosine Hydroxylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lifeng; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaoxia; Yin, Juanjuan; Tang, Wenjian; Chen, Peng; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of pirenzepine in a guinea pig model of myopia induced by exposure to monochromatic light. It was observed that pirenzepine inhibited the increase of diopter and extension of ocular axial length. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in pirenzepine group was significantly higher compared to the other treatment groups pointing to a highly positive correlation between TH expression levels and the diopter and axial length change. RT-PCR analysis further showed that pirenzepine treatment reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and enhanced the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) compared to the other treatment and control groups. To conclude, we demonstrate that pirenzepine may improve the prognosis of monochromatic light-induced myopia in guinea pigs, possibly by both regulating the balance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in sclera and increasing the TH expression in retina.

  8. Relationship of erosive gastritis to the acid secreting area and intestinal metaplasia, and the healing effect of pirenzepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Okuda, S

    1987-01-01

    The extent of acid secreting areas and the distribution of intestinal metaplasia in patients with erosive gastritis, and the healing effects of pirenzepine were examined. Studies were done with the endoscopic Congo red-methylene blue test developed in our hospital. Compared with control patients with no gastroduodenal disease, erosive gastritis was associated significantly more frequently with large acid secreting areas, but little or no intestinal metaplasia was detected in the stomach. A double blind trial was carried out, using 100 mg pirenzepine tablets or placebo for three months in 43 patients with erosive gastritis. Endoscopically, complete healing was significantly more frequent in the pirenzepine treated groups three months after the start of the treatment, as compared with the placebo treated group (p less than 0.05). PMID:3297938

  9. Affinities of pirenzepine for muscarinic cholinergic receptors in membranes isolated from bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, J.M.; Jones, C.A.; Tom-Moy, M.; Brown, J.K.

    1987-03-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been classified into subtypes based on their high (M-1 subtype) or low (M-2 subtype) affinities for the nonclassic antagonist pirenzepine, and this classification has important experimental and therapeutic implications. Because muscarinic receptors are abundant in the airways where they mediate several different cellular responses, the goal of this study was to characterize the affinities of pirenzepine for the muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle. After isolating membrane particulates from mucosa and smooth muscle, as well as from bovine cerebral cortex (a known source of M-1 receptors), we used /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate to label muscarinic receptors in the particulates and performed competition radioligand binding assays in the presence of either atropine or pirenzepine. Receptors from all 3 tissues (mucosa, smooth muscle, and cerebral cortex) were of a relatively uniform affinity for atropine (range of KI values: 0.8 +/- 0.4 X 10(-9) to 2.4 +/- 1.7 X 10(-9) M), as would be predicted for this classic muscarinic antagonist. By contrast, affinities for pirenzepine differed depending on the tissue. In cerebral cortex, the majority of receptors were of high affinity for pirenzepine (KI = 1.8 +/- 1.4 X 10(-8) M). In both mucosa and smooth muscle, receptors were of low affinity for pirenzepine (Kl = 4.8 +/- 0.4 to 6.9 +/- 3.8 X 10(-7) M). We conclude that muscarinic cholinergic receptors in bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle are predominantly of the M-2 subtype.

  10. Inverse agonist activity of pirenzepine at M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeffler, L; Schmidlin, F; Gies, J P; Landry, Y

    1999-03-01

    1. The intrinsic properties of muscarinic ligands were studied through their binding properties and their abilities to modulate the GTPase activity of G proteins coupled to muscarinic M2 receptors in pig atrial sarcolemma. 2. Competition binding experiments were performed with [3H]-oxotremorine-M to assess the affinity of receptors coupled to G proteins (R*), with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) to estimate the affinities of coupled and uncoupled receptors (R*+R) and with [3H]-NMS in the presence of GppNHp to assess the affinity of uncoupled receptors (R). 3. The ranking of Ki values for the agonist carbachol was R*pirenzepine was R*>R*+R>R (174, 155, 115 nM), suggesting inverse agonism. 4. The Vmax of the basal high affinity GTPase activity of pig atrial sarcolemma was increased by mastoparan and decreased by GPAnt-2 indicating the relevance of this activity to G proteins coupled to receptors (R*). The K(M) value (0.26-0.33 microM) was not modified by mastoparan or GPAnt-2. 5. Carbachol increased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 8.1+/-0.3 microM), whereas atropine and AF-DX 116, up to 1 mM, did not modify it. Pirenzepine decreased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 77.5+/-10.3 microM). This effect was enhanced when KCI was substituted for NaCl (EC50 11.0+/-0.8 microM) and was antagonized by atropine and AF-DX 116 (IC50 0.91+/-0.71 and 197+/-85 nM). 6. Pirenzepine is proposed as an inverse agonist and atropine and AF-DX 116 as neutral antagonists at the muscarinic M2 receptor.

  11. The effects of pH on the affinity of pirenzepine for muscarinic receptors in the guinea-pig ileum and rat fundus strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R. B.; Chan, M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Dose-ratios obtained with pirenzepine on the guinea-pig ileum at 30 degrees C are indistinguishable from those obtained at 37 degrees C. 2. In 0.1 M NaCl at 37 degrees C the pKa of pirenzepine for the loss of its last ionizable proton is 8.2. The ionization of pirenzepine is therefore markedly affected by changes in pH in the physiological range. 3 In experiments with pirenzepine on guinea-pig ileum and rat fundus made over a range of pH, the dose-ratio increases with the proportion of the protonated form present. As expected, the slope of the graph of dose-ratio against proportion protonated depends on the concentration of antagonist. The changes in pH produce only small effects on dose-ratios obtained with pirenzepine monomethiodide. These effects of pH can account for some of the differences between estimates of the affinity of pirenzepine. 4 The logarithm of the affinity constant of the protonated form of pirenzepine for the receptors in guinea-pig ileum is estimated to be 6.93, compared with 6.94 for the receptors in rat fundus. However, for the non-protonated form the values appear to be below 5 for the ileum compared with about 6.4 for the rat fundus. PMID:6897199

  12. Pirenzepine Promotes the Dimerization of Muscarinic M1 Receptors through a Three-step Binding Process*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B.; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state. PMID:19451648

  13. Fluorescent pirenzepine derivatives as potential bitopic ligands of the human M1 muscarinic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtaoui, Chouaib; Parrot, Isabelle; Klotz, Philippe; Guillier, Fabrice; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Hibert, Marcel; Ilien, Brigitte

    2004-08-12

    Following a recent description of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused human muscarinic M1 receptors and Bodipy-labeled pirenzepine, we synthesized seven fluorescent derivatives of this antagonist in order to further characterize ligand-receptor interactions. These compounds carry Bodipy [558/568], Rhodamine Red-X [560/580], or Fluorolink Cy3 [550/570] fluorophores connected to pirenzepine through various linkers. All molecules reversibly bind with high affinity to M1 receptors (radioligand and energy transfer binding experiments) provided that the linker contains more than six atoms. The energy transfer efficiency exhibits modest variations among ligands, indicating that the distance separating EGFP from the fluorophores remains almost constant. This also supports the notion that the fluorophores may bind to the receptor protein. Kinetic analyses reveal that the dissociation of two Bodipy derivatives (10 or 12 atom long linkers) is sensitive to the presence of the allosteric modulator brucine, while that of all other molecules (15-24 atom long linkers) is not. The data favor the idea that these analogues might interact with both the acetylcholine and the brucine binding domains. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  14. Pirenzepine promotes the dimerization of muscarinic M1 receptors through a three-step binding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-07-17

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state.

  15. Muscarinic receptors discriminated by pirenzepine are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in rat nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belleroche, J.; Gardiner, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pirenzepine, a selective muscarinic antagonist, was tested on the oxotremorine facilitation of the K+-evoked release of [14C]-dopamine from tissue slices of rat nucleus accumbens. The effect of pirenzepine was compared with that of scopolamine and other antagonists which show no heterogeneity in their action on muscarinic receptors in order to determine whether a selective action at a single receptor subtype, M1 or M2, could be distinguished. Pirenzepine and scopolamine both antagonized the oxotremorine-induced (EC50 = 3 X 10(-7) M) facilitation of [14C]-dopamine release with pA2 values of 7.5 and 8.9 respectively. This result indicated that the high affinity pirenzepine receptor (M1) was involved in this response. Low concentrations of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (3 X 10(-10) M), N-methylscopolamine (3 X 10(-9) M) and methyl atropine (10(-8) M) also abolished this facilitatory effect of oxotremorine. PMID:2864975

  16. Interaction between Pirenzepine and Ninjinto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on the Plasma Gut-Regulated Peptide Levels in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuhki; Hiroki, Itoh; Suzuki, Yosuke; Tatsuta, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo) Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh) from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240 min (AUC0→240 min) in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (AUC0→240 min). Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin (AUC0→240 min) compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin.

  17. Telenzepine is at least 25 times more potent than pirenzepine--a dose response and comparative secretory study in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londong, W; Londong, V; Meierl, A; Voderholzer, U

    1987-01-01

    Telenzepine is an analogue of pirenzepine with a higher potency and similar selectivity for M1-receptors in animals. In this placebo controlled, double blind, randomised study mean peptone stimulated gastric acid secretion (mean +/- SEM) of 10 male healthy subjects (58 +/- 6 mmol H+/3 h for placebo) was significantly and dose dependently inhibited by oral telenzepine (2 mg: 31 +/- 5, 3 mg: 23 +/- 5, 5 mg: 21 +/- 4 mmol H+/3 h). Telenzepine 3 and 5 mg were significantly stronger than pirenzepine 50 mg orally (37 +/- 8 mmol H+/3 h). Mean percentage acid inhibition was 37% for pirenzepine, and 48, 61, and 64% for 2, 3, and 5 mg telenzepine, respectively. Basal and peptone stimulated gastrin release was unaffected. Mean salivary output per three hours declined moderately from 156 +/- 45 g (placebo) to 136 +/- 45 g with pirenzepine and significantly to 88 +/- 28 g, 95 +/- 39 g and 39 +/- 13 g with telenzepine 2, 3, and 5 mg, respectively. There was a parallel effect on Na+, K+, Ca++ and amylase output in saliva. Near point vision was not altered by either drug. Pulse rates were lowered by both substances. Complaints of dry mouth were more frequent with telenzepine 5 mg. On a molar basis telenzepine proved to be a 25 and 50 times more potent inhibitor of gastric and salivary secretion, respectively. PMID:3653758

  18. Interaction between Pirenzepine and Ninjinto, a Traditional Japanese Herbal Medicine, on the Plasma Gut-Regulated Peptide Levels in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhki Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo Ninjinto has been used for the treatment of gastroenteritis, esogastritis, gastric atony, gastrectasis, vomiting, and anorexia. The pharmacological effects of Ninjinto on the gastrointestine are due to changes in the levels of gut-regulated peptide, such as motilin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP. The release of these peptides is controlled by acetylcholine (ACh from the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nerve. Thus, we examined the effects of the selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Ninjinto-induced plasma the area under the plasma gut-regulated peptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240 min ( in humans. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine significantly reduced the Ninjinto-induced elevation of plasma motilin and substance P release (. Combined treatment with Ninjinto and pirenzepine significantly increased the release of plasma somatostatin ( compared with administration of Ninjinto alone or placebo. Ninjinto appeared to induce the release of substance P and motilin into plasma mainly through the activation of M1 muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Ninjinto by the elevation of plasma substance P, motilin, and somatostatin.

  19. Therapeutic effect of pirenzepine for clozapine-induced hypersalivation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y M; Lin, C C; Chen, J Y; Liu, W C

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of pirenzepine in the treatment of clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Pirenzepine is reported to counteract hypersalivation by its selective antagonistic activity on the M4-muscarinic receptor, which is stimulated by clozapine. Twenty patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation underwent a random-order, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial which lasted 8 weeks each for the pirenzepine and placebo investigations, with a 4-week washout period in between. The severity of hypersalivation was assessed using an objective measure: saliva production monitored through the diameter of wetted surface on tissue paper placed over the patient's pillow. Our study showed that pirenzepine had no significant therapeutic effect on hypersalivation compared with placebo, suggesting that hypersalivation induced by clozapine might have a neurobiological basis other than the M4-muscarinic receptor.

  20. Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis do not alter the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, V V; Dawe, G S; Sinden, J D; Stephenson, J D

    1998-01-26

    The effects of S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-4-isoxozolepropionic acid (AMPA) lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on the M1/M2 nature of the responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine (ACh) in Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by iontophoretic application and extracellular single unit recording. The responses were characterised using pirenzepine, an M1 receptor antagonist, and gallamine, an M2 antagonist. Eighty two neurones in control and 94 neurones in lesioned animals were studied. In control animals, 37% of responses to ACh were sensitive to pirenzepine, gallamine or to both antagonists. This increased to 62% in lesioned animals, the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses remaining unchanged. These results provide the first electrophysiological confirmation that both pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive (M1 and M2) receptors occur postsynaptic to afferent cholinergic terminals and that their postsynaptic stimulation may produce both inhibition and excitation.

  1. Autonomic modulation during acute myocardial ischemia by low-dose pirenzepine in conscious dogs with a healed myocardial infarction: a comparison with beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Roberto F E; Prete, Giovanna; Foreman, Robert D; Adamson, Philip B; Vanoli, Emilio

    2003-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence documents the beneficial effects of blocking sympathetic activity and modulating heart rate to reduce risk for lethal events in ischemic heart disease. Beside beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, vagal activation is a meaningful approach but not yet easily attainable. Promising results were shown with low-dose atropine and scopolamine, but no follow-up was done because of significant adverse side effects. Pirenzepine is an atropine analogue approved to treat peptic ulcer disease in Europe that is devoid of central actions, which are mostly responsible for anti-muscarinic agents side effects. The vagomimetic action of IV low-dose pirenzepine was studied at rest under control conditions, at rest during acute coronary artery occlusion, and during exercise in conscious dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction (MI). The effects of pirenzepine were then compared, by internal control analysis, with those of atenolol (1 mg/kg). Increasing doses of pirenzepine (from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg) were tested in 11 dogs at rest by measuring time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV). The most effective dose (0.1 mg/kg) was used in the study. At the most effective dose, pirenzepine increased all measures of time domain HRV by 40-50%. However, the vagomimetic action of pirenzepine was lost during exercise and brief ischemia and no anti-arrhythmic action was observed. Conversely, pirenzepine effectively modulated the heart rate increase during acute ischemia at rest with an effect comparable to that of atenolol. The vagomimetic action of pirenzepine in the acutely ischemic heart supports the possibility that this intervention may be helpful for chronic autonomic modulation in post-MI patients.

  2. Safety and efficacy of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia: a 1-year, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled parallel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatkowski, R Michael; Cotter, Susan; Miller, Joseph M; Scher, Colin A; Crockett, R Stephens; Novack, Gary D

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the relatively selective M(1) antagonist pirenzepine hydrochloride in slowing the progression of myopia in school-aged children. This was a parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked study in healthy children, aged 8 to 12 years, with a spherical equivalent of -0.75 to -4.00 diopters (D) and astigmatism of 1.00 D or less. Patients underwent a baseline complete eye examination and regular examinations during a 1-year period. The setting was 13 US academic clinics and private practices. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel or a placebo control twice daily for 1 year. At study entry, the spherical equivalent was mean +/- SD -2.098 +/- 0.903 D for the pirenzepine group (n = 117) and -1.933 +/- 0.825 D for the placebo group (n = 57, P = .22). At 1 year, there was a mean increase in myopia of 0.26 D in the pirenzepine group vs 0.53 D in the placebo group (P pirenzepine group discontinued participation in the study because of adverse effects (5 [4%] of 117 due to excessive antimuscarinic effects). Pirenzepine is effective and relatively safe in slowing the progression of myopia during a 1-year treatment period.

  3. Effects of pirenzepine on Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of the plasma neuropeptide levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuhki; Inoue, Shin; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Dai-kenchu-to has been used for the treatment of abdominal obstructions, including bowel obstructions and a feeling of coldness in the abdomen. We reported that Dai-kenchu-to increases plasma neuropeptide [motilin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P]-like immunoreactive substances (IS) levels and that its pharmacologic effects on the gastrointestine are due to changes in gastrointestinal mucosa-regulatory peptide levels. We examined the effects of the selective M(1) muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on the elevation of Dai-kenchu-to-induced plasma neuropeptide (gastrin, motilin, somatostatin, VIP, CGRP, substance P)-IS levels in human volunteers and the area under the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curve from 0 to 240 min (AUC(0-->240 min)), which were calculated from the plasma neuropeptide concentration-time curves from each volunteers. Oral pretreatment with pirenzepine reduced the Dai-kenchu-to-induced elevation of plasma motilin and VIP-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min). Combined treatment with Dai-kenchu-to and pirenzepine increased plasma somatostatin-IS levels and decreased plasma gastrin-IS levels and had no effects on plasma CGRP- and substance P-IS levels and AUC(0-->240 min) compared with administration of Dai-kenchu-to alone. Dai-kenchu-to appeared to induce the release of motilin and VIP into plasma mainly through the activation of M(1) muscarinic receptors, and pirenzepine may affect the pharmacologic action of Dai-kenchu-to by elevation of plasma motilin and VIP levels.

  4. A rapid and versatile method to label receptor ligands using "click" chemistry: Validation with the muscarinic M1 antagonist pirenzepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Dominique; Ilien, Brigitte; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Riché, Stéphanie; Antheaune, Cyril; Hibert, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Tagged biologically active molecules represent powerful pharmacological tools to study and characterize ligand-receptor interactions. However, the labeling of such molecules is not trivial, especially when poorly soluble tags have to be incorporated. The classical method of coupling usually necessitates a tedious final purification step to remove the excess of reagents and to isolate tagged molecules. To overcome this limitation, Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, referred to as "click" chemistry, was evaluated as a tool to facilitate the access to labeled molecules. In order to validate the approach, we focused our attention on the incorporation of a fluorophore (Lissamine Rhodamine B), a nonfluorescent dye (Patent Blue VF), or biotin into a muscarinic antagonist scaffold derived from pirenzepine. The reaction performed in acetonitrile/water, in the presence of CuSO4 and Cu wire, allowed us to obtain three novel pirenzepine derivatives with high purity and in good yield. No coupling reagents were needed, and the quasi-stoichiometric conditions of the reaction enabled the straightforward isolation of the final product by simple precipitation and its use in bioassays. The affinity of the compounds for the human M1 muscarinic receptor fused to EGFP was checked under classical radioligand and FRET binding conditions. The three pirenzepine constructs display a nanomolar affinity for the M1 receptor. In addition, both dye-labeled derivatives behave as potent acceptors of energy from excited EGFP with a very high quenching efficiency.

  5. Unravelling the interaction of pirenzepine, a gastrointestinal disorder drug, with calf thymus DNA: An in vitro and molecular modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Yusra; Afrin, Shumaila; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Sarwar, Tarique; Ali, Abad; Shamsuzzaman; Tabish, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Pirenzepine is an anti-ulcer agent which belongs to the anti-cholinergic group of gastrointestinal disorder drugs and functions as an M1 receptor selective antagonist. Drug-DNA interaction studies are of great significance as it helps in the development of new therapeutic drugs. It provides a deeper understanding into the mechanism through which therapeutic drugs control gene expression. Interaction of pirenzepine with calf-thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) was determined via a series of biophysical techniques. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the formation of pirenzepine-Ct-DNA complex. The values of binding constant from various experiments were calculated to be in the order of 10(3) M(-1) which is consistent with the groove binding mode. Various spectrofluorimetric experiments like competitive displacement of well known dyes with drug, iodide quenching experiments and the effect of Ct-DNA denaturation in presence of drug confirmed the binding of pirenzepine to the groove of Ct-DNA. The binding mode was further established by viscometric, circular dichroic and molecular modelling studies. Thermodynamic parameters obtained from isothermal titration calorimetric studies suggest that the interaction of pirenzepine with Ct-DNA is enthalpically driven. The value of TΔS and ΔH calculated from calorimetric studies were found to be 4.3 kcal mol(-1) and -2.54 kcal mol(-1) respectively, indicating that pirenzepine-Ct-DNA complex is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. The binding energy calculated was -7.5 kcal mol(-1) from modelling studies which was approximately similar to that obtained by isothermal titration calorimetric studies. Moreover, the role of electrostatic interaction in the binding of pirenzepine to Ct-DNA cannot be precluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of anti-M2-muscarinic effect of AF-DX 116 on atrioventricular nodal conduction with those of pirenzepine and atropine as antibradyarrhythmic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Motomura, S

    1999-06-01

    Selectivity of antimuscarinic actions of AF-DX 116 (AF-DX) on the atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction was compared with those of pirenzepine and atropine by using the canine isolated, blood-perfused AV node preparation and the open-chest in situ dog heart. In the isolated AV node preparation, dose-response curves for negative dromotropic effects (prolongation of Atrio-His interval) of carbachol (CCh) injected into the posterior septal artery were shifted to the right in parallel by AF-DX, pirenzepine, and atropine with apparent pA2-values of 13, 27.5, and 0.45 microg, respectively, and slopes of the modified Schild plot of nearly unity. Meanwhile, dose-response curves for coronary vasodilator effects of CCh were shifted to the right by AF-DX, pirenzepine, and atropine with the apparent pA2 values of 68, 12.5, and 0.55 microg, respectively, but the slopes were far from unity. In the in situ open-chest heart, dose-response curves for negative dromotropic effects (prolongation of AV conduction time) of CCh given intravenously were shifted to the right in parallel by AF-DX, pirenzepine, and atropine with apparent pA2 values of 36, 32, and 1.25 microg/kg, respectively, and the slope of nearly unity, whereas dose-response curves for hypotensive effects of CCh were shifted to the right by AF-DX, pirenzepine, and atropine with apparent pA2 values of 105, 15, and 0.65 microg/kg, respectively, but the slopes of AF-DX and pirenzepine were far from unity. In addition, prolongations of AV conduction time by electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve in the in situ heart were suppressed by AF-DX, pirenzepine, and atropine with the ID50, dose for 50% suppression, of 40, 35, and 1.9 microg/kg, respectively. These results suggest that (a) the potency of antimuscarinic actions of AF-DX on the CCh-induced negative dromotropic effects was almost equal to that of pirenzepine, and approximately 30 times less potent than atropine; (b) the M2-subtype selectivity of AF-DX was

  7. Pharmacological analysis of the inhibition by pirenzepine and atropine of vagal-stimulated acid secretion in the isolated stomach of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. W.; Shankley, N. P.

    1986-01-01

    The muscarinic receptors involved in the vagal stimulation of gastric acid secretion in the mouse isolated stomach assay have been examined by analysing the effects of pirenzepine and atropine on fully-defined frequency-effect curves. Both atropine and pirenzepine produced concentration-dependent inhibition of vagal-stimulated acid secretion in a manner consistent with a model describing competitive antagonism of endogenous acetylcholine, which was assumed to be released by vagal stimulation. The results obtained are quite compatible with the hypothesis that vagal stimulation involves muscarinic receptors which are homogeneous with those previously found on histamine and oxyntic cells in the mouse stomach assay. These results find no evidence for muscarinic receptor heterogeneity and reinforce the hypothesis that the selectivity of pirenzepine in vivo relative to atropine is due to the loss of atropine into the gastric secretion. PMID:3754779

  8. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-05-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (/sup 3/H)PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner.

  9. Short-term desensitization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cells: selective loss of agonist low-affinity and pirenzepine high-affinity binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, C.L.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of brief incubation with carbamylcholine on subsequent binding of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine were investigated in mouse neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115). This treatment demonstrated that the muscarinic receptors in this neuronal clone can be divided into two types; one which is readily susceptible to regulation by receptor agonists, whereas the other is resistant in this regard. In control cells, both pirenzepine and carbamylcholine interacted with high- and low-affinity subsets of muscarinic receptors. Computer-assisted analysis of the competition between pirenzepine and carbamylcholine with (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine showed that the receptor sites remaining upon desensitization are composed mainly of pirenzepine low-affinity and agonist high-affinity binding sites. Furthermore, there was an excellent correlation between the ability of various muscarinic receptor agonists to induce a decrease in consequent (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine binding and their efficacy in stimulating cyclic GMP synthesis in these cells. Thus, only the agonists that are known to recognize the receptor's low-affinity conformation in order to elicit increases in cyclic GMP levels were capable of diminishing ligand binding. Taken together, our present results suggest that the receptor population that is sensitive to regulation by agonists includes both the pirenzepine high-affinity and the agonist low-affinity receptor binding states. In addition, the sensitivity of these receptor subsets to rapid regulation by agonists further implicates their involvement in desensitization of muscarinic receptor-mediated cyclic GMP formation.

  10. Characterization of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors solubilized from rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthin, G.R.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1985-07-01

    Membranes prepared from rat cerebral cortex were solubilized in buffer containing 1% digitonin. Material present in the supernatant after centrifugation at 147,000 X g was shown to contain binding sites for both (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) and (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ). Recovery of binding sites was approximately 25% of the initial membrane-bound (/sup 3/H)QNB binding sites. The Kd values for (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding to solubilized receptors were 0.3 nM and 0.1 microM, respectively. As has been observed previously in membrane preparations, (/sup 3/H)PZ appeared to label fewer solubilized binding sites than did (/sup 3/H)QNB. Maximum binding values for (/sup 3/H)PZ and (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to solubilized receptors were approximately 400 and 950 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. Competition curves for PZ inhibiting the binding of (/sup 3/H)QNB, however, had Hill slopes of 1, with a Ki value of 0.24 microM. The k1 and k-1 for (/sup 3/H)PZ binding were 3.5 X 10(6) M-1 min-1 and 0.13 min-1, respectively. The muscarinic receptor antagonists atropine, scopolamine and PZ inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ to solubilized receptors with Hill slopes of 1, as did the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine. The muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol competed for (/sup 3/H)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding with a Hill slope of less than 1 in cerebral cortex, but not in cerebellum. GTP did not alter the interactions of carbachol or oxotremorine with the solubilized receptor. Together, these data suggest that muscarinic receptor sites solubilized from rat brain retain their abilities to interact selectively with muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists.

  11. [Usefulness of pirenzepine in the study of the upper digestive tract and the large intestine with double contrast media: comparison with scopolamine methylbromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, G; Marraccini, P; Boraschi, P; Marrucci, A; Bertellotti, L; Testa, R

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess the importance of pirenzepine, a selective M1 antimuscarinic drug, as hypotonic agent for diagnostic double-contrast studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract and for double-contrast barium enema studies of the large bowel. Pirenzepine and scopolamine methylbromide (SMB) (Buscopan) were compared in a single blind randomized trial. One hundred-thirty consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Seventy of them underwent double-contrast studies of the stomach and duodenum and sixty double-contrast barium enema studies of the large bowel. Visceral distension and painting of stomach, duodenal bulb and large bowel and global quality of the images were blindly evaluated by 4 independent observers by means of a numerical score (1 to 4). Quantitative analysis of bowel distension was done measuring the maximum diameter of the transverse colon before and after drug administration. No differences were found in the diagnostic performance between the two drugs in the study of the duodenal bulb (2.8 +/- 0.8 vs 2.9 +/- 0.7, p = NS) and of the large bowel (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs 3.1 +/- 0.6, p = NS). Under SMB, slightly but significantly better results were obtained in the stomach (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs 2.7 +/- 0.6, p = 0.01). However, large bowel distension was slightly but significantly improved with Pirenzepine (68 +/- 12 vs 65 +/- 8 mm, p = 0.02). Heart rate and rhythm during the study were recorded by ECG. SMB induced tachycardia in all patients while pirenzepine did not. Moreover, after SMB, 3 patients exhibited faintness, some patients complained of visual accommodation defects, dryness of the mouth and dizziness. Under pirenzepine, no side-effects were reported. To conclude, pirenzepine gives good results in double contrast studies, as good as SMB but with no adverse effects; thus, it could be proposed as the hypotonic agent of choice in upper gastrointestinal and large bowel examinations.

  12. One-year multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel safety and efficacy study of 2% pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in children with myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Donald T H; Lam, Dennis S; Chua, Wei Han; Shu-Ping, Dorothy Fan; Crockett, R Stephens

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the relatively selective M(1)-antagonist, pirenzepine ophthalmic gel (gel), in slowing the progression of myopia in school-aged children. Parallel-group, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-masked study. Three hundred fifty-three healthy children, 6 to 12 years old, with a spherical equivalent (SE) of -0.75 to -4.00 diopters (D) and astigmatism of pirenzepine-treated subjects. Of the 15 serious adverse events reported in 12 subjects (all in the active groups), none was ophthalmic in nature, all subjects recovered, and only 1 (abdominal colic preceded by a flu) was judged possibly related to treatment. Gel (2% twice daily) was effective and relatively safe in slowing the progression of myopia over a 1-year treatment period.

  13. Selective blockade of central m1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors with pirenzepine impairs cardiovascular and respiratory function in rats with acute hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, N Ya; Matsievskii, D D

    2006-09-01

    Ultrasound studies showed that selective antagonist of central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors pirenzepine (50 mg/kg intravenously) causes transitory hypotension and respiratory depression in anesthetized intact rats. The M1 receptor antagonist had no effect on cardiac output and portal blood flow. Pretreatment with pirenzepine increased the sensitivity of rats with acute massive hemorrhage to circulatory hypoxia. After blockade of central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, the posthemorrhagic period was characterized by primary decompensation of blood pressure, portal blood flow, and respiration and development of low cardiac output syndrome. The animals died over the first minutes after bleeding arrest. Our results indicate that central M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors act as shock-limiting cholinergic structures under conditions of posthemorrhagic changes in systemic and portal blood flow, as well as during respiratory dysfunction.

  14. The effects of microinjection of the selective blocker of muscarinic M1 receptors pirenzepine into the neostriatum on the motor behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K B; Kamkina, Yu V; Mysovskii, D A

    2005-07-01

    A discrimination conditioned active avoidance reflex (CAAR) model in a T maze was used in 18 rats to study the effects of bilateral microinjections of the selective muscarinic M1 receptor blocker pirenzepine into the neostriatum on the acquisition of the CAAR and behavior in an open field test. There was sharp degradation of learning of the CAAR and a significant improvement in motor activity both in the open field test and in the maze itself in rats given bilateral microinjections (pirenzepine, 0.004 mg) into the neostriatum as compared with intact controls. This suggests that changes in motor behavior (a sharp increase in locomotor activity) may be among the reasons for difficulty in learning the CAAR in rats after pirenzepine microinjections. Another reason for difficulty in learning the CAAR in these animals may be impairment of the perception of the conditioned signals (a flashing light) and poor differentiation. This is particularly indicated by the delay in the start chamber (double that seen in intact animals) on presentation of conditioned signals despite the high level of motor activity. These results and published data provide evidence for the complex nature of changes induced by blockade of muscarinic M1 receptors in the neostriatum.

  15. [Effect on of pirenzepine on expression of mAChRs in the ocular tissues of guinea pig with form-deprived myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Yu, Jian; Zeng, Jun-wen

    2010-03-01

    To study effects of vitreous injecting M(1)-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, on expression of M(1) and M(4) receptor in retina, choroid, sclera and iris-ciliary body of guinea pig with form-deprived myopia. Twenty-four 1 - 2 week-old pigmented guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups. Group1: normal control (N) (n = 6); group 2: simple form-deprived myopia (FDM) (n = 6); group 3: drug control (S) (n = 6); group 4: pirenzepine (P) (n = 6). Expression changes of M(1) and M(4) muscarinic receptors at mRNA level were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in retina, choroid, sclera and iris-ciliary body. 1. After 21 days' treatment, FDM group produced relative myopia of -4.92 D and an axial length of 0.29 mm with significance (P 0.05). Of interest, in the posterior sclera, mRNA expression of group P was significantly greater than that of group S for the M(1) (P pirenzepine, can effectively inhibit form-deprived myopia in guinea pig. M(1) and M(4) subtype in sclera and their cholinergic signaling may participate in muscarinic antagonist inhibition of myopic development.

  16. Ion-paired pirenzepine-loaded micelles as an ophthalmic delivery system for the treatment of myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Pengmei; Mi, Gujie; Tu, Jiasheng; Sun, Linlin; Webster, Thomas J; Shen, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Myopia is one of the most common ocular disorders for which standard treatments, such as refractive surgery, often involve invasive procedures. Pirenzepine (PRZ), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, has been recognized as a promising candidate for the treatment of myopia, but possesses poor ocular bioavailability. The overall objective of this study was to prepare PRZ-sorbic acid complexes suitable to be encapsulated into micelles with high efficiency for optimal ophthalmic delivery. The results demonstrated that sorbic acid, used as the counter ion, had the most significant effects in increasing the octanol-water distribution coefficient of PRZ as well as improving its corneal permeability in vitro among various counter ions tested. In vivo absorption results showed that a 1.5 times higher bioavailability was achieved by the addition of sorbic acid at a 1:1 ratio. Cytotoxicity studies in vitro and biocompatibility studies in vivo indicated that the micelles did not cause significant toxicities to the eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain as determined in binding studies with AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, E.; Hammer, R.; Ladinsky, H.

    1987-03-02

    In vitro competition binding experiments with the selective muscarinic antagonists AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine (PZ) vs /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine as radioligand revealed a characteristic distribution of muscarinic receptor subtypes in different regions of rat brain. Based on nonlinear least squares analysis, the binding data were compatible with the presence of three different subtypes: the M/sub 1/ receptor (high affinity for PZ), the cardiac M/sub 2/ receptor (high affinity for AF-DX 116) and the glandular M/sub 2/ receptor (low affinity for PZ and AF-DX 116). The highest proportion of M/sub 1/ receptors was found in the hippocampus, while the cerebellum and the hypothalamus were the regions with the largest fraction of the cardiac M/sub 2/ and glandular M/sub 2/ receptors, respectively. In certain brain areas, depending on the relative proportions of the subtypes, flat binding curves were seen for AF-DX 116 and PZ. Based on these data, an approximate distribution pattern of the subtypes in the various brain regions is presented. 19 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Differential light microscopic autoradiographic localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the brainstem and spinal cord of the rat using (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, H.I.; Deshmukh, P.; Roeske, W.R. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA). Health Sciences Center); Wamsley, J.K. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City (USA). Medical Center)

    1983-07-15

    Recently, the authors demonstrated that radiolabelled pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) bound to a high affinity population of muscarinic binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and corpus striatum. However, in the heart, cerebellum and ileum they found little or no (/sup 3/H)PZ binding. These data suggest that (/sup 3/H)PZ labels a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors. The present study examines the light microscopic autoradiographic localization of 3-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, (-)(/sup 3/H)QNB, an antagonist which labels muscarinic receptors with equal affinity and compares its localization to (/sup 3/H)PZ in the rat brainstem and spinal cord.

  19. Influence of ranitidine, pirenzepine, and aluminum magnesium hydroxide on the bioavailability of various antibiotics, including amoxicillin, cephalexin, doxycycline, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, K M; Lode, H; Höffken, G; Tschink, G; Kalz, C; Koeppe, P

    1989-01-01

    Two randomized double-blind crossover studies and one randomized crossover study were performed to document possible drug-drug interactions between antacids (aluminum magnesium hydroxide, 10 ml per dose for 10 doses), antimuscarinic drugs (pirenzepine, 50 mg per dose for 4 doses), and H2-blockers (ranitidine, 150 mg per dose for 3 doses) and amoxicillin (1,000 mg), cephalexin (1,000 mg), doxycycline (200 mg), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (625 mg). Ten healthy volunteers participated in each study. Concentrations in serum and urine were measured by bioassay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the usual open one- or two-compartment models (statistics were determined by the Wilcoxon test). The antacid, pirenzepine, and ranitidine had no influence on the bioavailability of amoxicillin, cephalexin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Only small differences could be observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters, but they are not of therapeutic importance. However, the antacid caused a significant (P less than 0.01) reduction in the gastrointestinal absorption of doxycycline (area under the concentration-time curve, 38.6 +/- 22.7 mg.h/liter, fasting; 6.0 +/- 3.2 mg.h/liter, with antacid), resulting in subtherapeutic levels of doxycycline. PMID:2610502

  20. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in human stellate ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, H.I.; Watson, M.; Wamsley, J.K.; Johnson, P.C.; Roeske, W.R.

    1984-08-13

    The LKB Ultrofilm method of autoradiography has been utilized to anatomically localize putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes in human stellate ganglia. Ten micron sections were labeled in vitro with either 1 nM of the classical antagonist (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)QNB) or 20 nM of the non-classical antagonist (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ), using 1 ..mu..M atropine sulfate to define non-specific binding for both ligands. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)(/sup -/)QNB and (/sup 3/H)PZ binding sites are distributed within the principal ganglion cells and nerve bundles.

  1. [Effect of microinjections of a selective blocker of M1-muscarinic receptors pirenzepine into the neostriatum on the rat motor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K B; Kamkina, Iu V; Mysovskiĭ, D A

    2004-02-01

    In simulated discrimination conditioned reflex of active avoidance (CRAA) in T-maze, the effect of bilateral microinjections of the muscarinic receptor M1 selective blocker pirenzepine on the CRAA formation and behaviour in the "open filed" test, was studied in rats. A sharp worsening of the CRAA learning and a significant increase in the motor activity were shown to occur in rats following the microinjections as compared with control rats. The change in the motor responses seems to account for the worsening of the CRAA learning. Another reason of the phenomenon could involve a disorder in perception of conditioned signals and their poor differentiation. The data obtained and the literature data suggest a complex character of changes induced by the blockade of the M1 muscarinic receptors of the neostriatum.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of pirenzepine analogs bearing a 1,2-cyclohexanediamine and perhydroquinoxaline units in exchange for the piperazine ring as antimuscarinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarini, Anna; Marucci, Gabriella; Bellucci, Cristina; Giorgi, Gianluca; Tumiatti, Vincenzo; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Matera, Riccardo; Rosini, Michela; Melchiorre, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Pirenzepine (2) is one of the most selective muscarinic M(1) versus M(2) receptor antagonists known. A series of 2 analogs, in which the piperazyl moiety was replaced by a cis- and trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine (3-6) or a trans- and cis-perhydroquinoxaline rings (7 and 8) were prepared, with the aim to investigate the role of the piperazine ring of 2 in the interaction with the muscarinic receptors. The structural change leading to compounds 3-6 abolished in binding assays the muscarinic M(1)/M(2) selectivity of 2, due to an increased M(2) affinity. Rather, compounds 3-6 displayed a reversed selectivity showing more affinity at the muscarinic M(2) receptor than at all the other subtypes tested.

  3. Deficits in avoidance responding after paradoxical sleep deprivation are not associated with altered [3H]pirenzepine binding to M1 muscarinic receptors in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Karin M; Hipólide, Débora C; Nobrega, José N; Bueno, Orlando F A; Tufik, Sergio; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2003-07-04

    Previous work had indicated that animals that were sleep-deprived and then trained on a passive avoidance task show poor retention of the task 24 h later after being allowed to sleep freely again. Cholinergic involvement is suggested by the fact that this effect is prevented by treatment with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine during sleep deprivation. The observation that similar deficits are observed in non-deprived rats after treatment with M1-selective antagonist compounds such as dicyclomine or pirenzepine cause similar impairments, and gave rise to the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might induce significant reductions in M1 binding in brain areas involved in learning and memory processes. Rats were deprived of sleep for 96 h and then either immediately killed, or allowed to recover sleep for 24 h before being killed. [3H]pirenzepine binding to M1 sites was examined by quantitative autoradiography in 39 different brain areas in cage controls, sleep-deprived and sleep-recovered animals (N=8 per group). No significant differences among groups were found in any brain region. A separate group of animals was subjected to the sleep deprivation procedure and then trained in a simple avoidance task. Animals were then allowed to sleep and retested 24 h later. This group showed a significant impairment in the avoidance task compared to cage controls, in agreement with previous observations. These data suggest that proactive learning/memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation cannot be attributed to altered M1 binding either immediately after deprivation (when avoidance training occurs) or after sleep has recovered (when acquisition/retention are tested). The possibility remains that alterations in M1 function occur at post-membrane second messenger systems.

  4. Site-directed mutagenesis implicates a threonine residue in TM6 in the subtype selectivities of UH-AH 37 and pirenzepine at muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Seidenberg, M

    2000-08-01

    The structural basis for the selectivity of the antagonist UH-AH 37 at human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated by expressing mutant receptors in COS-7 cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the interaction between UH-AH 37 and [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine in equilibrium assays is competitive and that the high affinity of UH-AH 37 for the M(5) subtype, compared to M(2), is due to an epitope in the sixth transmembrane domain (TM6) or the third outer loop of the receptor. By mutating each nonconserved residue in this region of M(2) and M(5) to its counterpart in the other receptor, we identified a threonine residue in the middle of TM6 uniquely responsible for the higher affinity of the M(5) receptor (M(1), M(3), and M(4) receptors also carry a threonine at that location and also have high affinity for UH-AH 37). The mutant receptor in which the corresponding alanine of the M(2) receptor was replaced by threonine, M(2)(401)ala --> thr, expressed enhanced affinity for pirenzepine as well as for UH-AH 37. The chick M(2) receptor, which expresses anomalously high affinity for pirenzepine, differs from its mammalian counterparts by the presence of a threonine at this position. Affinities of AF-DX 116 and 4-DAMP, as well as the allosteric potency of UH-AH 37, were not sensitive to the M(2)(401) ala --> thr mutation. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Comparison of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthin, G.R.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    The properties of (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ( (/sup 3/H)QNB) binding and (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ( (/sup 3/H)PZ) binding to various regions of rat brain were compared. (/sup 3/H)PZ appeared to bind with high affinity to a single site, with a Kd value of approximately 15 nM in the cerebral cortex. The rank order of potencies of muscarinic drugs to inhibit binding of either (/sup 3/H)QNB or (/sup 3/H)PZ was QNB greater than atropine . scopolamine greater than pirenzepine greater than oxotremorine greater than bethanechol. Muscarinic antagonists (except PZ) inhibited both (/sup 3/H)PZ and (/sup 3/H)QNB binding with Hill coefficients of approximately 1. PZ inhibited (/sup 3/H)QNB binding in cortex with a Hill coefficient of 0.7, but inhibited (/sup 3/H)PZ binding with a Hill coefficient of 1.0. Hill coefficients for agonists were less than 1. The density of (/sup 3/H)PZ binding sites was approximately half the density of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding sites in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. In pons-medulla and cerebellum, the densities of (/sup 3/H)PZ binding sites were 20 and 0%, respectively, relative to the densities of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding sites. When unlabeled PZ was used to compete for (/sup 3/H)QNB binding, the relative number of high-affinity PZ binding sites in cortex, pons and cerebellum agreed with the relative number of (/sup 3/H)PZ binding sites in those regions. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PZ and (/sup 3/H)QNB was nonadditive in cortex. GTP inhibited high-affinity oxotremorine binding, but not PZ binding. Together, these data suggest that (/sup 3/H)PZ binds to a subset of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding sites. Whether this subset reflects the existence of subtypes of muscarinic receptors or is a consequence of coupling to another membrane protein remains to be seen.

  6. Levels of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in Brodmann's area 6 from subjects with schizophrenia is not associated with changes in the transcription factor SP1 or BACE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Soulby, Andrew; Evin, Geneviève M; Scarr, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Decreased muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) mRNA has been reported in Brodmann's area (BA) 6 from subjects with schizophrenia. We have extended this study by measuring levels of CHRM1 ([(3)H]pirenzepine binding), CHRM3 ([(3)H]4-DAMP binding), the transcription factor SP1 and the CHRM1 downstream target beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in BA 6 from 19 subjects with schizophrenia and 19 control subjects. Radioligand binding was quantified using either in situ radioligand binding with autoradiography or, in cohorts of 10 control subjects and 10 subjects with schizophrenia, membrane enriched fraction (MEF) CNS ([(3)H]pirenzepine binding only). Levels of SP1 and BACE1 were measured by Western blotting. [(3)H]pirenzepine binding to tissue sections was in two layers, binding to tissue sections (Binding layer 1: p<0.01; Binding layer 2: p<0.001) and MEF (p<0.05) were decreased in schizophrenia. Levels of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, SP1 and BACE1 were not altered in subjects with the disorder. This study shows a decrease in levels of CHRM1 in BA 6 from subjects with schizophrenia; as CHRM1 and BA 6 are important in maintaining normal cognitive function, these data support the hypothesis that decreased levels of cortical CHRM1 may contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Our findings on BACE1 suggest that the schizophrenia phenotype reported in BACE(-/-) mice is not simply due to lack of that protein in the cortex.

  7. Growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone and hexarelin in fed and fasted dogs: effect of somatostatin infusion or pretreatment with pirenzepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, A E; Marazzi, N; Cella, S G; Cattaneo, L; Müller, E E

    1998-02-01

    Using unanesthetized young male and female beagle dogs, before and after a 2-day fast, we studied the effect of an i.v. infusion of 0.9% saline (5 ml/h), somatostatin (SS, 4 or 8 micrograms/kg/h), or pretreatment with pirenzepine (PZ, 0.6 mg/kg i.v.), a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist which allegedly releases SS, on the GH release evoked by acute administration of GHRH (2 micrograms/kg i.v.), hexarelin (HEXA), a member of the GH-releasing peptide family (250 micrograms/kg i.v.) or GHRH plus HEXA. In fasted dogs, GHRH delivered during saline infusion induced a clear-cut rise in plasma GH levels, significantly higher than that which it induced in fed dogs. In contrast, HEXA, although very effective in causing the release of GH, only slightly increased GH secretion in fasted dogs over that which it induced in fed dogs. Co-administration of GHRH plus HEXA into fed dogs induced a synergic GH response that further increased with fasting. The action of GHRH in fed dogs was abolished by the lower dose of SS, whereas SS at either dose was ineffective in suppressing the GH-releasing effect during fasting. Infusion of the lower dose of SS failed to counter the action of HEXA, either before or during fasting, whilst the higher SS dose partially reduced it in both conditions. In contrast to SS, PZ reduced the GH-releasing effect of GHRH and HEXA, both in the fed state and, though to a lesser extent, during fasting. Pirenzepine only slightly reduced the robust GH rise elicited by GHRH plus HEXA in fed dogs. The suppressive effect of PZ on the GH response to combined administration of the peptides was lowest in fasted dogs. These data show that: (1) fasting augmented the GH response to GHRH and (to a lesser degree) to HEXA; (2) SS inhibited the GH response to GHRH in the fed state, but not in the fasted state; (3) only the higher dose of SS partially reduced the GH stimulation by HEXA in either the fed or the fasted state; (4) PZ lowered the GH response to GHRH and to HEXA in

  8. Comparative distribution of binding of the muscarinic receptor ligands pirenzepine, AF-DX 384, (R,R)-I-QNB and (R,S)-I-QNB to human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggott, Margaret; Owens, Jonathan; O'Brien, John; Paling, Sean; Wyper, David; Fenwick, John; Johnson, Mary; Perry, Robert; Perry, Elaine

    2002-09-01

    Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and its derivatives are being developed to investigate muscarinic receptor changes in vivo in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. This is the first study of [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB binding in vitro in human brain. We have compared the in vitro binding of the muscarinic ligands [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]AF-DX 384, which have selectivity for the M1 and M2/M4 receptor subtypes, respectively, to the binding of [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB. This will provide a guide to the interpretation of in vivo SPET images generated with [123I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [123I]-(R,S)-I-QNB. Binding was investigated in striatum, globus pallidus, thalamus and cerebellum, and cingulate, insula, temporal and occipital cortical areas, which show different proportions of muscarinic receptor subtypes, in post-mortem brain from normal individuals. M1 receptors are of high density in cortex and striatum and are relatively low in the thalamus and cerebellum, while M4 receptors are mainly expressed in the striatum, and M2 receptors are most evident in the cerebellum and thalamus. [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB and [125I]-(R,S)-I-QNB density distribution patterns were consistent with binding to both M1 and M4 receptors, with [125I]-(R,R)-I-QNB additionally binding to a non-cholinergic site not displaceable by atropine. This distribution can be exploited by in vivo imaging, developing ligands for both SPET and PET, to reveal muscarinic receptor changes in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies during the disease process and following cholinergic therapy.

  9. /sup 3/H)pirenzepine and (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat cerebral cortical and cardiac muscarinic cholinergic sites. I. Characterization and regulation of agonist binding to putative muscarinic subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.; Yamamura, H.I.; Roeske, W.R.

    1986-05-01

    The binding and regulation of selected muscarinic agonists to putative subtypes in rat cerebral cortex and heart were studied. Parallel inhibition studies of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) and (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB)-labeled membranes were done with and without 30 microM guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) at 25 degrees C in 10 mM Na-K-phosphate buffer which enhances PZ binding affinity and in modified Krebs-phosphate buffer, which mimics physiological conditions. Classical agonists such as carbachol, oxotremorine and acetylcholine inhibited (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding to membranes with shallow Hill values (nH less than 1), were better fit to a 2-state model, were Gpp(NH)p-regulated and showed lower affinity in modified Krebs-phosphate buffer than in 10 mM Na-K-phosphate buffer. Some agonists were not significantly better fit to a 2-state model in (/sup 3/H)PZ-labeled cortical membranes, especially in 10 mM Na-K-phosphate buffer. Whereas putative M1 and M2 binding sites distinguished by PZ possessed multiple agonist affinity states, as judged by carbachol, and agonist binding to (/sup 3/H)PZ-labeled sites were Gpp(NH)p modulated, the partial agonist pilocarpine and nonclassical agonist McN-A-343 (3-(m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride) showed little Gpp(NH)p-induced shift in (/sup 3/H)PZ-labeled cortical membranes in physiological conditions. Agonist binding to (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB-labeled putative M2 cardiac sites was more sensitive to Gpp(NH)p than (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB-labeled cortical sites. Carbachol and acetylcholine showed significant selectivity for putative M2 sites.

  10. Resetting Stress-induced Carotid Sinus Baroreceptor Reflex Caused by Attenuate Resulting from Intracerebroventricular Injection of Pirenzepine%脑室注射哌仑西平减弱应激所致颈动脉窦压力感受器反射的重调定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萃; 赵红芬; 杨振; 王国卿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of central muscarinic M, cholinoceptor on the stress-induced carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) resetting. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups at random; the unstressed ( n =12) and the stressed group ( n = 12). The latter was subjected to unavoidable electric foot-shock twice daily for a week, each session of foot-shock lasted 2 hours. The left and right carotid sinus regions were isolated from the systemic circulation in all animals anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) was altered in a stepwise manner in vivo. ISP-mean arterial pressure ( MAP) , ISP-Gain relationship curves and reflex characteristic parameters were constructed by fitting to the logistic function with five parameters. The changes in CSR performance induced by stress and the effects of microinjection with the selective muscarinic M1 cholinoceptor antagonist pirenzepine (PRZ) , into the lateral ventricle on the responses of CSR to stress were observed. Results Microinjection of PRZ (1.0 mmol/L, 5μl) into the lateral ventricle in the stressed group, significantly shifted the posterior half range of ISP-MAP relationship curve downwards ( P 0.05 ). The changes in the stressed CSR performance resulted from the administration of PRZ into the lateral ventricle did not recover to the levels of unstressed CSR after injection. Conclusion Central cholinergic M1 receptor is involved in the stress-induced CSR inhibitory resetting, at the same time, the effects of stress on CSR also have other neuromechanisms.%目的 探讨中枢胆碱能M1受体在应激条件下对颈动脉窦压力感受器反射(CSR)的影响.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠随机分成非应激组(n=12)和应激组(n=12),后者接受不可逃避的足底电击,每日2次,每次持续2h.应激1周的SD大鼠,经筛选、麻醉后孤离双侧颈动脉窦区,将不同窦内压(ISP)与其对应的平均动脉压(MAP)值进行Logistic曲线

  11. Pirenzepine block of ACh-induced mucus secretion in tracheal submucosal gland cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, J.M.; Dwyer, T.M. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Muscarinic stimulation of mucus secretion, as measured by the release of ({sup 3}H)glycoprotein, was studied in explants from the tracheal epithelium of weanling swine. The mucus glycoprotein secretion was transient, ceasing within the first 10 min of a continuous exposure to 100 {mu}M ACh. Increasing the solutions' osmotic pressure did not alter basal mucus glycoprotein secretion. Mucus glycoprotein secretion was inhibited by 2-10 {mu}M PZP, indicting that the M{sub 3} muscarinic receptors mediate cholinergic stimulation of mucus production.

  12. Drug: D08389 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08389 Drug Pirenzepine (INN) C19H21N5O2 351.1695 351.4023 D08389.gif Gastric secre...x disease (GORD) A02BX03 Pirenzepine D08389 Pirenzepine (INN) Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br083...M1 [HSA:1128] [KO:K04129] Pirenzepine [ATC:A02BX03] D08389 Pirenzepine (INN) CAS:

  13. Drug: D01297 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01297 Drug Pirenzepine hydrochloride (USAN) C19H21N5O2. 2HCl 423.1229 424.3242 D01...pine D01297 Pirenzepine hydrochloride (USAN) Target-based classification of drugs [...eceptor M1 [HSA:1128] [KO:K04129] Pirenzepine [ATC:A02BX03] D01297 Pirenzepine hy...ASE (GORD) A02BX Other drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) A02BX03 Pirenze

  14. The Effects of Repeated Low-Level Sarin Exposure on Muscarinic M1 Receptor Binding, Amyloid Precursor Protein Levels and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Muscarinic; Nerve agents; Organophosphorus; Pirenzepine ; Receptor Binding; Sarin 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...either Bmax (receptor density) or Kd (receptor affinity) following cortical M1 muscarinic receptor binding using [3H]- Pirenzepine , across all five...binding assays using [3H]- Pirenzepine (m1AChR ligand; Hammer et al., 1980), Western blotting using an antibody to APP in cortex, and neuropathological

  15. Anticholinesterase Effects on Number and Function of Brain Muscarinic Receptors and Central Cholinergic Activity: Drug Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-11

    chloride; pirenzepine ;scopolamine;N-methyL- scopolamine; McN-A-343; quinpiroLe; putative neurotransmitters;dopamine;noradrenaline; glutamate;serotonin... pirenzepine /( H)QNB competition experiments revealed the presence of two muscarinic receptor subtypes :-1, . . - the high affinity site,and M-2...also to occur through activation of the M-2 type, e.g. pretreatment with pirenzepine , a selective and potent M- 1 receptor antagonist failed to block

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on the Spinal Cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-22

    subtherapeutic concentrations of atropine are more effective in protecting against toxicity with OPs than in reversing their effects. Pirenzepine (an M...MSR by atropine ............ 25 10. Reversal of sarin-induced depression of the MSR by pirenzepine ......... 26 0 11. Blockade of sarin-induced...APV, DL-AP7, atropine sulfate, benactyzine, pirenzepine , 0 pralidoxime, trimedoxime, physostigmine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Sigma

  17. /sup 3/H)pirenzepine and (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat cerebral cortical and cardiac muscarinic cholinergic sites. II. Characterization and regulation of antagonist binding to putative muscarinic subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-05-01

    Studies show (/sup 3/H)PZ identified selectively a subpopulation of muscarinic binding sites compared to classical antagonists like (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB in many central and peripheral tissues. We characterized the binding and regulation of selected antagonists to high-affinity (/sup 3/H)PZ (putative M1) and low-affinity PZ (putative M2) sites in rat cerebral cortex (predominantly M1) and heart (predominantly M2). Saturation isotherms of (/sup 3/H)PZ and (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB were performed under various conditions. Guanyl-5'-yl-imidodiphosphate (30 microM) showed little effect on Kd (dissociation constant) or total binding capacity (total receptor density) values. Higher ionic strength buffers yielded lower affinity values for (/sup 3/H)PZ and (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB. Kinetic studies confirmed high affinity Kd values seen in steady-state assays. We conducted inhibition studies of selected muscarinic antagonists including the reportedly cardioselective (putative M2) drug, AF-DX 116 (11-((2-(diethylamino)methyl-1-piperidinyl)-acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)-benzodiazepine-6-one), the reportedly M1 selective compound, PZ, and the classical antagonist (-)QNB, using (/sup 3/H)PZ and (-)-(/sup 3/H)QNB-labeled cerebral cortical and cardiac homogenates. Assays were done with and without guanyl-5'-yl-imidophosphate at 25 degrees C in 10 mM Na-K-phosphate, 50 mM Na-K-phosphate and modified Krebs-phosphate buffer. Studies showed antagonists generally had higher affinity in 10 mM Na-K-phosphate buffer, were insensitive to guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate and had Hill values (nH) nearly equal to one. Cardiac PZ/(/sup 3/H)QNB curves were steep.

  18. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p Pirenzepine (10 mg/h intravenously) reduced basal and vagally...... stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p pirenzepine. In conclusion, human gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is regulated...

  19. Relationship of Three-Dimensional Structure of Muscarinic Antagonists to Antimuscarinic Activity: Structure of Thiodeacylaprophen Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    anisotropic thermal parameters and /v"- CH3 H-atom parameters have been deposited with the British Librar%(VI) HaC -(VIII) pirenzepine Document Supply...the the standard M I muscarinic receptor subtype chloride ions. The figure was drawn using the SYBYL programs antagonist pirenzepine [compound (VIII

  20. Prejunctional Muscarinic Receptors in the Deep Muscular Plexus of Canine Ileum: Comparison with Smooth Muscle Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    These receptors showed a high affinity for the M,/M,-selective antagonist 4-DAMP (pK, = 7.41); in contrast, the PIK, values of pirenzepine (5.60...and oxotremorine. Based on pirenzepine (5.60), methoctramine (5.65) and AF-DX 116 (5.21) the pharmacological observations presented here, the preiunc...ito the "Guide for the tare anid Vse of having a high affinity for pirenzepine . are located postsynapr- L~aboratorv Aninials," preparedl Iw the C

  1. Effects of Chemical Agents on the Cholinergic Neurotransmitter System: Mechanisms of Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-20

    site to be 5.1 pM in the absence of [3H](-)NMS. A small but significant increase in the concentration of pirenzepine required to inhibit [3H](-)NMS...circles), pirenzepine (squares), and gallamine (triangles) in control homogenates (open symbols) and homogenates which had been at 370 incubated with BM...triplicate. The incubation of tissue with ( 3H(-)nlS (0.15 nM) was 30 min at 300 for the experiments with atropine and pirenzepine and 3 hr for the

  2. Functional partial agonism at cloned human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1996-01-01

    , and a competitive antagonist, atropine or pirenzepine, at fixed ratios display functional partial agonism. The levels of apparent intrinsic activity of the functional partial agonist responses were shown to be dependent of the receptor density and G-protein concentration in the same manner as that determined...... agonist response, which is dependent on the agonist/antagonist ratio, is predictable from the Waud equation, describing competitive receptor/ligand interactions. In agreement with the relative antagonist potencies of pirenzepine at m1 and m5, a 10:1 ratio of carbachol and pirenzepine produced very low...

  3. Interaction of Tacrine at M1 and M2 Cholinoceptors in Guinea Pig Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    using the selective M, and M2 antagonists [3H]- pirenzepine ([3H]PZ) and [3H]AF-DX 384. The dissocia- tion constants were 0.36 nmol/I for the M...nmol/I) at 25*C with 200 ml homogenate made nist [3H]- pirenzepine ([3HJPZ) [4, 5] and the up to 2 ml with buffer. The incubation period was 2 h...tion constant; nH = Hill coefficient; n = number of experiments. pirenzepine indicate that its affinity for the T"M. 2. Dissociation constants for [3H

  4. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldo, E.; Martos, F.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, A.; Vigano, M.A.; Ladinsky, H.; Sanchez de La Cuesta, F.

    1988-01-01

    The affinities of selective, pirenzepine and AF-DX 116, and classical, N-methylscopolamine and atropine, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists were investigated in displacement binding experiments with (/sup 3/H)Pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine in membranes from human autoptic tissues (forebrain, cerebellum, atria, ventricle and submaxillary salivary glands). Affinity estimates of N-methylscopolamine and atropine indicated a non-selective profile. Pirenzepine showed differentiation between the M/sub 1/ neuronal receptor of the forebrain and the receptors in other tissues while AF-DX 116 clearly discriminated between muscarinic receptors of heart and glands. The results in human tissues confirm the previously described selectivity profiles of pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 in rat tissues. These findings thus reveal the presence also in man of three distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes: the neuronal M/sub 1/, the cardiac M/sub 2/ and the glandular M/sub 3/.

  5. Gastric secretory inhibitors improve the visibility of gastric mucosal detail in barium studies of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmann, W.; von Bueren, U.; Zollikofer, C.; Mueller-Lissner, S.; Blum, A.

    1981-06-01

    In a controlled randomized clinical trial the effect of the secretory inhibitors Cimetidine and Pirenzepine on the visibility of the areolae gastricae in barium studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract was examined. Both drugs improved the radiological imaging of the areolar pattern. Pirenzepine but not Cimetidine reduced the amount of radiologically visible fasting gastric contents. Thus, factors other than the volume alone of gastric secretions appear to play a major role in the quality of imaging of the gastric fine relief.

  6. Studies on (/sup 3/H) hemicholinium-3 ((/sup 3/H)HC-3), (/sup 3/H) pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) and (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)(-)QNB) binding with choline and acetylcholine analogues (AF30, AF64, AF64A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulva, K.; Fisher, A.; Hanin, I.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-05

    Choline deficiency in brain function has been implicated in several neurological disorders. Therefore, the usefulness of choline and its analogues as therapeutic agents or potential tools in developing selective models of central cholinergic hypofunction has been under investigation. The inhibitory potencies of ethylcholine mustard (AF64) and ethylcholine mustard aziridium (AF64A) were tested in inhibiting specific (/sup 3/H)HC-3 (rat striatal membranes), (/sup 3/H)PZ and (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB (cortical and heart membranes). AF64 and AF64A inhibited the binding of (/sup 3/H)HC-3 with low affinity. Results for one-site fit are: AF64: IC/sub 50/ = 107 ..mu..M, n/sub H/ = 0.62; AF64A: IC/sub 50/ = 130 ..mu..M, n/sub H/ = 0.56. Two site-fit resulted IC/sub 50/ values of 11-12 ..mu..M for high affinity and 360-730 ..mu..M for low affinity (relative proportions: 45% and 55%, respectively) in both cases. AF30 (a rigid choline analogue with agonist activity), AF64 and AF64A were weak inhibitors of muscarinic receptor bindings with IC/sub 50/ values in the micromolar range in both cortical and heart membranes, although AF64A showed ten-fold higher affinity in inhibiting (/sup 3/H)PZ binding than (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding in cortical membranes.

  7. Autoregulation of acetylcholine release from vagus nerve terminals through activation of muscarinic receptors in the dog trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Yoshitomi, T.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of pirenzepine and gallamine on the membrane and contractile properties of smooth muscle cells and on excitatory neuro-effector transmission in the dog trachea were investigated by means of microelectrode, double sucrose gap and tension recording methods. 2. Pirenzepine (10(-7) M) and gallamine (10(-5) M) had no effect on the resting membrane potential or the input resistance of the smooth muscle cells. 3. Pirenzepine (10(-10)-10(-9) M) and gallamine (10(-7) M) enhanced the amplitude of twitch contractions evoked by field stimulation in the combined presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M). At higher concentrations pirenzepine (10(-8) M) inhibited the twitch contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Both pirenzepine and gallamine in doses over 10(-7) and 10(-5) M, respectively, reduced muscle tone. 4. Pirenzepine (10(-10)-10(-9) M) and gallamine (10(-7) M) enhanced the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) evoked by field stimulation (single or repetitive stimulation). However, a high concentration of pirenzepine (10(-8) M) reduced the amplitude of e.j.ps. In parallel with its action on e.j.ps, pirenzepine (over 10(-9) M) reduced the response of smooth muscle cells to acetylcholine (ACh), in a dose-dependent manner. Gallamine (5 X 10(-5) M) markedly enhanced the amplitude of e.j.ps but also reduced the response of muscle cells to ACh. 5. ACh (10(-10)-10(-9) M) inhibited twitch contractions evoked by field stimulation, with a slight increase of resting tension. 6. Gallamine enhanced the summation of e.j.ps during repetitive field stimulation at a high frequency (20 Hz), but was without effect on the depression phenomena of e.j.ps observed during double stimulus experiments at different time intervals (5-60 s). 7. These results indicate that both pirenzepine and gallamine have dual actions on pre- and post-junctional muscarinic receptors in dog tracheal tissue. At low concentrations both agents potentiate excitatory

  8. Muscarinic type 1 receptors mediate part of nitric oxide's vagal facilitatory effect in the isolated innervated rat right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, K; Markos, F

    2007-02-01

    We investigated whether vagal cardiac cholinergic facilitation by nitric oxide (NO) is mediated by cardiac muscarinic receptor subtypes in the vagally innervated rat right atrium in vitro. Experiments were carried out in the presence of atenolol (4 microM). The right vagus was stimulated at 4, 8, 16, 32 Hz; pulse duration 1 ms at 20 V for 20s; vagal postganglionic activation was achieved using nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1mM) and the effect on cardiac interval (ms) assessed. Pirenzepine (1 microM), a M1 antagonist, attenuated vagally induced increase in cardiac interval. L-Arginine (0.34 mM) superfused with pirenzepine failed to reverse this attenuation, however, L-arginine applied alone reversed the reduction vagal cardiac slowing. Similarly, sodium nitroprusside (10 microM) applied alone, and not together with pirenzepine, was able to reverse the attenuation of vagal effects caused by pirenzepine. Synthetic MT7 (1 nM) toxin, a selective M1 antagonist confirmed these results. M3 antagonism using para-fluorohexahydrosiladifenidol (p-F-HHSiD) (300 nM) and M4 antagonism with PD 102807 (200 nM) did not affect the vagally induced increase in cardiac interval. Nicotine induced increase in cardiac interval was not altered by pirenzepine. These results show that antagonism of M1 receptors on cardiac vagal preganglionic fibres reduces vagal efficacy which can be recovered by either a nitric oxide synthase substrate or a NO donor.

  9. Guanylpirenzepine distinguishes between neuronal ml and m4 muscarinic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferini, E.; Cereda, E.; Ladinsky, H.; Donetti, A.; Giraldo, E. (Istituto De Angeli S.p.A., Milan (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Guanylpirenzepine, a polar, non-quaternary analog of pirenzepine, exhibited a novel binding behavior in rat brain regions: in competition binding experiments against (3H)pirenzepine labeling the M1 receptor in membranes from cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, the compound, differently from pirenzepine, displayed heterogeneous binding curves. Computer assisted analysis of these curves, evidenced the existence of two populations of binding sites: a large proportion (84-89%) of high affinity receptors (KH = 64-92 nM) and a remainder with very low affinity (KL = 19-28 microM). Like pirenzepine, guanylpirenzepine showed low affinity for the glandular M3 and the cardiac M2 receptors when (3H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors in membranes from these two tissues; affinity values for guanylpirenzepine were 1336 and 5790 nM respectively, vs 323 and 683 nM for pirenzepine. We conclude that guanylpirenzepine is able to discriminate between m1 and m4 receptor subtypes and may represent a new tool for deeper studies on muscarinic receptors classification.

  10. Different roles for M1 and M2 receptors within perirhinal cortex in object recognition and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, Susan J; Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Recognition and discrimination of objects and individuals are critical cognitive faculties in both humans and non-human animals, and cholinergic transmission has been shown to be essential for both of these functions. In the present study we focused on the role of M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors in perirhinal cortex (PRh)-dependent object recognition and discrimination. The selective M1 antagonists pirenzepine and the snake toxin MT-7, and a selective M2 antagonist, AF-DX 116, were infused directly into PRh. Pre-sample infusions of both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 significantly impaired object recognition memory in a delay-dependent manner. However, pirenzepine and MT-7, but not AF-DX 116, impaired oddity discrimination performance in a perceptual difficulty-dependent manner. The findings indicate distinct functions for M1 and M2 receptors in object recognition and discrimination.

  11. [The effect of two lubricants (magnesium stearate and pruv) in the formation of tablets of four anti-ulcer agents/ by means of direct compression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Marquez, M A; Muñoz, A; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    1992-01-01

    In this research we study the influence of two lubricants-Magnesium Stearate and Pruv--on the tablets elaboration of Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine and Pirenzepine by direct compression. The presence of 0.5% of lubricants improved the flow of all the formulations, but especially the Famotidine's formulation. The formulations with Magnesium Stearate had the worst results in tests of friability and tensile strength. All tablets with drugs and Pruv had high data in indentation hardness. The tablets of Cimetidine, Famotidine and Pirenzepine with Magnesium Stearate had less time of disintegration.

  12. Heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex demonstrated by the selective antagonist AF-DX 116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Seaver, N.A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of muscarinic receptors in rabbit peripheral lung homogenates bind pirenzepine with high affinity (putative M1 subtype). In experiments of AF-DX 116 inhibiting (TH)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (TH)pirenzepine, the authors found similar inhibitory constants for AF-DX 116 binding in rat heart and rabbit peripheral lung that were 4-fold smaller (i.e. of higher affinity) than the inhibitory constant for rat cerebral cortex. This results demonstrates heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Characterization of Prejunctional Muscarinic Receptors: Effects on the Release of VIP and Functional Responses and Receptor Expression in the Ovine Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders T. Ryberg

    2009-01-01

    was collected out of the submandibular venous drainage before and during electrical stimulation of chorda tympani nerve in the absence and presence either of pirenzepine or methoctramine. While metchoctramine increased the output of protein, pirenzepine inhibited flow of saliva and increased protein output, vasodilatation, and VIP output. In morphological examinations, the inhibitory muscarinic M4 receptor occurred interacinarily in the gland. It is concluded that prejunctional muscarinic receptors, most likely of the M4 subtype, exert inhibitory modulation of the parasympathetic release of VIP in the ovine submandibular gland.

  14. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit (/sup 3/H)-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M/sub 1/ subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M/sub 2/ subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M/sub 1/ selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function.

  15. M1 MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS MEDIATE INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM RELEASE IN NB-OK1 HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA-CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BODDEKE, HWGM; BUTTINI, M; LICHTSTEINER, M; ENZ, A

    Muscarine acetylcholine receptors were characterized in NB-OK1 cells using radioligand (H-3-NMS) binding experiments and second messenger (calcium and phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover) studies. In radioligand binding experiments the displacement curves of pirenzepine (K(I) = 1.3 x 10(-8) M), AF-DX

  16. CONDITIONAL INVOLVEMENT OF MUSCARINIC M(1) RECEPTORS IN VAGALLY MEDIATED CONTRACTION OF GUINEA-PIG BRONCHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBERGE, REJ; ROFFEL, AF; ZAAGSMA, J

    The involvement of ganglionic muscarinic M(1) receptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of the M(1)-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine on vagus nerve (VNS, preganglionic) and electrical field

  17. Drug: D05276 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RDERS A02B DRUGS FOR PEPTIC ULCER AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GORD) A02BX Other drugs for peptic ulcer and gastro-oesophag...eal reflux disease (GORD) A02BX03 Pirenzepine D05276 Pir

  18. Selectivity of oxomemazine for the M1 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Woo, C W; Kim, J G

    1994-12-01

    The binding characteristics of pirenzepine and oxomemazine to muscarinic receptor were studied to evaluate the selectivity of oxomemazine for the muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat cerebral microsomes. Equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate([3H]QNB) determined from saturation isotherms was 64 pM. Analysis of the pirenzepine inhibition curve of [3H]QNB binding to cerebral microsome indicated the presence of two receptor subtypes with high (Ki = 16 nM, M1 receptor) and low (Ki = 400 nM, M3 receptor) affinity for pirenzepine. Oxomemazine also identified two receptor subtypes with about 20-fold difference in the affinity for high (Ki = 84 nM, OH receptor) and low (Ki = 1.65 microM, OL receptor) affinity sites. The percentage populations of M1 and M3 receptors to the total receptors were 61:39, and those of OH and OL receptors 39:61, respectively. Both pirenzepine and oxomemazine increased the KD value for [3H]QNB without affecting the binding site concentrations and Hill coefficient for the [3H]QNB binding. Oxomemazine had a 10-fold higher affinity at M1 receptors than at M3 receptors, and pirenzepine a 8-fold higher affinity at OH receptors than at OL receptors. Analysis of the shallow competition binding curves of oxomemazine for M1 receptors and pirenzepine for OL receptors yielded that 69% of M1 receptors were of OH receptors and the remaining 31% of OL receptors, and that 29% of OL receptors were of M1 receptors and 71% of M3 receptors. However, M3 for oxomemazine and OH for pirenzepine were composed of a uniform population. These results suggest that oxomemazine could be classified as a selective drug for M1 receptors and also demonstrate that rat cerebral microsomes contain three different subtypes of M1, M3 and the other site which is different from M1, M2 and M3 receptors.

  19. Changes in cholinergic and glutamatergic markers in the striatum from a sub-set of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Thomas, Natalie; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chen, Wei J; Scarr, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Having separated a sub-group of people with schizophrenia based on a marked loss of cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding (MRDS); we wished to determine if MRDS had lower levels of [(3)H]pirenzepine and other muscarinic receptor antagonist binding to the striatum and if this was due to loss of pre- or post-synaptic neurons or glia measured using surrogate markers (25 kilodalton synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP 25), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD 95), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) 41/43) of cell number. [(3)H]pirenzepine, [(3)H]AF-DX 384 and [(3)H]4-DAMP binding to the striatum from 37 subjects with schizophrenia (19 MRDS) and 20 controls as well as SNAP 25, PSD 95 and GFAP 41/43 in crude particulate membrane were measured. [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding to the striatum were significantly lower in schizophrenia due to lower binding of both radioligands in the striatum from MRDS. Levels of PSD 95 were higher in schizophrenia, predominantly due to higher levels in MRDS. Our data suggest muscarinic M1 ([(3)H]pirenzepine) and M2 and/or M4 receptors ([(3)H]AF-DX 384) are lower in the striatum from MRDS which could mediate inappropriate adaption to internal and external cues which, in turn, would affect motivation, cognition and motor control. Increased levels of PSD 95 could indicate increased post-synaptic boutons or changes in NMDA receptor-mediated signalling in MRDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in BQCA Allosteric Modulation of [(3)H]NMS Binding to Human Cortex within Schizophrenia and by Divalent Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Hopper, Shaun; Conn, P Jeffrey; Scarr, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Stimulation of the cortical muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) is proposed as a treatment for schizophrenia, a hypothesis testable using CHRM1 allosteric modulators. Allosteric modulators have been shown to change the activity of CHRMs using cloned human CHRMs and CHRM knockout mice but not human CNS, a prerequisite for them working in humans. Here we show in vitro that BQCA, a positive allosteric CHRM1 modulator, brings about the expected change in affinity of the CHRM1 orthosteric site for acetylcholine in human cortex. Moreover, this effect of BQCA is reduced in the cortex of a subset of subjects with schizophrenia, separated into a discrete population because of a profound loss of cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding. Surprisingly, there was no change in [(3)H]NMS binding to the cortex from this subset or those with schizophrenia but without a marked loss of cortical CHRM1. Hence, we explored the nature of [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding to human cortex and showed total [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding was reduced by Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]NMS binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]pirenzepine was reduced by Mg(2+) and enhanced by Zn(2+), whereas BQCA effects on [(3)H]NMS, but not [(3)H]pirenzepine, binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+). These data suggest the orthosteric and allosteric sites on CHRMs respond differently to divalent cations and the effects of allosteric modulation of the cortical CHRM1 is reduced in a subset of people with schizophrenia, a finding that may have ramifications for the use of CHRM1 allosteric modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  1. Changes in BQCA Allosteric Modulation of [3H]NMS Binding to Human Cortex within Schizophrenia and by Divalent Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Hopper, Shaun; Conn, P Jeffrey; Scarr, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of the cortical muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) is proposed as a treatment for schizophrenia, a hypothesis testable using CHRM1 allosteric modulators. Allosteric modulators have been shown to change the activity of CHRMs using cloned human CHRMs and CHRM knockout mice but not human CNS, a prerequisite for them working in humans. Here we show in vitro that BQCA, a positive allosteric CHRM1 modulator, brings about the expected change in affinity of the CHRM1 orthosteric site for acetylcholine in human cortex. Moreover, this effect of BQCA is reduced in the cortex of a subset of subjects with schizophrenia, separated into a discrete population because of a profound loss of cortical [3H]pirenzepine binding. Surprisingly, there was no change in [3H]NMS binding to the cortex from this subset or those with schizophrenia but without a marked loss of cortical CHRM1. Hence, we explored the nature of [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]NMS binding to human cortex and showed total [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]NMS binding was reduced by Zn2+, acetylcholine displacement of [3H]NMS binding was enhanced by Mg2+ and Zn2+, acetylcholine displacement of [3H]pirenzepine was reduced by Mg2+ and enhanced by Zn2+, whereas BQCA effects on [3H]NMS, but not [3H]pirenzepine, binding was enhanced by Mg2+ and Zn2+. These data suggest the orthosteric and allosteric sites on CHRMs respond differently to divalent cations and the effects of allosteric modulation of the cortical CHRM1 is reduced in a subset of people with schizophrenia, a finding that may have ramifications for the use of CHRM1 allosteric modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:26511338

  2. Increased noradrenaline levels in the rostral pons can be reversed by M1 antagonist in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioğlu, Berna; Kaleli, Melisa; Aydın, Banu; Ketenci, Sema; Cabadak, Hülya; Gören, M Zafer

    2013-08-01

    The dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and noradrenergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder. The effect of selective M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine on anxiety indices was investigated by using elevated plus maze, following exposure to trauma reminder. Upon receiving the approval of ethics committee, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dirty cat litter (trauma) for 10 min and 1 week later, the rats confronted to a trauma reminder (clean litter). The rats also received intraperitoneal pirenzepine (1 or 2 mg/kg/day) or saline for 8 days. Noradrenaline (NA) concentration in the rostral pons was analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The anxiety indices of the rats subjected to the trauma reminder were increased when compared to control rats (p Pirenzepine treatment in traumatized rats displayed similar anxiety indices of non-traumatized rats treated with physiological saline. Although freezing time was prolonged with pirenzepine in traumatized groups the change was not found statistically significant. The NA level was 1.5 ± 0.1 pg/mg in non-traumatized rats and increased to 2.4 ± 0.2 pg/mg in traumatized rats. Bonferroni post hoc test revealed that the NA content of the rostral pons of the traumatized rats treated with physiological saline was significantly higher than the content of other groups (p pirenzepine indicating the roles of M1 receptors.

  3. In vitro release of two anti-muscarinic drugs from soft contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui A

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alex Hui,1 Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak,2 Chau-Minh Phan,3 Lyndon Jones3 1School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Mechanics, Material Science and Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Centre for Contact Lens Research, School of Optometry & Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of the anti-myopia drugs atropine sulfate and pirenzepine dihydrochloride from commercially available soft contact lenses. Standard ultraviolet (UV absorbance–concentration curves were generated for atropine and pirenzepine. Ten commercially available contact lenses, including four multifocal lenses, were loaded by soaking in atropine or pirenzepine solutions at two different concentrations (10 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. The release of the drugs into phosphate-buffered saline was determined over the course of 24 hours at 34°C using UV absorbance. Materials with surface charge released the greatest amount of atropine when loaded with either concentration when compared to the other lens types (p<0.05, releasing upward of 1.026±0.035 mg/lens and 0.979±0.024 mg/lens from etafilcon A and ocufilcon A, respectively. There were no significant differences in the amount of atropine or pirenzepine released from the multifocal and non-multifocal lenses made from the same lens materials. Narafilcon A material demonstrated prolonged release of up to 8 hours when loaded with pirenzepine, although the overall dose delivered from the lens into the solution was among the lowest of the materials investigated. The rest of the lenses reached a plateau within 2 hours of release, suggesting that they were unable to sustain drug release into the solution for long periods of time. Given that no single method of myopia control has yet shown itself to be completely effective in preventing myopia progression, a combination of

  4. On the use of nonfluorescent dye labeled ligands in FRET-based receptor binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtaoui, Chouaib; Guillier, Fabrice; Klotz, Philippe; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Hibert, Marcel; Ilien, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    The efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is dependent upon donor-acceptor proximity and spectral overlap, whether the acceptor partner is fluorescent or not. We report here on the design, synthesis, and characterization of two novel pirenzepine derivatives that were coupled to patent blue VF and pinacyanol dyes. These nonfluorescent compounds, when added to cells stably expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors, promote EGFP fluorescence extinction in a time-, concentration-, and atropine-dependent manner. They display nanomolar affinity for the muscarinic receptor, determined using either FRET or classical radioligand binding conditions. We provide evidence that these compounds behave as potent acceptors of energy from excited EGFP with quenching efficiencies comparable to those of analogous fluorescent bodipy or rhodamine red pirenzepine derivatives. The advantages they offer over fluorescent ligands are illustrated and discussed in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and wider applicability of FRET-based receptor binding assays.

  5. M sub 1 muscarinic antagonists interact with. sigma. recognition sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudkins, R.L. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (United States)); DeHaven-Hudkins, D.L. (Sterling Research Group, Malvern, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The M{sub 1}-selective muscarinic antagonists aprophen, caramiphen, carbetapentane, 2-DAEX, dicyclomine, hexahydrosiladifenidol, iodocaramiphen, nitrocaramiphen, oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl potently inhibited binding to {sigma} sites in brain. Both basic ester and non-ester structural type compounds which exhibit affinity for the muscarinic receptor also demonstrated affinity for the {sigma} site, while the classical antimuscarinic agents atropine and QNB, and the tricyclic pirenzepine, were ineffective in binding to this site. The authors also observed a significant correlation between the K{sub i} values for {sigma}compounds to inhibit ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine binding and their IC{sub 50} values to inhibit carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. These observations may aid in elucidating the relationship of {sigma} binding to inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by cholinergic agonists.

  6. Discrimination of putative M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat brain by N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, A.B.; Creese, I.

    1986-03-01

    The EC/sub 50/ of EEDQ for the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding in vitro was approximately 3 fold lower for homogenates of hippocampus than brainstem (containing predominantly putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes respectively). Furthermore, the time-dependent loss of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding produced by 100 ..mu..M EEDQ was faster in homogenates of hippocampus than brainstem. Administration of EEDQ (20 mg/kg i.p.) irreversibly reduced the Bmax of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding by 56% and 34% in hippocampus and brainstem respectively. Pirenzepine competition for the remaining (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites following in vitro and in vivo treatment with EEDQ revealed a significant increase in the proportion of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites having low affinity for pirenzepine (M/sub 2/ receptors), indicating that the high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M/sub 1/ receptors) were selectively and irreversibly lost. Thus, EEDQ discriminates the same putative M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptor subtypes that are discriminated by pirenzepine. The reduction of (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding could be prevented both in vitro and in vivo by atropine or scopolamine. These data may indicate differences in the accessibility of these putative receptor subtypes to EEDQ or, alternatively, differences in the availability of carboxyl groups able to interact with EEDQ at the ligand recognition site of M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic receptors.

  7. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  8. Muscarinic receptors involved in airway vascular leakage induced by experimental gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-Yao; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Hao; Advenier, Charles; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Devillier, Philippe

    2008-04-23

    Gastro-oesophageal acid reflux may cause airway responses such as cough, bronchoconstriction and inflammation in asthmatic patients. Studies in humans or in animals have suggested that these responses involve cholinergic nerves. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the efferent vagal component on airway microvascular leakage induced by instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the oesophagus of guinea-pigs and the subtype of muscarinic receptors involved. Airway microvascular leakage induced by intra-oesophageal HCl instillation was abolished by bilateral vagotomy or by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. HCl-induced leakage was inhibited by pretreatment with atropine, a non-specific muscarinic receptor antagonist, and also by pretreatment with either pirenzepine, a muscarinic M(1) receptor antagonist, or 4-DAMP, a muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonist. Pirenzepine was more potent than atropine and 4-DAMP. These antagonists were also studied on airway microvascular leakage or bronchoconstriction induced by intravenous administration of acetylcholine (ACh). Atropine, pirenzepine and 4-DAMP inhibited ACh-induced airway microvascular leakage with similar potencies. In sharp contrast, 4-DAMP and atropine were more potent inhibitors of ACh-induced bronchoconstriction than pirenzepine. Methoctramine, a muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist, was ineffective in all experimental conditions. These results suggest that airway microvascular leakage caused by HCl intra-oesophageal instillation involves ACh release from vagus nerve terminals and that M(1) and M(3) receptors play a major role in cholinergic-mediated microvascular leakage, whereas M(3) receptors are mainly involved in ACh-induced bronchoconstriction.

  9. Effects of selective antagonism or depletion of the cholinergic system on visual discrimination performance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Sondag, H.N.P.M.; Coenders, C.J.H.; Andrews, J.S.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A two-lever simultaneous visual discrimination task was used to study the effects on performance in Long-Evans rats of the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.0125, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.8mg/kg s.c.), the M(1) antagonist pirenzepine, the M(2) antagonist AF-DX 116, the M(3) antagonist UH-AH 37 (each 3.2,

  10. Annulated heterocyclic bioisosteres of norarecoline. Synthesis and molecular pharmacology at five recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1995-01-01

    inhibitors of the binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), pirenzepine (PZ), and oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) to tissue membrane preparations. In the [3H]-Oxo-M binding assay, receptor affinities in the low nanomolar range were measured for 4a (IC50 = 0.010 microM), 4b (IC50 = 0.003 microM), 4c (IC50...

  11. Central muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in pilocarpine-induced salivation, hypertension and water intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, T L; De Luca, L A; Colombari, D S A; Menani, J V

    2008-12-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that pilocarpine (ACh receptor agonist) injected peripherally may act centrally producing salivation and hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effects of specific M(1) (pirenzepine), M(2)/M(4) (methoctramine), M(1)/M(3) (4-DAMP) and M(4) (tropicamide) muscarinic receptor subtype antagonists injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV) on salivation, water intake and pressor responses to peripheral pilocarpine. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulae implanted in the LV were used. Salivation was measured in rats anaesthetized with ketamine (100 mg per kg body weight) and arterial pressure was recorded in unanaesthetized rats. Salivation induced by i.p. pilocarpine (4 micromol per kg body weight) was reduced only by 4-DAMP (25-250 nmol) injected into the LV, not by pirenzepine, methoctramine or tropicamide at the dose of 500 nmol. Pirenzepine (0.1 and 1 nmol) and 4-DAMP (5 and 10 nmol) injected into the LV reduced i.p. pilocarpine-induced water intake, whereas metoctramine (50 nmol) produced nonspecific effects on ingestive behaviours. Injection of pirenzepine (100 nmol) or 4-DAMP (25 and 50 nmol) into the LV reduced i.v. pilocarpine-induced pressor responses. Tropicamide (500 nmol) injected into the LV had no effect on pilocarpine-induced salivation, pressor responses or water intake. The results suggest that central M(3) receptors are involved in peripheral pilocarpine-induced salivation and M(1) receptors in water intake and pressor responses. The involvement of M(3) receptors in water intake and pressor responses is not clear because 4-DAMP blocks both M(1) and M(3) receptors.

  12. Identification of M(1) muscarinic receptor subtype in rat stomach using a tissue segment binding method, and the effects of immobilization stress on the muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, Abu Syed Md; Morishima, Shigeru; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Muramatsu, Ikunobu

    2008-12-03

    Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes widely distribute in stomach tissues and are involved in many physiological functions. Although mRNA of M(1) subtype was found in gastric mucosa, the M(1) subtype has not been detected by conventional membrane binding assays. In the present study, muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat stomach were reevaluated by using the tissue segment binding technique recently developed to recognize the inherent/native profiles of receptors without receptor environment perturbation. [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bound to muscarinic receptors in the intact segments of rat gastric mucosa and muscle layers. The muscarinic receptors in the mucosal segments were composed of M(1), M(2) and M(3) subtypes, among which the M(1) subtype selectively showed high affinity for pirenzepine. However, in the membrane preparations, binding sites with high affinity for pirenzepine could not be detected. In the muscle layer, M(2) and M(3) subtypes, but not M(1), were identified in tissue segment and conventional membrane binding assays. Western blotting analysis recognized the M(1) subtype in the membrane preparations of mucosal but not muscle layers. Chronic immobilization stress increased the M(3) subtype in mucosal and muscle layers and decreased the M(2) subtype in the muscle layer, whereas M(1) and M(2) subtypes in mucosal layer did not change after the stress. The current study shows that M(1) subtype occurs as a pirenzepine-high affinity entity in intact segments of rat gastric mucosa, but that it loses the affinity for pirenzepine upon homogenization. Careful identification of native in vivo muscarinic receptors may further elucidate their functions in stomach.

  13. Human Erythrocyte as a Model for Investigating Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    homogenates but not with the RBC structure and function of cholinergic agonists and membrane. We postulate that this compound may antagonists. have...membrane and applying pirenzepine or atropine Gaginella T. S.. Rimele T. J., O’Dorisio T. M. and Dorff to determine the specific binding affinities...protein phosphoryl- difficulties in acquiring a good source of pure muscar- ation and neuronal function . In Advances in CiycltcNucleotde Research

  14. Identification of three muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat lung using binding studies with selective antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, A.D.; El-Fakahany, E.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the muscarinic receptor population in the rat central and peripheral lung was found in competition binding experiments against ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (({sup 3}H)QNB) using the selective antagonists pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pirenzepine displaced ({sup 3}H)QNB with low affinity from preparations of central airways indicating the absence of M{sub 1} receptors in the trachea and bronchi. Muscarinic receptors in the central airways are comprised of both M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} receptors since AF-DX 116, an M{sub 2}-selective antagonist, bound with high affinity to 70% of the available sites while HHSiD, an M{sub 3}-selective antagonist bound with high affinity to the remaining binding sites. In the peripheral lung, pirenzepine bound with high affinity to 14% of the receptor population, AF-DX 116 bound with high affinity 79% of the binding sites while HHSiD bound with high affinity to 18% of the binding sites. The presence of M{sub 1} receptors in the peripheral airways but not in the central airways was confirmed using ({sup 3}H)telenzepine, an M{sub 1} receptor ligand. ({sup 3}H)Telenzepine showed specific saturable binding to 8% of ({sup 3}H)QNB labeled binding sites in homogenates of rat peripheral lung, while there was no detectable specific binding in homogenates of rat trachea or heart.

  15. Antagonism of nucleus accumbens M(2) muscarinic receptors disrupts operant responding for sucrose under a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Graham A; Beckley, Jacob T

    2007-07-19

    Diverse cholinergic signaling mechanisms regulate the excitability of striatal principal neurons and modulate striatal-dependent behavior. These effects are mediated, in part, by action at muscarinic receptors (mAChR), subtypes of which exhibit distinct patterns of expression across striatal neuronal populations. Non-selective mAChR blockade within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been shown to disrupt operant responding for food and to inhibit food consumption. However, the specific receptor subtypes mediating these effects are not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of intra-NAc infusions of pirenzepine and methoctramine, mAChR antagonisits with distinct binding affinity profiles, on operant responding for sucrose reward under a progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement schedule. Moderate to high doses of methoctramine disrupted operant responding and reduced behavioral breakpoint. In contrast, pirenzepine failed to impact operant performance at any dose tested. Methoctramine failed to affect latencies to complete appetitive-consummatory response sequences or to impact measures of acoustic startle, suggesting that its' disruptive effects on operant behavior were not consequent to gross motor impairment. Since methoctramine has a greater affinity for M(2) receptors compared to pirenzepine, which has a greater relative affinity for M(1) and M(3) receptors, these findings suggest that M(2) mAChRs within the NAc regulate behavioral processes underling the acquisition of reward.

  16. Combined anti-muscarinic and H2 receptor blockade in the healing of refractory duodenal ulcer. A double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, K D; Thompson, M; Bose, K; Hinchliffe, R F; Crowe, J; Weir, D G; McCarthy, C; Walters, J; Thomson, T J; Thompson, M H

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if pirenzepine and cimetidine given together was superior to cimetidine alone in inducing healing of refractory duodenal ulcers which remained unhealed after treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine for at least eight weeks. One hundred and thirty one patients from six centres were randomised to receive either cimetidine (C) 800 mg daily or cimetidine 800 mg plus pirenzepine (C + P) 100 mg daily under double blind conditions for six weeks. The healing rate was similar in both groups, irrespective of the method of calculation. On an intent-to-treat analysis, healing was: C 66%, C + P 57%, and amongst the patients who completed treatment, healing was 70% in both groups. Patients on C and on C + P experienced a similar decrease in daytime and in night time pain. Side effects of treatment, notably dry mouth and blurred vision, were reported more often by patients on combination therapy. Combined treatment with cimetidine plus pirenzepine in patients with refractory duodenal ulcer is unlikely to be beneficial. PMID:3322955

  17. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  18. Differential effects of m1 and m2 receptor antagonists in perirhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer; Turchi, Janita

    2012-07-01

    Microinfusions of the nonselective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into perirhinal cortex impairs performance on visual recognition tasks, indicating that muscarinic receptors in this region play a pivotal role in recognition memory. To assess the mnemonic effects of selective blockade in perirhinal cortex of muscarinic receptor subtypes, we locally infused either the m1-selective antagonist pirenzepine or the m2-selective antagonist methoctramine in animals performing one-trial visual recognition, and compared these scores with those following infusions of equivalent volumes of saline. Compared to these control infusions, injections of pirenzepine, but not of methoctramine, significantly impaired recognition accuracy. Further, similar doses of scopolamine and pirenzepine yielded similar deficits, suggesting that the deficits obtained earlier with scopolamine were due mainly, if not exclusively, to blockade of m1 receptors. The present findings indicate that m1 and m2 receptors have functionally dissociable roles, and that the formation of new visual memories is critically dependent on the cholinergic activation of m1 receptors located on perirhinal cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Widespread decreases in cortical muscarinic receptors in a subset of people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew Stuart; Scarr, Elizabeth; Boer, Simone; Money, Tammie; Jeon, Won-Je; Felder, Chris; Dean, Brian

    2013-02-01

    These studies were undertaken to investigate the selectivity of cortical muscarinic receptor radioligand binding in muscarinic M(1) and M(4) receptor knockout mice and to determine whether a marked decrease in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in Brodmann's area (BA) 9 from a subset of people with schizophrenia was predictive of decreased muscarinic receptors in other central nervous system (CNS) regions. Our data show that, under the conditions used, [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was highly selective for the muscarinic M(1) receptor whereas both [(3)H]AF-DX 386 and [(3)H]4DAMP had less discriminatory power. In addition, the data suggest that a marked decrease in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in BA 9 from a subset of people with schizophrenia is predictive of decreases in muscarinic receptors in other CNS regions. However, there were some region-specific decreases in muscarinic receptors in tissue from people with schizophrenia who were outside this subset. These data add to a growing body of evidence suggesting there are widespread decreases in muscarinic receptors in the CNS of some subjects with schizophrenia, as demonstrated by neuroimaging. Our data have implications for understanding the potential clinical utility of drugs directed at the orthosteric and allosteric sites of muscarinic receptors to treat schizophrenia.

  20. Differential effects of M1 muscarinic receptor blockade and nicotinic receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum on response reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzavos, Arianna; Jih, Jane; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The present studies determined whether blockade of M1-like muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the dorsomedial striatum affects acquisition or reversal learning of a response discrimination. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. In the acquisition phase, a rat learned to turn to the left or to the right. In the reversal learning phase, a rat learned to turn in the opposite direction as required during acquisition. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of the M1-like muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine infused into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Experiment 2 examined the effects of the nicotinic cholinergic antagonist, mecamylamine injected into the dorsomedial striatum on acquisition and reversal learning. Bilateral injections of pirenzepine at 10 µg, but not 1 µg, selectively impaired reversal learning. Analysis of the errors indicated that pirenzepine treatment did not impair the initial shift, but increased reversions back to the original response choice following the initial shift. Bilateral injections of mecamylamine, 6 or 18 µg, did not affect acquisition or reversal learning. The results suggest that activation of M1 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, but not nicotinic cholinergic receptors, in the dorsomedial striatum is important for facilitating the flexible shifting of response patterns. PMID:15302131

  1. Chronic treatment with simvastatin upregulates muscarinic M1/4 receptor binding in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zengin, A; Ying, W; Newell, K A; Wang, P; Yeo, W; Wong, P T-H; Yenari, M A; Huang, X-F

    2008-06-26

    Statins are increasingly being used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original indication for cholesterol lowering. We previously reported that simvastatin affected the dopaminergic system in the rat brain. This study aims to investigate regional changes of muscarinic M1/4 receptors in the rat brain after 4-week administration of simvastatin (1 or 10 mg/kg/day). M1/4 receptor distribution and alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [(3)H]pirenzepine binding autoradiography. Simvastatin (1 mg/kg/day) increased [(3)H]pirenzepine binding, predominantly in the prefrontal cortex (171%, Ppirenzepine binding were observed in the examined regions following simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) treatment. Our results also provide strong evidence that chronic simvastatin administration, especially at a low dosage, up-regulates M1/4 receptor binding, which is likely to be independent of its muscarinic agonist-like effect. Alterations in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in the examined brain areas may represent the specific regions that mediate the clinical effects of simvastatin treatment on cognition and memory via the muscarinic cholinergic system. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of simvastatin in treating neurodegenerative disorders, via muscarinic receptors.

  2. Pharmacology, Distribution and Development of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, C. M.; Pauly, J. R.; Wilkins, L. H.; Dwoskin, L. P.; Debski, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Visually evoked behaviors mediated by the frog optic tectum require cholinergic activity, but the receptor subtypes through which acetylcholine acts are not yet identified. Using quantitative autoradiography and scintillation spectrometry, we examined the binding of [3H]pirenzepine and [3H]AF-DX 384 in the laminated optic tectum of the frog. In mammalian systems, these substances bind excitatory (m1 and m3 subtypes) and inhibitory (m2 and m4 subtypes) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological analyses, including the use of specific muscarinic toxins, confirmed the subtype selectivity of the radioligands in the frog brain. Binding sites for [3H]pirenzepine were distinct from those for [3H]AF-DX 384. In the adult tectum, [3H]pirenzepine demonstrated specific binding in tectal layers 5–9. [3H]Pirenzepine binding was also present in tadpoles as young as stage V, but all sampled stages of tadpole tectum had significantly less binding when compared to adults. Lesioning of the optic nerve had no effect on [3H]pirenzepine binding. Specific [3H]AF-DX 384 binding was found in all layers of the adult tectum. All sampled tadpole stages exhibited binding sites for [3H]AF-DX 384, but the densities of these sites were also significantly higher in adults than they were in developing stages. Short-term lesions of the optic nerve reduced [3H]AF-DX 384 binding in all tectal layers of the deafferented lobe when compared to the afferented one. Long-term lesions decreased [3H]AF-DX 384 sites in both lobes. These results indicate that multiple muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites reside in the frog optic tectum at all stages of development, and their pharmacology resembles that of mammalian m1/m3, m2 and m4 subtypes. Our data indicate that few, if any, of these receptors are likely to be located on retinal ganglion cell terminals. Furthermore, the expression of inhibitory muscarinic subtypes seems to be regulated by different mechanisms than that for

  3. Alterations of muscarinic and GABA receptor binding in the posterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Kelly A; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Jew, Stephen Kum; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2007-01-30

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key component of the limbic system, has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia because of its sensitivity to NMDA receptor antagonists. Recent studies have shown that the PCC is dysfunctional in schizophrenia, and it is now suspected to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Studies also suggest that there are abnormalities in muscarinic and GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study we used quantitative autoradiography to investigate the binding of [(3)H]pirenzepine, [(3)H]AF-DX 384 and [(3)H]muscimol, which respectively label M1/4 and M2/4 muscarinic and GABA(A) receptors, in the PCC of schizophrenia and control subjects matched for age and post-mortem interval. The present study found that [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was significantly decreased in the superficial (-24%, p=0.002) and deep (-35%, ppirenzepine binding in the deep cortical layers and [(3)H]muscimol binding in the superficial layers (rho=-0.732, p=0.003). In addition, negative correlations were also found between age and [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in both superficial and deep cortical layers (rho=-0.669 p=0.049 and rho=-0.778, p=0.014), and between age of schizophrenia onset and [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding (rho=-0.798, p=0.018). These results for the first time demonstrated the status of M1/M4, M2/M4 and GABA(A) receptors in the PCC in schizophrenia. Whilst the exact mechanism causing these alterations is not yet known, a possible increased acetylcholine and down regulated GABA stimulation in the PCC of schizophrenia is suggested.

  4. Decreased cortical muscarinic receptors define a subgroup of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, E; Cowie, T F; Kanellakis, S; Sundram, S; Pantelis, C; Dean, B

    2009-11-01

    Schizophrenia is widely acknowledged as being a syndrome, consisting of an undefined number of diseases probably with differing pathologies. Although studying a syndrome makes the identification of an underlying pathology more difficult; neuroimaging, neuropsychopharmacological and post-mortem brain studies all implicate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRM) in the pathology of the disorder. We have established that the CHRM1 is selectively decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. To expand this finding, we wanted to ascertain whether decreased cortical CHRMs might (1) define a subgroup of schizophrenia and/or (2) be related to CHRM1 genotype. We assessed cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding and sequenced the CHRM1 in 80 subjects with schizophrenia and 74 age sex-matched control subjects. Kernel density estimation showed that [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in BA9 divided the schizophrenia, but not control, cohort into two distinct populations. One of the schizophrenia cohorts, comprising 26% of all subjects with the disorder, had a 74% reduction in mean cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding compared to controls. We suggest that these individuals make up 'muscarinic receptor-deficit schizophrenia' (MRDS). The MRDS could not be separated from other subjects with schizophrenia by CHRM1 sequence, gender, age, suicide, duration of illness or any particular drug treatment. Being able to define a subgroup within schizophrenia using a central biological parameter is a pivotal step towards understanding the biochemistry underlying at least one form of the disorder and may represent a biomarker that can be used in neuroimaging.

  5. Dynamic Regulation of Quaternary Organization of the M1 Muscarinic Receptor by Subtype-selective Antagonist Drugs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediani, John D.; Ward, Richard J.; Godin, Antoine G.; Marsango, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Although rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors can exist as both monomers and non-covalently associated dimers/oligomers, the steady-state proportion of each form and whether this is regulated by receptor ligands are unknown. Herein we address these topics for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a key molecular target for novel cognition enhancers, by using spatial intensity distribution analysis. This method can measure fluorescent particle concentration and assess oligomerization states of proteins within defined regions of living cells. Imaging and analysis of the basolateral surface of cells expressing some 50 molecules·μm−2 human muscarinic M1 receptor identified a ∼75:25 mixture of receptor monomers and dimers/oligomers. Both sustained and shorter term treatment with the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine resulted in a large shift in the distribution of receptor species to favor the dimeric/oligomeric state. Although sustained treatment with pirenzepine also resulted in marked up-regulation of the receptor, simple mass action effects were not the basis for ligand-induced stabilization of receptor dimers/oligomers. The related antagonist telenzepine also produced stabilization and enrichment of the M1 receptor dimer population, but the receptor subtype non-selective antagonists atropine and N-methylscopolamine did not. In contrast, neither pirenzepine nor telenzepine altered the quaternary organization of the related M3 muscarinic receptor. These data provide unique insights into the selective capacity of receptor ligands to promote and/or stabilize receptor dimers/oligomers and demonstrate that the dynamics of ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of G protein-coupled receptors is markedly more complex than previously appreciated. This may have major implications for receptor function and behavior. PMID:27080256

  6. Dynamic Regulation of Quaternary Organization of the M1 Muscarinic Receptor by Subtype-selective Antagonist Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediani, John D; Ward, Richard J; Godin, Antoine G; Marsango, Sara; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-06-17

    Although rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors can exist as both monomers and non-covalently associated dimers/oligomers, the steady-state proportion of each form and whether this is regulated by receptor ligands are unknown. Herein we address these topics for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a key molecular target for novel cognition enhancers, by using spatial intensity distribution analysis. This method can measure fluorescent particle concentration and assess oligomerization states of proteins within defined regions of living cells. Imaging and analysis of the basolateral surface of cells expressing some 50 molecules·μm(-2) human muscarinic M1 receptor identified a ∼75:25 mixture of receptor monomers and dimers/oligomers. Both sustained and shorter term treatment with the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine resulted in a large shift in the distribution of receptor species to favor the dimeric/oligomeric state. Although sustained treatment with pirenzepine also resulted in marked up-regulation of the receptor, simple mass action effects were not the basis for ligand-induced stabilization of receptor dimers/oligomers. The related antagonist telenzepine also produced stabilization and enrichment of the M1 receptor dimer population, but the receptor subtype non-selective antagonists atropine and N-methylscopolamine did not. In contrast, neither pirenzepine nor telenzepine altered the quaternary organization of the related M3 muscarinic receptor. These data provide unique insights into the selective capacity of receptor ligands to promote and/or stabilize receptor dimers/oligomers and demonstrate that the dynamics of ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of G protein-coupled receptors is markedly more complex than previously appreciated. This may have major implications for receptor function and behavior. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gajdus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification.Results:According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10–8 M to 10–4 M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol to the right, maintaining maximum reaction.Conclusions:From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type

  8. Role of M1 receptor in regulation of gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdus, Marta; Szadujkis-Szadurska, Katarzyna; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Glaza, Izabela; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Rafał; Olkowska, Joanna

    2011-09-14

    The subject of this study is determination of the influence of drugs on gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of muscarinic receptors M1. Experiments tested interactions between a receptor agonist, carbachol and muscarinic receptor antagonists, atropine and pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's stomach. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). The stomach was dissected, and later the gastric fundus was isolated. Tissue was placed in a dish for insulated organs with 20 ml in capacity, filled with Krebs fluid. Results contained in the study are average values ± SE. In order to determine statistical significance, the principles of receptor theory were used (Kenakin modification). According to tests, carbachol, in concentrations ranging between 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M, in a dosage-dependent way induces gastric fundus smooth muscle contraction. Presented results indicate that carbachol meets the conditions posed to full agonists. On the other hand, atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, causes a concentration-dependent shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. According to analysis of the curve determined, we can deduce that atropine meets the conditions posed to competitive antagonists. The use of pirenzepine, a competitive receptor agonist M1, causes shift of concentration-effect curve (for carbachol) to the right, maintaining maximum reaction. From the testing conducted on the preparation of the gastric fundus we can deduce that atropine causes shift of concentration-effect curves for carbachol to the right. A similar effect is released by pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type. The results indicate that in the preparation of the gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type receptors occur also postsynaptically.

  9. Age-related peculiarities of inotropic response of rat myocardium to selective block of M1-cholinoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefirov, T L; Ziyatdinova, N I; Zefirov, A L

    2013-10-01

    In vitro effect of M1-cholinoreceptor blockade on the cardiac inotropic function was examined in rats aging 1, 3, 6, 8, and 20 weeks. In 1- and 3-week old rat pups, the sympathetic control of the heart has not developed, the age of 7-8 weeks being pubertal. Adult 20-week rats were used as the controls. In rats of all age groups, preliminary blockade of M1-cholinoreceptors did not prevent the inhibitory effect of carbacholine on contractility of the atrial and ventricular myocardium. The inhibitory effect of pirenzepine on the contractile force of ventricular myocardium was revealed in 6-week rats.

  10. GTP effects in rat brain slices support the non-interconvertability of M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/ muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.G. Jr.; Horvath, E.; Traber, J.; Van Rooijen, L.A.A.

    1988-01-01

    GTP (guanosine-5'-triphosphate) markedly reduced high-affinity /sup 3/H-oxotremorine-M binding to M/sub 2/ receptors on brain slices in autoradiographic experiments while /sup 3/H-pirenzepine binding to M/sub 1/ receptors was largely unaffected. The distribution of M/sub 1/ receptors so labelled was also not altered by GTP to include former M/sub 2/-rich regions, thus indicating that GTP could not, by itself, interconvert high agonist-affinity M/sub 2/ receptors to M/sub 1/ receptors. 18 references, 1 figure.

  11. Muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor subtypes on striatal cholinergic interneurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, V.L.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K. (Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Fargo, ND (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Unilateral stereotaxic injection of small amounts of the cholinotoxin, AF64A, caused minimal nonselective tissue damage and resulted in a significant loss of the presynaptic cholinergic markers (3H)hemicholinium-3 (45% reduction) and choline acetyltransferase (27% reduction). No significant change from control was observed in tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase activity; presynaptic neuronal markers for dopamine- and serotonin-containing neurons, respectively. The AF64A lesion resulted in a significant reduction of dopamine D2 receptors as evidenced by a decrease in (3H)sulpiride binding (42% reduction) and decrease of muscarinic non-M1 receptors as shown by a reduction in (3H)QNB binding in the presence of 100 nM pirenzepine (36% reduction). Saturation studies revealed that the change in (3H)sulpiride and (3H)QNB binding was due to a change in Bmax not Kd. Intrastriatal injection of AF64A failed to alter dopamine D1 or muscarinic M1 receptors labeled with (3H)SCH23390 and (3H)pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, no change in (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase was observed. These results demonstrate that a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors (non-M1) are presynaptic on cholinergic interneurons (hence, autoreceptors), and a subpopulation of dopamine D2 receptors are postsynaptic on cholinergic interneurons. Furthermore, dopamine D1, muscarinic M1 and (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase are not localized to striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  12. Stimulation of acid secretion and phosphoinositol production by rat parietal cell muscarinic M sub 2 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, A.; Rochlitz, H.; Herz, A.; Paumgartner, G. (Univ. of Munich (West Germany))

    1988-04-01

    The muscarinic receptor system involved in hydrogen production by enriched rat gastric parietal cells was investigated. Muscarinic receptor density determined by (N-methyl-{sup 3}H)scopolamine binding was 8,100/cell. The receptor appeared to be of the M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtype, since it had a low affinity (K{sub d} 189 nM) for the M{sub 1} receptor antagonist pirenzepine compared with atropine. Receptor activation by carbachol rapidly augmented levels of polyphosphoinositides, indicating an activation of phospholipase C. The dose-response relations for the increase in inositol phosphates closely paralleled the binding of carbachol to muscarinic receptors. The inositol phosphate response was antagonized by pirenzepine with a K{sub i} of 177 nM. the stimulation of inositol phosphate levels by carbachol correlated well with the stimulation of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake, determine as an index of acid secretion. The muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, pilocarpine, and bethanechol elicited partial increases in inositol phosphates at maximal drug concentrations, and these partial increases correlated with their ability to stimulate ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake. These data indicate that inositolpolyphosphates may be a second messenger of M{sub 2} receptors stimulating acid secretion.

  13. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, H.V.; Tien, X.Y.; Wallace, L.J.; Cooke, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10/sup -7/ M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response.

  14. Identification of four areas each enriched in a unique muscarinic receptor subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoss, W.; Ellerbrock, B.R.; Goldman, P.S.; Collins, D.A.; Messer, W.S. Jr. (Univ. of Toledo College of Pharmacy, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The affinities of muscarinic agonists and antagonists were determined by autoradiography and image analysis in selected areas of the rat brain. IC{sub 50} values and Hill coefficients for the inhibition of the binding of 0.2 nM ({sup 3}H)-QNB to dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, rhomboid thalamus and substantia nigra were measured in coronal sections. Pirenzepine displayed a high affinity for receptors in the dentate gyrus and AF-DX 116, the superior colliculus. Both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 had high affinities for the substantia nigra and low affinities for the rhomboid thalamus. Gallamine displayed a 50-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Amitriptyline was less selective, showing a modest preference for substantia nigra receptors and 4-DAMP was essentially nonselective. Carbachol was the most selective agonist with a 4000-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Other agonists except RS 86 were also selective for superior colliculus receptors in the order carbachol >> arecoline > bethanechol > McN A343 = oxotremorine = pilocarpine.

  15. A fluorescence anisotropy assay for the muscarinic M1 G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwiler, Kristin G; De Rosier, Therese; Hanson, Bonnie; Vogel, Kurt W

    2010-06-01

    In the search for new chemical entities that interact with G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), assays that quantify efficacy and affinity are employed. Traditional methods for measuring affinity involve radiolabeled ligands. To address the need for homogeneous biochemical fluorescent assays to characterize orthosteric ligand affinity and dissociation rates, we have developed a fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the muscarinic M1 receptor that can be conducted in a 384-well plate. We used membranes from a muscarinic M1 cell line optimized for high-throughput functional assays and the previously characterized fluorescent antagonist BODIPY FL pirenzepine. The affinities of reference compounds were determined in the competitive FA assay and compared with those obtained with a competitive filter-based radioligand-binding assay using [(3)H] N-methylscopolamine. The IC(50) values produced from the FA assay were well-correlated with the radioligand-binding K(i) values (R(2) = 0.98). The dissociation of the BODIPY FL pirenzepine was readily monitored in real time using the FA assay and was sensitive to the presence of the allosteric modulator gallamine. This M1 FA assay offers advantages over traditional radioligandbinding assays as it eliminates radioactivity while allowing investigation of orthosteric or allosteric muscarinic M1 ligands in a homogeneous format.

  16. Improvements in the methodology for analyzing receptor subtypes and neuronal populations affected by anticholinesterase exposure. Annual summary report, 15 November 1983-14 November 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsley, J.K.

    1984-11-14

    Conditions were defined that provide a means of selectively labeling subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The so-called M1 receptor population can be labeled with tritiated pirenzepine, while the receptor population labeled with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) but not labeled with pirenzepine represents M2 receptor population. High- and low-affinity states of the receptors were also defined on the basis of agonist displacement of antagonist binding. Both the M1 and M2 receptor populations undergo axonal transport and the affinity states of these receptors are altered by neurochemical and neurosurgical lesions. Radioactive standards were developed that provide a means of quantitating the femtomoles of receptor bound with each ligand in microscopic regions of the brain. The technology was also devised to directly localize nicotinic cholinergic receptors using tritiated nicotine. It is now possible to localize several peptide receptors associated with cholinergic function including receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and somatostatin. The receptor autoradiographic technique was also carried beyond the receptor level of localization by using compounds to label adenylate cyclase and the GTP binding protein. This methodology should provide an elegant means of determining how anticholinesterase exposure has affected these many parameters of cholinergic nerve function.

  17. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction of human umbilical vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Lereis, Virginia Andrea; Hita, Francisco Javier; Gobbi, Mauro Darío; Verdi, Marcela Gomez; Rodriguez, María Cecilia; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The present study attempted to pharmacologically characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating contraction of human umbilical vein (HUV). HUV rings were mounted in organ baths and concentration–response curves were constructed for acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC50: 6.16±0.04; maximum response 80.00±1.98% of the responses induced by serotonin 10 μM). The absence of endothelium did not modify the contractile responses of ACh in this tissue. The role of cholinesterases was evaluated: neither neostigmine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) nor iso-OMPA (butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor) modified ACh responses. When both enzymes were simultaneously inhibited, a significantly but little potentiation was observed (control: pEC50 6.33±0.03; double inhibition: pEC50 6.57±0.05). Atropine, nonselective muscarinic receptors antagonist, inhibited ACh-induced contraction (pKB 9.67). The muscarinic receptors antagonists pirenzepine (M1), methoctramine (M2) and pFHHSiD (M3) also antagonized responses to ACh. The affinity values estimated for these antagonists against responses evoked by ACh were 7.58, 6.78 and 7.94, respectively. On the other hand, PD 102807 (M4 selective muscarinic receptors antagonist) was ineffective against ACh-induced contraction. In presence of a blocking concentration of pirenzepine, pFHHSiFD produced an additional antagonism activity on ACh-induced responses. The M1 muscarinic receptors agonist McN-A-343 produced similar maximum but less potent responses than ACh in HUV. The calculated pA2 for pirenzepine against McN-A-343 induced responses was 8.54. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study demonstrate the role of M1 muscarinic receptor subtypes and suggest the involvement of M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in ACh-induced vasoconstriction in HUV rings. In addition, the vasomotor activity evoked by ACh does not seem to be modulated by endothelial factors, and their enzymatic degradation appears to have little functional relevance in this

  19. Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediate pre- and postsynaptic effects in rat neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigout Sylvain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic transmission has been implicated in learning, memory and cognition. However, the cellular effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs activation are poorly understood in the neocortex. We investigated the effects of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh and various agonists and antagonists on neuronal activity in rat neocortical slices using intracellular (sharp microelectrode and field potential recordings. Results CCh increased neuronal firing but reduced synaptic transmission. The increase of neuronal firing was antagonized by pirenzepine (M1/M4 mAChRs antagonist but not by AF-DX 116 (M2/M4 mAChRs antagonist. Pirenzepine reversed the depressant effect of CCh on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP but had marginal effects when applied before CCh. AF-DX 116 antagonized the depression of EPSP when applied before or during CCh. CCh also decreased the paired-pulse inhibition of field potentials and the inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The depression of paired-pulse inhibition was antagonized or prevented by AF-DX 116 or atropine but only marginally by pirenzepine. The inhibitory conductances were unaltered by xanomeline (M1/M4 mAChRs agonist, yet the CCh-induced depression was antagonized by AF-DX 116. Linopirdine, a selective M-current blocker, mimicked the effect of CCh on neuronal firing. However, linopirdine had no effect on the amplitude of EPSP or on the paired-pulse inhibition, indicating that M-current is involved in the increase of neuronal excitability but neither in the depression of EPSP nor paired-pulse inhibition. Conclusions These data indicate that the three effects are mediated by different mAChRs, the increase in firing being mediated by M1 mAChR, decrease of inhibition by M2 mAChR and depression of excitatory transmission by M4 mAChR. The depression of EPSP and increase of neuronal firing might enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas the

  20. Effects of acetylcholine and other agents on /sup 32/P-prelabeled phosphoinositides and phosphatidate in crude synaptosomal preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, H.L.

    1988-05-01

    Experimental conditions are described which permit effects of various agents on polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid (PA) to be evaluated simultaneously in crude nerve-ending preparations from rat brain. Acetylcholine (3-100 microM) or carbachol (30-1,000 microM) induced the hydrolysis of prelabeled polyphosphoinositides and, at the same time, stimulated the net label incorporated in phosphatidic acid. All muscarinic effects were blocked by atropine or pirenzepine. Non-muscarinic agonists (glutamate, adenosine, norepinephrine) stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in this preparation, but of these only norepinephrine affected phosphatidic acid turnover. A potentiation of acetylcholine-induced phosphoinositide turnover by KCl was observed, as well as an apparent selective inhibition of PIP2 hydrolysis by LiCl. Acetylcholine-stimulated turnover of PA was not necessarily coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

  1. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  2. Binding characteristics of the muscarinic receptor subtype in rabbit pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Zwam, A.J.; Willems, P.H.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; de Pont, J.J.; van Ginneken, C.A. (Catholic Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor in the rabbit pancreas was characterized with the use of the labeled ligand ({sup 3}H)-(-)-quinuclidinyl-benzylate (({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB). Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB to pancreatic acini was found to be reversible and of high affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 68 pmol/l and a receptor density (RT) of 170 fmol/mg protein. Agonist binding behaviour was investigated by displacement of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by eight agonists like arecoline, arecadine-propargylester (APE) and carbachol, yielding only low affinity binding sites. The inhibition of ({sup 3}H)-(-)-QNB binding by the selective antagonists pirenzepine, hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD) and (11-(2-(diethyl-amino)-methyl-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyr ido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116) confirmed the M3 nature of the rabbit pancreatic receptor.

  3. Different antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Winand, J.; Christophe, J.

    1987-11-09

    The antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors were compared. In both tissues pirenzepine (PZ) had a low affinity for muscarinic receptors labelled by (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/)NMS) (K/sub D/ values of 140 and 280nM, respectively, in pancreatic and cardiac homogenates). The binding properties of pancreatic and cardiac receptors were, however, markedly different. This was indicated by different affinities for dicyclomine, (11-(/(2-((diethylamino)-methyl)-1-piperidinyl/acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepin-6-on)(AFDX-116), 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptros also showed different (/sup 3/H)NMS association and dissociation rates. These results support the concept of M2 receptor subtypes have different binding kinetic properties. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. The potency and efficacy of anticholinergics to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats correlates with their rank order of affinities for the muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erosa-Rivero, Helena B; Bata-García, José L; Alvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Heredia-López, Francisco J; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2014-06-01

    Extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) caused by antipsychotic therapy are currently treated with anticholinergics that lack selectivity for the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. Since these receptors are heterogeneously expressed among the different classes of striatal neurons and their afferents, it can be expected that their simultaneous blockade will cause distinct, sometimes opposed, effects within the striatal circuitry. In order to test the hypothesis that the differential blockade of the muscarinic receptor subtypes would influence their potency and efficacy to prevent EPS, here we tested four anticholinergics with varying order of affinities for the muscarinic receptor subtypes, and compared their dose-response curves to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy in male rats. Drugs were applied into the lateral ventricle 15 min before haloperidol (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Catalepsy was measured in the bar test at 15 min intervals during 5 h. The preferential M1/M4 antagonist pirenzepine (3, 10, 30, 100, and 300 nmol) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of catalepsy intensity: ED50 = 5.6 nmol [95% CI, 3.9-8.1], and latency: ED50 = 5.6 nmol [95% CI, 3.7-8.6]. Pirenzepine had the steepest dose-response curve, producing maximal inhibition (84 ± 5%) at the dose of 10 nmol, while its effect tended to reverse at higher doses (62 ± 11%). The purported M1/M3 antagonist 4-DAMP (30, 100, and 300 nmol) also caused a dose-dependent inhibition of catalepsy intensity: ED50 = 29.5 nmol [95% CI, 7.0 to 123.0], and latency: ED50 = 28.5 nmol [95% CI, 2.2 to 362.0]. However, the curve for 4-DAMP had a less pronounced slope, reaching its maximal effect (63 ± 14%) at the dose of 300 nmol. The M2/M4 antagonist AF-DX 116 (10, 30, and 300 nmol) only caused a partial inhibition of catalepsy (30 ± 11%) at the dose of 30 nmol, but this changed to a non-significant increment (15 ± 10%) at the dose of 100 nmol. The alleged M4 antagonist tropicamide (30, 100, 300, and

  5. Cholinergic impact on neuroplasticity drives muscarinic M1 receptor mediated differentiation into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Rauh, Werner; Brantl, Victor; Schloesser, Robert J; Moessner, Rainald; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that canonical neurotransmitters act as regulatory signals during neuroplasticity. Here, we report that muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission stimulates differentiation of adult neural stem cells in vitro. Adult neural stem cells (ANSC) dissociated from the adult mouse hippocampus were expanded in culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Carbachol (CCh), an analog of acetylcholine (ACh) significantly enhanced de novo differentiation into neurons on bFGF- and EGF-deprived stem cells as shown by the percentage of TUJ1 positive cells. By contrast, pirenzepine (PIR), a muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, reduced the generation of neurons. Activation of cholinergic signaling drives the de novo differentiation of uncommitted stem cells into neurons. These effects appear to be predominantly mediated via the muscarinic M1 receptor subtype.

  6. Zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: cloning, pharmacological characterization, expression patterns and roles in embryonic bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2002-01-01

    A zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) gene was cloned. It encodes 495 amino acids in a single exon. The derived amino acid sequence is 73.5% identical to its human homologue.Competitive binding studies of the zebrafish M2 receptor and [3H]-NMS gave negative log dissociation constants (pKi) for each antagonist as follows: atropine (9.16)>himbacine (8.05)⩾4-DAMP (7.83)>AF-DX 116 (7.26)⩾pirenzepine (7.18)⩾tropicamide (6.97)⩾methoctramine (6.82)⩾p-F-HHSiD (6.67)>carbachol (5.20...

  7. Cholinergic facilitation of neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, W A; Pennefather, J N; Mitchelson, F J

    2000-07-01

    1. Functional experiments have been conducted to assess the effects of acetylcholine and carbachol, and the receptors on which they act to facilitate neurotransmission to the stromal smooth muscle of the prostate gland of the guinea-pig. 2. Acetylcholine and carbachol (0.1 microM - 0.1 mM) enhanced contractions evoked by trains of electrical field stimulation (20 pulses of 0.5 ms at 10 Hz every 50 s with a dial setting of 60 V) of nerve terminals within the guinea-pig isolated prostate. In these concentrations they had negligible effects on prostatic smooth muscle tone. 3. The facilitatory effects of acetylcholine, but not those of carbachol, were further enhanced in the presence of physostigmine (10 microM). 3. The facilitatory effects of carbachol were unaffected by the neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-arginina mide) (0.3 microM, n=3) or suramin (100 microM, n=5). Prazosin (0.1 microM, n=5) and guanethidine (10 microM, n=5) alone and in combination (n=4), reduced responses to field stimulation and produced rightward shifts of the log concentration-response curves to carbachol. 4. The rank orders of potency of subtype-preferring muscarinic receptor antagonists in inhibiting the facilitatory actions of acetylcholine and carbachol were: pirenzepine > HHSiD (hexahydrosiladifenidol) > pF-HHSiD (para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol)>/= 5 himbacine, and pirenzepine > HHSiD > himbacine>/= 5 pF-HHSiD, respectively. These profiles suggest that muscarinic receptors of the M(1)-subtype mediate the facilitatory effects of acetylcholine and carbachol on neurotransmission to the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

  8. Intracellular calcium level is an important factor influencing ion channel modulations by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuto; Echigo, Ryousuke; Kashima, Kousuke; Minami, Hanae; Watanabe, Megumi; Nishikawa, Yuiko; Muranishi, Miho; Yoneda, Mitsugu; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako

    2013-05-28

    Signaling pathways involving phospholipase C (PLC) are involved in various neural functions. Understanding how these pathways are regulated will lead to a better understanding of their roles in neural functions. Previous studies demonstrated that receptor-driven PLCβ activation depends on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), suggesting the possibility that PLCβ-dependent cellular responses are basically Ca(2+) dependent. To test this possibility, we examined whether modulations of ion channels driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are sensitive to [Ca(2+)]i using cultured hippocampal neurons. Muscarinic activation triggered an inward current at -100 mV (the equilibrium potential for K(+)) in a subpopulation of neurons. This current response was suppressed by pirenzepine (an M1-preferring antagonist), PLC inhibitor, non-selective cation channel blocker, and lowering [Ca(2+)]i. Using the neurons showing no response at -100 mV, effects of muscarinic activation on K(+) channels were examined at -40 mV. Muscarinic activation induced a transient decrease of the holding outward current. This current response was mimicked and occluded by XE991, an M-current K(+) channel blocker, suppressed by pirenzepine, PLC inhibitor and lowering [Ca(2+)]i, and enhanced by elevating [Ca(2+)]i. Similar results were obtained when group I metabotropic glutamate receptors were activated instead of muscarinic receptors. These results clearly show that ion channel modulations driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are dependent on [Ca(2+)]i, supporting the hypothesis that cellular responses induced by receptor-driven PLCβ activation are basically Ca(2+) dependent.

  9. Exploration of the orthosteric/allosteric interface in human M1 muscarinic receptors by bitopic fluorescent ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval, Sandrine B; Kellenberger, Esther; Bonnet, Dominique; Utard, Valérie; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Ilien, Brigitte

    2013-07-01

    Bitopic binding properties apply to a variety of muscarinic compounds that span and simultaneously bind to both the orthosteric and allosteric receptor sites. We provide evidence that fluorescent pirenzepine derivatives, with the M1 antagonist fused to the boron-dipyrromethene [Bodipy (558/568)] fluorophore via spacers of varying lengths, exhibit orthosteric/allosteric binding properties at muscarinic M1 receptors. This behavior was inferred from a combination of functional, radioligand, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer binding experiments performed under equilibrium and kinetic conditions on enhanced green fluorescent protein-fused M1 receptors. Although displaying a common orthosteric component, the fluorescent compounds inherit bitopic properties from a linker-guided positioning of their Bodipy moiety within the M1 allosteric vestibule. Depending on linker length, the fluorophore is allowed to reach neighboring allosteric domains, overlapping or not with the classic gallamine site, but distinct from the allosteric indolocarbazole "WIN" site. Site-directed mutagenesis, as well as molecular modeling and ligand docking studies based on recently solved muscarinic receptor structures, further support the definition of two groups of Bodipy-pirenzepine derivatives exhibiting distinct allosteric binding poses. Thus, the linker may dictate pharmacological outcomes for bitopic molecules that are hardly predictable from the properties of individual orthosteric and allosteric building blocks. Our findings also demonstrate that the fusion of a fluorophore to an orthosteric ligand is not neutral, as it may confer, unless carefully controlled, unexpected properties to the resultant fluorescent tracer. Altogether, this study illustrates the importance of a "multifacet" experimental approach to unravel and validate bitopic ligand binding mechanisms.

  10. Antagonism by 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline and other serotonin agonists of muscarinic M1-type receptors coupled to inositol phospholipid breakdown in human IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.J. (Astra Research Centre AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden) Karolinska Institutet (Sweden)); Ahlgren, P.C. (Karolinska Institutet (Sweden)); O' Neill, C. (Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells were found to contain ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate specific binding sites inhibited by pirenzepine in a manner suggesting the presence of both M1-type and M2-type muscarinic receptor recognition sites. Neither cell had detectable ({sup 3}H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites. Carbachol stimulated the rate of inositol phospholipid breakdown in IMR-32 and SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells with an EC{sub 50} value of about 50 {mu}M in both cases. Pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in both cells with Hill slopes of unity and IC{sub 50} values of 15 nM (IMR-32) and 12 nM (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT competitively inhibited carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown with pA{sub 2} values of 5.78 (IMR-32) and 5.61 (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT agonists 5-MeODMT and buspirone at micromolar concentrations inhibited carbachol-stimulated breakdown in IMR-32 cells. The inhibition by 8-OH-DPAT and 5-MeODMT was not affected by preincubation with (-)alprenolol. 5-HT was without effect on either basal or carbachol-stimulated breakdown. It is concluded that IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells express muscarinic M1-type but not serotoninergic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. 8-OH-DPAT acts as a weak antagonist at these muscarinic receptors.

  11. Modulating activity of M1 receptor to the reaction of ileal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaza, Izabela; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Rafał; Gajdus, Marta; Olkowska, Joanna

    2011-08-03

    The subject of the study was determination of the effect of drugs on ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of M(1) type muscarinic receptors. Drugs that have an effect on muscarinic receptors are divided to agonists, with close ties to the receptor and high internal activity and antagonists, with no internal activity. Conducted experiments tested interactions between a broad-spectrum agonist of muscarinic receptors, carbachol and a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist of M(1) type, pirenzepine. Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat's intestine. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg). Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963) in Kenakin modification (2006). The purpose of the study was determination of concentration-effect curves for carbachol. This curve was compared with the curve of receptor occupation depending on concentration of this drug. Based on concentration-effect curves, the average value of EC(50) was calculated for carbachol, amounting to 2.44×10(-6) [M/l]. The results confirmed that atropine is effective in stopping contractions caused by carbachol, meeting the conditions of competitive antagonists. Atropine caused the shift of curves for carbachol to the right. Pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M(1) type gave similar results. It was proved that in the preparation of gastric fundus smooth muscle, M(1) type receptors occur not only presynaptically, but also postsynaptically.

  12. Characterization of a new muscarinic toxin from the venom of the Brazilian coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Daniel Coelho; de Medeiros, Wyara Aparecida Araújo; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho; Lebrun, Ivo; Abdalla, Fernando Maurício Francis; Sandoval, Maria Regina Lopes

    2011-12-19

    We have isolated a new muscarinic protein (MT-Mlα) from the venom of the Brazilian coral snake Micrurus lemniscatus. This small protein, which had a molecular mass of 7,048Da, shared high sequence homology with three-finger proteins that act on cholinergic receptors. The first 12 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence were determined to be: Leu-Ile-Cys-Phe-Ile-Cys-Phe-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ala-His. The MT-Mlα was able to displace the [(3)H]QNB binding in the hippocampus of rats. The binding curve in competition experiments with MT-Mlα was indicative of two types of [(3)H]QNB-binding site with pK(i) values of 9.08±0.67 and 6.17±0.19, n=4, suggesting that various muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes may be the target proteins of MT-Mlα. The MT-Mlα and the M(1) antagonist pirenzepine caused a dose-dependent block on total [(3)H]inositol phosphate accumulation induced by carbachol. The IC(50) values for MT-Mlα and pirenzepine were, respectively, 33.1 and 2.26 nM. Taken together, these studies indicate that the MT-Mlα has antagonist effect on mAChRs in rat hippocampus. The results of the present study show, for the first time, that mAChRs function is drastically affected by MT-Mlα since it not only has affinity for mAChRs but also has the ability to inhibit mAChRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulating activity of M1 receptor to the reaction of ileal smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Glaza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:The subject of the study was determination of the effect of drugs on ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by activation of M1 type muscarinic receptors. Drugs that have an effect on muscarinic receptors are divided to agonists, with close ties to the receptor and high internal activity and antagonists, with no internal activity. Conducted experiments tested interactions between a broad-spectrum agonist of muscarinic receptors, carbachol and a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist of M1 type, pirenzepine.Material/Methods:Testing was conducted on tissues isolated from rat’s intestine. Male Wistar rats with weight between 220 g and 360 g were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (120 mg/kg. Concentration-effect curves were determined with the use of cumulated concentration method, in accordance with the van Rossum method (1963 in Kenakin modification (2006.Results:The purpose of the study was determination of concentration-effect curves for carbachol. This curve was compared with the curve of receptor occupation depending on concentration of this drug. Based on concentration-effect curves, the average value of EC50 was calculated for carbachol, amounting to 2.44×10–6 [M/l].Conclusions:The results confirmed that atropine is effective in stopping contractions caused by carbachol, meeting the conditions of competitive antagonists. Atropine caused the shift of curves for carbachol to the right. Pirenzepine, selectively blocking muscarinic receptors of M1 type gave similar results. It was proved that in the preparation of gastric fundus smooth muscle, M1 type receptors occur not only presynaptically, but also postsynaptically.

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated effects in slices from human epileptogenic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigout, S; Wierschke, S; Lehmann, T-N; Horn, P; Dehnicke, C; Deisz, R A

    2012-10-25

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in higher cortical functions such as learning, memory and cognition, yet the cellular effects of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation are poorly understood in the human cortex. Here we investigated the effect of the mAChR agonist carbachol (CCh) and various mAChR antagonists in human cortical slices (from tissue removed during neurosurgical treatment of epilepsy) by intracellular and extracellular recordings. CCh increased neuronal firing, which was antagonised by atropine (non-selective mAChR antagonist) and pirenzepine (M(1)/M(4) mAChRs antagonist) when applied before or after CCh application. AF-DX 116 (M(2)/M(4) mAChRs antagonist) had no effect on CCh-induced increase of firing. CCh also reduced evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP), and the CCh-induced depression of EPSP was fully reversed by atropine. Pirenzepine reversed the depression of CCh on EPSP, but failed to prevent the depression when applied before CCh. AF-DX 116 prevented the CCh-induced depression of evoked EPSP when applied before CCh. CCh also depressed GABAergic transmission and this effect was antagonised by AF-DX 116. Xanomeline (M(1)/M(4) mAChR agonist) increased neuronal firing and decreased EPSP, but had no effect on GABAergic transmission. Reduction (with linopirdine) and enhancement (with retigabine) of the M-current (mediated by K(V)7 channels), increased and decreased neuronal firing, respectively, but had marginal effects on the evoked EPSP. Our results indicate that three pharmacologically distinct mAChRs modulate neuronal firing, glutamatergic and GABAergic transmissions in the human epileptogenic neocortex. The data are discussed towards possible implications of altered mAChR signalling in hyperexcitability and cognitive functions in the human neocortex. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of muscarinic receptor subtypes on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human detrusor and overactive detrusor associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of antimuscarinic antagonists on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human bladder and detrusor overactivity associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (DO/BPH. Samples of human bladder muscle were obtained from patients undergoing total cystectomy for bladder cancer (normal bladder, and those undergoing retropubic prostatectomy for BPH. All of the patients with DO/BPH had detrusor overactivity according to urodynamic studies. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 10-ml organ baths containing Krebs solution, and concentration–response curves for carbachol were obtained in the presence of antimuscarinic antagonists (4-DAMP, methoctramine, pirenzepine, tolterodine, solifenacin, trospium, propiverine, oxybutynin, and imidafenacin or vehicle. All antagonists competitively antagonized concentration–response curves to carbachol with high affinities in normal bladder. The rank order of mean pA2 values was as follows: trospium (10.1 > 4-DAMP (9.87, imidafenacin (9.3 > solifenacin (8.8 > tolterodine (8.6 > oxybutynin (8.3 > propiverine (7.7 > pirenzepine (7.4 > methoctramine (6.6. The effects of these antimuscarinic antagonists did not change when tested with DO/BPH bladder, suggesting that each antimuscarinic antagonist has a similar effect in this condition. Schild plots showed a slope corresponding to unity, except for propiverine with DO/BPH detrusor. In conclusion, M3-receptors mainly mediate contractions in human bladder strips with normal state and DO/BPH.

  16. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E. (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated.

  17. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of (3H) inositol phosphates in (3H)inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of (3H)QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with (3H)pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%.

  18. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  19. Role of muscarinic receptors in the contraction of jejunal smooth muscle in the horse: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menozzi, Alessandro; Pozzoli, Cristina; Poli, Enzo; Bontempi, Giada; Serventi, Paolo; Meucci, Valentina; Intorre, Luigi; Bertini, Simone

    2017-07-11

    Nonselective antimuscarinic drugs are clinically useful in several pathologic conditions of horses, but, blocking all muscarinic receptor (MR) subtypes, may cause several side effects. The availability of selective antimuscarinic drugs could improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. We aimed to enlighten the role of different MR subtypes by evaluating the effects of nonselective, and selective M1, M2 and M3 MR antagonists on the contractions of horse jejunum. Segments of circular muscle of equine jejunum, were put into organ baths, connected to isotonic transducers, and the effects on ACh concentration-response curves, and on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractions of intestinal preparations, induced by nonselective or selective MR antagonists, compared to pre-drug level, were studied. Atropine (nonselective MR antagonist), pirenzepine (selective M1 antagonist), and p-FHHSiD (selective M3 antagonist) competitively antagonized ACh (pA2=9.78±0.21; 7.14±0.25 and 7.56±0.17, respectively). Methoctramine (selective M2 antagonist) antagonized ACh in a concentration-unrelated fashion; however, it competitively antagonized carbachol, a nonselective muscarinic agonist (pA2=6.42±0.23). Atropine dose-dependently reduced EFS-evoked contractions, reaching a maximal effect of -45.64±6.54%; the simultaneous block of neurokinin receptors, almost completely abolished the atropine-insensitive contractions. p-FHHSiD dose-dependently reduced EFS-induced contractions, while pirenzepine caused a minor decrease. Methoctramine, ineffective up to 10(-7)M, enhanced the contractions at 10(-6)M; the block of neurokinin receptors abolished the increase of contraction. Cholinergic contractions of horse jejunum are mainly mediated by M3 receptors; M2 selective antagonists seem to scarcely affect cholinergic, and to enhance neurokininergic contractions of equine jejunum, thus their use entails a lower risk of causing intestinal hypomotility, compared to nonselective drugs

  20. Muscarinic agonists and potassium currents in guinea-pig myenteric neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, J J; North, R A; Tokimasa, T

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular electrophysiological recordings were obtained from single neurones of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus in vitro. Using single electrode voltage clamp techniques, four distinct potassium currents were described and the effects of muscarinic agonists on these currents were studied. 2. A calcium-dependent potassium current (gKCa) was present in AH neurones at rest, and was much increased following a brief depolarization (50 ms, to 0 mV). Muscarinic agonists reduced both the resting current and the current evoked by depolarization. Pirenzepine competitively antagonized the suppression by muscarine of the calcium-dependent potassium current (or after-hyperpolarization) following an action potential. The dissociation equilibrium constant for pirenzepine was about 10 nM. 3. The conductance of AH neurones increased two to three fold when they were hyperpolarized negative to -90 mV. This inward rectification was blocked by extracellular caesium (2 mM) or rubidium (2 mM), but not by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 40 mM), 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) or cobalt (2 mM). The inward rectification was unaffected by muscarinic agonists. 4. When AH neurones were depolarized from very negative holding potentials (less than -80 mV) a brief outward current was recorded with a duration of about 200 ms. This transient or A current was completely blocked by 4-aminopyridine (100 microM) but was not affected by tetrodotoxin (300 nM), TEA (40 mM) or cobalt (2 mM). Muscarinic agonists did not affect the A current. 5. In S neurones, and in AH neurones in calcium-free solutions, the potassium conductance (in TEA and caesium) behaved according to constant field assumptions. This background conductance was suppressed by muscarinic agonists. 6. It is concluded that the depolarization by muscarinic agonists of myenteric AH neurones is due to a suppression of both a calcium-dependent potassium conductance and a background potassium conductance. Muscarinic depolarization of S neurones

  1. The interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in mouse corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinoglu, Fatma; Dalkir, Fatma Tugce; Demirbag, Hatice Oruc; Ogulener, Nuran

    2017-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the mouse corpus cavernosum (CC). l-cysteine (endogenous H2S substrate; 10(-6)-10(-3) M), sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; exogenous H2S; 10(-6)-10(-3) M) and acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) produced concentration-dependent relaxation in isolated mouse CC tissues. Relaxations to endogenous and exogenous H2S were reduced by non-selective mAChR antagonist atropine (5 × 10(-5) M), selective M1 mAChR antagonist pirenzepine (5 × 10(-5) M) and selective M3 mAChR antagonist 4-DAMP (10(-7) M) but not by selective M2 mAChR antagonist AF-DX 116 (10(-6) M). Also, acetylcholine-induced relaxations were reduced by atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP and AF-DX 116, confirming the selective effects of mAChR antagonists. Furthermore, acetylcholine-induced relaxations were attenuated by cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) inhibitor d,l-propargylglycine (PAG, 10(-2) M) and cystathionine-β-synthase inhibitor (CBS) aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 10(-3) M). l-nitroarginine, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, augmented the inhibitory effects of mAChR antagonists and H2S enzyme inhibitors on acetylcholine-induced relaxations. In addition, the existence and localization of CSE, CBS and 3-MST were demonstrated in mouse CC. Furthermore, tissue acetylcholine release was significantly increased by l-cysteine but not by exogenous H2S. The increase in acetylcholine level was completely inhibited by AOAA and PAG. These results suggest that M1 and M3 mAChRs contributes to relaxant effect mediated by endogenous H2S but at same time l-cysteine triggers acetylcholine release from cavernosal tissue. Also, the role of NO in the interaction of l-cysteine/H2S pathway and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) could not be excluded. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Acute toxicity of several organophosphorous insecticides and protection by cholinergic antagonists and 2-PAM on Artemia salina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Sanz, F; Barahona, M V

    1996-10-01

    The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos, methylchlorpyrifos, parathion and methylparathion to three age classes of Artemia salina was determined. In general, A. salina 24-h old was less sensitive to these organophosphorous insecticides (OPI) than A. salina 48-h old and A. salina 48-h old was significantly more tolerant than A. salina 72-h old, in contrast, chlorpyrifos was equally toxic to A. salina 48- and 72-h old. There were some differences among the three age classes of A. salina in the relative order of toxicity of OPI tested. The rank order of toxicity to A. salina 48-h old was methylparathion salina 24- and 72-h old it was methylparathion = parathion Artemia salina 24-h old was investigated. The lethal action of OPI tested was completely prevented by pretreatment of Artemia salina 24-h old with 2-PAM (10(-5) M) and atropine (10(-4 )M). However no concentration of hexamethonium, pirenzepine or AF-DX 116 protected 100% of the animals poisoned by LC84 of the OPI selected, maximum protection obtained was 71 to 88%. In contrast, the maximum inhibition of mortality obtained with AF-DX 116 pretreatment was about 55% because this compound was used at concentrations which were non toxic to control Artemia salina. Atropine, hexamethonium, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and 2-PAM afforded 50 % protection (IC50) of Artemia salina against mortality by LC84 of the OPI selected at concentrations in the range of 6.62x10(-7)-1.6x10(-6) M, 2. 38x10(-4)-2.05x10(-3)M, 8.91x10(-7)-1.24x10(-6) M, 9.66x10(-8)-1. 34x10(-7 )M, and 1.95x10(-8)-2.73x10(-8 )M, respectively. Pretreatment of atropine plus 2-PAM to determine whether this combination afforded greater inhibition of the lethality induced by four OPI tested than pretreatment with either atropine or 2-PAM alone was investigated. Atropine (10(-5) M) in combination with 2-PAM (10(-7 )M) inhibited completely the acute toxicity of all OPI tested, while the pretreatment with atropine (10(-6) M) plus 2-PAM at the same concentration gave a

  3. Controlling myopia progression in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Molly J Smith, Jeffrey J WallineThe Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Myopia is a common disorder, affecting approximately one-third of the US population and over 90% of the population in some East Asian countries. High amounts of myopia are associated with an increased risk of sight-threatening problems, such as retinal detachment, choroidal degeneration, cataracts, and glaucoma. Slowing the progression of myopia could potentially benefit millions of children in the USA. To date, few strategies used for myopia control have proven to be effective. Treatment options such as undercorrection of myopia, gas permeable contact lenses, and bifocal or multifocal spectacles have all been proven to be ineffective for myopia control, although one recent randomized clinical trial using executive top bifocal spectacles on children with progressive myopia has shown to decrease the progression to nearly half of the control subjects. The most effective methods are the use of orthokeratology contact lenses, soft bifocal contact lenses, and topical pharmaceutical agents such as atropine or pirenzepine. Although none of these modalities are US Food and Drug Administration-approved to slow myopia progression, they have been shown to slow the progression by approximately 50% with few risks. Both orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses have shown to slow myopia progression by slightly less than 50% in most studies. Parents and eye care practitioners should work together to determine which modality may be best suited for a particular child. Topical pharmaceutical agents such as anti-muscarinic eye drops typically lead to light sensitivity and poor near vision. The most effective myopia control is provided by atropine, but is rarely prescribed due to the side effects. Pirenzepine provides myopia control with little light sensitivity and few near-vision problems, but it is not yet commercially available as an eye drop or

  4. Muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in regulation of colonic motility in mice: functional studies using muscarinic receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takaji; Nakajima, Miwa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Unno, Toshihiro; Komori, Sei-ichi; Yamada, Masahisa; Kitazawa, Takio

    2011-11-16

    Although muscarinic M(2) and M(3) receptors are known to be important for regulation of gastric and small intestinal motility, muscarinic receptor subtypes regulating colonic function remain to be investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize muscarinic receptors involved in regulation of colonic contractility. M(2) and/or M(3) receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type mice were used in in vivo (defecation, colonic propulsion) and in vitro (contraction) experiments. Amount of feces was significantly decreased in M(3)R-KO and M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice but not in M(2)R-KO mice. Ranking of colonic propulsion was wild-type=M(2)R-KO>M(3)R-KO>M(2)/M(3)R-KO. In vitro, the amplitude of migrating motor complexes in M(2)R-KO, M(3)R-KO and M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice was significantly lower than that in wild-type mice. Carbachol caused concentration-dependent contraction of the proximal colon and distal colon from wild-type mice. In M(2)R-KO mice, the concentration-contraction curves shifted to the right and downward. In contrast, carbachol caused non-sustained contraction and relaxation in M(3)R-KO mice depending on its concentration. Carbachol did not cause contraction but instead caused relaxation of colonic strips from M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice. 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (McN-A-343) caused a non-sustained contraction of colonic strips from wild-type mice, and this contraction was changed to a sustained contraction by tetrodotoxin, pirenzepine and L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME). In the colon of M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice, McN-A-343 caused only relaxation, which was decreased by tetrodotoxin, pirenzepine and L-NAME. In conclusion, M(1), M(2) and M(3) receptors regulate colonic motility of the mouse. M(2) and M(3) receptors mediate cholinergic contraction, but M(1) receptors on inhibitory nitrergic nerves counteract muscarinic contraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms mediating cholinergic antral circular smooth muscle contraction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzos, Helena F; Tandon, Tarun; Ouyang, Ann

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathway (s) mediating rat antral circular smooth muscle contractile responses to the cholinomimetic agent, bethanechol and the subtypes of muscarinic receptors mediating the cholinergic contraction. METHODS: Circular smooth muscle strips from the antrum of Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted in muscle baths in Krebs buffer. Isometric tension was recorded. Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained for (+)-cis-dioxolane (cD), a nonspecific muscarinic agonist, at 10-8-10-4 mol/L, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-7 mol/L). Results were normalized to cross sectional area. A repeat concentration-response curve was obtained after incubation of the muscle for 90 min with antagonists for M1 (pirenzepine), M2 (methoctramine) and M3 (darifenacin) muscarinic receptor subtypes. The sensitivity to PTX was tested by the ip injection of 100 mg/kg of PTX 5 d before the experiment. The antral circular smooth muscles were removed from PTX-treated and non-treated rats as strips and dispersed smooth muscle cells to identify whether PTX-linked pathway mediated the contractility to bethanechol. RESULTS: A dose-dependent contractile response observed with bethanechol, was not affected by TTX. The pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin decreased the contraction induced by bethanechol. Lack of calcium as well as the presence of the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, also inhibited the cholinergic contraction, with a reduction in response from 2.5 ± 0.4 g/mm2 to 1.2 ± 0.4 g/mm2 (P methocramine (M2) > pirenzepine (M1). CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors-dependent contraction of rat antral circular smooth muscles was linked to the signal transduction pathway(s) involving pertussis-toxin sensitive GTP-binding proteins and to extracellular calcium via L-type voltage gated calcium channels. The presence of the residual contractile response after the treatment with nifedipine, suggests that an additional pathway could mediate the

  6. An investigation of the factors that regulate muscarinic receptor expression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myoung Suk; Scarr, Elizabeth; Dean, Brian

    2014-09-01

    We previously identified a group of subjects with schizophrenia who, on average, have a 75% decrease in cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (CHRM1) in Brodmann's area (BA) 9. To extend this finding, we determined i) if the decrease in CHRM1 was present in another functionally related CNS region (BA6), ii) whether the marked decrease in CHRM1 was accompanied by changes in levels of other CHRMs and iii) potential factors responsible for the decreased CHRM1 expression. We measured CHRM1 and CHRM3 using in situ radioligand binding with [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]4-DAMP respectively in BA6 from 20 subjects with schizophrenia who had low levels of CHRM1 in BA9 (SzLow[(3)H]PZP), 18 subjects with schizophrenia whose levels of CHRM1 were similar to controls (SzNormal[(3)H]PZP) and 20 control subjects. Levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA were measured using qPCR and levels of the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, were determined using Western blots. In BA6, the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was decreased in subjects with SzLow[(3)H]PZP (p<0.001) compared to controls. The density of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA and levels of SP1 and SP3 was not significantly different between the three groups. This study shows that the previously identified decrease in CHRM1 expression is not confined to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is present in other cortical areas. The effect shows some specificity to CHRM1, with no change in levels of binding to CHRM3. Furthermore, this decrease in CHRM1 does not appear to be associated with low levels of CHRM1 mRNA or to simply be regulated by the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the decreased CHRM1 in these subjects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. 侧脑室注射东莨菪碱对吗啡依赖大鼠戒断反应的抑制作用%Intracerebroventricular administration of scopolamine attenuates naloxone precipitated morphine abstinence syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾钧; 唐甩恩; 周文华; 杨国栋

    2001-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of cholinergic receptors in central nervous system on morphine dependent rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200~250 g were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine in increasing doses for 5 days. Prior to testing, rats received infusion of either a solution of drug (scopolamine, pirenzepine, methoctramine) or vehicle (normal saline) in lateral cerebral ventricle. Withdrawal behavior was monitored for 60 min after intraperitoneal administration of naloxone. Results The animal pretreatment with scopolamine (25,50 μg) or muscarinic subtype antagonists (20 μg pirenzepine, 25 μg methoctramine) could significantly attenuate naloxone precipitated morphine abstinence syndrome. Central administration of scopolamine could reduce reaction of morphine withdrawal in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion The central cholinergic receptors may be play an important role in the process of morphine withdrawal. Both M1 and M2 receptors may contribute to the development of morphine dependence and tolerance.%目的 观察非选择性毒蕈碱(M)受体拮抗剂东莨菪碱、选择性M1受体拮抗剂哌拉唑嗪以及选择性M2受体拮抗剂美索四氨对吗啡戒断反应的影响.方法采用吗啡依赖大鼠模型侧脑室注射上述药物,并用腹腔注射纳洛酮诱发戒断反应,记录 60 min 内戒断症状.结果侧脑室注射东莨菪碱(25,50 μg)、哌拉唑嗪(20 μg)和美索四氨(25 μg)可明显抑制由纳洛酮诱发戒断反应,东莨菪碱减轻吗啡戒断症状呈明显量效关系.结论侧脑室注射东莨菪碱能减轻吗啡戒断反应,提示中枢胆碱能神经毒蕈碱(M)受体在吗啡依赖和耐受过程中起重要作用.

  8. Mechanisms mediating cholinergic antral circular smooth muscle contraction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena F Wrzos; Tarun Tandon; Ann Ouyang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pathway (s) mediating rat antral circular smooth muscle contractile responses to the cholinomimetic agent, bethanechol and the subtypes of muscarinic receptors mediating the cholinergic contraction.METHODS: Circular smooth muscle strips from the antrum of Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted in muscle baths in Krebs buffer. Isometric tension was recorded. Cumulative concentration-response curves were obtained for (+)-cisdioxolane (cD), a nonspecific muscarinic agonist, at 10-8-10-4 mol/L, in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10-7 mol/L).Results were normalized to cross sectional area. A repeat concentration-response curve was obtained after incubation of the muscle for 90 min with antagonists for M1 (pirenzepine),M2 (methoctramine) and M3 (darifenacin) muscarinic receptor subtypes. The sensitivity to PTX was tested by the ip injection of 100 mg/kg of PTX 5 d before the experiment. The antral circular smooth muscles were removed from PTX-treated and non-treated rats as strips and dispersed smooth muscle cells to identify whether PTX-linked pathway mediated the contractility to bethanechol.RESULTS: A dose-dependent contractile response observed with bethanechol, was not affected by TTX. The pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin decreased the contraction induced by bethanechol. Lack of calcium as Well as the presence of the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, also inhibited the cholinergic contraction, with a reduction in response from 2.5±0.4 g/mm2 to 1.2±0.4 g/mm2 (P<0.05). The doseresponse curves were shifted to the right by muscarinic antagonists in the following order of affinity: darifenacin(M3)>methocramine (M2)>pirenzepine (M1).CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors-dependent contraction of rat antral circular smooth muscles was linked to the signal transduction pathway(s) involving pertussis-toxin sensitive GTP-binding proteins and to extracellular calcium via L-type voltage gated calcium channels. The presence of the

  9. Anticholinergic Accumulation: A Slumbering Interaction between Drugs and Food Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk, Misha F; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2015-12-01

    Many compounds display anticholinergic effects which might give rise to cognitive impairment and even delirium. These side effects are caused by their ability to bind to muscarinic receptors in our brain. Especially with combination of compounds, these serious effects are seen. This phenomenon, known as anticholinergic accumulation, is especially seen in the elderly. A classification of drugs for anticholinergic side effects has been made based on clinical observations, the ACB score. Here, we aimed to substantiate this classification by comparing the affinity of numerous drugs for the muscarinic receptors to the ACB score. Additionally, a number of supplements were screened. The affinity of the compounds was determined by their ability to displace the radioligand [(3)H]pirenzepine of the muscarinic receptor induced by these compounds. Our results show that the affinity of a compound for the muscarinic receptors correlated with its ACB score. Also food supplements appeared to bind to these muscarinic receptors. Moreover, several drug-drug, supplement-supplement and supplement-drug combinations had an affinity that is higher than the affinity of single compounds. This explains the phenomenon of anticholinergic accumulation. In conclusion, care should be taken to drug-drug and supplement-drug combinations with respect to anticholinergic accumulation.

  10. Influence of gender and the oestrous cycle on in vitro contractile responses of the rat urinary bladder to cholinergic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Penelope A; Levendusky, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were done to determine the influence of gender and the oestrous cycle on rat urinary bladder contractility in response to cholinergic stimulation. Bladder strips from female rats responded to high frequency stimulation with smaller contractile responses than did strips from males, and to low concentrations of carbachol with greater responses. The decreased responsiveness of bladder strips from female rats to electrical field stimulation can be primarily attributed to the rats in the oestrous stage of the oestrous cycle. Bladder strips from female rats in all stages of the oestrous cycle were more sensitive to carbachol than those from males, but there were no differences in sensitivity to electrical field stimulation. The contractile responses of strips from both male and female rats to carbachol were antagonized by muscarinic antagonists with the following rank order of affinity (pA2) estimates: 4-DAMP>>pirenzepine>methoctramine, suggesting that the receptor mediating contraction was the M3 subtype. There were no differences in pA2 values between bladder strips from male and female rats. The data indicate that responsiveness of bladder strips to electrical field stimulation and carbachol is altered in female rats in the oestrous stage of the oestrous cycle. Furthermore, gender influences the sensitivity of rat bladder to muscarinic stimulation. PMID:10991909

  11. Pharmacological and ionic characterizations of the muscarinic receptors modulating (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release from rat cortical synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E.M.; Otero, D.H.

    1985-05-01

    The muscarinic receptors that modulate acetylcholine release from rat cortical synaptosomes were characterized with respect to sensitivity to drugs that act selectively at M1 or M2 receptor subtypes, as well as to changes in ionic strength and membrane potential. The modulatory receptors appear to be of the M2 type, since they are activated by carbachol, acetylcholine, methacholine, oxotremorine, and bethanechol, but not by pilocarpine, and are blocked by atropine, scopolamine, and gallamine (at high concentrations), but not by pirenzepine or dicyclomine. The ED50S for carbachol, acetylcholine, and oxotremorine are less than 10 microM, suggesting that the high affinity state of the receptor is functional. High ionic strength induced by raising the NaCl concentration has no effect on agonist (oxotremorine) potency, but increases the efficacy of this compound, which disagrees with receptor-binding studies. On the other hand, depolarization with either KCl or with veratridine (20 microM) reduces agonist potencies by approximately an order of magnitude, suggesting a potential mechanism for receptor regulation.

  12. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine (USA))

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  13. Membrane depolarization and carbamoylcholine stimulate phosphatidylinositol turnover in intact nerve terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audigier, S.M.P.; Wang, J.K.T.; Greengard, P.

    1988-04-01

    Synaptosomes, purified from rat cerebral cortex, were prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol to study phosphatidylinositol turnover in nerve terminals. Labeled synaptosomes were either depolarized with 40 mM K/sup +/ or exposed to carbamoylcholine (carbachol). K/sup +/ depolarization increased the level of inositol phosphates in a time-dependent manner. The inositol bisphosphate level also increased rapidly, but its elevated level was sustained during continued depolarization. The elevated level of inositol bisphosphate was reversed upon repolarization of the synaptosomes. The level of inositol monophosphate increased slowly to 120-130% of control. These effects of K/sup +/ depolarization depended on the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Carbachol stimulated the turnover of phosphatidylinositol in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The level of inositol bisphosphate increased to 210% of control, and this maximal response was seen from 15 to 60 min. Accumulation of inositol monophosphate was larger than that of inositol bisphosphate, but its time course was slower. Atropine and pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol effect with high affinities. These data show that both Ca/sup 2 +/ influx and M/sub 1/ muscarinic receptor activation stimulate phospholipase C activity in synaptosomes, suggesting that phosphatidylinositol turnover may be involved in regulating neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals.

  14. Relationship between action potential sodium channels and muscarinic receptors in mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergic agonists and antagonists were tested for their ability to influence stimulated and unstimulated /sup 22/Na uptake in preparations of forebrain and hindbrain in mice in vitro. In mouse forebrain, atropine and pirenzepine decreased stimulated sodium uptake. Dicyclomine decreased stimulated uptake in both the forebrain and hindbrain. McN-A-343 decreased stimulated sodium uptake in the forebrain. The effects of sodium channel ligands on muscarinic receptors was investigated in forebrain and hindbrain preparations. In the forebrain, veratridine and aconitine appeared to inhibit the binding of (/sup 3/H)QNB in a competitive manner. Tetrodotoxin alone had not effect on binding, but enhanced the inhibition by veratridine, with no effect on aconitine inhibition. In the hindbrain, veratridine appeared to inhibit (/sup 3/H)QNB binding non-competitively and competitively. The addition of magnesium increased the K/sub i/ value in the veratridine inhibition. GTP enhanced the inhibition by veratridine. Tetrodotoxin increased the K/sub i/ value of the veratridine inhibition curve. Tetrodotoxin alone also inhibited (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Tetrodotoxin inhibited QNB binding in both a non-competitive and uncompetitive manner.

  15. M3-receptor activation counteracts opioid-mediated apneusis, but the apneusis per se is not necessarily related to an impaired M3 mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yuka; Haji, Akira

    2011-11-07

    Morphine slows the respiratory cycle due to a predominant prolongation of inspiration (apneusis) by postponing the spontaneous termination of inspiration (inspiratory off-switching). The present study investigates whether the morphine-induced apneusis results from impairment of cholinergic mechanisms in the central respiratory network. The efferent discharge was recorded from the phrenic nerve in artificially ventilated and anesthetized rats with vagotomy. All drugs were injected intravenously. The phrenic nerve displayed an augmenting discharge during inspiration and arrest of discharge during expiration in normal condition. Administration of morphine (0.3-10.0mg/kg) dose-dependently provoked apneusis characterized by a long-lasting, plateau inspiratory discharge of the phrenic nerve. It shortened the expiratory duration. Subsequent administration of physostigmine (0.1mg/kg) restored the morphine-induced apneusis to eupnea with a partial recovery of the augmenting inspiratory discharge. This modification of physostigmine was blocked by a non-specific muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (3.0mg/kg), leading to re-prolongation of inspiration. A similar antagonism was affected by an antagonist of M3 cholinergic receptors, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 1.0 and 10.0mg/kg) but not by an antagonist of M1 cholinergic receptors, pirenzepine (1.0 and 10.0mg/kg). These results demonstrate that the activation of endogenous M3 cholinergic mechanisms counteracts the morphine-induced apneusis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have characterized the muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human peripheral lung membranes using the selective muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine ((/sup 3/H)PZ) and the classical muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate. High-affinity binding with pharmacologic specificity was demonstrated for both radioligands. The high affinity Kd for (/sup 3/H)PZ binding determined from saturation isotherms was 5.6 nM, and the Kd for (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was 14.3 pM. Approximately 62% of the total muscarinic binding sites in human peripheral lung bind (/sup 3/H)PZ with high affinity. There was no significant effect of the guanine nucleotide, guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate, on the inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)-quinyclidinyl benzilate binding by the muscarinic agonist carbachol in peripheral lung membranes. If the muscarinic receptor with high affinity for PZ has an important role in bronchoconstriction, its characterization could result in the development of more selective bronchodilators.

  17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscarinic presynaptic modulation in GABAergic pallidal synapses of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Aceves, José J; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Hernández-Flores, Teresa; Hernández-González, Omar; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-02-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is central for basal ganglia processing. It expresses muscarinic cholinergic receptors and receives cholinergic afferents from the pedunculopontine nuclei (PPN) and other regions. The role of these receptors and afferents is unknown. Muscarinic M1-type receptors are expressed by synapses from striatal projection neurons (SPNs). Because axons from SPNs project to the GPe, one hypothesis is that striatopallidal GABAergic terminals may be modulated by M1 receptors. Alternatively, some M1 receptors may be postsynaptic in some pallidal neurons. Evidence of muscarinic modulation in any of these elements would suggest that cholinergic afferents from the PPN, or other sources, could modulate the function of the GPe. In this study, we show this evidence using striatopallidal slice preparations: after field stimulation in the striatum, the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine significantly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from synapses that exhibited short-term synaptic facilitation. This inhibition was associated with significant increases in paired-pulse facilitation, and quantal content was proportional to IPSC amplitude. These actions were blocked by atropine, pirenzepine, and mamba toxin-7, suggesting that receptors involved were M1. In addition, we found that some pallidal neurons have functional postsynaptic M1 receptors. Moreover, some evoked IPSCs exhibited short-term depression and a different kind of modulation: they were indirectly modulated by muscarine via the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Thus pallidal synapses presenting distinct forms of short-term plasticity were modulated differently. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  20. Modulation of carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in rat cerebral cortical miniprisms at excitatory amino acids and by BAY K-8644 is dependent upon the assay calcium and potassium concentrations used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiger, G. (Univ. of Umea (Sweden)); Fowler, C.J. (Astra Research Centre, Soedertalje (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The calcium and potassium ion dependency of the inositol phospholipid breakdown response to stimulatory agents has been investigated in rat cerebral cortical miniprisms. The calcium channel agonist BAY K-8644 potentiated the response to carbachol at 6 mM K{sup +} when Ca{sup 2+}-free, but not when 2.52 mM Ca{sup 2+} assay buffer was used. In Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer, verapamil inhibited the response to carbachol at both 6 and 18 mM K{sup +} but higher concentrations were needed when 2.52 mM Ca{sup 2+} was used. At these higher concentrations, however, verapamil inhibited the binding of 2 nM ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine to muscarinic recognition sites. N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) significantly reduced the basal phosphoinositide breakdown rate at 18 mM K{sup +} at 1.3 mM Ca{sup 2+}, but was without effect on the basal rate at other K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations. In the presence of NMDA or quisqualate, the responses to carbachol were reduced, the degree of reduction showing a complex dependency upon the assay K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations used. These results indicate that the inositol phospholipid breakdown response to carbachol in cerebral cortical miniprisms can be modulated in a manner dependent upon the extracellular calcium and potassium concentrations used.

  1. Effects of anticholinesterase agents on synaptic transmission in the in vitro and in vivo pontine reticular formation. An electrophysiological characterization of Medical Pontine Reticular Formation (MPRF) neuronal response to cholinergic and serotonergic activation. Annual report, 15 January 1989-30 September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarley, R.W.; Greene, R.W.

    1990-10-30

    Carbachol treatment of medial pontine reticular formation neurons(mPRF) neurons resulted in depolarization associated with an increase in input resistance. The inward current elicited was dependent on extracellular potassium. Carbachol also elicited a hyperpolarization associated with a conductance increase also dependent on potassium. Muscarinic responses were relatively insensitive to pirenzepine indicating mediation by non-M1 receptors. Nicotinic agonists elicited a depolarization in 77% of neurons with an inward current and conductance increase. This response was sensitive to dihydro-B-ethroidine, an antagonist of neuromuscular type nicotinic responses. Application of soman resulted in depolarization and excitation of mPRF neurons. This action was absent in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Methacholine, responses were enhanced, consistent with mediation of the soman excitation by the blockage of esterase activity. Serotonin excited 62% of the neurons, associated with inward current. These responses had a reversal potential close to that expected for potassium, consistent with a decrease in potassium conductance. The remainder became hyperpolarized.

  2. M1/M2 muscarinic receptor selectivity using potassium (K/sup +/)-stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)-dopamine (DA) and (/sup 14/C)-acetyl-choline (ACH) in striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaven, D.L.; Steranka, L.R.

    1986-03-05

    Raiteri et al have suggested that muscarinic receptor subtypes can be differentiated in striatal synaptosomes by the release of DA (M1) or ACh (M2). The authors attempted to replicate this finding and to characterize responses of selective and non-selective cholinergic agonists and antagonists using K+-stimulated release of transmitters from rat striatal slices. The non-selective agonists ACh, carbachol and oxotremorine stimulated release of (/sup 3/H)-DA and inhibited release of (/sup 14/C)-ACh with EC50 values of 10.6, 9.2 and 4.2 ..mu..M (DA) and 1.2, 0.77 and 0.43 ..mu..M (ACh), respectively. The M1 agonist McN-A-343-11 selectively inhibited release of DA with an EC50 value of 4.8 ..mu..M. Pilocarpine was ineffective in this system. The M1 antagonist pirenzepine reversed the effects of 10/sup -4/ M carbachol on release with an eight-fold selectivity for release of (/sup 3/H)-DA (IC50 = 0.77 ..mu..M) vs (/sup 14/C)-ACh (IC50 = 6.3 ..mu..M). These results suggest that although this system can determine relative subtype selectivities, the results obtained in this assay do not always correlate with those obtained from phosphatidyl inositol turnover or adenylate cyclase activity.

  3. Molecular Probes for Muscarinic Receptors: Derivatives of the M1-Antagonist Telenzepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Yishai; Baumgold, Jesse; Handen, Jeffrey S.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized congeners of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist telenzepine (4,9-dihydro-3-methyl-4-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)acetyl]-10H-thieno[3,4–b][1,5]benzodiazepin-10-one) were developed and found to bind to the receptor with affinities (Ki values) in approximately the nanomolar range. The derivatives contain a 10-aminodecyl group, which provides a nucleophilic functionality for further derivatization. The attachment of a spacer chain to the distal piperazinyl nitrogen was based on previous findings of enhanced affinity at muscarinic receptors in an analogous series of alkylamino derivatives of pirenzepine [J. Med. Chem. (1991) 34, 2133–2145]. The telenzepine derivatives contain prosthetic groups for radioiodination, protein cross-linking, photoaffinity labeling, and fluorescent labeling and biotin for avidin complexation. The affinity for muscarinic receptors in rat forebrain (mainly m1 subtype) was determined in competitive binding assays vs [3H]-N-methylscopolamine. A (p-aminophenyl)-acetyl derivative for photoaffinity labeling had a Ki value of 0.29 nM at forebrain muscarinic receptors (16-fold higher affinity than telenzepine). A biotin conjugate displayed a Ki value of 0.60 nM at m2-receptors and a 5-fold selectivity versus forebrain. The high affinity of these derivatives makes them suitable for the characterization of muscarinic receptors in pharmacological and spectroscopic studies, for peptide mapping, and for histochemical studies. PMID:1520727

  4. Muscarinic M1 receptors regulate propofol modulation of GABAergic transmission in rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Tian; Liu, Yang; Qian, Kun; Yu, Bu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    GABAergic neurons within the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) play an important role in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Propofol, a widely used systemic anesthetic, has lately been reported to excite noradrenaline (NA)-inhibited type of VLPO neurons. Present study tested if acetylcholine system takes part in the propofol modulation of GABAergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in mechanically dissociated rat VLPO neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Propofol reversibly decreased mIPSC frequency without affecting the current amplitude, indicating that propofol acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of spontaneous GABA release. The propofol action on GABAergic mIPSC frequency was completely blocked by atropine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonist, and pirenzepine, a selective M1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that propofol acts on M1 receptors on GABAergic nerve terminals projecting to VLPO neurons to inhibit spontaneous GABA release. The M1 receptor-mediated modulation of GABAergic transmission onto VLPO neurons may contribute to the regulation of loss of consciousness induced by propofol.

  5. High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, K.J.; Martino, A.M.; Hall, D.P. Jr.; Schwartz, R.D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1985-06-01

    High-affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine to muscarinic cholinergic sites in rat CNS and peripheral tissues was measured in the presence of cytisin, which occupies nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The muscarinic sites were characterized with regard to binding kinetics, pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and regulation by guanyl nucleotides. These binding sites have characteristics of high-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors with a Kd of approximately 30 nM. Most of the muscarinic agonist and antagonist drugs tested have high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding site, but pirenzepine, an antagonist which is selective for M-1 receptors, has relatively low affinity. The ratio of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binding sites to total muscarinic binding sites labeled by (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate varies from 9 to 90% in different tissues, with the highest ratios in the pons, medulla, and heart atrium. In the presence of guanyl nucleotides, (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine binding is decreased, but the extent of decrease varies from 40 to 90% in different tissues, with the largest decreases being found in the pons, medulla, cerebellum, and heart atrium. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine binds to high-affinity M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptors, and they suggest that most M-2 sites have high affinity for acetylcholine but that only a small fraction of M-1 sites have such high affinity.

  6. Treatment Options for Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  7. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.

  8. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  9. Molecular alteration of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system during synaptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, T.H.; Cho, N.J.; De Mello, F.G.; Klein, W.L.

    1985-07-25

    Biochemical properties of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system of the avian retina were found to change during the period when synapses form in ovo. Comparison of ligand binding to membranes obtained before and after synaptogenesis showed a significant increase in the affinity, but not proportion, of the high affinity agonist-binding state. There was no change in receptor sensitivity to antagonists during this period. Pirenzepine binding, which can discriminate muscarinic receptor subtypes, showed the presence of a single population of low affinity sites (M2) before and after synaptogenesis. The change in agonist binding was not due to the late development of receptor function. However, detergent-solubilization of membranes eliminated differences in agonist binding between receptors from embryos and hatched chicks, suggesting a developmental change in interactions of the receptor with functionally related membrane components. A possible basis for altered interactions was obtained from isoelectric point data showing that the muscarinic receptor population underwent a transition from a predominantly low pI form (4.25) in 13 day embryos to a predominantly high pI form (4.50) in newly hatched chicks. The possibility that biochemical changes in the muscarinic receptor play a role in differentiation of the system by controlling receptor position on the surface of nerve cells is discussed.

  10. Alterations of muscarinic receptor subtypes in pathways relating to memory: Effects of lesions and transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been classified pharmacologically into two distinct populations designated muscarinic type-one (M-1) and mscarinic type-two (M-2). The semiquantitative technique of receptor autoradiography was used to examine the anatomical and cellular distribution, and densities of M-1 and M-2 receptors in the rate brain. Muscarinic receptors were labeled with the classical antagonist ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Differentiation of the muscarinic subtypes was accomplished by competition studies of ({sup 3}H)QNB against the relatively selective M-1 antagonist pirenzepine (PZ), and the relatively selective M-2 antagonist, AFDX-116. In addition, M-1 and M-2 receptors were directly labeled with ({sup 3}H)PZ and ({sup 3}H)AFDX-116, respectively. Cholinergic pathways from the large cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) to the cortex and from the medial septum (MS) to the hippocampus were examined by lesioning with the selective cholinergic neurotoxin, AF64A. Bilateral cerebral cortical infarction was performed in order to analyze potential changes in muscarinic receptor populations in subcortical structures that are sensitive to cortical infarction. Finally, the response of muscarinic receptors to fetal septodiagonal band transplants in the deafferentated hippocampus was examined.

  11. A cholinergic-dependent role for the entorhinal cortex in trace fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Frederic; Coutureau, Etienne; Di Scala, Georges; Marchand, Alain R

    2009-06-24

    Trace conditioning is considered a model of higher cognitive involvement in simple associative tasks. Studies of trace conditioning have shown that cortical areas and the hippocampal formation are required to associate events that occur at different times. However, the mechanisms that bridge the trace interval during the acquisition of trace conditioning remain unknown. In four experiments with fear conditioning in rats, we explored the involvement of the entorhinal cortex (EC) in the acquisition of fear under a trace-30 s protocol. We first determined that pretraining neurotoxic lesions of the EC selectively impaired trace-, but not delay-conditioned fear as evaluated by freezing behavior. A local cholinergic deafferentation of the EC using 192-IgG-saporin did not replicate this deficit, presumably because cholinergic interneurons were spared by the toxin. However, pretraining local blockade of EC muscarinic receptors with the M1 antagonist pirenzepine yielded a specific and dose-dependent deficit in trace-conditioned responses. The same microinjections performed after conditioning were without effect on trace fear responses. These effects of blocking M1 receptors are consistent with the notion that conditioned stimulus (CS)-elicited, acetylcholine-dependent persistent activities in the EC are needed to maintain a representation of a tone CS across the trace interval during the acquisition of trace conditioning. This function of the EC is consistent with recent views of this region as a short-term stimulus buffer.

  12. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panot Tangsucharit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist, but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist. These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  13. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. (Department of Biochemical Research, Dr. Karl Thomae GmbH Biberach (West Germany))

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  14. Influence of cytisine on catecholamine release in isolated perfused rat adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Yoon; Jang, Seok-Jeong; Kim, Kwang-Cheol

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of cytisine on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) in isolated perfused rat adrenal glands, and to clarify its mechanism of action. The release of CA evoked by the continuous infusion of cytisine (1.5 x 10(-5) M) was time-dependently reduced from 15 min following the initiation of cytisine infusion. Furthermore, upon the repeated injection of cytisine (5 x 10(-5) M), at 30 min intervals into an adrenal vein, the secretion of CA was rapidly decreased following the second injection. Tachyphylaxis to the release of CA was observed by the repeated administration of cytisine. The cytisine-induced secretion of CA was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with chlorisondamine, nicardipine, TMB-8, and the perfusion of Ca2+-free Krebs solution, while it was not affected by pirenzepine or diphenhydramine. Moreover, the secretion of CA evoked by ACh was time-dependently inhibited by the prior perfusion of cytisine (5 x 10(-6) M). Taken together, these experimental data suggest that cytisine causes secretion of catecholamines from the perfused rat adrenal glands in a calcium-dependent fashion through the activation of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors located in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. It also seems that the cytisine-evoked release of catecholamine is not relevant to the activation of cholinergic M1-muscarinic or histaminergic receptors.

  15. [Adjunctive therapies to glycaemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Mônica de A Lima

    2008-03-01

    Since Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), intensive therapy has been directed at achieving glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values as close to normal as possible regarding safety issues. However, hyperglycemia (especially postprandial hyperglycemia) and hypoglicemia continue to be problematic in the management of type 1 diabetes. The objective of associating other drugs to insulin therapy is to achieve better metabolic control lowering postprandial blood glucose levels. Adjunctive therapies can be divided in four categories based on their mechanism of action: enhancement of insulin action (e.g. the biguanides and thiazolidinediones), alteration of gastrointestinal nutrient delivery (e.g. acarbose and amylin) and other targets of action (e.g. pirenzepine, insulin-like growth factor I and glucagon-like peptide-1). Many of these agents have been found to be effective in short-term studies with decreases in HbA1c of 0.5-1%, lowering postprandial blood glucose levels and decreasing daily insulin doses.

  16. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE

    2000-03-15

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  17. Relaxation of rat distal colon by activation of muscarinic, neuronal receptors: possible involvement of P(2y)-purinoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, L; Ali, A; Nordgren, S; Delbro, D S

    2000-07-01

    McN-A-343, which is a ligand at muscarinic receptors on myenteric ganglia, was found to concentration-dependently (1-44 microM) elicit non-adrenergic relaxation of the longitudinal muscle of rat distal colon, having been precontracted with carbachol (1 microM). This effect was partly antagonized by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine (0.3 microM), the nerve blocker, tetrodotoxin (1 microM), or by drugs which interfere with purinergic neurotransmission (apamin [0.5 microM], reactive blue 2 [50 microM]). Blockade of nitric oxide synthase (L-NNA [100 microM]), or of the cAMP (H-89 [1 microM]), or cGMP (ODQ [10 microM]) second messenger pathways did not affect the relaxatory response to McN-A-343 (14 microM). An additional, non-neurogenic component of the relaxation to this compound on carbachol induced tone is suggested to reflect a partial antagonism of the muscarinic receptors on the gut muscle by McN-A-343.

  18. Evaluation of drug-muscarinic receptor affinities using cell membrane chromatography and radioligand binding assay in guinea pig jejunum membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-xiang YUAN; Jin HOU; Lang-chong HE; Guang-de YANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study if cell membrane chromatography (CMC) could reflect drug-receptor interaction and evaluate the affinity and competitive binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). Methods: The cell membrane stationary phase(CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing guinea pig jejunum cell membrane on the surface of a silica carrier, and was used for the rapid on-line chromatographic evaluation of ligand binding affinities to mAChR. The affinity to mAChR was also evaluated from radioligand binding assays (RBA) using the same jejunum membrane preparation. Results: The capacity factor (k') profiles in guinea pig jejunum CMSP were: (-)QNB (15.4)>(+)QNB (11.5)>atropine (5.35)>pirenzepine(5.26)>4-DAMP (4.45)>AF-DX 116 (4.18)>pilocarpine (3.93)>acetylcholine(1.31). These results compared with the affinity rank orders obtained from radioligand binding assays indicated that there wasa positive correlation (r2=0.8525, P<0.0001) between both data sets. Conclusion: The CMC method can be used to evaluate drug-receptor affinities for drug candidates.

  19. Cholinergic modulation differs between basal and apical dendritic excitation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Stan; Péloquin, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesize that endogenous cholinergic modulation of dendritic processing of hippocampal CA1 is layer specific, and it specifically enhances spike output resulting from basal as compared with the apical dendritic excitation. Laminar profiles of evoked field potentials were recorded in the CA1 area of urethane-anesthetized rats using multichannel silicon probes and analyzed as current source density. High-frequency stimulation of the pontis oralis (PnO) attenuated the midapical more than the basal or distal apical dendritic excitatory sink. Population spike (PS) and excitatory sink-PS potentiation resulting from basal dendritic excitation were facilitated, while the PS evoked by apical dendritic stimulation was attenuated by PnO stimulation. Perfusion of cholinergic agonist carbachol onto hippocampal slices in vitro also attenuated the apical more than the basal dendritic excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Excitatory sink attenuation and PS changes after PnO stimulation were blocked by systemic or local scopolamine and by intracerebroventricular (icv) M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine but not by icv M2 receptor antagonist AFDX-116 or nicotinic antagonists. However, a hippocampal theta rhythm activated by PnO stimulation was blocked by systemic but not by local scopolamine. We conclude that endogenous acetylcholine mediates a stronger presynaptic inhibition of the midapical than basal and distal apical excitation mainly through M1 receptors.

  20. Muscarinic depolarization of layer II neurons of the parasubiculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Glasgow

    Full Text Available The parasubiculum (PaS is a component of the hippocampal formation that sends its major output to layer II of the entorhinal cortex. The PaS receives strong cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is likely to modulate neuronal excitability and contribute to theta-frequency network activity. The present study used whole cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings to determine the effects of cholinergic receptor activation on layer II PaS neurons. Bath application of carbachol (CCh; 10-50 µM resulted in a dose-dependent depolarization of morphologically-identified layer II stellate and pyramidal cells that was not prevented by blockade of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Bath application of the M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine (1 µM, but not the M2-preferring antagonist methoctramine (1 µM, blocked the depolarization, suggesting that it is dependent on M1 receptors. Voltage-clamp experiments using ramped voltage commands showed that CCh resulted in the gradual development of an inward current that was partially blocked by concurrent application of the selective Kv7.2/3 channel antagonist XE-991, which inhibits the muscarine-dependent K(+ current I M. The remaining inward current also reversed near EK and was inhibited by the K(+ channel blocker Ba(2+, suggesting that M1 receptor activation attenuates both I M as well as an additional K(+ current. The additional K(+ current showed rectification at depolarized voltages, similar to K(+ conductances mediated by Kir 2.3 channels. The cholinergic depolarization of layer II PaS neurons therefore appears to occur through M1-mediated effects on I M as well as an additional K(+ conductance.

  1. An increase in intracelluar free calcium ions modulated by cholinergic receptors in rat facial nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Da-wei; ZHOU Rui; LI Na; ZHANG Qiu-gui; ZHU Fu-gao

    2009-01-01

    Background Ca2+in the central nervous system plays important roles in brain physiology, including neuronal survival and regeneration in rats with injured facial motoneurons. The present research was to study the modulations of intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations by cholinergic receptors in rat facial nucleus, and the mechanisms of the modulations. Methods The fluorescence intensity of facial nucleus in Fluo-3 AM loaded acute brainstem slices was detected by applying intracellular free Ca2+ measurement technique via confocal laser scanning microscope. The changes of fluorescence intensity of facial nucleus indicate the average changes of intracellular free Ca2+ levels of the neurons. Results Acetylcholine was effective at increasing the fluorescence intensity of facial nucleus. Muscarine chlorlde induced a marked increase of fluorescence intensity in a concentration dependent fashion. The enhancement of fluorescence intensity by muscarine chloride was significantly reduced by thapsigargin (depletor of intracellular Ca2+ store; P0.05). And the increase of fluorescence intensity was also significantly inhibited by pirenzepine (M1 subtype selective antagonist; P0.05).Conclusions The data provide the evidence that muscarinic receptors may induce the increase of intracellular free Ca2+ levels through the Ca2+ release of intracellular Ca2+ stores, in a manner related to M1 and M3 subtypes of muscarinic receptors in rat facial nucleus. Nicotine may increase intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations via the influx of extracellular Ca2+ mainly across L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, in a manner related to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic receptors.

  2. Activation of muscarinic receptors increases the activity of the granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus--a calcium imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Vincze, János; Rusznák, Zoltán; Fu, Yuhong; Paxinos, George; Csernoch, László; Szücs, Géza

    2012-06-01

    Acetylcholine modulates the function of the cochlear nucleus via several pathways. In this study, the effects of cholinergic stimulation were studied on the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of granule neurones of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Ca(2+) transients were recorded in Oregon-Green-BAPTA 1-loaded brain slices using a calcium imaging technique. For the detection, identification and characterisation of the Ca(2+) transients, a wavelet analysis-based method was developed. Granule cells were identified on the basis of their size and localisation. The action potential-coupled character of the Ca(2+) transients of the granule cells was established by recording fluorescence changes and electrical activity simultaneously. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbamyl-choline (CCh) significantly increased the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients (from 0.37 to 6.31 min(-1), corresponding to a 17.1-fold increase; n = 89). This effect was antagonised by atropine, whereas CCh could still evoke an 8.3-fold increase of the frequency of the Ca(2+) transients when hexamethonium was present. Using immunolabelling, the expression of both type 1 and type 3 muscarinic receptors (M1 and M3 receptors, respectively) was demonstrated in the granule cells. Application of 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (an M3-specific antagonist) prevented the onset of the CCh effect, whereas an M1-specific antagonist (pirenzepine) was less effective. We conclude that cholinergic stimulation increases the activity of granule cells, mainly by acting on their M3 receptors. The modulation of the firing activity of the granule cells, in turn, may modify the firing of projection neurones and may adjust signal processing in the entire DCN.

  3. Muscarinic Depolarization of Layer II Neurons of the Parasubiculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Stephen D.; Chapman, C. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The parasubiculum (PaS) is a component of the hippocampal formation that sends its major output to layer II of the entorhinal cortex. The PaS receives strong cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is likely to modulate neuronal excitability and contribute to theta-frequency network activity. The present study used whole cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings to determine the effects of cholinergic receptor activation on layer II PaS neurons. Bath application of carbachol (CCh; 10–50 µM) resulted in a dose-dependent depolarization of morphologically-identified layer II stellate and pyramidal cells that was not prevented by blockade of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Bath application of the M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine (1 µM), but not the M2-preferring antagonist methoctramine (1 µM), blocked the depolarization, suggesting that it is dependent on M1 receptors. Voltage-clamp experiments using ramped voltage commands showed that CCh resulted in the gradual development of an inward current that was partially blocked by concurrent application of the selective Kv7.2/3 channel antagonist XE-991, which inhibits the muscarine-dependent K+ current IM. The remaining inward current also reversed near EK and was inhibited by the K+ channel blocker Ba2+, suggesting that M1 receptor activation attenuates both IM as well as an additional K+ current. The additional K+ current showed rectification at depolarized voltages, similar to K+ conductances mediated by Kir 2.3 channels. The cholinergic depolarization of layer II PaS neurons therefore appears to occur through M1-mediated effects on IM as well as an additional K+ conductance. PMID:23520542

  4. Cholinergic modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic transmission in rat medullary dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Gwon; Choi, In-Sun; Cho, Jin-Hwa; Jang, Il-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Although muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are expressed in trigeminal ganglia, it is still unknown whether mACh receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission from primary afferents onto medullary dorsal horn neurons. In this study, we have addressed the cholinergic modulation of primary afferent glutamatergic transmission using a conventional whole cell patch clamp technique. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were evoked from primary afferents by electrical stimulation of trigeminal tract and monosynaptic EPSCs were recorded from medullary dorsal horn neurons of rat horizontal brain stem slices. Muscarine and ACh reversibly and concentration-dependently decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio. In addition, muscarine reduced the frequency of miniature EPSCs without affecting the current amplitude, suggesting that muscarine acts presynaptically to decrease the probability of glutamate release onto medullary dorsal horn neurons. The muscarine-induced decrease of glutamatergic EPSCs was significantly occluded by methoctramine or AF-DX116, M2 receptor antagonists, but not pirenzepine, J104129 and MT-3, selective M1, M3 and M4 receptor antagonists. The muscarine-induced decrease of glutamatergic EPSCs was highly dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Physostigmine and clinically available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as rivastigmine and donepezil, significantly shifted the concentration-inhibition relationship of ACh for glutamatergic EPSCs. These results suggest that muscarine acts on presynaptic M2 receptors to inhibit glutamatergic transmission by reducing the Ca2+ influx into primary afferent terminals, and that M2 receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors could be, at least, potential targets to reduce nociceptive transmission from orofacial tissues.

  5. Increased efflux of amyloid-β peptides through the blood-brain barrier by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor inhibition reduces pathological phenotypes in mouse models of brain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganetti, Paolo; Antoniello, Katia; Devraj, Kavi; Toni, Nicolas; Kieran, Dairin; Madani, Rime; Pihlgren, Maria; Adolfsson, Oskar; Froestl, Wolfgang; Schrattenholz, André; Liebner, Stefan; Havas, Daniel; Windisch, Manfred; Cirrito, John R; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The formation and accumulation of toxic amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain may drive the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders could result from treatments regulating Aβ homeostasis. Examples are the inhibition of production, misfolding, and accumulation of Aβ or the enhancement of its clearance. Here we show that oral treatment with ACI-91 (Pirenzepine) dose-dependently reduced brain Aβ burden in AβPPPS1, hAβPPSL, and AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice. A possible mechanism of action of ACI-91 may occur through selective inhibition of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on endothelial cells of brain microvessels and enhanced Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain barrier. One month treatment with ACI-91 increased the clearance of intrathecally-injected Aβ in plaque-bearing mice. ACI-91 also accelerated the clearance of brain-injected Aβ in blood and peripheral tissues by favoring its urinal excretion. A single oral dose of ACI-91 reduced the half-life of interstitial Aβ peptide in pre-plaque mhAβPP/PS1d mice. By extending our studies to an in vitro model, we showed that muscarinic AChR inhibition by ACI-91 and Darifenacin augmented the capacity of differentiated endothelial monolayers for active transport of Aβ peptide. Finally, ACI-91 was found to consistently affect, in vitro and in vivo, the expression of endothelial cell genes involved in Aβ transport across the Blood Brain Brain (BBB). Thus increased Aβ clearance through the BBB may contribute to reduced Aβ burden and associated phenotypes. Inhibition of muscarinic AChR restricted to the periphery may present a therapeutic advantage as it avoids adverse central cholinergic effects.

  6. Muscarinic activation of inwardly rectifying K+ conductance reduces EPSPs in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Alzheimer, Christian

    2001-01-01

    To determine how acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the somatodendritic processing of EPSPs, we performed whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices and examined the effect of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol (CCh), on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) EPSPs, miniature EPSPs, and EPSP-like waveforms evoked by brief dendritic glutamate pulses (glutamate-evoked postsynaptic potentials, GPSPs). Although CCh is known to enhance the intrinsic excitability of the neuron in several ways, activation of atropine-sensitive (muscarinic) receptors on the apical dendrite or the soma of CA1 pyramidal cells consistently reduced the amplitude of EPSPs and GPSPs. Cholinergic inhibition of evoked and simulated EPSP waveforms displayed considerable voltage dependence, with the amplitude of the postsynaptic potentials progressively declining with membrane hyperpolarization indicating the involvement of an inwardly rectifying current. Extracellular Ba2+ (200 μm) and tertiapin (30 nm), a novel and selective blocker of G protein-activated, inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels, completely blocked the effect of CCh on GPSP amplitude. Muscarinic reduction of GPSPs was not sensitive to the M1 receptor-preferring antagonist, pirenzepine, but was suppressed by the M2 receptor-preferring antagonist, methoctramine, and by the allosteric M2 receptor antagonist, gallamine. In voltage-clamp recordings, CCh induced an ion current displaying inward rectification in the hyperpolarizing direction, which was identified as a GIRK current based on its sensitivity to low Ba2+ and tertiapin. Its pharmacological profile paralleled that of the cholinergic GPSP reduction. We link the observed reduction of postsynaptic potentials to the cholinergic activation of a GIRK conductance, which serves to partially shunt excitatory synaptic input. PMID:11533131

  7. Solubilized musarinic recognition sites from rat brain and heart: evidence in favor of a homogeneous population of sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    The binding characteristics of muscarinic receptors (MAChR) from rat brain and heart (membrane (m-) and 0.5% digitonin solubilized (s-)) were studied at 4/sup 0/C. (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB possessed the same affinity to both m- and s-MAChR (Kd = 20 pM). Pirenzepine (PZ) discriminated two affinities for brain m-MAChR and revealed a single low affinity in heart m-MAChR. S-MAChR from brain and heart displayed similar affinities for PZ ( Ki = 10 and 15 nM). High affinity (/sup 3/H)PZ binding was also found for s-MAChR from both tissues. The receptor affinity for carbachol (CARB) was decreased after solubilization. There was a decrease in the proportion of high affinity state (from 40% to 20% in the brain and from 60% to 15% in the heart) with a 4-fold decrease in the high affinity Ki for CARB. Gpp(NH)p no longer had an effect on the CARB/(/sup 3/H)(-)QNB competition in s-MAChR. Increasing the temperature to 37/sup 0/C caused a 3-6 fold decrease in PZ's affinity to both m- and s-MAChR without altering the ratio of high/low affinity sites. The reduction of PZ's affinity was completely reversible with temperature in m-MAChR and partially reversible in s-MAChR. The authors results suggests that a homogeneous muscarinic recognition site has been solubilized. Solubilization with digitonin results in a separation of the binding site from effector systems and membrane constituents responsible for the tissue specific receptor heterogeneity.

  8. Carbachol-induced phosphoinositide turnover in NCB-20 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, D.M.; Dillon-Carter, O.

    1986-03-01

    NCB-20 cells (fetal Chinese hamster brain cell x neuroblastoma hybrids) have been shown to contain a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. The authors now report that this cloned cell line also contains acetylcholne receptors which are linked to phospholipase C. Confluent cell cultures were preincubated with /sup 3/H-myo-inositol to label endogenous phosphoinositide (PI) and the accumulation of a PI metabolite, inositol monophosphate (IP/sub 1/), was measured in the presence of LiCl. Carbachol increased IP/sub 1/), accumulation be more than 400% with a EC/sub 50/ of about 50 ..mu..M. Acetylcholine and muscarine were also effective, whereas oxotremorine and McN-A-343 were weak in both potency and efficacy. The carbachol-induced IP/sub 1/ accumulation was completely blocked by atropine (Ki approx. 0.6 nM) and pirenzepine (Ki approx. 15 nM). The presence of KCl was not required for the carbachol-induced effect. The formation of inositol bis- and triphosphate was also increased carbachol; these increases occurred earlier but were of much smaller magnitude. Pretreatment of cells with 4 ..beta..-phorbol dibutyrate or 4 ..beta..-phorbol myristate acetate was found to attenuate the carbachol-induced formation of IP/sub 1/ (IC/sub 50/ in the low nanomolar concentration ranges), however 4 ..beta..-phorbol, the biologically inactive phorbol ester, was ineffective in causing this attenuation. These results suggest a feedback inhibition of PI turnover in NCB-20 cells through the action of protein kinase C.

  9. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion. PMID:15251036

  10. Ovulation requires the activation on proestrus of M₁ muscarinic receptors in the left ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M E; Flores, A; Alvarado, B E; Hernández, C G; Zárate, A; Chavira, R; Cárdenas, M; Arrieta-Cruz, I; Gutiérrez-Juárez, R

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the effects of chemically blocking type 1 muscarinic receptors (M1R) on either the left or right ovary on ovulation rate, number of ova shed and steroid hormones levels. M1R were unilaterally blocked in ovary with the M1R selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZP). PZP was delivered into the bursa ovarica of the left or right ovary of adult rats at 13:00 h on proestrus day. PZP treatment in the left but not in the right ovary blocked ovulation. PZP did not modify the number of ova shed, nor progesterone or 17β-estradiol serum levels. The surge of luteinizing hormone levels was diminished while that of follicle-stimulating hormone did not change in animals treated with PZP in the left ovary. Interestingly, treatment with either synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin 1 h after PZP administration in the left ovary restored ovulation in both ovaries. The presence of M1R protein in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles as well as in cells of the corpus luteum was detected on proestrus day. These results suggest that M1R activation in the left ovary is required for pre-ovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and ovulation. Furthermore, these results also suggest that M1R in the left ovary might be regulating ovulation asymmetrically through a stimulatory neural signal relayed to the hypothalamus via the vagus nerve to induce the GnRH secretion which then triggers ovulation.

  11. Cholinergic regulation of the evoked quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Eugeny E; Vyskočil, František; Bukharaeva, Ella A; Samigullin, Dmitry; Magazanik, Lev G

    2004-01-01

    The effects of cholinergic drugs on the quantal contents of the nerve-evoked endplate currents (EPCs) and the parameters of the time course of quantal release (minimal synaptic latency, main modal value of latency histogram and variability of synaptic latencies) were studied at proximal, central and distal regions of the frog neuromuscular synapse. Acetylcholine (ACh, 5 × 10−4 m), carbachol (CCh, 1 × 10−5 m) or nicotine (5 × 10−6 m) increased the numbers of EPCs with long release latencies mainly in the distal region of the endplate (90–120 μm from the last node of Ranvier), where the synchronization of transmitter release was the most pronounced. The parameters of focally recorded motor nerve action potentials were not changed by either ACh or CCh. The effects of CCh and nicotine on quantal dispersion were reduced substantially by 5 × 10−7 m (+)tubocurarine (TC). The muscarinic agonists, oxotremorine and the propargyl ester of arecaidine, as well as antagonists such as pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 and methoctramine, alone or in combination, did not affect the dispersion of the release. Muscarinic antagonists did not block the dispersion action of CCh. Cholinergic drugs either decreased the quantal content mo (muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine M, and nicotinic antagonist, TC), or decreased mo and dispersed the release (ACh, CCh and nicotine). The effects on mo were not related either to the endplate region or to the initial level of release dispersion. It follows that the mechanisms regulating the amount and the time course of transmitter release are different and that, among other factors, they are altered by presynaptic nicotinic receptors. PMID:15254150

  12. The M sub 1 muscarinic receptor and its second messenger coupling in human neuroblastoma cells and transfected murine fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Lin.

    1989-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that pirenzepine (PZ)-high affinity muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) are coupled to the hydrolysis of inositol lipids and not to the adenylate cyclase system in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The maximal carbachol(CCh)-stimulated ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 1} accumulation in the SH-SY5Y cells was decreased in the presence of 1{mu}g/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein may be involved in the coupling. Several cell clones which express only M{sub 1} mAChR were generated by transfecting the murine fibroblast B82 cells with the cloned rat genomic m{sub 1} gene. The transfected B82 cells (cTB10) showed specific ({sup 3}H)(-)QNB binding activity. The mAChRs in these cells are of the M{sub 1} type defined by their high affinity for PZ and low affinity for AF-DX 116 and coupled to hydrolysis of inositol lipids, possibly via a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein. The relationship between the M{sub 1} mAChR density and the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol lipids was studied in 7 clones. The M{sub 1} mAChR densities in these cells characterized by ({sup 3}H)(-)MQNB binding ranged from 12 fmol/10{sup 6} cells in LK3-1 cells to 260 fmol/10{sup 6} cells in the LK3-8 cells.

  13. Differences in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the central nervous system of long sleep and short sleep mice. [Ethanol effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, M.; Ming, X.; McArdle, J.J. (Univ of Medical, Newark, NJ (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption have been noted in various inbred strains of mice and pharmacogenetic approaches have been used to study the mechanisms of action of many drugs such as ethanol. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, selectively bred for differences in ethanol induced narcosis, provide a method by which a relationship between the differential responsiveness of these geno-types and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) may be evaluated. Sleep times after injection of 3ml ethanol/kg (i.p.) verified the higher sensitivity of LS vs. SS. Mean body weights of LS (26.5g) vs. SS (22g) were also significantly (p<.01) greater. Binding assays for ({sup 3}H)(-) quinuclidinylbenzilate (({sup 3}H)(-)QNB), a specific but nonsubtype selective mAChR antagonist, ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine (({sup 3}H)PZ), a specific M1 mAChR antagonist and ({sup 3}H)11-2-((2-((diethylamino) methyl)-1-piperidinyl) acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepine-6-one, (({sup 3}H)AF-DX 116), an M2 selective antagonist were performed to determine mAChR affinity (K{sub d}) and density (B{sub max}) in CNS regions such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum and other areas. Significantly lower (30-40%) ({sup 3}H)(-)QNB binding suggests that SS have fewer mAChR's than LS in many areas. These differences may relate to their differential ethanol sensitivity.

  14. Effects of methylmercury on muscarinic receptors in the mouse brain: A quantitative autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haesung; Yee, S.; Geddes, J.; Choi, Byung, H. (Ewha Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea) Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is reported to inhibit several stages of cholinergic neurotransmission in brain tissue in-vitro and in-vivo. To examine whether or not behavioral disturbances and/or selective vulnerability of specific neuronal groups in MeHg poisoning may be related to MeHg effects on cholinergic receptors in specific regions of the brain, the density and distribution of muscarinic receptors in the brains of C57BL/6J mice were determined following repeated injections of 5 mg/kg of methylmercuric chloride (MMC). The receptor densities in six cortical laminae of seven cerebral cortical regions, hippocampus and striatum were quantitated by computer-assisted imaging system following in-vitro labeling with ({sup 3}H)-pirenzepine (M1) and ({sup 3}H)N-methyl scopolamine (M2). The results showed heterogeneous distribution of M1 and M2 sites in different regions of the brain, and significant reduction in the density of both receptor subtypes following MeHg poisoning in many cortical and subcortical regions. However, the changes in the density were variable in different laminae even in the same cortical regions. Prominent reductions in M1 densities were noted in the temporal and entorhinal cortices, CA3 and hilar regions of the hippocampus as compared to control, whereas the reduction in M2 receptor density was most prominently noted in the frontal, perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, and CA1 and hilar regions of the hippocampus. Thus, it is apparent that MeHg significantly affects muscarinic receptors in the mouse brain, and that these data when used in conjunction with immunocytochemical and other morphological studies would provide further insights into the mechanisms of neurotoxic effects of MeHg.

  15. Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira L. López-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR and 2 (m2AChR in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1 an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2 analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.

  16. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J. (National Heart and Lung Institute, London (England))

    1990-06-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using (3H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate (( 3H)QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. (3H)QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with (3H)pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies.

  17. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  18. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to phospholipase C: Pharmacological and biochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, M.A.; Fraser, C.M. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1990-12-14

    The pharmacological and biochemical properties of rat m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells were characterized with ligand binding, affinity labeling and biochemical assays. Both mAChR subtypes display saturable, high affinity binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and a rank order of antagonist potency of QNB greater than atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Carbachol displacement of (3H)-QNB binding to the m3 mAChR revealed an approximate 17-fold higher affinity than observed with the m1 mAChR. (3H)-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) labeling of mAChR revealed that m1 and m3 mAChR migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular masses of 80,000 and 94,000 daltons, respectively, consistent with the known differences in their molecular sizes. Both m1 and m3 mAChR elicited dose-dependent increases in the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides; however, the maximal increase in total inositol phosphates elicited with the m1 mAChR was approximately 2-fold greater than that observed in cells expressing similar densities of m3 mAChR. Agonist activation of the m1 mAChR also elicited increases in basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP, whereas the m3 mAChR had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. These data suggest that although m1 and m3 mAChR display a considerable degree of structural homology, they exhibit distinct pharmacological and biochemical properties.

  19. Effect of the radioprotector WR-2721 on operant behavior in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.F.; Shih, J.H.; Lee, J.D.; Ma, C.; Lee, S.F.; Lin, C.H. (Fourth Research Department, CSIST (Taiwan))

    1989-05-01

    The effect of WR-2721 on performance maintained by a fixed-ratio 20 (FR-20) schedule for water reinforcement was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Graded doses of WR-2721 (range 25-100 mg/kg) were administered IP immediately prior to a 60 min test session. WR-2721 had a dose dependent monotonic disruptive effect on FR responding, with significant effects at doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg. WR-2721 also decreased postsession water consumption, but only one significant effect at the highest dose (100 mg/kg). Both slopes of the dose-response regression line are parallel in effect. These data indicate that WR-2721 may affect drinking motivation, which could disrupt operant performance, and WR-2721 affects motor behavior at lower doses than those that depress motivation to drink. The log dose-probit analysis on the all-or-none disruptive pattern of pause of responding observed from cumulative records disclosed that the slope of this regression line (s = 1.11) was also almost identical to that of reinforcer decrement analyzed from graded dose-response relationship (s = 1.14) and shared the same estimated ED50's (58.5 and 55.6 mg/kg, respectively). A preliminary study using a variety of pharmacological interventions was also carried out to ascertain if the general functional gastrointestinal disorders produced by WR-2721 may subserve the behavioral deficits. Subcutaneous pretreatments with various selective, peripherally active, gastroprotective drugs (cimetidine (30 and 60 mg/kg), pirenzepine (5 and 10 mg/kg) and domperidone (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg)) 30 min prior to challenge with WR-2721 at dose of 100 mg/kg, demonstrated that these drugs did not yield any apparent significant attenuative effects.

  20. Nicotinic and muscarinic agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors stimulate a common pathway to enhance GluN2B-NMDAR responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Miledi, Ricardo; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) can enhance cognitive function. However, it is unknown whether a common signaling pathway is involved in the effect. Here, we show that in vivo administration of nicotine, AChEIs, and an m1 muscarinic (m1) agonist increase glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B (GluN2B)-containing NMDA receptor (NR2B-NMDAR) responses, a necessary component in memory formation, in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and that coadministration of the m1 antagonist pirenzepine prevents the effect of cholinergic drugs. These observations suggest that the effect of nicotine is secondary to increased release of ACh via the activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and involves m1 receptor activation through ACh. In vitro activation of m1 receptors causes the selective enhancement of NR2B-NMDAR responses in CA1 pyramidal cells, and in vivo exposure to cholinergic drugs occludes the in vitro effect. Furthermore, in vivo exposure to cholinergic drugs suppresses the potentiating effect of Src on NMDAR responses in vitro. These results suggest that exposure to cholinergic drugs maximally stimulates the m1/guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha q/PKC/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2/Src signaling pathway for the potentiation of NMDAR responses in vivo, occluding the in vitro effects of m1 activation and Src. Thus, our results indicate not only that nAChRs, ACh, and m1 receptors are on the same pathway involving Src signaling but also that NR2B-NMDARs are a point of convergence of cholinergic and glutamatergic pathways involved in learning and memory. PMID:25114227

  1. Stimulation of gastric bicarbonate secretion by an analog of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, YM-14673, in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, K; Ueshima, K; Okabe, S

    1991-03-01

    The effects of YM-14673, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, on gastric alkaline secretion were investigated in the anesthetized rat pretreated with omeprazole (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) by measuring the luminal pH, transmucosal PD and HCO3- output. The whole stomach was perfused at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min with saline (pH 4.5) in the absence of acid secretion, the pH of the perfusate and PD were continuously monitored and the HCO3- output was measured as acid-neutralizing capacity by back-titration of the perfusate to pH 4.5. YM-14673, given intravenously at the doses (0.1-1 mg/kg) that stimulated acid secretion, increased the pH and HCO3- output in a dose-dependent fashion, but did not significantly affect the PD. Prostaglandin E2 (1 mg/kg) elevated the pH and HCO3- output with concomitant decrease in the PD, whereas carbachol (4 micrograms/kg), similar to YM-14673, produced an increase of the pH and HCO3- output with no change in the PD. The net HCO3- output (4.3 +/- 0.3 muEq) induced by 0.3 mg/kg of YM-14673 was about 60 and 150% of that induced by prostaglandin E2 and carbachol, respectively. The increased pH and HCO3- responses caused by YM-14673 were almost completely abolished by vagotomy, significantly inhibited by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, intravenously) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) but not affected by pirenzepine (1 mg/kg, intravenously). These results suggest that YM-14673, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, produced vagally mediated HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach, and the mechanism may involve the cholinergic system, which is mediated with muscarinic M2 receptors and interacts with endogenous prostaglandins.

  2. Nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway activated by M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptor cascade inhibits Na+-activated K+ currents in Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Masaharu; Yoshino, Masami

    2016-06-01

    The interneurons of the mushroom body, known as Kenyon cells, are essential for the long-term memory of olfactory associative learning in some insects. Some studies have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is strongly related to this long-term memory in Kenyon cells. However, the target molecules and upstream and downstream NO signaling cascades are not completely understood. Here we analyzed the effect of the NO signaling cascade on Na(+)-activated K(+) (KNa) channel activity in Kenyon cells of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). We found that two different NO donors, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine (SNAP), strongly suppressed KNa channel currents. Additionally, this inhibitory effect of GSNO on KNa channel activity was diminished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and KT5823, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Next, we analyzed the role of ACh in the NO signaling cascade. ACh strongly suppressed KNa channel currents, similar to NO donors. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of ACh was blocked by pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist, but not by 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP) and mecamylamine, an M3 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist and a nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist, respectively. The ACh-induced inhibition of KNa channel currents was also diminished by the PLC inhibitor U73122 and the calmodulin antagonist W-7. Finally, we found that ACh inhibition was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). These results suggested that the ACh signaling cascade promotes NO production by activating NOS and NO inhibits KNa channel currents via the sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling cascade in Kenyon cells.

  3. Presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors are involved in 2 Hz-induced train-of-four fade caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mw; Bornia, Ecs; Correia-de-Sá, P; Alves-Do-Prado, W

    2011-11-01

    1. Train-of-four fade (TOF(fade) ) is a clinically useful parameter to monitor the degree of block of neuromuscular transmission in curarized patients. Experimentally, TOF(fade) has been attributed to the blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerve terminals. There is less information regarding the involvement of coexistent presynaptic receptors (e.g. muscarinic M(1) and M(2) , adenosine A(1) and A(2A) ) in the TOF(fade) produced by antinicotinic agents. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the TOF(fade) caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants (hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine, vecuronium and rocuronium) as the ratio of the muscle tension produced in the rat diaphragm by the fourth to the first stimulus (T(4) /T(1) ) of a train-of-four stimuli delivered to the phrenic nerve trunk at a frequency of 2 Hz. 3. All antinicotinic agents, except hexamethonium, decreased the amplitude of muscle tension during the first stimulus. Hexamethonium, (5.47 mmol/L), d-tubocurarine- (1.1 μmol/L), vecuronium (4.7 μmol/L)- and rocuronium (9.8 μmol/L)-induced TOF(fade) was attenuated by 10 nmol/L pirenzepine (an M(1) receptor antagonist), 1 μmol/L methoctramine (an M(2) receptor antagonist) and 2.5 nmol/L 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (an A(1) receptor antagonist). Blockade of the A(2A) receptor with 10 nmol/L ZM241385 partially reversed the TOF(fade) induced by d-tubocurarine, vecuronium and rocuronium, but not that caused by the 'pure' neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium, unless one increased the concentration of ZM241385 to 50 nmol/L. 4. The data indicate that presynaptic M(1) , M(2) , A(1) and A(2A) receptors play a role in neuromuscular TOF(fade) caused by antinicotinic neuromuscular relaxants. Such interplay depends on adenosine tonus and on the affinity of neuromuscular blocking agents for neuronal versus muscular nicotinic receptors.

  4. L-Satropane Prevents Retinal Neuron Damage by Attenuating Cell Apoptosis and Aβ Production via Activation of M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Lu; Tang, Ya-Bin; Song, Yun; Lu, Juan-Juan; Hou, Li-Na; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2017-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists have been used to treat glaucoma due to their intraocular pressure-lowering effects. Recently, it has been reported that retinal mAChRs activation can also stimulate neuroprotective pathways. In our study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of L-satropane, a novel mAChR agonist, on retinal neuronal injury induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). CoCl2-induced hypoxia injury in cultured cell models and I/R-induced retinal neuronal damage in rats in vivo were used to evaluate the abilities of L-satropane. In detail, we measured the occurrence of retinal pathological changes including molecular markers of neuronal apoptosis and Aβ expression. Pretreatment with L-satropane protects against CoCl2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 and primary retinal neuron (PRN) cells in a dose-dependent manner by increasing retinal neuron survival. CoCl2 or I/R-induced cell apoptosis by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expression, which resulted in an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and upregulating caspase-3 expression/activity was significantly reversed by L-satropane treatment. In addition, L-satropane significantly inhibited the upregulation of Aβ production in both retinal neurons and tissue. We also found that I/R-induced histopathological retinal changes including cell loss in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) and increased TUNEL positive retinal ganglion cells in GCL and thinning of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) were markedly improved by L-satropane. The effects of L-satropane were largely abolished by the nonselective mAChRs antagonist atropine and M1-selective mAChR antagonist pirenzepine. These results demonstrated that L-satropane might be effective in preventing retinal neuron damage caused by CoCl2 or I/R. The neuroprotective effects of L-satropane may be attributed to decreasing cell apoptosis and Aβ production through activation

  5. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M3 receptor subtype (CHO-M3). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC50 of 14 μM. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC50 (pKb) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M3 receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC50=880 nM). In CHO-M3 cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M3 cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M3 receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action in IBS patients suffering with diarrhoea. PMID

  6. Direct actions of organophosphate anticholinesterases on nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakry, N.M.; el-Rashidy, A.H.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    Four nerve agents and one therapeutic organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) bind to acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, inhibit or modulate binding of radioactive ligands to these receptors, and modify events regulated by them. The affinity of nicotinic (n) ACh receptors of Torpedo electric organs and most muscarinic (m) ACh receptors of rat brain and N1E-115 neuroblastoma cultures for the OP compounds was usually two to three orders of magnitude lower than concentrations required to inhibit 50% (IC-50) of ACh-esterase activity. However, a small population of m-ACh receptors had an affinity as high as that of ACh-esterase for the OP compound. This population is identified by its high-affinity (3H)-cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)-CD) binding. Although sarin, soman, and tabun had no effect, (O-ethyl S(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)) methyl phosphonothionate (VX) and echothiophate inhibited competitively the binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((3H)-QNB) and (3H)-pirenzepine ((3H)-PZ) to m-ACh receptors. However, VX was more potent than echothiophate in inhibiting this binding and 50-fold more potent in inhibiting carbamylcholine (carb)-stimulated (3H)-cGMP synthesis in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells--both acting as m receptor antagonist. All five OPs inhibited (3H)-CD binding, with IC-50s of 3, 10, 40, 100, and 800 nM for VX, soman, sarin, echothiophate, and tabun, respectively. The OP anticholinesterases also bound to allosteric sites on the n-ACh receptor (identified by inhibition of (3H)-phencyclidine binding), but some bound as well to the receptor's recognition site (identified by inhibition of (125I)-alpha-bungarotoxin binding). Soman and echothiophate in micromolar concentrations acted as partial agonists of the n-ACh receptor and induced receptor desensitization. On the other hand, VX acted as an open channel blocker of the activated receptor and also enhanced receptor desensitization.

  7. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G. (Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the (Ca)i transient.

  8. Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencherif, M.; Lukas, R.J. (Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Cells of the TE671/RD human clonal line express a finite number ((Bmax) of about 350 fmol/mg of membrane protein) of apparently noninteracting, high-affinity binding sites (KD of 0.07 nM and a Hill coefficient close to unity, nH = 0.94) for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) radio antagonist, tritium-labeled quinuclidinyl benzilate ({sup 3}H-QNB). The rank order potency of selective antagonists that inhibit specific {sup 3}HQNB binding is: atropine greater than 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) greater than pirenzepine greater than methoctramine greater than AFDx-116 (11-2(2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-(piperidinyl) acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one). Functional studies indicate that phosphoinositide (PIns) hydrolysis in TE671/RD cells is increased by carbachol (EC50 of 10 microM), but not by nicotine (to concentrations as high as 1 mM). Agonist-stimulated PIns metabolism is inhibited by antagonists with the same rank order potency as for inhibition of {sup 3}HQNB binding. Functional responses are augmented in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, are strongly inhibited after 24-hr exposure to cholera toxin, but are only slightly inhibited after long-term exposure to pertussis toxin or forskolin. These studies identify a pharmacologically-defined M3-subtype of mAChR strongly coupled via a cholera toxin-sensitive mechanism to PIns hydrolysis in these cells. Within 1 hr of treatment of TE671/RD cells with 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP or with 10 microM phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), there is a 30 to 50% decrease in carbachol-stimulated PIns responsiveness that recovers to control values after 5 days of continued drug treatment. However, a comparable and more persistent inhibition of mAChR function is observed on cell treatment with 20 nM PMA.

  9. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, C.L.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The M2 subtype of muscarinic receptor is predominant in heart, and such receptors were reported to be located in muscles as well as in presynaptic cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals. Muscarinic receptors of rat heart were identified by the high affinity binding of the agonist (+)-(3H)cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)CD), which has been used to label a high affinity population of M2 receptors. A single population of sites was detected and (3H)CD binding was sensitive to the M2 antagonist himbacine but much less so to pirenzepine, the M1 antagonist. These cardiac receptors had different sensitivities to NiCl2 and N-ethylmaleimide from brain muscarinic receptors, that were also labeled with (3H)CD and considered to be of the M2 subtype. Up to 70% of the (3H)CD-labeled cardiac receptors had high affinities for several organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases. (3H)CD binding was inhibited by the nerve agents soman, VX, sarin, and tabun, with K0.5 values of 0.8, 2, 20, and 50 nM, respectively. It was also inhibited by echothiophate and paraoxon with K0.5 values of 100 and 300 nM, respectively. The apparent competitive nature of inhibition of (3H)CD binding by both sarin and paraoxon suggests that the OPs bind to the acetylcholine binding site of the muscarinic receptor. Other OP insecticides had lower potencies, inhibiting less than 50% of 5 nM (3H)CD binding by 1 microM of EPN, coumaphos, dioxathion, dichlorvos, or chlorpyriphos. There was poor correlation between the potencies of the OPs in reversibly inhibiting (3H)CD binding, and their anticholinesterase activities and toxicities. Acetylcholinesterases are the primary targets for these OP compounds because of the irreversible nature of their inhibition, which results in building of acetylcholine concentrations that activate muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and desensitize them, thereby inhibiting respiration.

  10. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-12-01

    1. Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. 2. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype (CHO-M(3)). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. 3. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC(50) of 14 micro M. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC(50) (pK(b)) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). 4. Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M(3) receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. 5. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)=880 nM). 6. In CHO-M(3) cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. 7. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M(3) cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action

  11. Activation of volume-regulated Cl− channels by ACh and ATP in Xenopus follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Samartín, Alberto L; Miledi, Ricardo; Arellano, Rogelio O

    2000-01-01

    Osmolarity-dependent ionic currents from follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes (follicles) were studied using electrophysiological techniques. Whole follicle currents were monitored using a two-electrode voltage clamp and single-channel activity was measured using the patch-clamp technique.In follicles held at -60 mV two chloride currents were activated in external hyposmotic solutions. One was the habitual volume-regulated current elicited by external hyposmolarity (ICl,swell), and the second was a slow and smooth current (Sin) generated by ACh or ATP application.In follicles, the permeability ratios for different anions with respect to Cl− were similar for both ICl,swell and Sin, with a sequence of: SCN− > I− > Br−≥ NO3−≥ Cl− > gluconate ≥ cyclamate > acetate > SO42−.Extracellular ATP blocked the outward component of Sin. Also, extracellular pH modulated the inactivation kinetics of Sin elicited by ACh; e.g. inactivation at +80 mV was ∼100% slower at pH 8.0 compared with that at pH 6.0.Lanthanides inhibited ICl,swell and Sin. La3+ completely inhibited ICl,swell with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 17 ± 1.9 μm, while Sin was blocked up to 55% with an apparent IC50 of 36 ± 2.6 μm.Patch-clamp recordings in follicular cells showed that hyposmotic challenge opened inward single-channel currents. The single channel conductance (4.7 ± 0.4 pS) had a linear current-voltage relationship with a reversal membrane potential close to −20 mV. This single-channel activity was increased by application of ACh or ATP.The ICl,swell generation was not affected by pirenzepine or metoctramine, and did not affect the purinergic activation of the chloride current named Fin. Thus, ICl,swell was not generated via neurotransmitters released during cellular swelling.All together, equal discrimination for different anions, similar modulatory effects by extracellular pH, the blocking effects by ATP and La3+, and the same single-channel activity

  12. [Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xun; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Hong-Fen; Yu, Kang-Ying; Wang, Guo-Qing

    2013-12-25

    The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and

  13. 孤束核胆碱能与组胺能系统对颈动脉窦压力感受器反射调节的交互作用%Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡力旬; 张国兴; 张玉英; 赵红芬; 于康英; 王国卿

    2013-01-01

    脑胆碱能系统与组胺能系统影响颈动脉窦压力感受器反射(carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex,CSR)活动,然而二者是否在孤束核(nucleus tractus solitarius,NTS)水平相互作用,跨转调节CSR,尚不清楚.本文在麻醉Sprague-Dawley (SD)大鼠孤离的一侧颈动脉窦区,通过窦内逐级加压引发CSR和动脉血压变化,经Logistic五参数曲线拟合,求得窦内压(intracarotid sinus pressure,ISP)-平均动脉压(mean arterial pressure,MAP)关系曲线及其特征参数,观察预先在NTS微量注射各选择性胆碱能受体拮抗剂[M1受体拮抗剂哌仑西平(pirenzepine,PRZ)、M2受体拮抗剂美索曲明(methoctramine,MTR)或N1受体拮抗剂六烃季胺(hexamethonium,HEX)]对侧脑室微量注射(intracerebroventricular injection,i.c.v.)组胺(histamine,HA)所致CSR变化的影响,以及预先在NTS微量注射组胺能H1受体拮抗剂氯苯吡胺(chlorpheniramine,CHL)或H2受体拮抗剂西咪替丁(cimetidine,CIM)对i.c.v.拟胆碱药毒扁豆碱(physostigmine,PHY)所致CSR变化的影响,以期解析中枢两大系统对CSR是否具有跨转调节机制.结果显示:(1)单独NTS内注射所给剂量的各选择性胆碱能受体拮抗剂或组胺能受体拮抗剂对CSR均无明显作用(P>0.05),也不引起动脉血压水平明显变动;(2)预先NTS内注射PRZ或MTR可部分翻转i.c.v.HA所致的CSR重调定,表现为ISP-MAP关系曲线在高窦压区明显左下移位(P<0.05),ISP-Gain关系曲线在中窦压区显著上移(P<0.05),反射参数平均动脉压变动范围和最大增益加大(P<0.05),最大增益时的窦内压值与饱和压减少(P<0.05),上述效应中PRZ的作用不如MTR的显著(P<0.05),但HEX对i.c.v.HA所致的CSR变化无明显作用(P>0.05);(3)预先NTS内注射CHL或CIM对i.c.v.PHY所致CSR变化的影响,类似于NTS内注射PRZ或MTR对i.c.v.HA所致CSR变化的作用,且CHL的效应强于CIM (P< 0.05).上述结果表明:侧脑室注射HA所致的CSR重调定机制